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  • 1.
    Bereketoglu, Ceyhun
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology. Biology, The Life Science Center.
    Pradhan, Ajay
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology. Biology, The Life Science Center.
    Comparative transcriptional analysis of methylparaben and propylparaben in zebrafish2019In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 671, p. 129-139Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Parabens are widely used as preservatives in different commercial items including food, cosmetics and pharmaceuticals, and their wide use has resulted in accumulation in the environment. Parabens have been shown to have negative effects on animals as well as human health. In this study, we carried out a comprehensive study to determine the adverse effects associated with propylparaben (PP) and methylparaben (MP) on early developmental stages of zebrafish. Mortality, hatching, developmental abnormalities and gene expression profiles were investigated in embryos exposed to both compounds. The semi-static exposure conditions showed that both MP (>= 100 mu M) and PP (>= 10 mu M) are toxic to the embryos in a concentration-dependent manner and lead to developmental abnormality. Malformations such as spinal defects, pericardial edema, and pigmentation defects were observed following both MP and PP treatments. Hatching delay, mortality and developmental abnormality data indicate that PP is more toxic than MP. For gene expression analysis, 1 and 10 mu M doses of MP and PP were analyzed. Genes from physiological pathways including stress response, cell cycle and DNA damage, inflammation, fatty acid metabolism and endocrine functions were affected by MP and PP. The gene expression profiles show that parabens cause toxicity by inducing oxidative stress, DNA double-strand breaks, apoptosis as well as by altering fatty acid metabolism. Altered expression of androgen receptor (ar) and estrogen receptor 2 alpha (esr2a) indicates an antiandrogenic and estrogenic activity of parabens in zebrafish. Overall, the present study provides considerable information on the negative effects of MP and PP using physiological endpoints and motivates further studies to explore the molecular mechanism of the toxicity associated with parabens.

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