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  • 1.
    Bagger, Anette
    Department of science and mathematics education, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    De nationella proven som en arena för likvärdighetsfrågor2015In: Specialpedagogisk tidskrift, ISSN 2000-429X, no 3, p. 4-6Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 2.
    Bagger, Anette
    Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Den flerspråkiga elevens nationella provdeltagande i matematik: diskursiva förutsättningar2017In: Utbildning och Demokrati, ISSN 1102-6472, E-ISSN 2001-7316, Vol. 26, no 2, p. 95-111Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Multilingual students’ participation in national tests in mathematics – discursive prerequisites. This article explores discursive prerequisites in test-taking for second language learners with other mother tongues than Swedish. Four students were interviewed in 2016 during their final year of compulsory school. The results imply that multilingual students are positioned as disadvantaged within testing. This phenomenon is mainly situated in a competitive discourse with several subordinated discourses that further position the students: A discourse of justice positioned the students as being sorted or left behind, a discourse of handling the assessment positioned the students as caretakers and a discourse of future challenges positioned the students as struggling while learning, being capable to learn or facing positive challenges. The results imply that national testing is a personal and relational experience and gives rise to issues of legitimacy and equality. These issues should be considered in policy-making, the construction and the carrying out of tests as well as in the conclusions which are based on the results on individual, group and organisational levels.

  • 3.
    Bagger, Anette
    Department of science and mathematics education, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    "It is only a test": social aspects of displaying knowledge in mathematics for second language learners2017In: Proceedings of the Tenth Congress of the European Society for Research in Mathematics Education / [ed] Dooley, T., & Gueudet, G., Dublin: Institute of Education, Dublin City University , 2017, p. 1433-1440Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article discusses social dimensions connected to assessment in mathematics for second language learners in Sweden. The data consist of two semi-structured interviews with students in the ninth grade of compulsory school. Foucault’s thinking on discourse and positioning was advocated as a frame for analysis. The units for analysis were students’ statements about caring and the other in connection to the display of knowledge in mathematics. Results show that caring of and for others are important resources in managing assessment and believing in the future.

  • 4.
    Bagger, Anette
    Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    "It is only a test": Social aspects of displaying knowledge in mathematics for second language learners2018Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This article discusses social dimensions connected to assessment in mathematics for second language learners in Sweden. The data consist of two semi-structured interviews with students in the ninth grade of compulsory school. Foucault’s thinking on discourse and positioning was advocated as a frame for analysis. The units for analysis were students’ statements about caring and the other in connection to the display of knowledge in mathematics. Results show that caring of and for others are important resources in managing assessment and believing in the future.

  • 5.
    Bagger, Anette
    Department of science and mathematics education, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Möjligheter till stöd och tillgång till lärande i matematik2015Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 6.
    Bagger, Anette
    Department of science and mathematics education, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Pressure at stake: Swedish third graders' talk about national tests in mathematics2016In: Nordisk matematikkdidaktikk, NOMAD: [Nordic Studies in Mathematics Education], ISSN 1104-2176, Vol. 21, no 1, p. 47-69Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article presents part of a larger scale ethnographic study1 about Swedish national tests in mathematics in the third grade. Indications concerning possible needs in the test situation are examined through 102 pupils’ talk about pressure and what is at stake. Results imply that this test could be experienced as a high stakes test. Negative pressure is quite common, especially among multilingual pupils in need of support and boys in need of support. There are gendered differences in the talk about what is at stake. The article frames who the pupil in need of support might be from a pupil’s perspective, but also discusses how these possible positions of need might be managed in practice.

  • 7.
    Bagger, Anette
    Department of science and mathematics education, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Pressures and positions of need during the Swedish third-grade National Test in Mathematics2015In: Proceedings of the Ninth Congress of the European Society for Research in Mathematics Education / [ed] Krainer, K. & Vondrová, N., Prague: Charles University , 2015, p. 1558-1563Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents and discusses parts of a large-scale [1] ethnographical and longitudinal study that has followed the process of implementing the National Test in Mathematics for third graders (Ntm3) in Sweden during its first three years (2010, 2011, and 2012). Pupil talk from 2011 about pressure and what is at stake was used to construe three positions of need that might characterize pupils during the National Test in Mathematics in their third school year: the position of shame, the position of unfamiliarity, and the position of stress. How these might be handled in educational practices is discussed briefly.

  • 8.
    Bagger, Anette
    Department of science and mathematics education, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Prövningen av en skola för alla: nationella provet i matematik i det tredje skolåret2015Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis presents the contribution to research that my doctoral education led to. My starting point was a large scale qualitative research project (here after called the VR-project) which reviewed the implementation of national tests in the third grade on the subject of mathematics. The VR-project investigated how the test affected the pupils with a special focus on pupils in need of special support. An urge to look further into issues concerning the support, the pupil in need and the test was revealed in he initial VR-project. These issues therefore constitutes the problem area of this thesis. The VR-project studied a total of 22 classrooms in two different municipalities' during 2010- 2012. The methodology used for this project was inspired by ethnography and discourse analysis. The raw data consisted of test instructions, video observations of the actual test subjects, interviews from teachers and pupils about the test, the support that was given throughout the testing as well as the observations and interviews of the pupils requiring special assistance. Activated discourses and positions of the participants were demarcated. The results revealed that a traditional testing discourse, a caring discourse and a competitive discourse are activated during the tests. The testing discourse is stable and traditional. Much of what was shown and said in classrooms, routines and rules regarding the test were repeated in all the schools and in all the classrooms. The discourse on support is affected by ambiguity, which is revealed especially when issues of pupils’ equity is put against the tests equality. This is connected to the teachers restricted agency to give support due to the teacher position as a test taker. The positions in need that are available to students are not the same in pupils, teachers and steering documents. The situation is especially troublesome for pupils that do not manage Swedish good enough to take the test and for pupils in need of special support. Some of the conclusions from this thesis is that the national test format: Disciplines not only the pupil, but also the teacher, the classroom and the school at large. Results indicate that the test:

    Activates a focus on achievementLeads attention away from learning Activates issues of accountability Influences pupils and teachers with stakes involved

    Besides evaluating knowledge, the test disciplines not only the pupil, but also the teacher, the classroom and the school at large. Discussing the national test as an arena for equity might be a way towards attaining equality in education for all pupils.

  • 9.
    Bagger, Anette
    Department of science and mathematics education, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Quality and equity in the era of national testing: the case of Sweden2017In: World yearbook of education 2017: assessment inequalities / [ed] Julie Allan, Alfredo J. Artiles, London: Routledge , 2017, p. 68-88Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This work considers quality and equity in mathematics education and addresses how discursive circumstances on national tests position students, particularly those in need of special support, at both the individual and group levels. Research on equity and quality in mathematics education often focuses on policy and the big picture, school governance, or personal stories. By contrast, the purpose of this text is to connect those perspectives, chiefly by exploring contradictions and connections as shown in discourses on equity and quality in Sweden. Sweden presents an interesting case given the tension between education’s goal to promote social justice by providing ‘high and equal education for all’ and the neoliberal governance of schools where students’ choice of school is central (Lundahl 2016). Finally, I offer some conclusions regarding equity in quality and quality in equity as those relationships inform national tests, as well as discussing challenges and possibilities that lie ahead.

  • 10.
    Bagger, Anette
    Department of science and mathematics education, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Student Equity vs Test Equality?: support during third graders' national tests in mathematics in Sweden2016In: Cursiv [publisher: Institut for Didaktik, Danmarks Pædagogiske Universitetsskole, Aarhus Universitet, DK], ISSN 1901-8878, E-ISSN 1901-8886, no 18, p. 123-139Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article throws light on the educational practice of teachers providing additional support to students during tests, more specifically during the national tests in mathematics for third graders in Sweden (hereafter called Ntm3) for the years 2010 and 2011. Both the test instructions and teacher talk related to these tests were taken into consideration. The results suggest that issues of equity and teachers’ agency arise when considering support. The dual purpose of the test, to evaluate the student and to evaluate the education, positions the teacher as both a test-giver and a test-taker and influences the discourse on support by ambiguity. I found that in such circumstances, when students´ equity comes into conflict with the test´s equality, the focus during the tests shifts from attention to learning to attention to controlling.

  • 11.
    Bagger, Anette
    Department of science and mathematics education, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    The discourse regarding the multilingual student in need of support in test-instructions2017In: ICT in mathematics education: the future and the realities : proceedings of MADIF 10 : the tenth research seminar of the Swedish society for research in mathematics education, Karlstad, January 26-27, 2016, Göteborg: Svensk förening för matematikdidaktisk forskning (SMDF) , 2017, p. 151-Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 12.
    Bagger, Anette
    et al.
    Department of Science and Mathematics Education, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Björklund Boistrup, Lisa
    Department of Mathematics and Science Education, Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Norén, Eva
    Department of Mathematics and Science Education, Stockholm University, Sweden.
    The governing of three researchers' technologies of the self2018In: The Montana Mathematics Enthusiast, ISSN 1551-3440, E-ISSN 1551-3440, Vol. 15, no 1-2, p. 278-302, article id 15Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article sheds light on a number of discursive conditions relating to being researchers in mathematics education and with an interest in diversity. The data derived from a self-reflective trialogue (dialogue of three people) between the three authors, three researchers. Two of Foucault’s governing technologies were adopted: technologies of power and technologies of the self. By exploring regularities between these in our trialogue we construed formations of governing technologies in relation to subjectification and subjectivation. We uncovered five formations: “Tensions between mathematics education (ME) researchers from different traditions through processes of normalization and othering”, “Limiting space between ME researchers within the socio- political through dismissal of knowledge”, “The socio-political tradition of a need for theory connects theory and ME researcher's’ self-cultivation”, “The researchers’ processes of self-cultivation connect theory and compassionate research practices”. and “Research on policy statements as resistance towards technologies of domination in society”. 

  • 13.
    Bagger, Anette
    et al.
    Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Norén, Eva
    Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Boistrup, Lisa
    Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Lundahl, Christian
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Digitalized national tests in mathematics: a way of increasing and securing equity?2019In: PROCEEDINGS OF THE TENTH INTERNATIONAL MATHEMATICS EDUCATION AND SOCIETY CONFERENCE: Hyderabad, India January 28th to February 2nd, 2019 / [ed] Jayasree Subramanian, Hyderabad, India, 2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    On one hand, the Swedish governing discourse on equity in the context of digitizing education portrays modernization, progress and democracy as a foundation in the equity work. On the other hand, in the context of digitized tests, equity is rather framed within a neoliberal logic while related to all individuals’ possibilities of choosing a ‘good life’, and to compete on equal terms. Not all disadvantaged groups are the target, though. It is mainly boys who are supposed be given better grades, and, in addition, students with disabilities who are supposed to (as far as possible) be able to have the opportunity to show their knowledge during the test. Language or socioeconomically diverse settings are not mentioned with regard to digitized national tests.

  • 14.
    Bagger, Anette
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education, Umeå, Sweden.
    Nyroos, Mikaela
    Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Performance, anxiety and the mathematical self image2013In: Special needs education in mathematics: new trends, problems and possibilities / [ed] Anne Berit Fuglestad, Kristiansand: Portal forlag , 2013, p. 86-91Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In present pilot study the relation between mathematical performance, test anxiety and mathematical self image is being examined in two Swedish grade 3 pupils. A difference between the high achieving and the low achieving pupils is possible to discern. A negative or uncertain mathematical self image seems to be connected to test anxiety, but not to performance when we look at these two young pupils. The experience of taking the test is affecting the high and low achiever differently. There are indications that the context and the kind of information given about the tests and the pupil's abilities affect both the level of test anxiety and the pupil’s evolving mathematical self image. Educational implications are being discussed.

  • 15.
    Bagger, Anette
    et al.
    Department of science and mathematics education, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Roos, Helena
    Linnaeus University, Växjö, Sweden.
    How Research Conceptualises the Student in Need of Special Education in Mathematics2015In: Development of Mathematics Teaching: Design, Scale, Effects. Proceeding of MADIF 9. The Ninth Swedish Mathematics Education Research Seminar Umeå February 4-5, 2014 / [ed] O. Helenius, A. Engström, T. Meaney, P. Nilsson, E. Norén, J. Sayers, M. Österholm, Linköping: Svensk förening för MatematikDidaktisk Forskning - SMDF , 2015, p. 27-36Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The focus of this paper is the conceptualisation of students in special educational needs in mathematics (SEM students) in the research fields of mathematics and special education. A difference between fields regarding the perspectives taken on the SEM student is obvious in the reviewed articles. Those in the special educational field were individual oriented in their view of the difficulties, whilst reviewed articles from the field of mathematics education more often discuss socio-cultural settings. The content in the selected 28 articles reveals that the overall conceptualisation of SEM student has to do with the social construct of the SEM student, as well as with students’ experiences, affects, and prerequisites; with the specific training methods or interventions applied; with special areas in the subject of mathematics; with special groups of students; and with teachers’ knowledge about all these factors.

  • 16.
    Bagger, Anette
    et al.
    Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Roos, Helena
    Linneaus University, Sweden.
    Engvall, Margareta
    Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Investigating the politics of meaning(s) in Nordic research on special education mathematics​: developing a methodology​2018In: Perspectives on professional development of mathematics teachers: Proceedings of MADIF 11. The eleventh research seminar of the  Swedish Society for Research in  Mathematics Education Karlstad, January 23–24, 2018​ / [ed] J. Häggstroöm, Y. Liljekvist, J. Bergman, Ärlebäck, M. Fahlgren & O. Olande, Göteborg: Svensk förening för MatematikDidaktisk Forskning - SMDF, 2018, p. 141-150Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper aims to develop a methodology to explore the politics of meaning in special education mathematics research. Mediated meaning, directions of intentionalities and perspectives on special education have been analysed in eight reviewed articles.  Results indicate that the politics of meaning in the Nordic sample are about processes of normalisation and effectiveness through methods and approaches. The teacher is emphasised as the centre for change and development also when it comes to organisational factors. Disabilities are not researched, perhaps cloaked by an overall relational approach or due to research paying attention to milder difficulties. The deve- loped methodology seems to be fruitful and will be applied on a broader international sample.

  • 17.
    Nyroos, Mikaela
    et al.
    Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Bagger, Anette
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education, Umeå, Sweden.
    Silfver, Eva
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education, Umeå, Sweden.
    Sjöberg, Gunnar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education, Umeå, Sweden.
    Exploring the presence of test anxiety and its relation to mathematical achievement in a sample of grade 32012In: Skrifter från Svensk förening för matematikdidaktisk forskning, ISSN 1651-3274, p. 151-160Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study aims at exploring if a sample of Swedish grade 3 pupils reported any test anxiety and whether there were any relations to performance in different mathematical areas. Overall, test anxiety explained 20% of the variance for the total mathematical score, with the subscale “thoughts” as the significant predictor. The model of test anxiety also explained Number understanding, Mass and Time, Patterns, and Mathematical problems; however Mental arithmetic and Written arithmetic algorithms were not significantly explained by the model. Test anxiety seems not to be a major problem in this sample; still, significant negative correlations were found, which likely might influence the pupils in some aspects.

  • 18.
    Nyroos, Mikaela
    et al.
    Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Korhonen, Johan
    Åbo Akademi, Vaasa, Finland.
    Peng, Aihui
    Faculty of Education, Southwest University, China; School of Computer Science, Physics and Mathematics, Linnaeus University, Växjö, Sweden.
    Linnanmäki, Karin
    Åbo Akademi, Vaasa, Finland.
    Svens-Liavåg, Camilla
    Åbo Akademi, Vaasa, Finland.
    Bagger, Anette
    Department of science and mathematics education, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Sjöberg, Gunnar
    Department of science and mathematics education, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    A cross-cultural analysis of test anxiety among Chinese, Finnish and Swedish pupilsManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 19.
    Nyroos, Mikaela
    et al.
    Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Korhonen, Johan
    Åbo Akademi, Vaasa, Finland.
    Peng, Aihui
    Faculty of Education, Southwest University, China; School of Computer Science, Physics and Mathematics, Linnaeus University, Växjö, Sweden.
    Linnanmäki, Karin
    Åbo Akademi, Vaasa, Finland.
    Svens-Liavåg, Camilla
    Åbo Akademi, Vaasa, Finland.
    Bagger, Anette
    Department of science and mathematics education, Umeå University, Umeå, Swede.
    Sjöberg, Gunnar
    Department of science and mathematics education, Umeå University, Umeå, Swede.
    Cultural and Gender Differences in Experiences and Expression of Test Anxiety Among Chinese, Finnish, and Swedish Grade 3 Pupils2015In: International Journal of School & Educational Psychology, ISSN 2168-3603, E-ISSN 2168-3611, Vol. 3, no 1, p. 37-48Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    While test anxiety has been studied extensively, little consideration has been given to the cultural impacts of children's experiences and expressions of test anxiety. The aim of this work was to examine whether variance in test anxiety scores can be predicted based on gender and cultural setting. Three hundred and ninety-eight pupils in Grade 3 in China, Finland, and Sweden, each of which has different testing realities, completed the Children's Test Anxiety Scale (CTAS). Exploratory structural equation modeling (ESEM) results indicated that the Chinese sample scored more highly on the autonomic reactions component, whereas the Nordic sample scored higher on the off-task behaviors component. Significant interaction effects between gender and culture were also observed: The Nordic girls exhibited higher levels of autonomic reactions, but the opposite was seen in the Chinese sample, with boys reporting higher levels of the cognitive component. The conceptualization of test anxiety encompassing the off-task behaviors component does not appear to be universal for children. It is also suggested that gender differences vary as a function of culture.

  • 20.
    Silfver, Eva
    et al.
    Department of Education, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Sjöberg, Gunnar
    Science and Mathematics Education, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Bagger, Anette
    Science and Mathematics Education, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    An 'appropriate' test taker: the everyday classroom during the national testing period in school year three in Sweden2016In: Ethnography and Education, ISSN 1745-7823, E-ISSN 1745-7831, Vol. 11, no 3, p. 237-252Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article draws on data from a bigger project where we explore what is taking place in the daily life of classrooms during the national testing period in mathematics for nine- to ten-year-old children in Sweden. Data was produced by observations, video-recordings, and interviews with children. The article shows on a micro level how assessment trends, on a macro level, affect children. It further focuses how children through different repertoires of time position themselves as 'appropriate' test takers.

  • 21.
    Silfver, Eva
    et al.
    Department of Science and Mathematics Education, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Sjöberg, Gunnar
    Department of Science and Mathematics Education, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Bagger, Anette
    Department of Science and Mathematics Education, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Changing Our Methods and Disrupting the Power Dynamics: National Tests in Third-Grade Classrooms2013In: International Journal of Qualitative Methods, ISSN 1609-4069, E-ISSN 1609-4069, Vol. 12, p. 39-51Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article reports on a research project relating to the newly implemented mandatory Swedish national mathematics tests for third-grade students (nine and ten years old). The project’s main research concerns the students’ ideas about and reactions towardthese tests and how the specific test situation affects their perception of their own mathematical proficiency. Drawing on theories that suggest identities are more fluid than static, we want to understand how students with special needs are “created.” The specific aim of this article is to discuss how our research methods have been refined during the various phases of data collection and report on the resulting implications. It discusses issues surrounding child research and how methods involving video recording and video stimulated recall dialogue (VSRD) can contribute to research on children’s experiences. Particular attention is given to methodological and ethical issues and how to disrupt power relations. In this article, we argue that the context of the test situation not only impacted upon the students but also affected how we changed, developed, and adapted our approaches as the project evolved. 

  • 22.
    Sjöberg, Gunnar
    et al.
    Umeå University, Department of science and mathematics education, Umeå, Sweden.
    Silfver, Eva
    Umeå University, Department of science and mathematics education, Umeå, Sweden.
    Bagger, Anette
    Umeå University, Department of science and mathematics education, Umeå, Sweden.
    Disciplined by tests2015In: Nordisk matematikkdidaktikk, NOMAD: [Nordic Studies in Mathematics Education], ISSN 1104-2176, Vol. 20, no 1, p. 55-75Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article reports on a Swedish research project on the reintroduction of national tests in mathematics for nine- to ten-year-old pupils. Data were collected over a period of three years (2010-2012) by video recording test situations in different classrooms and by conducting video-stimulated recall interviews with children. The aim is to explore and analyse the testing situation and how it creates different positions for children. We conclude that discourses of testing, caring and competition, sometimes strengthening and sometimes shadowing each other and thereby, produce knowledge in children about success and failure in mathematics, positioning children as ‘winners’ or ‘losers’. The tests are interpreted as a technology – a form of disciplinary power that functions at the level of the body (Foucault, 1980).

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