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  • 1.
    Ahnström, Johan
    et al.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Ecology, Uppsala, Sweden; Länsstyrelsen i Uppsala län, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Bengtsson, Jan
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Ecology, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Berg, Åke
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, The Swedish Biodiversity Centre, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Hallgren, Lars
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Urban and Rural Development, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Boonstra, Wijnand J.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Urban and Rural Development, Uppsala, Sweden; Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Björklund, Johanna
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Farmers' Interest in Nature and Its Relation to Biodiversity in Arable Fields2013Ingår i: International Journal of Ecology, ISSN 1687-9708, E-ISSN 1687-9716, 617352Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Biodiversity declines in farmland have been attributed to intensification of farming at the field level and loss of heterogeneity at the landscape level. However, farmers are not solely optimizing production; their actions are also influenced by social factors, tradition and interest in nature, which indirectly influence biodiversity but rarely are incorporated in studies of farmland biodiversity. We used social science methods to quantify farmers’ interest in nature on 16 farms with winter wheat fields in central Sweden, and combined this with biodiversity inventories of five organism groups (weeds, carabid beetles, bumblebees, solitary bees, and birds) and estimates of landscape composition andmanagement intensity at the field level.Agricultural intensity,measured as crop density, and farmers’ interest in nature explained variation in biodiversity, measured as the proportion of the regional species richness found on single fields. Interest in nature seemed to incorporate many actions taken by farmers and appeared to be influenced by both physical factors, for example, the surrounding landscape, and social factors, for example, social motivations.This study indicates that conservation of biodiversity in farmland, and design of new agri-environmental subsidy systems, would profit from taking farmers’ interest in nature and its relation to agricultural practices into account.

  • 2.
    Belfrage, Kristina
    et al.
    Department of Urban and Rural Development, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Björklund, Johanna
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Salomonsson, Lennart
    Department of Urban and Rural Development, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Effects of farm size and on-farm landscape heterogeneity on biodiversity-case study of twelve farms in a swedish landscape2015Ingår i: Agroecology and Sustainable Food Systems, ISSN 2168-3565, E-ISSN 2168-3573, Vol. 39, nr 2, 170-188 s.Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study in Sweden, six small (<50 ha) and six large farms (>135 ha) participated. The aims of the study were to a) measure differences between small and large farms regarding on-farm landscape heterogeneity, and b) evaluate relations between on-farm landscape heterogeneity and biodiversity, measured as numbers of breeding bird species, bird territories, butterflies, bumblebees, and herbaceous plant species. Sample area of the same size, placed on each farm, was used for the biodiversity assessments and on-farm landscape heterogeneity studies. On-farm landscape heterogeneity was classified with the Shannon-Wiener diversity index. Linear regression was applied to analyze relationships between on-farm landscape heterogeneity and biodiversity indicators. Multivariate regression was used to analyze relations between single bird species and specific on-farm habitats. Small farms had significantly higher on-farm landscape heterogeneity than large farms. Strong positive relations between on-farm landscape heterogeneity and number of breeding birds, butterflies, and herbaceous plant species were found. Total on-farm landscape heterogeneity seems to be more important for bird diversity than do specific landscape elements. The study indicates that, to increase biodiversity, farm size should be taken into consideration.

  • 3.
    Björklund, Johanna
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Framgångsrika recept för hållbara måltider i offentliga kök: Erfarenheter baserade på utvärderingen av projektet Hållbara måltider i Örebro län 2014-20162016Rapport (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 4.
    Björklund, Johanna
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Hållbara måltider i Örebro län 1.0: Ett bra exempel på lärande för hållbar utveckling2014Rapport (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 5.
    Björklund, Johanna
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Eksvärd, Karin
    Inspire and action research ab.
    Schaffer, Christina
    Stockholms universitet, Stockholm,. Sverige.
    Assessing ecosystem services in perennial intercropping systems: participatory action research in Swedish modern agrofores2014Ingår i: Farming systems facing global challenges: Capacities and strategies / [ed] Schobert, H., Riecher, M.-C., Fischer, H. Aenis, T. & Knierim, 2014, 112-113 s.Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The focus of this paper is on how to assess ecosystem services in complex agroforestry systems using a case of edible forest gardens. Benefits of doing these assessments in a participatory learning and action research (PLAR) context are elaborated, as well as difficulties and questions that this has raised. The PLAR group comprised farmers on 13 smallholdings, researchers and a facilitator, which through collaboration and participatory methods have developed a general design of a forest garden, 60 m2 in size and established it on all 13 participating farms. Important values of the work are that ecosystem services are related to specific local contexts and that methodology for multi-criteria assessments of the generation of ecosystem services on a farm scale are being developed. Farmers engaged in formulating research questions, development of field trial designs, sampling and analysis of results improves the relevance and quality of the research as well as advance the adoption of new knowledge.

  • 6.
    Björklund, Johanna
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Johansson, Börje
    Hulta Norrgård, Linköping, Sweden.
    Assessing multifunctionality in relation to resource use: a holistic approach to measure efficiency, developed by participatory research2012Ingår i: Methods and procedures for building sustainable farming systems / [ed] Marta-Costa, A. A. & Soares da Silva, E. L. D. G, Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands, 2012, 161-173 s.Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Today’s intensive agriculture needs to be transformed into sustainable production of food, and this process requires good tools that can assess whether an action is leading towards this in the long term. A critical issue is what optimal yield comprises in terms of other functions of agriculture, as higher yields might lead to e.g. a reduction in biodiversity or soil carbon. In this study, emergy analysis and footprinting were combined to assess and illustrate the total resource use caused by a farming activity (milk production) and to identify the renewable fraction of this resource use. The total efficiency was defined as a function of the resource use and the multifunctionality of production. The classification of ecosystem services in the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (MA) was used as the basis for ranking multifunctionality. The results were expressed in the form of ecosystem bundles for the four MA categories (provisioning, supporting, regulating and cultural functions). Three scenarios with different degrees of input intensity and milk production were constructed and compared with the current production mode. The ratio of local renewable resource use to total resource use differed greatly between the different production strategies, being 1:3 for a self-sufficient organic farm and 1:14 for a conventional farm with maximum milk yield. Milk production was five-fold higher on the conventional farm, while generation of ecosystem services increased with increasing self-sufficiency under the local conditions prevailing in the study. Ecosystem services in all categories except provisioning were ranked higher when self-sufficiency increased.

  • 7.
    Björklund, Johanna
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Morfeldt, Peter
    Att använda skolmåltiden som pedagogiskt redskap: Erfarenheter från en forskningscirkel med lärare i åk 5-­62015Rapport (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 8. Eksvärd, Karin
    et al.
    Björklund, Johanna
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Danielsson, Maria
    Eksvärd, Jan
    Hansdotter, Emma
    Holmdahl, Joel
    Jansson, Arne
    Kjellberg, Oscar
    Klintberg, Per
    Korhonen, Annika
    Schaffer, Christina
    Sjelin, Kjell
    Stjerndahl, Thomas
    Thernsjö, Martha
    Tibell, Anders
    Velander Vredare, Susanne
    von Bothmer, Helena
    Mångfunktionella, lokala odlingssystem: Etablering av modern agroforestry i Sverige 2012-20162016Rapport (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 9.
    Johanna, Björklund
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Araya, Hailu
    Institute for Sustainable Development, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
    Edwards, Sue
    Institute for Sustainable Development, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
    Goncalves, André
    Instituto Federal Catarinense–Campus Rio do Sul and Centro Ecológico, Dom Pedro de Alcantara, Brazil.
    Höök, Karin
    Swedish Society for Nature Conservation, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Lundberg, Jakob
    Stockholm Resilience Centre Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Medina, Charito
    MASIPAG, Los Baños, Laguna, Philippines.
    Ecosystem-based agriculture combining production and conservation: a viable way to feed the world in the long term?2012Ingår i: Journal of Sustainable Agriculture, ISSN 1044-0046, E-ISSN 1540-7578, Vol. 36, nr 7, 824-855 s.Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This study analyzed examples of sustainable ecosystem-based agriculture where management methods supported livelihoods of smallholders while at the same time local ecosystem services were enhanced in Ethiopia, Brazil, and the Philippines. Participation by farmers and collective actions were found to be a crucial driving force, as local specific knowledge and “learning by doing” were main components of the development. Social cohesion, particularly through associations and cooperatives, and improved marketing opportunities were also important drivers. Furthermore, recognition by authorities at all levels was perceived as crucial. Effects of climate change, insecure property rights, and political instability were potential threats. The possibilities of such systems to be scaled up beyond self-sufficiency raised further questions.

  • 10.
    Öhlund, Erika
    et al.
    School of Natural Science, Technology and Environmental Studies, Södertörn University, Huddinge, Sweden.
    Hammer, Monica
    School of Natural Science, Technology and Environmental Studies, Södertörn University, Huddinge, Sweden.
    Björklund, Johanna
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Managing conflicting goals in pig farming: farmers’ strategies and perspectives on sustainable pig farming in Sweden2017Ingår i: International Journal of Agricultural Sustainability, ISSN 1473-5903, E-ISSN 1747-762X, Vol. 15, nr 6, 693-707 s.Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Industrial meat production has several negative environmental effects. Governments’ agricultural policies aim for cost efficiency combined with high environmental and animal welfare, which puts farmers in a difficult situation trying to navigate between sometimes contradictory requirements. This paper studies how Swedish pig farmers resolve or cope with conflicting goals in pig farming. We have analysed the regulations governing EU and Swedish pig farming. We have also interviewed five Swedish pig farmers about their views of the different goals of pig farming and strategies for resolving conflicts between the goals of low environmental impact, high animal welfare and enough profitability to continue farming. The greatest divide was between the conventional farmers, who emphasized natural resource efficiency, and the organic farmers who stressed animal welfare, multifunctionality and ecosystem service delivery. We suggest four strategies to contribute to resolving some of the conflicting goals: improve communication about different types of pig farming; use public procurement as a driver towards more sustainable pork production; work towards improving the Common Agricultural Policy, perhaps by implementing payments for ecosystem services or multifunctionality; and finally, decrease the total production of pork to lower the emissions per land unit.

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