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  • 1.
    Hadjikhani, Amjad
    et al.
    Department of Business Studies, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Leite, Emilene
    Department of Business Studies, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Pahlberg, Cecilia
    Department of Business Studies, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Business and Socio-Political Interaction in International Service Projects: The Case of Brazil2019In: MIR: Management International Review, ISSN 0938-8249, E-ISSN 1861-8901, Vol. 59, no 1, p. 171-200Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Building on a business network perspective, the aim of this paper is to present a theoretical view for studying service MNEs in ICT (information communication technology) projects centred on the improvement of public services. The four inter-related concepts of cooperation, legitimacy, commitment and knowledge are applied in the analysis of two projects. Defining the projects as object-based services, the study manifests how service MNEs manage three types of actors (business, politi-cal and social) having their legitimacy in different systems. The cases illustrate cross-border activities where MNEs from Sweden, Spain and China join forces in Brazil with local business, social and political actors and cooperate to strengthen their competitive market position. The study concludes that successful cooperation is partially explained by the management’s ability to incorporate business resources into the needs of the socio-political actors. Furthermore, in object-based services, which are not similar to long-term business relationships, the three involved par-ties advance different types of relationships within a loose network structure. A key implication is that extensive public–private relationships are needed even when MNEs enjoy an established position in a foreign market.

    Download full text (pdf)
    Business and Socio-Political Interaction in International Service Projects: The Case of Brazil
  • 2.
    Lagerström, Katarina
    et al.
    Department of Business Studies, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Leite, Emilene
    Department of Business Studies, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Pahlberg, Cecilia
    Department of Business Studies, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Schweizer, Roger
    University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Competition and Cooperation within Multinationals2019Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 3.
    Lagerström, Katarina
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Leite, Emilene
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business. Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Pahlberg, Cecilia
    Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Schweizer, Roger
    University of Gothenburg, Gotheburg, Sweden.
    The Competition - Cooperation Interplay within MNEs for Knowledge Development and Innovation2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    While prior research has recognized the importance of intra-firm competition or cooperation for innovation and performance, we know little how competition and cooperation should be internally organized by firms. This paper aims to address this critical gap by focusing on the following questions: (a) what conditions drive cooperation and competition within the multinational? and (b) how does competition and cooperation dynamically change over time? To answer our research questions a single case study of SKF – a manufacturing MNE with headquarters in Sweden - is performed on two analytical levels (headquarters/subsidiaries). Our preliminary analysis shows that organizing for cooperation and competition depends on the environmental, organizational and object-related conditions. Such conditions, however, are not limited to HQ’s initiatives but it may also be a subsidiary-led process. Thus, the cooperation and competition interplay is an outcome of the HQ’s strategic orientation as well as subsidiary’s autonomy, local responsiveness and its ability to innovate.

  • 4.
    Lagerström, Katarina
    et al.
    Department of Business Studies, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Leite, Emilene
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Pahlberg, Cecilia
    Department of Business Studies, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Schweizer, Roger
    Department of Business Administration, School of Business Economics and Law, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    The Competition-Cooperation Interplay for Knowledge Development: A Headquarters-Subsidiary Perspective2023In: Journal of Strategy and Management., ISSN 1755-425X, E-ISSN 1755-4268, Vol. 16, no 2, p. 362-377Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    PurposeIn this paper, the authors contribute with insights on competition and cooperation in multinational enterprises with a focus on challenges related to these governance mechanisms in a knowledge development context. The mechanisms have been widely recognized as important for developing knowledge, but their contradicting nature implies considerable complexity when it comes to governance. The complexity is further increased as a result of the headquarters-subsidiary relationships. The aim of this paper is to contribute with theoretical and empirical insights on these aspects by focusing on the research question: How and why does competition and cooperation in an MNE emerge over time?Design/methodology/approachA manufacturing MNE with headquarters (HQ) in Sweden is analyzed on both HQ and subsidiary levels. Interviews with 24 managers in Sweden and India have been performed.FindingsThe study illustrates that competition and cooperation are integral aspects in HQ-subsidiary relationships. The results show that both competition and cooperation depend on environmental, organizational and object-related conditions and that these conditions influence the dynamics of the interplay. The importance of including a subsidiary perspective and the interdependencies in an MNE setting are emphasized.Originality/valueThe authors add to the discussion on the interplay between competition and cooperation as they play an important role for knowledge development in MNEs. The results indicate that they do not take place simultaneously, and therefore, the authors suggest that the dynamic can be better understood by focusing on the interplay and analyze the concepts separately.

  • 5.
    Lagerström, Katarina
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Leite, Emilene
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business. Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Schweizer, Roger
    University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Pahlberg, Cecilia
    Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Cooperating while Competing in Multinational Corporations2021In: Competition: What It Is and Why It Happens / [ed] Stefan Arora-Jonsson, Nils Brunsson, Raimund Hasse, and Katarina Lagerström, Oxford University Press, 2021Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this chapter we investigate the organization of competition among subunits in multinational corporations (MNCs) with the intent to explore how headquarters encourages and organizes for competition and when and why competition is handled by subunits that cooperate. The organization of competition by headquarters among the subunits is characterized by special conditions due to the formal hierarchical organization and access to legitimate tools to instil competition. Competition arises around three sources: allocation of resources, system position and headquarters attention, and the allocation of subsidiary mandates. Empirical findings from six MNCs are used to illustrate the adoption of cooperative and non-cooperative behaviours among subunits as outcomes of headquarters implementation of different tools to organize for competition. The findings also show that headquarters is not only a fourth—but also a third—party as it adjudicates many of the competitive situations that it organizes among its units.

  • 6.
    Lagerström, Katarina
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Leite, Emilene
    Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Schweizer, Roger
    Unviersity of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Pahlberg, Cecilia
    Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    The Competition-Cooperation Interplay2019Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 7.
    Leite, Emilene
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Actor roles influencing innovation networks formation in smart city development2022Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 8.
    Leite, Emilene
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Actor roles shaping and influencing innovation in smart city development2022In: 38th EBES Conference: Program and Abstract Book, EBES , 2022, p. 28-28Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Innovation networks are organized and shaped by their members. This study investigates actors’ roles influencing innovation for smart city development. Combining actors’ roles with the innovation network literature and insights gained from two cases of smart city innovation, our empirical analysis shows four roles associated with smart city innovation network activities: i) coordinators, ii) contributors, iii) facilitators and iii) builders. These actor patterns recognize how actors collaborate in networks characterized by heterogeneous actors (public and private), the coexistence of individual and collective motivations, a high degree of openness, and users’ participation. Furthermore, actors' ability to change their network position is dependent on a shared interpretation of network roles between the network actors. Hence, scholars and practitioners of innovation networks learn that the understanding of role patterns in smart city development can contribute to the building, utilization, and coordination of an open innovation network that positively impacts both business and society.

  • 9.
    Leite, Emilene
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Actor Roles Shaping and Influencing Innovation in Smart City Development2022Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Innovation networks are organized and shaped by their members. This study investigates actors’ roles influencing innovation for smart city development. Combining actors’ roles with the innovation network literature and insights gained from two cases of smart city innovation, our empirical analysis shows four roles associated with smart city innovation network activities: i) coordinators, ii) contributors, iii) facilitators and iii) builders. These actor patterns recognize how actors collaborate in networks characterized by heterogeneous actors (public and private), the coexistence of individual and collective motivations, a certain degree of openness, and users’ participation. Furthermore, actors' ability to change their network position is dependent on a shared interpretation of network roles between the network actors. Hence, scholars and practitioners of innovation networks learn that the understanding of role patterns in smart city development can contribute to the building, utilization, and coordination of an open innovation network that positively impacts business and society.

  • 10.
    Leite, Emilene
    Department of Business Studies, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Competition in Business Network: A Perspective from Brazil2015Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 11.
    Leite, Emilene
    Department of Business Studies, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Complexity in the 'Extended' Business Network: A Study of Business, Social, and Political Relationships in Smart City Solutions2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this thesis an 'extended' business network is investigated. The ‘extended’ view refers to the inclusion of socio-political actors in the firm’s business network. Building on a business network perspective, the thesis’ purpose is to understand how interactions between business, social, and political actors influence the development of smart city solutions. Based on the findings from the four articles included in the thesis, a complexity lens for further understanding of interaction with socio-political actors is presented. It argues that reaching success in the relationship entails finding a balance between economic and social needs.

    Through the analysis of two smart city projects developed in Brazil, this study investigates the influence of socio-political actors on firms’ cooperative and competitive behavior as well as their decisions relating to resource allocation. The findings illustrate that decisions to cooperate or compete are associated with centrality. The firm’s willingness to be a central actor, i.e., a project leader, places traditional buyer-supplier partners in competition. In addition to this, resource allocation is closely linked to customization. In cities demanding a high level of customization of the smart city solution, companies will be encouraged to allocate resources to exploitation, while in cities requiring a low level of customization, exploration will be chosen instead. But knowledge about how to allocate resources is closely linked to the centrality issue, since a central actor may enjoy better access to a large pool of resources and information. Consequently, the final outcome in relational terms can lead to win-lose rather than a win-win situation if rivalry for centrality between business partners intensifies over time.

    The study of such complex interaction contributes to the industrial marketing and business network literature by providing a practical perspective and showing how socio-political actors can be a source of competitive advantages for companies. In addition, this thesis suggests that managers need to cope with the complexity inherent in such type of relationships, primarily due the fact that interaction with socio-political actors has important competitive implications for firms. Ultimately, the thesis offers a framework for investigating complexity in actors’ interactions and resource heterogeneity that complements our understanding of intraorganizational relationships, opening opportunities for a new perspective and better comprehension of the influence of socio-political actors in firms’ business networks.

    Download full text (pdf)
    Complexity in the ‘Extended’ Business Network: A Study of Business, Social, and Political Relationships in Smart City Solutions
  • 12.
    Leite, Emilene
    Department of Business Studies, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Cooperation and Competition in Business Network: An Emerging Market Perspective2015Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 13.
    Leite, Emilene
    Department of Business Studies, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Cooperative Innovation Networks – Why do they emerge and how are they configured?2018Other (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper aims to examine why innovation network emerges and how it gets configured. To address that, we examine two cases of IoT (internet of things) technologies applied on public service in Brazil. By using the conceptual framework proposed by Ritala et al., (2016), we demonstrate that innovation network emerges because MNEs are under constant need for innovation and second they have limitation to pursuit and integrate complex knowledge on their own and for that reason cooperation becomes crucial. Such process is characterized by a dynamic complex process which the MNEs’ searching-acting-convincing on an opportunity require business and nonbusiness actors participation. The novelty, however, is that, the findings shows that the locus of innovation is not limited to the traditional business to business relationships but it can also arise from non-business actors such as NGOs and local government.

  • 14.
    Leite, Emilene
    Department of Business Studies, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Cooperative Innovation Networks: Emergence and Configuration2018Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 15.
    Leite, Emilene
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business. Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Cross-Sector Partnership in Smart City Development: The Case of Brazil2019In: Handbook of Research on Social and Organizational Dynamics in the Digital Era / [ed] Efosa C. Idemudia, IGI Global, 2019, 1, p. 235-249Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Urbanization is a persistent phenomenon. As cities have expanded, so has the demand for government ability to provide better infrastructure and public services. The “smart city” concept may form a response to these urban challenges. From a business point of view, incorporating digital technologies to address some of the city’s sustainability challenges is a means to create business opportunities for firms. However, a smart city project is complex, and it requires firms interaction with government and civil society. Hence, the aim of this chapter is to understand how firms manage their relationships with sociopolitical actors in projects for smart city development and how socio-political actors can be a source of competitive advantage. These questions will be answered by applying business network perspective within cross-sector partnership in the context of firms operating in Brazil. The study contributes to a foundation for a better discussion among policy makers and practitioners about promoting inter-organizational cooperation in projects with a social purpose.

  • 16.
    Leite, Emilene
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Innovation Networks for Social Impact: A Multi-Actor Role on Smart City Projects in Brazil2021Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigate how business and socio-political actors contribute and collaborate, within a network, to develop technologies for a social impact. Based on the innovation networks literature and insights gained from two cases of smart city innovation, our study demonstrates that the innovation process in a city context is complex, nonlinear, dynamic, and socially constructed. Moreover, the innovation network is driven by the activities of searching, acting, and convincing of an opportunity to develop smart city solutions. Yet, four roles associated with these activities were revealed: coordinators, contributors, facilitators, and builders. Hence, innovation for smart cities requires different types of actors (business and socio-political), drivers (economic and social), resources (technological and non-technological), and roles in both development and implementation. This study contributes to public and academic discussion on networks by showing that actors’ roles and specific innovation activities contribute to a type of innovation network formation that positively impacts business and society.

  • 17.
    Leite, Emilene
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Innovation networks for social impact: An empirical study on multi-actor collaboration in projects for smart cities2022In: Journal of Business Research, ISSN 0148-2963, E-ISSN 1873-7978, Vol. 139, p. 325-337Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates the factors that drive an innovation network formation comprising companies, government, and society, and the ways these actors contribute and collaborate within a network to develop technologies that have a social impact. A conceptual framework has been developed by combining literature-based arguments and insights from two cases of smart city innovation. This study demonstrates that the innovation network is driven by the activities of searching, acting, and convincing actors of an opportunity to develop smart city solutions. The findings also show that innovation networks emerge not solely from a business goal, but also from a social goal and can still generate business opportunities for companies. Therefore, innovation for smart cities specifically requires a new form of configuration (public–private and citizens’ participation), drivers (economic and social), and resources (technological and non-technological) in both its development and implementation. The analysis of the different configurations suggests more/less effective innovation.

  • 18.
    Leite, Emilene
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Innovation Networks for Social Impact: Insights from a Smart City Project in Brazil2020Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 19.
    Leite, Emilene
    et al.
    Department of Business Studies, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Bengtson, Anna
    Department of Business Studies, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    A business network view on value creation and capture in public-private cooperation2018In: Industrial Marketing Management, ISSN 0019-8501, E-ISSN 1873-2062, Vol. 73, p. 181-192Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 20.
    Leite, Emilene
    et al.
    Department of Business Studies, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Bengtson, Anna
    Department of Business Studies, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    A Business Network View on Value Creation and Capturing in Public-Private Cooperation2016Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 21.
    Leite, Emilene
    et al.
    Department of Business Studies, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Bengtson, Anna
    Department of Business Studies, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Cross-Sector Collaboration between Business and Non-Business Actors: The Case of an ICT-Project in Brazil2015In: Modern Techniques for Successful IT Project Management / [ed] Shang Gao and Lazar Rusu, Hershey, PA: IGI Global, 2015, p. 265-284Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this chapter is to contribute to the project management literature by introducing behavioural aspects of relationships in collaborative ICT projects. Specifically, it examines the role played by business and non-business actors in successful projects regarding urban mobility in emerging economies. To accomplish this, a case study was undertaken, based on the development of a solution for public transportation in the South of Brazil. The findings suggest that, besides technological know-how, the interplay between commitment, knowledge, and opportunity development seem to have a combined impact on project outcome. The result strengthens the idea that studies analysing project management should consider not only rational dimensions of the projects, such as cost, time, quality, and scope, but also the social dimension in terms of the relationships that partners develop during and after the project.

  • 22.
    Leite, Emilene
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Bengtsson, Anna
    Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Value Creation versus Value Capture in Public-Private Collaboration: An Emerging Market Perspective2016In: Proceedings of the 58th Annual Meeting of the Academy of International Business / [ed] Charles Dhanaraj, Tunga Kiyak, Academy of International Business , 2016, p. 157-157Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This study contributes to the research on public-private collaboration. It comprehends how these hybrids organizational arrangements influence value creation and capturing mechanisms. A case study based on the development of a public transportation solution in Brazil is undertaken. This initiative involved collaboration between a range of partners including foreign and domestic MNCs, NGOs, government and SOEs (stated-owned enterprise). Using a business network approach, we propose a theoretical framework of value creation and capturing through public-private collaboration and argue that the value is constructed through the complementarity of resources and the cohesiveness of motives of the involved actors. Our findings suggest that the success of the collaboration goes beyond the benefits from simply generating revenues, thereby expanding the value capturing concept.

  • 23.
    Leite, Emilene
    et al.
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Bruun Ingstrup, Mads
    University of Southern Denmark, Kolding, Denmark.
    A longitudinal perspective on institutional logics: Insights from public-private collaboration projects in Brazil2020Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 24.
    Leite, Emilene
    et al.
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Ingstrup, Mads Bruun
    Department of Entrepreneurship and Relationship Management, University of Southern Denmark, Denmark.
    Individual strategies as interaction modes for handling institutional logic diversity over time: A case study on a public-private collaboration project2022In: Industrial Marketing Management, ISSN 0019-8501, E-ISSN 1873-2062, Vol. 107, p. 266-275Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A diversity of institutional logics can impede public-private collaboration. In this paper, we explore how individ­uals use different strategies as interaction modes to foster institutional logic convergence in a public-private col­laboration project. To do this, we rely on research on public-private collaboration and institutional logics and a single case study of a public-private smart city development project in the city of Aguas, Brazil. This paper con­tributes to the research on institutional logic diversity in three ways. First, we find that individuals use different strategies as interaction modes to achieve institutional logic convergence, but these strategies serve diverse pur­poses over time in a project. Second, when the organizational and individual goals in a project are balanced, this eases institutional logic convergence. Third, individuals can be facilitators of institutional logic convergence if they can unite diverse institutional logics and are perceived to have a central position in a project. 

    Download full text (pdf)
    Individual strategies as interaction modes for handling institutional logic diversity over time: A case study on a public-private collaboration project
  • 25.
    Leite, Emilene
    et al.
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Johnstone, Leanne
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Regaining legitimacy in an MNC after a socio-ecological crisis: An un(smart) business strategy?2023In: Sustainable International Business: Smart strategies for business and society / [ed] Pratik Arte; Yi Wang; Cheryl Dowie; Maria Elo; Salla Laasonen, Springer, 2023, p. 275-302Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Multinational Enterprises (MNEs) are recognised as important and powerful strategic agents for providing momentum to the United Nation’s (UN’s) Agenda 2030 through their ability to implement the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) internationally. However, we can also learn from the mistakes of MNEs that cause socio-ecological destruction in their host countries. This chapter develops an understanding of the effects of corporate social responsibility (CSR) legitimisation strategies adopted by an MNE after a crisis event, namely Vale’s Córrego do Feijão mine collapse complex in Brazil, which claimed the lives of over 270 people and caused huge socio-ecological damage. The chapter contributes to growing research on CSR and MNEs by elaborating on the importance of local CSR legitimisation strategies for MNEs to regain legitimacy in the immediate aftermath of crisis events in the affected communities. This requires MNEs moving beyond communicating CSR as empty rhetoric from a more pragmatic legitimacy stance, which serves a global legitimisation function, towards MNEs acting upon their CSR promises in local contexts for legitimacy to be regained. Additionally, the chapter suggests the potential for local crisis events to shape global CSR strategies in industries that positively contribute to the SDGs through the learnings made.  

  • 26.
    Leite, Emilene
    et al.
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Johnstone, Leanne
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Regaining reputation in an MNC after a socio-ecological crisis: An un(smart) business strategy?2023Conference paper (Refereed)
    Download full text (pdf)
    Certificate
  • 27.
    Leite, Emilene
    et al.
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business. Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Lagerström, Katarina
    Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Schweizer, Roger
    University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Pahlberg, Cecilia
    Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Cooperative or competitive relationship within the MNE: A parent-subsidiary study2022Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 28.
    Leite, Emilene
    et al.
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Lageström, Katarina
    Department of Business Studies, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Schweizer, Roger
    University of Gothenburg, Gotheburg, Sweden.
    Pahlberg, Cecilia
    Department of Business Studies, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Competition and Cooperation within MNE - A parent-subsidiary relationship study2020Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 29.
    Leite, Emilene
    et al.
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Lageström, Katarina
    Department of Business Studies, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Schweizer, Roger
    University of Gothenburg, Gotheburg, Sweden.
    Pahlberg, Cecilia
    Department of Business Studies, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Competition and Cooperation within MNE: A parent-subsidiary relationship study2021Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 30.
    Leite, Emilene
    et al.
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Lageström, Katarina
    Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Schweizer, Roger
    University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Pahlberg, Cecilia
    Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Cooperative or competitive relationship within the MNE: A parent-subsidiary study2022Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 31.
    Leite, Emilene
    et al.
    Department of Business Studies, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Latifi, Mohammad
    Department of Business Studies, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    The Role of the NGOs in Business Network: Partnership in Innovation2016In: Extending the business network approach: new territories, new technologies, new terms / [ed] Thilenius, Peter; Pahlberg, Cecilia; Havila, Virpi, Palgrave Macmillan, 2016, p. 83-97Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 32.
    Leite, Emilene
    et al.
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Lindh, Cecilia
    School of Business, Society and Engineering, Mälardalen University, Västerås, Sweden.
    B2B and digitalization in research and teaching: a qualitative method for data collection and learning2022Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 33.
    Leite, Emilene
    et al.
    Department of Business Studies, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Pahlberg, Cecilia
    Department of Business Studies, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Hadjikhani, Amjad
    Department of Business Studies, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    A Network View on Business-Political Interaction for Sustainable Development: The Cases of ICT Projects in Brazil2017In: Proceedings of the 59th Annual Meeting of the Academy of International Business: The Contribution of MNEs to Building Sustainable Societies / [ed] Lundan, S; Kiyak, T, Academy of International Business , 2017, p. 11-12Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    While there are extensive researches focused on MNCs’ activities in both developed and developing markets, there are limited studies on how MNCs manage their relationships with political actors in emerging countries. This paper aims to contribute new knowledge on how MNCs, trough sustainable development projects, manage their relationships with political actors. Two comparative cases illustrating the application of ICT (Information Communication Technology) projects applied to cities in Brazil are analyzed. The network relationships include the elements of legitimacy, cooperation and knowledge. The study reveals the complexity in the interactions between the actors and indicates that legitimacy and knowledge in the business-political relationships are vital to turn challenges into opportunities. Our study contributes with knowledge not only to the research community but also to practitioners, who thus gain a more systematic understanding of their relationships in the political arena.

  • 34.
    Leite, Emilene
    et al.
    Department of Business Studies, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Pahlberg, Cecilia
    Department of Business Studies, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Hadjikhani, Amjad
    Department of Business Studies, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    MNE Strategies and Government Relationships: The Case of Brazil2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 35.
    Leite, Emilene
    et al.
    Department of Business Studies, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Pahlberg, Cecilia
    Department of Business Studies, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Hadjikhani, Amjad
    Department of Business Studies, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Public-Private Cooperation for Social Innovation: The Case of MNEs Involvement  in the Development of the Smart City Concept in Brazil2017In: Proceedings of the 43rd Annual Conference of the European International Business Academy / [ed] Lucia Piscitello, Stefano Elia, 2017Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper discusses multinational enterprises (MNEs) socio-political behavior in a foreign market. In specific, the aim is to increase the understanding of how service MNEs from the ICT (information communication technology) industry, through social innovation projects oriented to improve public service in cities, deal with society and public officials in Brazil. A conceptual framework containing the four concepts cooperation, legitimacy, commitment and knowledge is applied for the analysis. Based on a single case the paper illustrates cross border activities where MNEs from Sweden, Spain and China join effort with local actors to strengthen their competitive market position. Our results reveal that an important strategy used by service MNEs is to get involved in cooperative social innovation projects involving business and socio-political actors. Successful cooperation is partially explained by the managements’ ability to incorporate the business resources with the needs of the socio-political actors. The key implication is that extensive public-private networking is needed even when MNEs enjoy an established position in a foreign market.

  • 36.
    Leite, Emilene
    et al.
    Department of Business Studies, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Pahlberg, Cecilia
    Department of Business Studies, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Åberg, Susanne
    Department of Business Studies, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Exploring Coopetition: When partners start to compete2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper explores the concept of coopetition by addressing a situation when business partners start to compete. Specifically, it intends to understand why firms move from cooperation to competition. To achieve this, case studies based on the development of an IT-solution for urban mobility in Brazil are undertaken. The cases show local and foreign MNEs interactions during and after the project. The findings suggest that the higher the level of interdependence, the higher likelihood of developing a cooperative strategy. In contrast, the lower the level of interdependency, the higher is the degree of competition; meaning that partners will choose a competitive strategy instead.

  • 37.
    Leite, Emilene
    et al.
    Department of Business Studies, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Pahlberg, Cecilia
    Department of Business Studies, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Åberg, Susanne
    Department of Business Studies, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    The cooperation-competition interplay in the ICT industry2018In: Journal of business & industrial marketing, ISSN 0885-8624, E-ISSN 2052-1189, Vol. 33, no 4, p. 495-505Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: Building on a business network perspective, the paper addresses the following question: Why do firms move between cooperation and competition in the context of high-tech industry? Hence, the purpose of this study is to contribute to the understanding of the complex cooperation–competition interplay between actors in a business network.

    Design/methodology/approach: A single case study within the information and communication technology industry is undertaken and illustrates the cooperation–competition interplay in projects of technology.

    Findings: The authors discuss the implications of interdependence on relationship dynamics. The main argument is that business relationships survive despite periods of competition if interdependence is high. Thus, firms move between a state of cooperation and a state of competition within business relationships, rather than ending the relationships when starting to compete.

    Practical implications: This study suggests that managers need to pay attention to how different degrees of interdependence lead firms to be embedded in cooperative or competitive forms of relationships.

    Originality/value: The paper contributes to the ongoing debate about cooperation, competition and coopetition within international business and industrial marketing literature. An interesting aspect in the paper is the cooperation–competition interplay, which is associated with positioning. A centrally positioned actor will choose who to bring into the partnership, with positioning concomitantly changing from project to project. The willingness of being a central actor, i.e. a project leader, places traditional buyer–supplier partners in competition. Thus, cooperation and/or competition becomes contextual.

  • 38.
    Leite, Emilene
    et al.
    Department of Business Studies, Marketing Division, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Pahlberg, Cecilia
    Department of Business Studies, Marketing Division, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Åberg, Susanne
    Department of Business Studies, Marketing Division, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    The Interplay between Cooperation and Competition in Business Network: The Case of Ericsson in Brazil2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    When studying firms inbusiness networks, researchers have tended to focus on aspects of cooperation, while competition has been less examined. One exception is the concept of coopetition, which has been explored in order to take competitive aspects of business networks into account. The purpose of this paper is to contribute to the network approach literature by addressing the concept of competition, as well as interactive outcomes of competition, i.e. cooperation andcoopetition. Specifically, the paper aims to understand why firms move from cooperation to competitionin the context of the IT (information technology) industry in an emerging economy such as Brazil. To accomplish this, we conduct a case study of two different relationships where cooperation turns to competition. The case is based on the development of an IT solution for public transportation in which local and foreign MNCs interact during and after the project. The preliminary findings suggest that the higher the level of complementarity or interdependence, the higher likelihood of developing a more cooperative strategy. In contrast, the lower the level of interdependency, the higher the degree of competition:meaning that partners will choose a competitive strategy instead.

  • 39.
    Leite, Emilene
    et al.
    Department of Business Studies, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Pahlberg, Cecilia
    Department of Business Studies, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Åberg, Susanne
    Department of Business Studies, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    When Cooperation becomes Competition: Ericsson in Brazil2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 40.
    Leite, Emilene
    et al.
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Schweizer, Roger
    University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Lagerström, Katarina
    Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Pahlberg, Cecilia
    Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    When to cooperate or when to compete? HQ-Subsidiary relationship study2022Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 41.
    Leite, Emilene
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    ul Haq, Hammad
    Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    MNC-Host Government Relationship: Research Review, Gaps and Future Directions2015In: 41st EIBA Annual Conference "International Business After the Bric's Rush", Rio de Janeiro, 2015Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 42.
    Ragén, Anna
    et al.
    Örebro University.
    Leite, Emilene
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Linton, Gabriel
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Öberg, Christina
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Sensemaking, sensegiving and sensedrifting in the university‐innovation ecosystem2022Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 43.
    Ragén, Anna
    et al.
    Örebro University.
    Leite, Emilene
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Linton, Gabriel
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Öberg, Christina
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Shooting next to the target? Balancing stakeholder goals in university knowledge-technology transfer2022Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 44.
    Ragén, Anna
    et al.
    Örebro University.
    Leite, Emilene
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Linton, Gabriel
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Öberg, Christina
    University of Karlstad, Karlstad, Sweden.
    The Ecosystem for Academic Innovations and Commercial Activities – Tensions, Conflicts and Contradictions2023Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite significant investments in promoting entrepreneurship, there has been a decline in the number of successful innovative firms in Europe and North America. Universities are crucial for transforming research into commercially viable innovations, and various support ecosystems have emerged to facilitate this process. This study investigates the early-stage activities at Technology Transfer Offices (TTOs) and incubators within university innovation support ecosystems, exploring the potential misalignments and inconsistencies that may hinder the overarching goal of commercializing academic knowledge. Employing a qualitative case study method, we conducted an in-depth examination of the Swedish academic entrepreneurial ecosystem. Our findings indicate the presence of tensions, conflicts, and contradictions among different stakeholders, each with their unique interests, values, and perspectives. This study contributes to the understanding of these complex relationships and emphasizes the importance of aligning goals and fostering collaboration within the academic ecosystem to effectively commercialize university research.

  • 45.
    Schweizer, Roger
    et al.
    Department of Business Administration, School of Business Economics and Law, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Lagerström, Katarina
    Department of Business Studies, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Leite, Emilene
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Pahlberg, Cecilia
    Department of Business Studies, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    The Role of Headquarters in Managing Coopetition within MNCs: A Tale of Two Paradoxes2023In: Multinational Business Review, ISSN 1525-383XArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to contribute to the discussion on how multinational company (MNC) headquarters (HQs) can manage the existing coopetition paradox to ensure innovation within the MNC. In contrast to the rather scarce previous research, the authors argue that HQ needs to solve the coopetition paradox under the sway of a parenting paradox. Hence, HQ faces a dual paradox.

    Design/methodology/approach: Drawing on the literature on HQ's role during MNCs' innovation processes, this conceptual paper revisits the previously suggested HQ measures to enable coopetition among subsidiaries. By applying a sheer ignorance perspective, the authors contribute with a more nuanced understanding of the HQ's role in innovation activities.

    Findings: The article identifies four challenges as the HQ faces a parenting paradox that hinders its ability to solve the coopetition paradox: context specificity of subsidiaries' innovation work, normative expectations of subsidiary managers, potential opportunistic behavior of HQ manager and HQ underestimation of needed resources. The article suggests that HQ needs to become more informed and preferably even embedded in the local innovation networks of its most important subsidiaries and that coopetition should not be managed solely on an HQ level.

    Originality/value: Advocating a sheer ignorance perspective, the article pioneers in discussing the role that HQ plays in managing coopetition among subsidiaries in innovation activities.

1 - 45 of 45
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