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  • 1.
    Fallenius, Bengt E. G.
    et al.
    KTH Mechanics, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Sattari, Amir
    University of Gävle, Gävle, Sweden.
    Fransson, Jens H. M.
    KTH Mechanics, Stockholm, Sweden; University of Gävle, Gävle, Sweden.
    Sandberg, Mats
    University of Gävle, Gävle, Sweden.
    Experimental study on the effect of pulsating inflow to an enclosure for improved mixing2013In: International Journal of Heat and Fluid Flow, ISSN 0142-727X, E-ISSN 1879-2278, Vol. 44, p. 108-119Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Optimal control of inlet jet flows is of broad interest for enhanced mixing in ventilated rooms. The general approach in mechanical ventilation is forced convection by means of a constant flow rate supply. However, this type of ventilation may cause several problems such as draught and appearance of stagnation zones, which reduces the ventilation efficiency. A potential way to improve the ventilation quality is to apply a pulsating inflow, which has been hypothesised to reduce the stagnation zones due to enhanced mixing. The present study aims at testing this hypothesis, experimentally, in a small-scale two-dimensional water model using Particle Image Velocimetry with an in-house vortex detection program. We are able to show that for an increase in pulsation frequency or alternatively in the flow rate the stagnation zones are reduced in size and the distribution of vortices becomes more homogeneous over the considered domain. The number of vortices (all scales) increases by a factor of four and the swirl-strength by about 50% simply by turning on the inflow pulsation. Furthermore, the vortices are well balanced in terms of their rotational direction, which is validated by the symmetric Probability Density Functions of vortex circulation (Γ) around Γ= 0. There are two dominating vortex length scales in the flow, namely 0.6 and 0.8 inlet diameters and the spectrum of vortex diameters become broader by turning on the inflow pulsation. We conclude that the positive effect for enhanced mixing by increasing the flow rate can equally be accomplished by applying a pulsating inflow.

  • 2.
    Henning, Annette
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Energiteknik, Falun, Sweden.
    Sattari, Amir
    Högskolan Dalarna, Byggteknik, Falun, Sweden.
    Evaluating thermal comfort in a Swedish block of flats: A methodological comparison2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Two methodological approaches have been used to investigate thermal comfort amongoccupants in a Swedish block of flats; measurements and thermal comfort standards on the onehand, and qualitative interviews on the other. The purpose with this paper is to present, compareand discuss results from these two radically different methods. The results coincide concerningvariations of thermal comfort throughout the day, but are much less in accord in results whereoccupants express, or are presumed to complain of, thermal discomfort. The interviews showthat female occupants tend to suffer more from thermal discomfort than male occupants, a resultwhich is absent in the measurement methodology. The results give support to suggestions thatgender aspects should be taken more into account when determining and controlling thermalcomfort. The differing results also point at the importance of complementing standardizedthermal comfort measurements with surveys or qualitative interviews.

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  • 3.
    Kabanshi, Alan
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Falun, Sweden.
    Sattari, Amir
    Högskolan Dalarna, Byggteknik, Falun, Sweden.
    Linden, Elisabet
    Högskolan Dalarna, Falun, Sweden.
    Wigö, Hans
    Högskolan Dalarna, Falun, Sweden.
    Sandberg, Mats
    Högskolan Dalarna, Falun, Sweden.
    Experimental study on contaminant entrainment in air distribution systems with free jets2017Conference paper (Refereed)
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  • 4.
    Sandberg, Mats
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Gävle, Sweden.
    Sattari, Amir
    University of Gävle, Gävle, Sweden.
    Mattsson, Magnus
    University of Gävle, Gävle, Sweden.
    Plaster finishes in historical buildings: Measurements of surface structure, roughness parameters and air flow characteristics2013In: Conference proceedings: Cultural heritage preservation – 3rd European Workshop on Cultural Heritage Preservation / [ed] A. Troi and E. Luchi., 2013, p. 69-75Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Soiling of surfaces in historical buildings by deposition of particles is a common problem. Minimizing soiling is an important goal for conservation of structures and objects. The surfaces give rise to an interference with the air motions along the surfaces. Properties of surfaces may therefore influence the particle deposition. It is well known that with increasing roughness of the surfaces the particle deposition rate increases. The properties of surfaces in historical buildings are not well documented.  We have investigated samples of surfaces finished by wood float finish, steel float finish and brushed finish. As a reference we have used an MDF board. The geometrical properties of the surfaces have been documented by using the stripe projection method. The resistance to airflow along the surface and the turbulence generated by the surfaces has been investigated by recording the boundary layer flow over the surfaces in a special flow rig. The work reported is part of a project where the process of soiling is studied both in laboratory and in field studies. The air velocity adjacent to the surfaces will be recorded with both PIV (Particle Image Velocimetry) and hot-wire technique. The temperature gradient close to the walls will be recorded with cold-wire technique.

  • 5.
    Santhi Pechsiri, Joseph
    et al.
    Department of Industrial Ecology, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Stockholm, Sweden.
    Sattari, Amir
    Division of Indoor Environment, Department of Technology and Built Environment KTH Research School, University of Gävle, Gävle, Sweden.
    Garza Martinez, Paulina
    Department of Industrial Ecology, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Stockholm, Sweden.
    Xuan, Liu
    Department of Industrial Ecology, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Stockholm, Sweden.
    A Review of the Climate-Change-Impacts’ Rates of Change in the Arctic2010In: Journal of Environmental Protection, ISSN 2152-2197, E-ISSN 2152-2219, Vol. 1, no 1, p. 59-69Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Climate Change is a global phenomenon that has a global scale impact. The current trend of climate change towards the warming of the globe has resulted in various changes in the geological, climatology, social, economical, and biological processes worldwide. Temperature of the globe has increased due to various factors, but anthropogenic plays a major contribution through the heavy input of Greenhouse gases. One of the world’s most remote regions that have been affected by most of the anthropogenic stresses on environmental services is the Arctic Region. The Arctic Region has shown various drastic changes and has shown to be effected by various anthropogenic activities that take place elsewhere. These changes include the ozone hole (resulting from ozone degrading compound emitted heavily by anthropogenic demands ), the accumulation of various persistent and volatile pollutants (i.e. POPs) , and the meltdown of the polar ice (among others) . These drastic changes are well perceived and well projected for future preparations. However, the question still remains if these impacts would only accelerate change. This paper aims to discuss if these changes are accelerating or happening at a constant rate. In addition, this paper aims to only focus on changes due to global warming and climate changes phenomenon.

  • 6.
    Sattari, Amir
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    A Comparison of Energy Calculations for a Single-Family Detached Home with Two Energy Simulation Methods2020In: International Journal of Urban and Civil Engineering, E-ISSN 1307-6892, Vol. 14, no 5, p. 150-154Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    For newly produced houses and energy renovations, an energy calculation needs to be conducted. This is done to verify whether the energy consumption criteria of the house -to reach the energy targets by 2020 and 2050- are in-line with the norms. The main purpose of this study is to confirm whether easy to use energy calculation software or hand calculations used by small companies or individuals give logical results compared to advanced energy simulation program used by researchers or bigger companies. There are different methods for calculating energy consumption. In this paper, two energy calculation programs are used and the relation of energy consumption with solar radiation is compared. A hand calculation is also done to validate whether the hand calculations are still reasonable. The two computer programs which have been used are TMF Energi (the easy energy calculation variant used by small companies or individuals) and IDA ICE - Indoor Climate and Energy (the advanced energy simulation program used by researchers or larger companies). The calculations are done for a standard house from the Swedish house supplier Fiskarhedenvillan. The method is based on having the same conditions and inputs in the different calculation forms so that the results can be compared and verified. The house has been faced differently to see how the orientation affects energy consumption in different methods. The results for the simulations are close to each other and the hand calculation differs from the computer programs by only 5%. Even if solar factors differ due to the orientation of the house, energy calculation results from different computer programs and even hand calculation methods are in line with each other.

  • 7.
    Sattari, Amir
    Sharif University of Technology (SUT), Iran.
    Brick Industry of Iran: Problems and Solutions2003In: Behsoo Monthly MagazineArticle in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 8.
    Sattari, Amir
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Effect of Pulsative Inflow to a Small-Scale Room model: CFD Simulation of an Innovative Ventilation Solution2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, the effects of having a pulsative inflow to a wall jet within a 2-D enclosure are investigated using both (Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) measurements and Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations. The main hypothesis of the study is that the pulsation can improve the mixing performance of the wall jet into the small-scale 2-Droom model. Both CFD and PIV experiments focused on comparison of downstream flow-field of a wall-jet with constant and pulsative inflow modes. 

    Obtained results have proved that the pulsation has the ability to improve mixing thorough generating secondary vortices in the downstream of the wall-jet, and same global airflow pattern exists for both of the cases but with generation of more eddies and local periodical velocity variations for pulsation mode. This periodic generation of turbulence with pulsative inflo9w has happened despite the relatively low Reynolds numbers. The bigger size of boundary layer and higher turbulent kinetic energy for the pulsative inflow in comparison with the same flow rate in constant flow mode could result in more ventilation effectiveness without the need to increase flow rate. When itcomes to real-scale ventilation applications, a lower pulsated inflow could produce the same acceptable results in terms of mixing efficiency as a higher constant flow rate, which results in a more energy-efficient ventilation strategy with lower risk of draught and thus better thermal comfort. The computational is done thorough grid independency study.

    The study is therefore done with 3D SST-kΩ which yielded good prediction of velocity profiles near walls. For predicting turbulence parameters in the center of the domain SAS has been used which has been successful to get close toreality results.

  • 9.
    Sattari, Amir
    KTH, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Investigations of Flow Patterns in Ventilated Rooms Using Particle Image Velocimetry: Applications in a Scaled Room with Rapidly Varying Inflow and over a Wall-Mounted Radiator2015Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis introduces and describes a new experimental setup for examining the effects of pulsating inflow to a ventilated enclosure. The study aimed to test the hypothesis that a pulsating inflow has potential to improve ventilation quality by reducing the stagnation zones through enhanced mixing. The experimental setup, which was a small-scale, two-dimensional (2D), water-filled room model, was successfully designed and manufactured to be able to capture two-dimensional velocity vectors of the entire field using Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV). Using in-house software, it was possible to conclude that for an increase in pulsation frequency or alternatively in the flow rate, the stagnation zones were reduced in size, the distribution of vortices became more homogeneous over the considered domain, and the number of vortices in all scales had increased. Considering the occupied region, the stagnation zones were moved away in a favorable direction from a mixing point of view. In addition, statistical analysis unveiled that in the far-field occupied region of the room model, stronger eddies were developed that we could expect to give rise to improved mixing. As a fundamental experimental study performed in a 2D, small-scale room model with water as operating fluid, we can logically conclude that the positive effect of enhanced mixing through increasing the flow rate could equally be accomplished through applying a pulsating inflow.

    In addition, this thesis introduces and describes an experimental setup for study of air flow over a wall-mounted radiator in a mockup of a real room, which has been successfully designed and manufactured. In this experimental study, the airflow over an electric radiator without forced convection, a common room-heating technique, was measured and visualized using the 2D PIV technique. Surface blackening due to particle deposition calls for monitoring in detail the local climate over a heating radiator. One mechanism causing particle deposition is turbophoresis, which occurs when the flow is turbulent. Because turbulence plays a role in particle deposition, it is important to identify where the laminar flow over radiator becomes turbulent. The results from several visualization techniques and PIV measurements indicated that for a room with typical radiator heating, the flow over the radiator became agitated after a dimensionless length, 5.0–6.25, based on the radiator thickness.

    Surface properties are among the influencing factors in particle deposition; therefore, the geometrical properties of different finishing techniques were investigated experimentally using a structured light 3D scanner that revealed differences in roughness among different surface finishing techniques. To investigate the resistance to airflow along the surface and the turbulence generated by the surfaces, we recorded the boundary layer flow over the surfaces in a special flow rig, which revealed that the types of surface finishing methods differed very little in their resistance and therefore their influence on the deposition velocity is probably small. 

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  • 10.
    Sattari, Amir
    Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Nanotechnology and Sustainability: A Critical Review of Current Trendsand Future Developments2009Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This report considers both contributions and adverse consequences, uncertainties, and unknownrelationships that are potentially involved in the advances of techno-economic and humanisticinterests towards the advances in Nanosciences and Nanotechnologies (N&N). Because of thedistinctive physical and chemical properties of materials at nanoscales, which have not beenunderstood deeply yet, besides the huge potentials to benefit many areas of research andapplication, it is recognized that application of N&N may raise new ecological, health and safety,socio-economic, and regulatory challenges that will require scientific, techno-economic, andsocietal considerations. A comprehensive literature survey of peer reviewed journals, books, andother authoritative sources indicate that there have been very few studies on these fundamentalaspects and the research investments are mainly sponsored for market purposes, rather than forpure scientific structure-function discoveries or sustainability attitudes. The overarching issue ofimportance in this study is to consider the high level of uncertainties and lack of knowledge inN&N, and the great potential threats and impacts of engineered nanoproducts that can be eitherin form of known-unknowns or even unknown-unknowns. Moreover, measures of improvementto govern N&N developments to become sustainable, including public communication, call forpure and high quality non-prescribed research on unknown characteristics of N&N, health and environmental friendliness based on a life cycle approach, and the industrial ecology approach,together with implementation of the related results in practice have been suggested.

  • 11.
    Sattari, Amir
    Building Technology, Dalarna University, Falun, Sweden; University of Gävle, Gävle, Sweden; Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Stockholm, Sweden.
    Particle Image Velocimetry Visualization and measurement of Airflow over a Wall-Mounted Radiator2015In: The International Journal of Ventilation, ISSN 1473-3315, E-ISSN 2044-4044, Vol. 14, no 3, p. 289-302Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A common room-heating technique involves the use of a wall-mounted radiator without forced convection. The cold surrounding air passes adjacent to the warm surfaces of the radiator where it absorbs heat and gains momentum to rise along the wall surface and finally circulate in the entire room. Understanding the properties of heated airflows is important for several purposes. To understand the flow process it is important to identify where the transition from laminar to turbulent flow occurs and to quantify the turbulent fluctuations. With the objective to characterize the airflow in the vicinity of wall surfaces, the local climate over the radiator was visualized and measured using a two-dimensional particle image velocimetry technique. The PIV technique yields 2D vector fields of the flow. The resulting vector maps were properly validated and post-processed using in-house software to provide the average streamlines and other statistical information such as standard deviation, average velocity, and covariance of the entire vector field. The results show that, for a room with a typical heating power, the airflow over the radiator becomes agitated after an ordinate of N = 5 - 6.25 over the radiator upper level, in which N is the dimensionless length based on the thickness of the radiator. Practical problems encountered in near-wall PIV measurements include generating a homogeneous global seeding that makes it possible to study both plume and entraining region, as well as optical problems due to near-surface laser reflection that makes the measurement process more complicated.

  • 12.
    Sattari, Amir
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Gävle, Sweden.
    Ahmadi Moghaddam, Elham
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Sandberg, Mats
    University of Gävle, Gävle, Sweden.
    Industrial nanoparticles health risks and advantages of a decent industrial ventilation system in reducing the related risks2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With the fast-growing use of nanoparticles (NPs) in a wide range of production and manufacturing processes, and great health and environmental risks associated to NPs, it is important to treat the industry-produced NPs in a proper way. Ventilation of industrial workplaces lies within the concept of sustainability challenges for the development of nanoproducts. Due to the decreased grain size of material to nano limits and thus the appearance of either new or changed properties, health risk of workers in such environments is critical concerning the complicated and unknown characteristics of nanoparticles. There is great evidence over the past few years that ultrafine particles and especially NPs in the breathing air are strong toxins. Different mitigation measures for air-borne nanoparticles in industrial workplaces are substitution, engineering controls such as ventilation and provision of personal protective equipment. In this paper selection criteria for ventilation systems and different ventilation methods (hood ventilation and global enclosure/room ventilation systems) as engineering controls of nanoparticles within industrial enclosures will be reviewed. Novel methods for improvement of ventilation efficiency in general and industrial work places with an eye on ventilation of nanoparticles will be presented.

  • 13.
    Sattari, Amir
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Gävle, Sweden.
    Fallenius, Bengt
    The Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Stockholm, Sweden.
    Fransson, Jens H. M.
    The Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Stockholm, Sweden.
    Sandberg, M.
    University of Gävle, Gävle, Sweden.
    PIV Visualisation study in a two-dimensional room model with rapid time varying ventilation flow rates2011In: Roomvent 2011: proceedings / [ed] Vojislav Novakovic, Sten Olaf Hanssen, Hans Martin Mathisen, Tapir Academic Press , 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Optimal control of inlet jet flows is of wide applicative interest in order to enhance mixing and reduce stagnation in a ventilated room. The general approach in mechanical ventilation is to use a constant flow rate forced convection system providing the ventilation air. This type of ventilation may cause several problems such as draught, stagnation at certain occupied locations, and subsequently low ventilation efficiencies. An alternative to increase the ventilation quality that has been of interest in this study is to introduce flow variations, which is considered as a potential to reduce stagnation and increase efficiency of the ventilation. The study was conducted as a model experiment in a small-scale, two-dimensional (2-D) room model with dimensions 30200.9 cm3 with water as operating fluid. The size of the model made it possible to investigate the 2-D velocity vector field within the entire room using Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) method and further consequent dynamical and statistical analyses have been done from the resulted PIV vector fields. The comparison between cases of constant flow rate and flow variations have been conducted for the cases of two set of base flow rates and for each one, the cases of constant flow rate and flow variations with frequencies of 0.3, 0.4 and 0.5 Hz, is considered. In this investigation we show that the calm region, with a large stagnation zone, without pulsating inflow condition becomes more active in the sense that the stagnation points are moved and that the small-scale structures are grown for increasing pulsation frequency.

  • 14.
    Sattari, Amir
    et al.
    National Iranian Oil Company, Tehran, Iran.
    Jalali, Omid
    Analysis of Fuel Oil Usage in Brick Industries of Iran and its Environmental Effects2006Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 15.
    Sattari, Amir
    et al.
    Sharif University of Technology (SUT), School of Mechanical Engineering, Tehran, Iran.
    Mohsen, Saeid
    Sharif University of Technology (SUT), School of Mechanical Engineering, Tehran, Iran.
    [Measurement of Operational Parameters of the VOLKSWAGEN, Type AAM, 1.8 lit., 55 kW Engine]2002Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
  • 16.
    Sattari, Amir
    et al.
    National Iranian Oil Company, Tehran, Iran.
    Roomizadeh, Ehsan
    Goodarzi, Mansour
    Short-Term, Long-Term and Mid-Term Energy Conservation Measures for Brick Production Lines2006Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 17.
    Sattari, Amir
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Sandberg, Mats
    Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) visualization of air flow over a wall-mounted radiator2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A common room heating technique is to use a wall-mounted radiator without forced convection. The cold surrounding air passes adjacent to the warm surfaces of the radiator, gets heated, and the buoyancy difference gives this heated air a momentum to rise along the wall surface (as plume) and finally circulate and get mixed into the whole room. The properties of heated plumes are important for assessing the risk of soiling of the wall surfaces through particle deposition driven by thermophoresis and turbophoresis. It is important to identify where there is a transition from laminar to turbulent flow. With the objective to characterize the plume of heated air flow in the vicinity of wall surface, the airflow over the radiator is visualized and measured using the two-dimensional Particle Image Velocimetry (2D PIV) technique. The PIV technique yields two-dimensional vector fields of the flow. The resulted vector maps are size and peak validated and post processed using in house developed software to provide the average streamlines. In the near wall PIV measurements there are practical problems; generating a homogeneous global seeding that makes it possible to study both the plume and the surrounding entrainment region, and optical problems due to strong laser reflection from the wall surface which limits the investigation area. These issues are dealt with in the present study. In addition to visualization with PIV, visualization with a CMOS video camera was also conducted.

  • 18.
    Sattari, Amir
    et al.
    Dept Bldg Energy & Environm Eng, University of Gävle, Gävle, Sweden.
    Sandberg, Mats
    Dept Bldg Energy & Environm Eng, University of Gävle, Gävle, Sweden.
    PIV Study of Ventilation Quality in Certain Occupied Regions of a Two-Dimensional Room Model with Rapidly Varying Flow Rates2013In: The International Journal of Ventilation, ISSN 1473-3315, E-ISSN 2044-4044, Vol. 12, no 2, p. 187-194Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of supply jet flows is the most common type of air distribution for general ventilation. Usually the supply flow rate is constant or slowly varying (VAV-systems) to cope with a varying load. A novel air distribution method, with the potential to reduce stagnation and to increase the ventilation efficiency, is to introduce rapid flow variations (pulsations). This paper reports on a fundamental study of this type of air distribution. The purpose of the study was to explore the effect of flow variations on stagnant zones and the levels of the turbulent kinetic energy and the relative turbulence intensity. A small scale room model is used that consists of an enclosure with a ventilation supply at the bottom and an extract at the top of the opposite wall. Water was used as an operating fluid and the model had a design which mainly generated a two-dimensional flow. The size of the model made it possible to investigate the two-dimensional velocity vector field using the Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) method in regions corresponding to occupied regions. Further post processing was conducted from the resulting vector fields. The comparison between cases of constant inflow and pulsated inflow (flow variations with frequency of 0.5 Hz) was conducted for three domains: two belonging to the far-field occupied zone and one belonging to the near-field, downstream of the supply wall jet.

  • 19.
    Sattari, Amir
    et al.
    National Iranian Oil Company, Tehran, Iran.
    Shakeri, Omid
    Analysis and Comparison of Energy Consumption of Different Types of Brick Production Kilns2004Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 20.
    Sattari, Amir
    et al.
    National Iranian Oil Company, Tehran, Iran.
    Shakeri, Omid
    Energy Conservation in Poultries2004Conference paper (Other academic)
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