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  • 1.
    Amnå, Erik
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Ekström, Mats
    Gothenburg University, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Kerr, Margaret
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Stattin, Håkan
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Codebook: The Political Socialization Program (2015-01-26)2015Report (Other academic)
  • 2.
    Amnå, Erik
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Ekström, Mats
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Kerr, Margaret
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Stattin, Håkan
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Political socialization and human agency: The development of civic engagement from adolescence to adulthood2009In: Statsvetenskaplig Tidskrift, ISSN 0039-0747, Vol. 111, no 1, 27-40 p.Article, review/survey (Other academic)
  • 3.
    Andershed, Henrik A.
    et al.
    Örebro University, Department of Behavioural, Social and Legal Sciences.
    Gustafson, Sigrid B.
    American Insts for Research.
    Kerr, Margaret
    Örebro University, Department of Behavioural, Social and Legal Sciences.
    Stattin, Håkan
    Örebro University, Department of Behavioural, Social and Legal Sciences.
    The usefulness of self-reported psychopathy-like traits in the study of antisocial behaviour among non-referred adolescents2002In: European Journal of Personality, ISSN 0890-2070, E-ISSN 1099-0984, Vol. 16, no 5, 383-402 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Addresses the question of whether it is possible to use a self-report measure of psychopathic traits on non-referred youth samples to identify a subgroup of problematic youths who are particularly problematic and different from other problem youths. A large sample of 1,279 eighth-grade, non-referred adolescents (mean age 14.42 yrs), and their parents were assessed. Students completed self-report measures that assessed personality, conduct problems, and family functioning. Parents responded by completing and mailing in a questionnaire. Results show that the adolescents exhibiting a low-socialized psychopathy-like personality constellation had a more frequent, violent, and versatile conduct-problem profile than other low-socialized and well socialized adolescents. The psychopathy-like adolescents also differed from other poorly socialized adolescents in ways that suggested that their etiological background was different from adolescents with non-psychopathy-like conduct problems. The authors conclude that self-report measures can indeed be useful for research purposes in subtyping youths with conduct problems.

  • 4.
    Andershed, Henrik A.
    et al.
    Örebro University, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Kerr, Margaret
    Örebro University, Department of Behavioural, Social and Legal Sciences.
    Stattin, Håkan
    Örebro University, Department of Behavioural, Social and Legal Sciences.
    Levander, Sten
    Psychopathic traits in non-referred youths: a new assessment tool2002In: Psychopaths: current international perspectives / [ed] Eric Blaauw, Lorraine Sheridan, Den Haag: Elsevier , 2002, 131-158 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 5.
    Andershed, Henrik
    et al.
    Örebro University, Department of Behavioural, Social and Legal Sciences.
    Kerr, Margaret
    Örebro University, Department of Behavioural, Social and Legal Sciences.
    Stattin, Håkan
    Örebro University, Department of Behavioural, Social and Legal Sciences.
    Bullying in school and violence on the streets: are the same people involved?2001In: Journal of Scandinavian Studies in Criminology and Crime Prevention, ISSN 1404-3858, Vol. 2, no 1, 31-49 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Examined the relationship between bullying in school and street violence. 2,915 adolescents (aged 14-15 yrs) completed questionnaires concerning street violence, weapon carrying, violence victimization, loitering, bullying, and nights away from home. Results show that bullying others in school was strongly linked to violent behavior and weapon-carrying on the streets, both among males and females. Bullying others in school was also related to being violently victimized on the streets. Findings suggest that school bullying is in many cases a part of a more general violent and aggressive behavior pattern, and that preventive efforts targeting individuals with bullying behavior in school may decrease violence among adolescents in the community as well.

  • 6.
    Andershed, Henrik
    et al.
    Örebro University, Department of Behavioural, Social and Legal Sciences.
    Kerr, Margaret
    Örebro University, Department of Behavioural, Social and Legal Sciences.
    Stattin, Håkan
    Örebro University, Department of Behavioural, Social and Legal Sciences.
    Callous, unemotional traits in violent and frequent conduct-problem behavior among non-referred youthsManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 7.
    Andershed, Henrik
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Kerr, Margaret
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Stattin, Håkan
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Understanding the abnormal by studying the normal2002In: Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-690X, E-ISSN 1600-0447, Vol. 106, no Suppl. 412, 75-80 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective:  In the present paper we ask whether it is meaningful to study psychopathic traits in non-referred youths and whether this kind of research can be used to understand the development of criminal full-blown psychopathy.

    Method:  We review studies that have investigated the utility of assessing psychopathic traits in non-referred samples of youths.

    Results:  Research shows that psychopathic traits in non-referred youths manifest similarly to how they are manifested among incarcerated offenders, as indicated by similarities in factor structures. Also, psychopathic traits relate similarly to frequent, violent antisocial behavior in non-referred youths as among adult and adolescent institutionalized criminal offenders. Thus, the differences between the non-referred conduct-problem youths exhibiting a psychopathic personality pattern and the incarcerated, criminal youths identified as psychopathic seem to be quantitative rather than qualitative.

    Conclusion:  It is concluded that research on non-referred youth samples can provide important knowledge about the processes that underlie the development of psychopathic traits and how this development can be prevented. Implications for future research and intervention and prevention are discussed.

  • 8.
    Besic, Nejra
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Kerr, Margaret
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Punks, Goths, and Other Eye-Catching Peer Crowds: Do They Fulfill a Function for Shy Youths?2009In: Journal of research on adolescence, ISSN 1050-8392, E-ISSN 1532-7795, Vol. 19, no 1, 113-121 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Adolescent peer crowds such as Punks and Goths are mainly identified by their strikingly unusual or even shocking appearances. Although many studies find these crowds, few have tried to explain why some youths take on these startling or shocking appearances. We hypothesized that an off-putting appearance is a way to cope with behavioral inhibition by limiting social contacts. Using data from 1,200 7th - 11th graders, we compared peer crowds characterized by their startling appearance (“Radical” crowds) with three theoretically relevant comparison groups. Results showed that youths affiliating with Radical crowds were more inhibited than other youths, including those in crowds previously shown to be shy or socially anxious. Inhibited Radicals, however, had poorer emotional adjustment than inhibited youths in other crowds. If Radical styles are a way for inhibited youths to cope by limiting social contacts, the strategy does not seem to be beneficial for emotional adjustment.

  • 9.
    Besic, Nejra
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Kerr, Margaret
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Shy adolescents' perceptions of parental overcontrol and emotional coldness: examining bidirectional linksManuscript (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Two kinds of parental behaviors—overcontrol and emotional coldness—have been linked with children’s shy behaviors. The questions we addressed are whether this applies to adolescent shyness, and whether shyness in itself might also affect parental behaviors. The participants were 916 7th-9th graders in a longitudinal project. We used a cross-lagged path model with three time points. Shyness predicted an increase in feeling overly controlled by parents at Time 2, which then predicted an increase in shyness at Time 3. Shyness also predicted an increase in perceived coldness-rejection by parents at Time 2. Finally, shyness predicted decreases in parental warmth at both timepoints. The effects did not differ for boys and girls. These results show that adolescent shyness predicts parental behaviors, though perhaps less strongly than in childhood. They also suggest some bidirectional effects in which parental responses to shy youths might serve to strengthen the shyness.

     

  • 10.
    Besic, Nejra
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Kerr, Margaret
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Tilton-Weaver, Lauree
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Shyness as protective factor in the link between advanced maturity and early adolescent problem behaviorManuscript (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Advanced maturity in early adolescence has previously been linked with several problem behaviors. In this study, we examine whether shyness and gender might moderate this link. The participants were 787 early adolescents (Mage = 13.73; 401 girls and 386 boys), followed for one year. We conducted moderation analyses with shyness and gender as moderators of the links between advanced maturity and problem behaviors (drunkenness and intercourse) and between one problem behavior and another. Protective effects of shyness were found for both boys and girls. For high-risk behaviors (risky drinking behaviors and one-night stands) protective effects were found for boys. Controlling for romantic involvement did not alter the moderation effects, thus failing to support the idea that protection was due to shy youths not being drawn into advanced peer groups by romantic partners. Thus, shyness might serve as protective factor against problem behaviors in early adolescence.

  • 11.
    Besic, Nejra
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Selfhout, Maarten
    University Utrecht, Nederländerna.
    Kerr, Margaret
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Stattin, Håkan
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Shyness as basis for friendship selection and socialization in a youth social networkManuscript (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Shy children and adolescents have previously been found to have friends with similarly shy, withdrawn behavioral characteristics. How peers might socialize shyness over time has, however, not been thoroughly investigated before. Our network included 834 youths (339 girls, and 495 boys; M = 14.29), followed for three years. We used the social network analysis software, SIENA, to analyze the data. The results show that those youths who are shy are less popular and choose fewer friends in the network. They also tend to choose friends who are shy, and over time they will influence each other into becoming more shy – over and above other effects. Finally, girls’ shyness is more influenced than boys’ by their friends’ shyness levels. These results show the significance of looking at shy youths’ friendships over time, and embedded in social networks.

     

  • 12. Burk, William J.
    et al.
    Kerr, Margaret
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Stattin, Håkan
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    The co-evolution of early adolescent friendship networks, school involvement, and delinquent behaviors2008In: Revue française de sociologie, ISSN 0035-2969, E-ISSN 1958-5691, Vol. 49, no 3, 499-522 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [fr]

    Cette étude examine les processus de sélection et d’influence liés à l’engagement scolaire et au comportement délinquant dans les relations d’amitié chez les adolescents. Nous appliquons des modèles d’analyse de réseaux dynamiques (Snijders, Steglich et Schweinberger, 2007) examinant la co-évolution des comportements et des réseaux à un échantillon longitudinal de jeunes suédois (n = 445) observé pendant cinq ans. Les résultats indiquent que les choix des jeunes sont caractérisés par un fort niveau de réciprocité, de transitivité, d’homophilie de genre et d’homophilie fondée sur des niveaux semblables d’engagement scolaire et de comportement déviant. Des effets d’influence indiquent que les jeunes adoptent les comportements déviants de leurs amis. Le niveau d’engagement scolaire permet de prédire des changements dans le comportement déviant et ce dernier permet en retour de prédire une évolution dans l’engagement scolaire.

  • 13.
    Burk, William J.
    et al.
    Behavioural Science Institute, Radboud University Nijmegen, Nijmegen, Netherlands.
    van der Vorst, Haske
    Behavioural Science Institute, Radboud University Nijmegen, Nijmegen, Netherlands.
    Kerr, Margaret
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Stattin, Håkan
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Alcohol use and friendship dynamics: selection and socialization in early-, middle-, and late-adolescent peer networks2012In: Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, ISSN 1937-1888, E-ISSN 1938-4114, Vol. 73, no 1, 89-98 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: This study examined developmental trends of peer selection and socialization related to friends' alcohol use in early-, middle-, and late-adolescent peer networks, with the primary goal of identifying when these mechanisms emerge, when these mechanisms exert their strongest effects, and when (or if) they decrease in importance. Gender and reciprocity are also tested as moderators of selection and socialization.

    Method: Cross-sequential study (three age cohorts assessed at three annual measurements) of 950 youth (53% male) initially attending classrooms in Grade 4 (n = 314; M = 10.1 years), Grade 7 (n = 335; M = 13.1 years), and Grade 10 (n = 301; M = 16.2 years).

    Results: Similarity between friends' drinking behaviors emerged in Grade 6, peaked in Grade 8, and decreased throughout late adolescence. Adolescents in all three age groups selected peers with similar drinking behaviors, with effects being more robust for early-adolescent males and for late-adolescent females. Peers' alcohol use emerged as a significant predictor of middle-adolescent alcohol use and remained a significant predictor of individual drinking behaviors throughout late adolescence. Socialization did not differ as a function of gender or reciprocity.

    Conclusions: Alcohol-related peer selection was relatively more important than socialization in early-adolescent friendship networks; both mechanisms contributed to explaining similarity between the drinking behaviors of friends in middle and late adolescence. Effects of peer socialization emerged in middle adolescence and remained throughout late adolescence. (J Stud. Alcohol Drugs, 73, 89-98, 2012)

  • 14.
    Darling, Nancy
    et al.
    Oberlin College, Ohio, USA.
    Tilton-Weaver, Lauree
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Kerr, Margaret
    Monitoring and routine disclosure: difference within and across families2014In: L. Tilton-Weaver (Chair), A second look: Understanding parental monitoring and disclosure across time and contexts.  , 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 15.
    DeLay, Dawn
    et al.
    Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona, USA.
    Laursen, Brett
    Florida Atlantic University, Boca Raton, Florida, USA.
    Bukowski, William M.
    Concordia University, Montreal, Canada.
    Kerr, Margaret
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Stattin, Håkan
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Adolescent friend similarity on alcohol abuse as a function of participation in romantic relationships: Sometimes a new love comes between old friends2016In: Developmental Psychology, ISSN 0012-1649, E-ISSN 1939-0599, Vol. 52, no 1, 117-129 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study tests the hypothesis that adolescents with romantic partners are less similar to their friends on rates of alcohol abuse than adolescents without romantic partners. Participants (662 girls, 574 boys) ranging in age from 12 to 19 years nominated friends and romantic partners, and completed a measure of alcohol abuse. In hierarchical linear models, friends with romantic partners were less similar on rates of alcohol abuse than friends without romantic partners, especially if they were older and less accepted. Follow-up longitudinal analyses were conducted on a subsample (266 boys, 374 girls) of adolescents who reported friendships that were stable across 2 consecutive years. Associations between friend reports of alcohol abuse declined after adolescents became involved in a romantic relationship, to the point at which they became more similar to their romantic partners than to their friends.

  • 16.
    Dickson, Daniel J.
    et al.
    Department of Psychology, Florida Atlantic University, Fort Lauderdale, FL, United States.
    Laursen, Brett
    Department of Psychology, Florida Atlantic University, Fort Lauderdale, FL, United States.
    Stattin, Håkan
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Kerr, Margaret
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Parental Supervision and Alcohol Abuse Among Adolescent Girls2015In: Pediatrics, ISSN 0031-4005, E-ISSN 1098-4275, Vol. 136, no 4, 617-624 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: Inadequate parent supervision during the early adolescent years forecasts a host of conduct problems, including illicit alcohol consumption. Early pubertal maturation may exacerbate problems, because girls alienated from same-age peers seek the company of older, more mature youth. The current study examines overtime associations between parent autonomy granting and adolescent alcohol abuse during a developmental period when alcohol consumption becomes increasingly normative, to determine if early maturing girls are at special risk for problems arising from a lack of parent supervision.

    METHODS: At annual intervals for 4 consecutive years, a community sample of 957 Swedish girls completed surveys beginning in the first year of secondary school (approximate age: 13 years) describing rates of alcohol intoxication and perceptions of parent autonomy granting. Participants also reported age at menarche.

    RESULTS: Multiple-group parallel process growth curve models revealed that early pubertal maturation exacerbated the risk associated with premature autonomy granting: Alcohol intoxication rates increased 3 times faster for early maturing girls with the greatest autonomy than they did for early maturing girls with the least autonomy. Child-driven effects were also found such that higher initial levels of alcohol abuse predicted greater increases in autonomy granting as parent supervision over children engaged in illicit drinking waned.

    CONCLUSIONS: Early maturing girls are at elevated risk for physical and psychological adjustment difficulties. The etiology of escalating problems with alcohol can be traced, in part, to a relative absence of parent supervision during a time when peer interactions assume special significance.

  • 17.
    Eklund, Jenny M.
    et al.
    Center for Developmental Research, Department of Behavioral, Social, and Legal Sciences, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden; Stockholm Univ, Karolinska Inst, Ctr Hlth Equ Studies, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden; .
    Kerr, Margaret
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Stattin, Håkan
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Romantic relationships and delinquent behaviour in adolescence: the moderating role of delinquency propensity2010In: Journal of Adolescence, ISSN 0140-1971, E-ISSN 1095-9254, Vol. 33, no 3, 377-386 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is some evidence that adolescent romantic involvement is associated with delinquent behaviour. One aim of this longitudinal study was to determine whether this holds for romantic relationships deemed important by the participants. A second aim was to test whether this association was stronger for adolescents with pre-existing delinquent behaviour and personality traits of impulsivity and thrill seeking (delinquency propensity). Sex differences also were examined. Participants were 686 7th and 8th grade students who completed three assessments over three years. The results showed that delinquency was associated with earlier romantic relationships among those who were higher in delinquency propensity one year earlier. This association was stronger among girls than boys. Thus, romantic relationships amplified girls' and boys' existing delinquency propensity, but this was strongest among girls. (C) 2009 The Association for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 18.
    Engels, Rutger C. M. E.
    et al.
    Utrecht University.
    Finkenauer, Catrin
    Free University.
    Kerr, Margaret
    Örebro University, Department of Behavioural, Social and Legal Sciences.
    Stattin, Håkan
    Örebro University, Department of Behavioural, Social and Legal Sciences.
    Illusions of parental control: parenting and smoking onset in Dutch and Swedish adolescents2005In: Journal of Applied Social Psychology, ISSN 0021-9029, E-ISSN 1559-1816, Vol. 35, no 9, 1912-1935 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Parental control is assumed to be associated with smoking onset: Parents who exert control on their children and monitor their children's behavior are less likely to have children who start to smoke. However, the empirical evidence for this assumption is mostly from cross-sectional studies. The present research examined the prospective associations between parental control and smoking onset among Dutch and Swedish adolescents and their parents. Findings revealed nonsignificant links between general parental control and smoking onset in both samples, and no link between smoking-specific parental control and smoking onset in the Dutch sample, thereby questioning the assumption that parental control prevents adolescent smoking onset.

     

  • 19.
    Engels, Rutger C. M. E.
    et al.
    Radboud University of Nijmegen, The Netherlands.
    Kerr, MargaretÖrebro University, Department of Behavioural, Social and Legal Sciences.Stattin, HåkanÖrebro University, Department of Behavioural, Social and Legal Sciences.
    Friends, lovers, and groups: key relationships in adolescence2007Collection (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    (From the cover) Everyone agrees that peers are important in adolescence. Recently, there have been some noteworthy advances in research on adolescent peer relationships and this volume, written by leading experts, presents four key areas of these innovative studies. Firstly, the discovery of a "deviancy training" mechanism of peer influence is examined, in which antisocial pairs have been observed to reward each other with approval for deviant or antisocial talk, and this has been linked to escalations in antisocial behavior. The second area is the study of romantic partners as important peer relationships in adolescence. This is a newly emerging field of research with only a dozen or so studies published to date. The text then looks at the application of behavioral genetic analytical techniques to understand peer selection and influence processes. This line of research will also shed a new light on social environmental influences on adolescent problem behaviors. The final area covers the use of designs that capture both in-school and out-of-school peers in order to understand their relative influence on problem behavior. As the first of the Hot Topics in Developmental Research series, a three-part developmental psychology range, this volume presents the work of highly prestigious chapter authors edited by Rutger Engels, Margaret Kerr and Håkan Stattin. This research tool is useful reading for researchers, final year undergraduates and postgraduates in developmental and health psychology, and child psychologists.

  • 20.
    Glatz, Terese
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Kerr, Margaret
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Stattin, Håkan
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    A test of cognitive dissonance theory to explain parents' reactions to youths' alcohol intoxication2012In: Family Relations, ISSN 0197-6664, E-ISSN 1741-3729, Vol. 61, no 4, 629-641 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Studies have shown that parents reduce control and support in response to youths' drinking. Why they react this way, however, is still unknown. From cognitive dissonance theory, we derived hypotheses about parents' reactions. We used a longitudinal, school-based sample of 494 youths (13 and 14 years, 56% boys) and their parents. General Linear Model (GLM) analyses were used to test the main hypotheses. In accord with our hypotheses, parents who encountered their youths intoxicated became less opposed to underage drinking over time. In addition, parents who remained strongly opposed to youth drinking experienced more worries than parents who became less opposed. Alternative explanations for the results were tested, but were not supported. The findings suggest that to eliminate the dissonance between their strict attitudes against youth drinking and their knowledge of their own youths' drinking, parents changed their attitudes and became more lenient.

  • 21.
    Glatz, Terese
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Stattin, Håkan
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Kerr, Margaret
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    A test of cognitive dissonance theory to explain parents’ reactions to youths’ alcohol intoxicationManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background:

    Studies have shown that parents reduce control and support in response to youths’ drinking. Why they react this way, however, is still much unknown. From cognitive dissonance theory, we derived hypotheses about parents’ reactions.

    Methods:

    We used a longitudinal, school-based sample of 494 youths (13 and 14 years, 56% boys) and their parents. General Linear Model (GLM) analyses were used to test the main hypotheses.

    Results:

    In accord with our hypotheses, parents who encountered their youths intoxicated became less opposed to underage drinking over time. In addition, parents who remained strongly opposed to youth drinking experienced more worries than parents who became less opposed. Alternative explanations for the results were tested, but were not supported.

    Conclusions:

    The findings suggest that to eliminate the dissonance between their strict attitudes against youth drinking and their knowledge of their own youths’ drinking, parents changed their attitudes and became more lenient.

  • 22.
    Glatz, Terese
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Stattin, Håkan
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Kerr, Margaret
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Parents’ reactions to adolescents’ hyperactivity, impulsivity, and attention problems: do their experiences of having raised a child before matter?Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Parents learn from their experiences of having raised a child before, but it is unknown if it makes them better to deal with challenging behaviors in their later-born children. Some behaviors are particularly difficult to handle, such as Hyperactivity, impulsivity, and attention problems (HIA), which have been shown to make parents feel powerless. In this study, we examined if these feelings were dependent on parents’ experiences with their older children. Two models were examined, the learning-from-experience model and the spillover model, which make different predictions of how parents make use of their earlier experiences when they raise their later-born children. We used reports from 372 parents who had one child (M = 11.92 years), and 198 parents who had two children (M = 11.89 and 14.35 years). In agreement with Bugental’s parental attribution model, HIA was associated with parents’ feelings of powerlessness among parents who both had and those who had not raised a child before. Further, we did not find empirical support for the learning-from-experience model — parents felt powerless about their younger children with HIA even if they had raised a child before with HIA. However, consistent with the spillover hypothesis, parents felt particularly powerless about their younger children with HIA if they also felt powerless about their older children. These findings highlight the importance of acknowledging parents’ experiences with their older children in research and clinical settings.

  • 23.
    Glatz, Terese
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Stattin, Håkan
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Kerr, Margaret
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Parents’ reactions to youths’ hyperactivity, impulsivity, and attention problems2011In: Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, ISSN 0091-0627, E-ISSN 1573-2835, Vol. 39, no 8, 1125-1135 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Hyperactivity, impulsivity, and attention problems(HIA) in children and adolescents are stressful for parents. In this study, we used theories of parents’ perceived power and attributions for youths’ behaviors to develop a model to understand parents’ reactions to their youths’ HIA. We followed 706 youths (376 boys and 330 girls, aged 10–12 years at T1) and their parents in a community-based project over 5 years. Measures of youths’ HIA, youths’ unresponsiveness to correction, parents’ feelings of powerlessness, parental monitoring, and parents’ negative behaviors toward their youths, were used. HIA in youths predicted increases in parents’ perceptions that their youths were unresponsive to correction, which in turn prompted parents to feel more powerless over time. Further, parents’ feelings of powerlessness were associated with increases in negative parenting behaviors over time. These results indicate a movement to more negative parenting practices over time as a result of youths’ HIA.

  • 24.
    Glatz, Terese
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Stattin, Håkan
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Kerr, Margaret
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Understanding why parents give up when they encounter problematic youth adjustment2010Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 25. Hafen, Christopher A.
    et al.
    Laursen, Brett
    Burk, William J.
    Kerr, Margaret
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Stattin, Håkan
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Homophily in stable and unstable adolescent friendships: Similarity breeds constancy2011In: Personality and Individual Differences, ISSN 0191-8869, E-ISSN 1873-3549, Vol. 51, no 5, 607-612 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines homophily among adolescent friends. Participants were drawn from a community-based sample of Swedish youth who ranged from 11 to 18 years old. A total of 436 girls and 338 boys identified their closest friends and described their own delinquent activities, intoxication frequency, achievement motivation, and self-worth. Correlations and difference scores describe similarity between reciprocally nominated friends on each dimension. Adolescents who remained friends from one year to the next tended to be more similar than those who did not, during the friendship and, to a lesser extent, before the friendship. Comparisons with random pairs of same-age peers revealed that age-group homophily accounts for most of the similarity between unstable friends but only a fraction of the similarity between stable friends.

  • 26.
    Hiatt, Cody
    et al.
    Department of Psychology, Florida Atlantic University, Boca Raton, USA.
    Laursen, Brett
    Department of Psychology, Florida Atlantic University, Boca Raton, USA.
    Stattin, Håkan
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Kerr, Margaret
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Best friend influence over adolescent problem behaviors: Socialized by the satisfied2017In: Journal of clinical child and adolescent psychology (Print), ISSN 1537-4416, E-ISSN 1537-4424, Vol. 46, no 5, 695-708 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study was designed to examine best friend influence over alcohol intoxication and truancy as a function of relative perceptions of friendship satisfaction. The participants were 700 adolescents (306 boys, 394 girls) who were involved in same-sex best friendships that were stable from one academic year to the next. Participants completed self-report measures of alcohol intoxication frequency and truancy at 1-year intervals. Each member of each friendship dyad also rated his or her satisfaction with the relationship. At the outset, participants were in secondary school (approximately 13-14 years old) or high school (approximately 16-17 years old). More satisfied friends had greater influence than less satisfied friends over changes in intoxication frequency and truancy. Problem behaviors of less satisfied friends increased over time if the more satisfied friend reported relatively higher, but not relatively lower, initial levels of drinking or truancy. The results support the hypothesis that adolescent friends are not similarly influential. The power to socialize, for better and for worse, rests with the partner who has a more positive perception of the relationship.

  • 27.
    Johansson, Peter
    et al.
    Örebro University, Department of Behavioural, Social and Legal Sciences.
    Kerr, Margaret
    Andershed, Henrik
    Linking adult psychopathy with childhood hyperactivity-impulsivity-attention problems and conduct problems through retrospective self-reports2005In: Journal of Personality Disorders, ISSN 0885-579x, Vol. 19, no 1, 94-101 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the present study was to test whether adult criminals with psychopathy diagnoses, more than those without, have histories of hyperactivity–impulsivity–attention problems (HIA) and conduct problems (CP). We compared psychopathic and nonpsychopathic violent criminal offenders on retrospective reports of conduct problems before the age of 15 and hyperactivity–impulsivity–attention problems before the age of 10. We used a sample of 186 adult men sentenced to prison in Sweden for 4 years or more for violent, nonsexual crimes. The mean age was 30.7(SD = 9.4). The results showed that a combination of childhood HIA problems and CP was typical for adult psychopathic offenders. They were four times more likely than chance to have had a combination of HIA problems and CP during childhood and only one–fifth as likely than chance to have had neither problem. Nonpsychopathic offenders, on the other hand, were five times more likely than chance to have had neither problem and only one-quarter as likely than chance to have had both problems.

  • 28.
    Jutengren, Göran
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Kerr, Margaret
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Stattin, Håkan
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Adolescents' deliberate self-harm, interpersonal stress, and the moderating effects of self-regulation: a two-wave longitudinal analysis2011In: Journal of School Psychology, ISSN 0022-4405, E-ISSN 1873-3506, Vol. 49, no 2, 249-264 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The predictive effects of peer victimization and harsh parenting on deliberate self-harm were examined. As derived from the experiential avoidance model, the study also tested whether these links were moderated by individual self-regulation approaches. Data were collected at two points in time from 880 junior high school students (mean age = 13.72) in Sweden. Analyses using structural equation modeling revealed that Peer Victimization was predictive of self-harm. Although Harsh Parenting was not predictive of self-harm, this link was moderated by adolescents' gender. No moderating effect of self-regulation was revealed. The study concludes that the high prevalence of deliberate self-harm recently found in community samples of adolescents cannot be prevented without attending to environmental psychosocial factors.

  • 29.
    Kakihara, Fumiko
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Tilton-Weaver, Lauree C.
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Kerr, Margaret
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Stattin, Håkan
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Links between parenting and adolescent problem behavior: what role do adolescents' feelings play?2010Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 30.
    Kakihara, Fumiko
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Tilton-Weaver, Lauree
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Kerr, Margaret
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Stattin, Håkan
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    The relationship of parental control to youth adjustment: Do youths' feelings about their parents play a role?2010In: Journal of Youth and Adolescence, ISSN 0047-2891, E-ISSN 1573-6601, Vol. 39, no 12, 1442-1456 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent research suggests that youths interpret parental control and that this may have implications for how control affects youths' adjustment. In this study, we propose that youths' feelings about being over-controlled by parents and feeling connected to parents are intermediary processes linking parental control and youths' adjustment. We used three years of longitudinal data sampled from 1,022 Swedish youths in 7th, 8th, and 9th grade (47.3% girls; 12-17 years old, M age = 14.28 years, SD = .98) who were mainly Swedish in ethnic origin. We tested models linking parental control (i.e., rules, restriction of freedom, and coldness-rejection) to adjustment (i.e., norm-breaking, depressive symptoms, and self-esteem) through youths feeling over-controlled by and connected to parents. The overall model incorporating youths' feelings showed that restrictions and coldness-rejection were both indirectly linked to increases in norm-breaking and depressive symptoms through increases in youths feeling over-controlled. Parental rules still independently predicted decreases in norm-breaking and in self-esteem, and coldness-rejection predicted increases in norm-breaking. In addition, some paths (e.g., feeling over-controlled to self-esteem) depended on the youths' age, whereas others depended on their gender. These results suggest that when youths' feelings are taken into account, all behavioral control is not the same, and the line between behavioral control and psychological control is blurred. We conclude that it is important to consider youths' feelings of being controlled and suggest that future research focus more on exploring this idea.

  • 31.
    Kerr, Margaret
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Childhood and adolescent shyness in long-term perspective: does it matter?2000In: Shyness: development, consolidation and change / [ed] W. Ray Crozier, London: Routledge , 2000, 64-87 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In most western cultures, parents are concerned about children who seem to be shy. Developmentalists, as well, consider interactions with peers necessary to normal social development, and they usually consider shy behavior an obstacle to normal development. In this chapter, the author looks at whether these notions are supported when a long-term perspective is taken. Using data from a birth-to-midlife study, the author examines the links between childhood shyness and middle adulthood adjustment. Ss were from a suburb of Stockholm, and had been participating in a longitudinal study since they were born in the mid-1950s. Ss were seen every year until the age of 16 and then again at about ages 25 and 37. Results indicate that there were no relations between early shyness and any of the variables that tapped quality of relationships. In contrast, adolescent-developing shyness was a negative predictor of nearly all measures of the frequency and the quality of interactions with friends and partners. Concerning psychological well-being, early-developing shyness was clearly less problematic than later-developing shyness for males, but the same was not true for females. It appears that what is important for adult adjustment is the shyness that emerges in adolescence.

  • 32.
    Kerr, Margaret
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Culture as a context for temperament: suggestions from the life courses of shy Swedes and Americans2001In: Temperament in context, Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Publishers , 2001, 118-129 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The author suggests a goodness-of-fit model that builds on previous models. She posits that, in any given culture, there are both psychological and practical features of the environment that reflect people's shared assumptions about behavior. As a result, the environment favors some temperamentally based behaviors over others, and the favored behaviors are then more likely to be associated with good developmental outcomes. The author draws examples of the various links in this model from the literature on shyness, inhibition, and anxiety, and compared findings from two studies of the life courses of shy people: one with an American sample (Caspi, Elder and Bem, 1988) and the other with a Swedish sample (Kerr, Lambert and Bem, 1996).

  • 33.
    Kerr, Margaret
    et al.
    Örebro University, Department of Behavioural, Social and Legal Sciences.
    Skoog, Therése
    Örebro University, Department of Behavioural, Social and Legal Sciences.
    Stattin, Håkan
    Örebro University, Department of Behavioural, Social and Legal Sciences.
    Ruiselova, Zdena
    Female pubertal timing and problem behavior: explaining the mechanism at different levels of social contextsManuscript (Other academic)
  • 34.
    Kerr, Margaret
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Stattin, Håkan
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Hur reagerar föräldrar på sociala problem hos sina ungdomar?2009In: Psykisk hälsa, ISSN 0033-3212, no 1, 30-36 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 35.
    Kerr, Margaret
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Stattin, Håkan
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Parenting of adolescents: action or reaction?2003In: Children's influence on family dynamics: the neglected side of family relationships / [ed] Ann C. Crouter, Alan Booth, Mahwah, NJ,: Lawrence Erlbaum , 2003, 121-151 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this chapter, the authors take a different approach from those of other researchers in this volume. They start with a robust set of correlational findings that researchers have virtually always attributed to parent effects, and they present empirical evidence that those particular findings might have been child effects. The study tested the possibility that parenting behaviors might be reactions to youths' delinquency, using data from a short-term longitudinal study of 1,283 youths in mid-adolescence. Measures of delinquency, child disclosure, parental solicitation, parental control, parental support, and parents' bad reactions to disclosure were used. While parental monitoring and parental styles literature concluded that parents' direct control of adolescents' activities and associations works protectively to keep youths away from bad friends and out of trouble, the study found that parents' behaviors were reactions to the youth's problem behavior rather than causes of it. Reasons for why these findings contradict so much previous literature are discussed.

  • 36.
    Kerr, Margaret
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Stattin, Håkan
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Straw men, untested assumptions, and bi-directional models: a response to Capaldi and Brody2003In: Children's influence on family dynamics: the neglected side of family relationships / [ed] Ann C. Crouter, Alan Booth, Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum , 2003, , 269 p.181-187 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Responds to commentaries by G. H. Brody (see chapter 11) and D. M. Capaldi (see chapter 12) on the authors' study addressing the issue of parental monitoring and adolescent delinquent behavior (see  chapter 9). The authors address the discussants' use of the term "monitoring" and the issue of a bi-directional model.

  • 37.
    Kerr, Margaret
    et al.
    Örebro University, Department of Behavioural, Social and Legal Sciences.
    Stattin, Håkan
    Örebro University, Department of Behavioural, Social and Legal Sciences.
    What parents know, how they know it, and several forms of adolescent adjustment: further support for a reinterpretation of monitoring2000In: Developmental Psychology, ISSN 0012-1649, E-ISSN 1939-0599, Vol. 36, no 3, 366-380 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Parental monitoring has been conceptualized as tracking and surveillance but operationalized as knowledge of daily activities. This study tested the tracking and surveillance explanation of why parental knowledge is linked to better adolescent adjustment. Participants were 1,186 14-year-olds in central Sweden and their parents. The results supported and extended a reinterpretation of parental monitoring (H. Stattin & M. Kerr, in press). Across sex and informant, high parental knowledge was linked to multiple measures of good adjustment. But children's spontaneous disclosure of information explained more of these relations than parents' tracking and surveillance efforts did. Parents' control efforts were related to good adjustment only after the child's feelings of being controlled, which were linked to poor adjustment, were partialed out. The findings suggest that parents' tracking and surveillance efforts are not as effective as previously thought.

  • 38.
    Kerr, Margaret
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Stattin, Håkan
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Biesecker, Gretchen
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Ferrer-Wreder, Laura
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Relationships with parents and peers in adolescence2003In: Handbook of psychology: vol 6, Developmental psychology / [ed] Irving B. Weiner, editor-in-chief, Richard M. Lerner, M. Ann Easterbrooks, Jayanthi Mistry, volume editors, Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons , 2003, 395-419 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter discusses how parents and peers influence adolescent development. The authors start with certain assumptions about adolescents' relationships with parents and peers--assumptions that have not necessarily been incorporated into the research in these areas. First, they assume that the relationships are bidirectional, meaning that adolescents are not just passively influenced by the important people in their lives; they are active agents in choosing with whom they spend time, and they evoke certain reactions from people. Second, they assume that relationships are not simply related to adjustment but are themselves forms of adjustment. Parenting behaviors and peer relations do not just produce adjustment; they are also indicators and results of adjustment. Finally, the authors assume that parent and peer relationships are linked to each other. The form and quality of relationships with parents will determine which peer contexts the adolescent chooses, and that choice will evoke reactions from parents that will affect the parent-child relationship. In short, the authors argue that adolescents play active roles in choosing and shaping their relationships with parents and peers.

  • 39.
    Kerr, Margaret
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Stattin, Håkan
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Burk, William J.
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    A reinterpretation of parental monitoring in longitudinal perspective2010In: Journal of research on adolescence, ISSN 1050-8392, E-ISSN 1532-7795, Vol. 20, no 1, 39-64 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A commonly used measure of parental monitoring is parents’ knowledge of adolescents’ daily activities. This measure has been criticized on the grounds that parents get more knowledge about teenagers’ daily activities through willing youth disclosure than through their own active monitoring efforts, but this claim was based on cross-sectional data. In the present study, we re-examine this claim with longitudinal data over two years from 938 7th and 8th graders and their parents. Youth disclosure was a significant longitudinal predictor of parental knowledge in single-rater and cross-rater models. Neither measure of parents’ monitoring efforts—control or solicitation—was a significant predictor. In analyses involving delinquency, parental monitoring efforts did not predict changes in delinquency over time, but youth disclosure did. We conclude that because knowledge measures do not seem to represent parental monitoring efforts, the conclusions from studies using these measures should be reinterpreted.

  • 40.
    Kerr, Margaret
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Stattin, HåkanÖrebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.Engels, Rutger C. M. E.Radboud University.
    What can parents do?: new insights into the role of parents in adolescent problem behavior2008Collection (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years research on parenting has changed stance from one where parents shape child outcomes to an interactive perspective. However this shift is only now transferring to adolescents, with research exploring how the roles that adolescents and parents play in their interactions can lead to problem behaviour. Part of the Hot Topics in Developmental Research series, this book presents the new perspective.

  • 41.
    Kerr, Margaret
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Stattin, Håkan
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Engels, Rutger C. M. E.
    Radboud University.
    What’s changed in research on parenting and adolescent problem behavior and what needs to change?2008In: What can parents do?: New insights into the role of parents in adolescent problem behavior / [ed] Margaret Kerr, Håkan Stattin, Rutger C. M. E. Engels, London: Wiley , 2008, 1-8 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 42.
    Kerr, Margaret
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Stattin, HåkanÖrebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.Engels, Rutger C. M. E.Behavioural Science Institute, Radboud University, The Netherlands.Overbeek, GeertjanDepartment of Developmental Psychology, Utrecht University, The Netherlands.Andershed, Anna-KarinÖrebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Understanding girls' problem behavior: how girls' delinquency develops in the context of maturity and health, co-occurring problems, and relationships2010Collection (editor) (Refereed)
  • 43.
    Kerr, Margaret
    et al.
    Örebro University, Department of Behavioural, Social and Legal Sciences.
    Stattin, Håkan
    Örebro University, Department of Behavioural, Social and Legal Sciences.
    Kiesner, Jeff
    Universita di Padova.
    Peers and problem behavior: have we missed something?2007In: Friends, lovers and groups: key relationships in adolescence / [ed] Rutger C.M.E. Engels, Margaret Kerr, Håkan Stattin, Chichester, West Sussex, England: John Wiley & Sons , 2007, 125-153 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    (From the chapter) Taken as a whole, the literature on peers and delinquency has revealed much about what can happen or what sometimes happens. Youths can select peers who are similar to them, and their peers can influence them. Focusing peer studies on friends in the classroom is not a limitation for showing what can happen or sometimes happens. However, to extend this knowledge to what does happen, research designs are needed that strive for more ecological validity, or that take into account the complexity of adolescent peer relationships, including different types of peer relationships in different contexts at different ages. In this chapter, we report data from one such study.

     

  • 44.
    Kerr, Margaret
    et al.
    Örebro University, Department of Behavioural, Social and Legal Sciences.
    Stattin, Håkan
    Örebro University, Department of Behavioural, Social and Legal Sciences.
    Pakalniskiene, Vilmante
    Örebro University, Department of Behavioural, Social and Legal Sciences.
    Parents react to adolescent problem behaviors by worrying more and monitoring less2008In: What can parents do?: New insights into the role of parents in adolescent problem behavior / [ed] Margaret Kerr, Håkan Stattin, Rutger C. M. E. Engels, Chichester, West Sussex: John Wiley & Sons , 2008, 89-112 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

     

    Although much of the literature on parenting and adolescent problem behavior has looked at parents as causal agents, there is a growing awareness that parenting is partly a reaction to problem behavior, as well as an action. In this study, we try to understand parents’ reactions to delinquency and the secretive, defiant behavior toward parents that correlates with delinquency. We use longitudinal data over two years from about 1100 adolescents aged 10 to 14 years. Most measures are parents’ reports; delinquency is youth-reported. The results suggest that youths’ behaviors influence parenting more than parenting influences youth behaviors. Parents seem to react to negative behavior at home more than to the delinquency itself. They react emotionally with distrust and worries, and at the same time, they slacken their monitoring efforts. Their emotional reactions seem to be part of an escalation in youth delinquency, whereas monitoring efforts do not. These findings could have implications for experimental studies of parenting adolescents.

  • 45.
    Kerr, Margaret
    et al.
    Örebro University, Department of Behavioural, Social and Legal Sciences.
    Stattin, Håkan
    Örebro University, Department of Behavioural, Social and Legal Sciences.
    Trost, Kari
    Örebro University, Department of Behavioural, Social and Legal Sciences.
    To know you is to trust you: parents' trust is rooted in child disclosure of information1999In: Journal of Adolescence, ISSN 0140-1971, E-ISSN 1095-9254, Vol. 22, no 6, 737-752 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Proposed that parental trust is primarily based on knowledge. In this study, 3 types of knowledge of the child were pitted against each other in the prediction of parental trust: knowledge of feelings and concerns; of past delinquency; and of daily activities. Ss were 1,186 14 yr olds and their parents. Results showed that knowledge of daily activities was more important than knowledge of past delinquency. In further analyses, knowledge of daily activities that came from the child's spontaneous disclosure was most closely linked to parental trust. These findings add support to a recent reinterpretation of parental "monitoring" as parental knowledge that mainly comes from spontaneous child disclosure. Additionally, the role of parental trust for dysfunctional family relations was examined and it was found that the relations between the child's delinquency and family dysfunction were mediated by parental trust. Finally, even though there was substantial agreement between parents and children about parental trust in the child, the individual's unique perspectives were important. Family dysfunction from the child's perspective was based on whether they believed that their parents trusted them, and parent perceptions of family dysfunction were based on their own trust in the child.

  • 46.
    Kerr, Margaret
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Stattin, Håkan
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Özdemir, Metin
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Perceived parenting style and adolescent adjustment: revisiting directions of effects and the role of parental knowledge2012In: Developmental Psychology, ISSN 0012-1649, E-ISSN 1939-0599, Vol. 48, no 6, 1540-1553 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the present research on parenting and adolescent behavior, there is much focus on reciprocal, bidirectional, and transactional processes, but parenting-style research still adheres to a unidirectional perspective in which parents affect youth behavior but are unaffected by it. In addition, many of the most cited parenting-style studies have used measures of parental behavioral control that are questionable because they include measures of parental knowledge. The goals of this study were to determine whether including knowledge items might have affected results of past studies and to test the unidirectional assumption. Data were from 978 adolescents participating in a longitudinal study. Parenting-style and adolescent adjustment measures at 2 time points were used, with a 2-year interval between time points. A variety of internal and external adjustment measures were used. Results showed that including knowledge items in measures of parental behavioral control elevated links between behavioral control and adjustment. Thus, the results and conclusions of many of the most highly cited studies are likely to have been stronger than if the measures had focused strictly on parental behavior. In addition, adolescent adjustment predicted changes in authoritative and neglectful parenting styles more robustly than these styles predicted changes in adolescent adjustment. Adolescent adjustment also predicted changes in authoritativeness more robustly than authoritativeness predicted changes in adjustment. Thus, parenting style cannot be seen as independent of the adolescent. In summary, both the theoretical premises of parenting-style research and the prior findings should be revisited.

  • 47.
    Kerr, Margaret
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    van Zalk, Maarten
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Stattin, Håkan
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Psychopathic traits moderate peer influence on adolescent delinquency2012In: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry and Allied Disciplines, ISSN 0021-9630, E-ISSN 1469-7610, Vol. 53, no 8, 826-835 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Peer influence on adolescent delinquency is well established, but little is known about moderators of peer influence. In this study, we examined adolescents (targets) and their peers psychopathic personality traits as moderators of peer influence on delinquency in peer networks. We used three separate dimensions of the psychopathic personality: grandiose-manipulative traits, callous-unemotional traits, and impulsive-irresponsible traits. Methods: We used a peer network approach with five waves of longitudinal data from 847 adolescents in one community. Peer nominations were not limited to the school context, thus allowing us to capture all potentially important peers. In addition, peers reported on their own delinquency, thus allowing us to avoid problems of false consensus or projection that arise when individuals report on their peers delinquency. We used simulation investigation for empirical network analyses (SIENA), which is the only program currently available that can be used to study peer influence effects in peer networks of multiple relationships while controlling for selection effects. Results: Targets and peers callous-unemotional and grandiose-manipulative traits uniquely moderated peer influence on delinquency. Relative to those with low levels, targets who were high on these traits were less influenced by peers delinquency, and peers who were high on these traits were more influential on targets delinquency. Selection effects were found for impulsive-irresponsible traits, but these traits did not moderate peer influence on delinquency. Conclusions: As the first study to look at moderating effects of psychopathic traits on peer influence, this study advances knowledge about peer influence on delinquency and about psychopathic traits in adolescents. In addition, the study contributes to the literature by looking at unique effects of the three dimensions of psychopathy and taking a peer network approach, in which network effects, self-selection, and other selection effects are controlled when examining influence and moderators of influence.

  • 48.
    Kiesner, Jeff
    et al.
    Università di Padova.
    Kerr, Margaret
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Families, peers, and contexts as multiple determinants of adolescent problem behavior2004In: Journal of Adolescence, ISSN 0140-1971, E-ISSN 1095-9254, Vol. 27, no 5, 493-495 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the present issue we present papers that consider these multiple sources of influence. Four of the papers focus specifically on parents and peers as they relate to the development of problem behavior. Engels et al. (see record 2004-20120-004) examine the parents' role in determining the individual's selection of peers, which is then proposed to have an effect on individual behavior. Persson et al. (see record 2004-20120-007) consider individual characteristics, youth center attendance, and parenting characteristics in predicting peer affiliations, which are then used to predict norm-breaking behaviors. Also focusing on the combination of parents and peers, Dishion et al. (see record 2004-20120-003) present analyses considering reciprocal influences of parenting practices and deviant peer processes examining both intercepts and slopes of these constructs across a six-year period. Each of these papers provides new information and takes us closer to understanding how these different sources of socialization combine to create individuals. In this issue, we present papers examining outcomes such as smoking, drug use, delinquency, political attitudes, willingness to use violence, and youth center attendance.

  • 49.
    Kiesner, Jeff
    et al.
    Università di Padova.
    Kerr, Margaret
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Stattin, Håkan
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    "Very Important Persons" in adolescence: going beyond in-school, single friendships in the study of peer homophily2004In: Journal of Adolescence, ISSN 0140-1971, E-ISSN 1095-9254, Vol. 27, no 5, 545-560 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Using a sample of 1227 Swedish adolescents we examined peer relations across contexts and for multiple peer targets (three "Very Important Persons", VIPs). Specifically, we examined the relations between antisocial behaviour and the types of relationships individuals had with their VIPs (e.g. friend, romantic partner), the contexts in which they had met, and where they spent time (e.g. school, neighbourhood, club). Additionally, we tested an "additive homophily" hypothesis, or the idea that youths would show unique similarities to multiple peers. Results showed that individuals who nominated romantic partners as their first VIPs were the most antisocial (both boys and girls), and individuals who had met and spent time with their first VIPs in the neighbourhood were also the most antisocial. Similar results were found for the antisocial behaviour of the first VIP. Finally, results supported the additive homophily hypothesis, showing that significantly more variance in individual behaviour is explained when including second and third VIPs.

  • 50.
    Koutakis, Nikolaus
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Stattin, Håkan
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Kerr, Margaret
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Reducing youth alcohol drinking through a parent-targeted intervention: The Örebro Prevention Program2008In: Addiction, ISSN 0965-2140, E-ISSN 1360-0443, Vol. 103, no 10, 1629-1637 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims: To evaluate a 2.5-year prevention programme working through parents, targeting drinking among 13-16-year-olds. Design: Quasi-experimental using matched controls with a pre-post, intention-to-treat design. Setting: Schools located in inner city, public housing and small town areas. Participants: A total of 900 pupils entering junior high school and their parents, followed longitudinally. Intervention: Parents received information by mail and during parent meetings in schools urging them to: (i) maintain strict attitudes against youth alcohol use and (ii) encourage their youth's involvement in adult-led, organized activities. Measurements: Evaluation of the implementation used measures of parental attitudes against underage drinking and youths' participation in organized activities. Outcomes were youths' drunkenness and delinquency. Findings: The implementation successfully influenced parents' attitudes against underage drinking, but not youth participation in organized activities. At post-test, youths in the intervention group reported less drunkenness and delinquency. Effect sizes were 0.35 for drunkenness and 0.38 for delinquency. Findings were similar for boys and girls and for early starters. Effects were not moderated by community type. Conclusions: Working via parents proved to be an effective way to reduce underage drinking as well as delinquency.

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