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  • 1.
    Ahonen, Lia
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Changing behaviors or behavioral change?: A study of moral development and transbehavioral processes in juvenile institutional care2012Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    List of papers
    1. Moral development as a crucial treatment goal for young people in institutional care: a critical comparison between milieu therapy and cognitive behavioral therapy
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Moral development as a crucial treatment goal for young people in institutional care: a critical comparison between milieu therapy and cognitive behavioral therapy
    2012 (English)In: Therapeutic Communities: International Journal for Therapeutic and Supportive Organizations, ISSN 0964-1866, E-ISSN 2052-4730, Vol. 33, no 1, 4-15 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: This article aims to analyze and discuss the role of moral development in treatment of behavior problems and, further, to describe differences and similarities between two different methods – Milieu Therapy (MT) and Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) – in terms of addressing criminogenic needs and promoting moral development.

    Design: By performing a literature review, the study shows that even though there are both pros and cons using MT and CBT in institutional care, relationships strong enough to restructure a young person’s moral reasoning require time, and involves not only the young person’s parents and social network members, but also a genuine therapeutic alliance with clinical staff at the institution.

    Findings:These are central factors articulated in both CBT and MT, but are more explicitly expressed in MT. The results of this article highlight some important practical implications: In order to redevelop moral self and societal values, an overly narrow focus on criminogenic needs might exclude other components or processes of treatment and behavioral change. Together with a treatment program that view close staffresident interactions as of secondary importance, this could impair the possibility to obtain positive and long-lasting treatment results.

    Implications: In practice, moral development itself should be considered as an overall treatment goal, integrated into the daily life at the institution, twenty-four hours a day. Finally, the possibility to work with moral development in institutional settings is discussed.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Emerald Group Publishing Limited, 2012
    Keyword
    Moral development, criminogenic needs, cognitive behavioral therapy, milieu therapy, institutional treatment
    National Category
    Social Work
    Research subject
    Psychology; Social Work
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-26556 (URN)10.1108/09641861211286285 (DOI)2-s2.0-84879927127 (Scopus ID)
    Available from: 2012-11-30 Created: 2012-11-30 Last updated: 2017-10-17Bibliographically approved
    2. Negative peer cultures in juvenile institutional settings: staff as couch coaches or couch slouches
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Negative peer cultures in juvenile institutional settings: staff as couch coaches or couch slouches
    2012 (English)In: Journal of Offender Rehabilitation, ISSN 1050-9674, E-ISSN 1540-8558, Vol. 51, no 5, 316-330 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Juveniles in institutional treatment lack the skills to cope with societal expectations, rules, and moral values. If not prevented by staff, bonds are established with other deviant youth and the placement serves as a perfect "school of crime." This article aims to explore staff strategies to prevent negative peer cultures, as well as their theoretical foundations and relation to staff academic level and professional experience. Data were collected at eight Swedish institutions, using the Correctional Program Assessment Inventory 2000, questionnaires, observations, and interviews with clinical staff. Results show that most facilities lack negative-peer-culture strategies, but this is not related to academic level or experience. The importance, in terms of influencing the residents, of theoretical knowledge concerning psychological group-processes, peer culture, and moral development, as these relate to staff-supervised or unsupervised time, is discussed.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Taylor & Francis Group, 2012
    Keyword
    adolescent; institutional care; peer culture; staff education; treatment
    National Category
    Social Work
    Research subject
    Social Work
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-26557 (URN)10.1080/10509674.2012.683238 (DOI)2-s2.0-84863907740 (Scopus ID)
    Note

    Founding Agency:

    The Swedish National Board of Institutional Care

    Available from: 2012-11-30 Created: 2012-11-30 Last updated: 2017-10-17Bibliographically approved
    3. Staff group unanimity in care of juveniles in institutional treatment: routines, rituals, and relationships
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Staff group unanimity in care of juveniles in institutional treatment: routines, rituals, and relationships
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    To promote behavioral change processes in young people in institutional care, it is important that staff groups have common therapeutic goals, a unified view on how to achieve change, and similar attitudes towards the use of theory and methods. This article examines the level of Staff Group Unanimity at 8 treatment wards, by using the Correctional Program Assessment Inventory 2000 (CPAI), a questionnaire, additional interviews with key staff, and observations. Results show that most staff members have different views of the theory and methods used, low common therapeutic goals, and low agreement on how treatment should be performed, accompanied by low to modest confidence in management overall, and management’s ability to promote staff unity. The complexity of promoting positive interactions in the staff group without also creating distance to the residents is discussed.

    Keyword
    staff unanimity, residential treatment, therapeutic goals, rituals, interactions
    National Category
    Social Work
    Research subject
    Social Work
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-26558 (URN)
    Available from: 2012-11-30 Created: 2012-11-30 Last updated: 2017-10-17Bibliographically approved
  • 2.
    Ahonen, Lia
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Degner, Jürgen
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Moral development as a crucial treatment goal for young people in institutional care: a critical comparison between milieu therapy and cognitive behavioral therapy2012In: Therapeutic Communities: International Journal for Therapeutic and Supportive Organizations, ISSN 0964-1866, E-ISSN 2052-4730, Vol. 33, no 1, 4-15 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: This article aims to analyze and discuss the role of moral development in treatment of behavior problems and, further, to describe differences and similarities between two different methods – Milieu Therapy (MT) and Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) – in terms of addressing criminogenic needs and promoting moral development.

    Design: By performing a literature review, the study shows that even though there are both pros and cons using MT and CBT in institutional care, relationships strong enough to restructure a young person’s moral reasoning require time, and involves not only the young person’s parents and social network members, but also a genuine therapeutic alliance with clinical staff at the institution.

    Findings:These are central factors articulated in both CBT and MT, but are more explicitly expressed in MT. The results of this article highlight some important practical implications: In order to redevelop moral self and societal values, an overly narrow focus on criminogenic needs might exclude other components or processes of treatment and behavioral change. Together with a treatment program that view close staffresident interactions as of secondary importance, this could impair the possibility to obtain positive and long-lasting treatment results.

    Implications: In practice, moral development itself should be considered as an overall treatment goal, integrated into the daily life at the institution, twenty-four hours a day. Finally, the possibility to work with moral development in institutional settings is discussed.

  • 3.
    Ahonen, Lia
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Degner, Jürgen
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Negative peer cultures in juvenile institutional settings: staff as couch coaches or couch slouches2012In: Journal of Offender Rehabilitation, ISSN 1050-9674, E-ISSN 1540-8558, Vol. 51, no 5, 316-330 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Juveniles in institutional treatment lack the skills to cope with societal expectations, rules, and moral values. If not prevented by staff, bonds are established with other deviant youth and the placement serves as a perfect "school of crime." This article aims to explore staff strategies to prevent negative peer cultures, as well as their theoretical foundations and relation to staff academic level and professional experience. Data were collected at eight Swedish institutions, using the Correctional Program Assessment Inventory 2000, questionnaires, observations, and interviews with clinical staff. Results show that most facilities lack negative-peer-culture strategies, but this is not related to academic level or experience. The importance, in terms of influencing the residents, of theoretical knowledge concerning psychological group-processes, peer culture, and moral development, as these relate to staff-supervised or unsupervised time, is discussed.

  • 4.
    Ahonen, Lia
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Degner, Jürgen
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Staff group unanimity in care of juveniles in institutional treatment: routines, rituals, and relationshipsManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    To promote behavioral change processes in young people in institutional care, it is important that staff groups have common therapeutic goals, a unified view on how to achieve change, and similar attitudes towards the use of theory and methods. This article examines the level of Staff Group Unanimity at 8 treatment wards, by using the Correctional Program Assessment Inventory 2000 (CPAI), a questionnaire, additional interviews with key staff, and observations. Results show that most staff members have different views of the theory and methods used, low common therapeutic goals, and low agreement on how treatment should be performed, accompanied by low to modest confidence in management overall, and management’s ability to promote staff unity. The complexity of promoting positive interactions in the staff group without also creating distance to the residents is discussed.

  • 5.
    Ahonen, Lia
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Degner, Jürgen
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Staff Group Unanimity in the Care of Juveniles in Institutional Treatment: Routines, Rituals, and Relationships2013In: Journal of Offender Rehabilitation, ISSN 1050-9674, E-ISSN 1540-8558, Vol. 52, no 2, 119-137 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    One prerequisite for effective institutional care is that staff agree on how to deliver treatment and have a unified view of how to achieve change—in other words, to have staff group unanimity (SGU). This study used the Correctional Program Assessment Inventory (CPAI) 2000, interviews with key staff, and observations of daily activities to examine the levels of SGU on eight treatment wards in Sweden. Results show that staff members had differing views of the theory and methods, low common therapeutic goals, low to modest confidence in management, and low agreement about how treatment should be delivered. At institutions displaying low and medium levels of SGU, observations revealed significantly less interactions between staff and residents, and the residents spend a lot less time in staff supervised activities than at institutions with a high level of SGU. This article also considers the complexity of promoting positive interactions among the staff while maintaining close relationships between the staff and residents.

  • 6.
    Ahonen, Lia
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work. The Life History Research Program, Department of Psychiatry, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, USA.
    Degner, Jürgen
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Working with complex problem behaviors in juvenile institutional care: staff’s competence, organizational conditions and public value2014In: International Journal of Prisoner Health, ISSN 1744-9200, E-ISSN 1744-9219, Vol. 10, no 4, 239-251 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    Institutional staff encounter juveniles with complex problems (externalizing and internalizing)which calls for adequate formal education/training and professional experience to deliver quality treatment, contributing to an effective organization and increasing public value. The purpose of this paper is to investigate staff’s formal education, professional experience and the institutions’ organizational strategies providing knowledge and clinical training to staff.

    Design/methodology/approach

    The study includes staff questionnaires from eight wards (n¼102). In addition, 39 in-depth interviews were conducted with management and staff members.

    Findings

    Results show that institutions lack clearly defined target groups, 70 percent of staff members lack college education, 30 percent has never been offered education within the organization, and the vast majority of staff does not feel competent in performing their daily work.

    Practical implications

    The results from this study shed light on an overlooked area in institutions, detention centers and prison settings, and are important to policy makers and governmental organizations responsible for coercive care of juveniles.

    Originality/value

    Unlike previous studies, treatment and detention organizations are emphasized as similar to manufacturing industry and profit organizations, and the results are discussed with departure in organizational theory.

  • 7.
    Ahonen, Lia
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work. University of South Florida, Tampa, FL, USA.
    Jennings, Wesley G.
    University of South Florida, Tampa, FL, USA.
    Loeber, Rolf
    University of South Florida, Tampa, FL, USA.
    Farrington, David P.
    Cambridge University, Cambridge, UK.
    The relationship between developmental trajectories of girls’ offending and police charges:: Results from the Pittsburgh Girls Study2016In: Journal of Developmental and Life Course Criminology, ISSN 2199-4641, Vol. 2, no 3, 262-274 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The current study is based on longitudinal self-reported data from the Pittsburgh Girls Study (N = 2,450). This is the largest follow-up delinquency study of girls in the USA; an inner-city population of girls, between the ages of 11 and 18. We first investigated self-reported developmental trajectories for delinquency, and we then examined the correspondence between these self-reported delinquency trajectories and later police charges. The results show three self-reported delinquency trajectories for the PGS participants: non-offenders, low-rate offenders, and high-rate offenders. Further, the high-rate offenders also differed in kind in addition to in degree as they were more versatile offenders demonstrating notable involvement in both property and violent offending relative to the low-rate offenders. Additional analyses revealed that these self-reported trajectories were significantly associated with the frequency and the odds of official offending according to police charges during this same time period (i.e., ages 11–18). Study limitations and implications for future trajectory-based research with female samples are discussed.

  • 8.
    Ahonen, Lia
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work. University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, USA.
    Loeber, Rolf
    University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, USA.
    Dating violence in teenage girls: parental emotion regulation and racial differences2016In: CBMH. Criminal behaviour and mental health, ISSN 0957-9664, E-ISSN 1471-2857, Vol. 26, no 4, 240-250 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Teen dating violence (TDV) is a common phenomenon of great public concern. TDV may lead to severe long-term consequences for victims and offenders, and even more so for females than for males.

    Aim: The aim of this paper is to investigate possible underlying factors for involvement in TDV either as a perpetrator or a victim. Social learning theory is commonly used to explain internalisation of parents' behaviour on children's behavioural expressions, but less so on parents' emotion regulation as a direct link to later TDV.

    Method: We used longitudinal data from the Pittsburgh Girls Study (N=2450) to investigate if and how parents' positive and negative emotion regulation is related to TDV, controlling for early aggression and race.

    Results: Results show a moderately strong association between parents' negative emotion regulation and their daughters' involvement in serious dating violence. We also found that many more African American girls were involved in TDV compared to Caucasian girls, both as a perpetrator and victim.

    Conclusions and practical implications: We discuss directions for future research focusing on emotion regulation and dating violence. Copyright (c) 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  • 9.
    Ahonen, Lia
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work. University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA.
    Loeber, Rolf
    University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA.
    Farrington, David P.
    University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom.
    Hipwell, Alison E.
    University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA.
    Stepp, Stephanie D.
    University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA.
    What is the Hidden Figure of Delinquency in Girls?: Scaling Up From Police Charges to Self-Reports2017In: Victims & Offenders, ISSN 1556-4886, E-ISSN 1556-4991, Vol. 12, no 5, 761-776 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research on males shows discrepancies between official records and self-reports of delinquency, thus creating a scaling-up factor. Comparable information for girls is still needed. We investigated discrepancies (scaling up factors) from official records to selfreports in a large sample of girls between ages 12 and 17 (N = 2,450). On average there were three self-reported juvenile female offenders for every individual charged by the police, and for every police charge there were four offenses that were committed. The scaling-up factor was highest in early adolescence, indicating that female offenders at a young age were more likely to stay undetected by the police. The scaling-up factor was significantly lower for African American than white girls: a higher proportion of African American delinquent girls were charged by the police. Racial differences in scaling up were significant only for prevalence, not for frequency of offending. Knowledge about scaling-up factors is important for the design and implementation of intervention programs. We discuss racial differences, implications for justice administration, and practical implications for intervention science. 

  • 10.
    Ahonen, Lia
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work. Life History Program, Department of Psychiatry, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, USA .
    Loeber, Rolf
    Life History Program, Department of Psychiatry, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, USA.
    Hipwell, Alison
    Life History Program, Department of Psychiatry, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, USA.
    Stepp, Stephanie
    Life History Program, Department of Psychiatry, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, USA.
    The challenge of parenting girls in neighborhoods of different perceived quality2014In: Societies, ISSN 1090-9389, E-ISSN 2075-4698, Vol. 4, no 3, 414-427 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is well-known that disadvantaged neighborhoods, as officially identifiedthrough census data, harbor higher numbers of delinquent individuals than advantagedneighborhoods. What is much less known is whether parents’ perception of the neighborhoodproblems predicts low parental engagement with their girls and, ultimately, how this isrelated to girls’ delinquency, including violence. This paper elucidates these issues byexamining data from the Pittsburgh Girls Study, including parent-report of neighborhoodproblems and level of parental engagement and official records and girl-reporteddelinquency at ages 15, 16, and 17. Results showed higher stability over time forneighborhood problems and parental engagement than girls’ delinquency. Parents’ perceptionof their neighborhood affected the extent to which parents engaged in their girls’ lives,but low parental engagement did not predict girls being charged for offending at age 15, 16or 17. These results were largely replicated for girls’ self-reported delinquency with theexception that low parental engagement at age 16 was predictive of the frequency of girls’self-reported delinquency at age 17 as well. The results, because of their implications forscreening and early interventions, are relevant to policy makers as well as practitioners.

  • 11.
    Ahonen, Lia
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work. Life History Studies Program, Department of Psychiatry, University of Pittsburgh, PA, United States.
    Loeber, Rolf
    University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.
    Pardini, Dustin
    University of Arizona, Arizona, USA.
    The prediction of young homicide and violent offenders2016In: Justice quarterly, ISSN 0741-8825, E-ISSN 1745-9109, Vol. 33, no 7, 1265-1291 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim was to investigate a range of potentially modifiable risk factors for boys in late childhood for later violence and homicide convictions. Boys from the Pittsburgh Youth Study (N = 1,517) were measured through self-reports and official records in late childhood (ages 11–13) on a large number of potentially modifiable risk factors, and were followed up in juvenile and adult criminal records in terms of violence and homicide. Predictors of conviction for homicide largely overlapped with predictors of conviction for violence. Twenty three out of 28 possible risk factors significantly predicted later violence convictions. Regression analysis identified four significant modifiable risk factors in late childhood for any violent offenders: physical abuse, parental stress, bad friends and low school motivation. The higher the number of early risk factors, the higher the probability of later conviction for violent offenses including homicide. The discussion focus on single-, and multi-modal interventions in late childhood to reduce later violence and possibly homicide.

  • 12.
    Degner, Jürgen
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Henriksen, Anna
    University West, Trollhättan, Sweden.
    Ahonen, Lia
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work. The Life History Research Program, Department of Psychiatry, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, USA.
    Oscarsson, Lars
    Ersta Sköndal University College, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Young residents’ view of support persons’ involvement in the institutional treatment programme: a one-year follow-up2015In: Nordic Social Work Research, ISSN 2156-857X, E-ISSN 2156-8588, Vol. 5, no 1Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many youths placed in residential treatment centres (RTCs) have prior to placement had contact with professional and non-professional support persons (SPs). By interviewing 46 youths (residents) from 10 Swedish RTCs, the present study aims to investigate the residents' view of their relationship with SPs, and, in a one-year follow-up, explore obstacles to or possibilities for maintaining the relationship during the stay at the facility. Results show that 20 residents consider the SPs to be significant adults with an emotional involvement component; seven residents describe their SP as having an instrumental involvement attitude, while 19 residents did not report any significant SP at all. Several obstacles and a few possibilities for involving the SPs were found in the one-year follow-up. Both obstacles and possibilities mainly concerned the willingness of facility staff, and in some cases the social welfare agency staff, to encourage SP involvement. A more systematic SP involvement procedure is needed at the RTC, as well as on the part of the handling officer in the social service agency. Further, it is important that when new residents arrive, staff should make an inventory of important

  • 13. Loeber, Rolf
    et al.
    Ahonen, Lia
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Escalation in the severity of conduct problems and delinquency: The clinical relevance of developmental pathways2015In: Tijdschrift van de Vereniging voor Kinder- en Jeugdpsychothearapie, ISSN 1384-1246, Vol. 42, no 3, 4-19 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper highlights an escalation model documenting steps by which some youth escalate from minor antisocial problems to serious forms of delinquency, including violence. To highlight the features of such an escalation model, we contrast it with knowledge of developmental sequences and developmental trajectories, preferring a more clinically relevant escalation model of different pathways to serious antisocial outcomes. The escalation model presented consists of three pathways, one referring to escalation from minor aggression to violence (called the overt pathway), the second pathway referring to escalation from minor to major property offenses (called the covert pathway), while a third pathway represents escalation in conflict with authority figures. The pathway escalation model has been intensely researched and validated on longitudinal data for boys and girls. Implications for clinical practice are highlighted.

  • 14.
    Loeber, Rolf
    et al.
    University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, USA.
    Ahonen, Lia
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Street Killings: Prediction of Homicide Offenders and Their Victims2013In: Journal of Youth and Adolescence, ISSN 0047-2891, E-ISSN 1573-6601, Vol. 42, no 11, 1640-1650 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The article reports on childhood predictors (explanatory, behavioral and offenses) to predict homicide offenders in the longitudinal Pittsburgh Youth Study, and compares these predictors with predictors of homicide victims in the same study. This forms the basis for formulating antecedents that are shared between homicide offenders and homicide victims at a young age (ages 7-11) and antecedents that are not shared or are unique for each. Implications of the research are highlighted for early intervention and for interventions with high-risk offenders.

  • 15.
    Loeber, Rolf
    et al.
    University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, USA.
    Ahonen, Lia
    University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, USA.
    What are the Policy Implications of our Knowledge on Serious, Violent, and Chronic Offenders?2014In: Criminology and Public Policy, ISSN 1538-6473, Vol. 13, no 1, 117-125 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 16.
    Loeber, Rolf
    et al.
    University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, USA.
    Farrington, David P
    University of Cambridge, Cambridge, England.
    Hipwell, Alison E.
    University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, USA.
    Stepp, Stephanie D.
    University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, USA.
    Pardini, Dustin
    University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, USA.
    Ahonen, Lia
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work. University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, USA.
    Constancy and Change in the Prevalence and Frequency of Offending When Based on Longitudinal Self-reports or Official Records: Comparisons by Gender, Race, and Crime Type2015In: Journal of developmental life-course criminology, ISSN 2199-465X, Vol. 1, no 2, 150-68 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: The study examines age-crime prevalence and age-crime frequency curves based on longitudinal data from boys in the Pittsburgh Youth Study and girls in the Pittsburgh Girls Study.

    Results: Results show that the prevalence of the age-crime curve for theft and violence (based on self-reports or police charges) followed the typical age-crime curve for males and slightly less distinctly for females, with the peak of offending occurring earlier for self-reports than for police charges. The decrease in police charges for violence and theft took place at an earlier age for females than males, but this was not distinct when self-reported delinquency was the criterion. The mean frequency of self-reported theft and violence followed the age-crime curve for males but not for females, who showed a mean frequency of offending which was more constant. In contrast, the mean frequency of police charges increased with age for males and females. Comparing African- American and Caucasian males and females shows a higher prevalence but not a higher mean frequency of self-reported offending.

    Conclusions: The results are reviewed in the light of other studies, and the policy implications of the findings are discussed.

  • 17.
    Loeber, Rolf
    et al.
    University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA.
    Jennings, Wesley, G
    University of South Florida, Tampa, FL, USA.
    Ahonen, Lia
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Piquero, ALex
    University of Texas, Dallas, USA.
    Farrington, David, P
    Institute of Criminology, Cambridge University, Cambridge, UK.
    Female delinquency from childhood to young adulthood: recent results from the Pittsburgh Girls Study2016Book (Refereed)
  • 18.
    Loeber, Rolf
    et al.
    University of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA.
    Stouthamer-Loeber, Magda
    University of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA.
    Ahonen, Lia
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Key behavioral aspects of desistance from conduct problems and delinquency2016In: Global perspectives on desistance: Reviewing what we know and looking to the future / [ed] Shaplan, J., Farrall, S., Bottoms, T., Abingdon, Oxon: Routledge , 2016, 85-98 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 19.
    Thunberg, Sara
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Ahonen, Lia
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work. Department of Psychiatry, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, USA.
    Degner, Jürgen
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Crime victims in limbo: the importance of collaboration between the municipal social services and victim support organisations2016In: Nordic Social Work Research, ISSN 2156-857X, E-ISSN 2156-8588, Vol. 6, no 1, 53-68 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Becoming a victim of crime can be a traumatic experience, which calls for post-victimisation psychosocial support. In Sweden, this kind of support is offered by both governmental, for example, municipal social services (MSS), and nongovernmental organisations such as Victim Support (VS). The present study investigates (a) how many municipalities have a written agreement to collaborate with other organisations, and what kind of services they offer within their own organisation, (b) if there are differences between what support the MSS offer to victims depending on collaboration and (c) how do MSS staff, VS staff and crime victims describe the actual collaboration and support? Publicly available information from the National Board of Health and Welfare was analysed, in addition to a case study of three municipalities’ work with victims of crime. The case study consists of nine interviews with social workers from MSS, crime victim coordinators from VS and crime victims. The results from the survey indicate that collaboration between the MSS and VS is occurring in some municipalities to access missing competence or to outsource services from the MSS. However, results show that collaboration does not exist in every municipality, and one reason for this, according to interview information, is to protect the confidentiality of the clients. The challenges and advantages of collaboration between the MSS and VS are discussed together with practical implications for the crime victim field.

  • 20.
    Thunberg, Sara
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Ahonen, Lia
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work. University of Pittsburgh, USA.
    Degner, Jürgen
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Crime victims in limbo: when collaboration between the municipal social services and victim support fails 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Becoming a crime victim is a traumatic experience, and victims often need psychosocial support in the aftermath of the incident. In Sweden, the municipal social services (MSS) have a responsibility to ensure that victims receive post victimization support; however in reality, nongovernmental organizations such as Victim Support often execute the support services. The aim of the study was to investigate how the MSS fulfill their responsibility for psychosocial support to crime victims. Further, the aim was to explore to what extent and in what way they collaborate with Victim Support. In total, nine interviews were conducted with social workers from the MSS, crime victim coordinators from Victim Support, and crime victims; from three medium-sized municipalities. Results show that the MSS are not successful in fulfilling their responsibility; the main reason being that social workers do not see this service as their primary responsibility. As a result, victims are referred directly to Victim Support, as they are more experienced supporting crime victims. However, this distinct diversion is not as apparent in municipalities who, instead of just referring to, collaborate with Victim Support. Here, there is a clear, shared responsibility for the support, through collaboration and coordination of interventions, to ensure that the victims receive the best support. The results also show that social workers within the MSS lack knowledge about crime victims’ reactions and needs, which calls for extended collaboration with mental health experts, to ensure that victims receive adequate support. One of the difficulties with collaboration is the confidentiality issue. The victim themselves need to give active consent for collaboration if it takes place on an individual level. This issue is analyzed from a structural view point, and solutions and obstacles are discussed. This is of great importance to policy makers in their decisions regarding support to crime victim organizations.

  • 21.
    Traczyk, Michal
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Wurm, Matilda
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Ahonen, Lia
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    "Det är ju inget vi frågar efter som psykologer": psykologers upplevelse av klienter med könsöverskridande beteende2013In: Lambda Nordica: Tidskrift om homosexualitet, ISSN 1100-2573, Vol. 3-4, 77-99 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    People with gender-incongruent behaviors have a higher risk for psychiatric problems compared to others. A professional approach is an important part of the treatment process and will influence the therapeutic outcome. Earlier research shows deficits in the contact between care personnel and people with gender-incongruent behaviours. There are no studies focusing on psychologists and their work with this client group. The aim of this study is to research psychologists’ subjective experience of clients with gender-incongruent behaviours. The study uses a qualitative method. The research data was collected with semi-structured interviews with five psychologists that had some experience with clients with gender-incongruent behaviours. The results point to gender-incongruent behaviors being a topic that evokes both interest and commitment, but also some insecurity in psychologists. Psychologists’ preconceptions and personal beliefs play a big role during the work with these clients when education and access to information on the topic is limited. A non-pathologizing outlook on gender-incongruent behaviours dominates, but the opposite also exists. More research is needed to map out in which way psychologist-related factors influence treatment of people with gender-incongruent behaviours. Another important aspect is how existing knowledge can be implemented in psychologists’ basic training and how it can be spread effectively amongst professionals.

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