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  • 1.
    Areljung, Sofie
    et al.
    Department of science and mathematics education, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Due, Karin
    Department of science and mathematics education, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Ottander, Christina
    Department of science and mathematics education, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Skoog, Marianne
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Sundberg, Bodil
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    The role of children’s drawings in science teaching: A comparison across preschool, preschool class and early primary school2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Particularly since many children in early childhood education (ECE) (education for children from birth to 8 years) do not yet write, teachers and researchers tend to use children’s drawings to assess their developing science learning. Previous studies show that children’s choices on what to include in their drawings are affected by local cultures of what constitutes a good representation. However, there is a lack of studies that focus on the teacher perspective, in terms of why and how they include drawing activities in their science teaching. Further, there are currently no studies that compare the role of drawings in science teaching across ECE sectors. The study is part of a larger study which aims to to advance our understanding of how to bridge science teaching across ECE sectors (preschool, preschool class, early primary school). Here, our specific aim is to examine how educational cultures of different ECE sectors interact with teacher’s objectives for using children’s drawings in science activities. We use Activity Theory to analyse field data (notes, photos, videos) from science activities that include children’s drawings, as well as recordings from group discussions with teachers. First, we focus on the relation between the purpose of the activity, the tools used, the local educational culture, and the outcome of each activity. Second, we compare our results across ECE sectors. Our preliminary results indicate that the purpose of drawing activities vary across sectors. In preschool, children’s drawings may serve to tell stories, while in early primary school, drawings may serve as a part of observation practice or to display children’s understandings of science concepts. The results are discussed in relation to children’s transitions between educational cultures, and whether teachers should explicitly scaffold scientific drawing in ECE.

  • 2.
    Bagga-Gupta, Sangeeta
    et al.
    Örebro University, Department of Education.
    Skoog, Marianne
    Örebro University, Department of Education.
    Monological literacy practices in present day pluralistic preschool and school contexts2006Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 3.
    Schmidt, Catarina
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Skoog, Marianne
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Classroom interaction and its potential for literacy learning2017In: Nordic Journal of Literacy Research, E-ISSN 2464-1596, Vol. 3, no 1, p. 45-60Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article elaborates on classroom interaction in relation to literacy learning across the curriculum. Drawing on a study in two grade six classrooms in Sweden, we report on identified possibilities of interaction during 12 lessons in the two subject areas of Law and Rights and World Religions. The analysis focuses on the register of repertoires for interaction through organisation and teaching talk and, to some extent, learning talk (Alexander, 2008). These repertoires, and the possibilities they create, are related to Cummins’ (2001) framework. The results elucidate the important role interaction plays for students’ learning of literacy through subject content and vice versa. Drawing on the results, we argue it is necessary to consider the students to be participants with resources, who can increase their possibilities of taking active part in both the initial, intermediate and final phases of learning in various subject areas if interaction is more present. In this way the students can get access to classroom practices, drawing on various subject content, that more strongly support them to develop sustainable abilities of literacies and specific subject knowledge. The latter is necessary for the learning of all subjects across the curriculum, but also for future commitment within society and citizenship.

  • 4.
    Schmidt, Catarina
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Skoog, Marianne
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Digital resources in diverse classrooms: combining digital technology with functional and critical literacy2018In: NERA 2018- 46th CONGRESS. Educational Research: Boundaries, Breaches and Bridges: Abstracts, 2018, p. 336-337Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Through the use of various digital resources, it is crucial that education support student’s subject- and literacy learning in integrated ways (Cummins, 2001; Schmidt & Skoog, 2016). Since digital literacies, compared with printed literacies, bring about other ways of producing and using texts in terms of multimodality and hybridity across time and space, this challenge the conditions for in what ways teaching and learning is carried out in classrooms (Kress & Selander, 2011; Walsh, 2008). In Sweden, new knowledge demands regarding digital competence will be implemented, among other things with regards to source criticism. To understand who has produced a text and with what purpose, and how to evaluate this information, are part of fundamental critical approaches, which includes source criticism (Janks, 2010). Drawing on a larger classroom study, this paper focuses on teachers and students use of digital resources during 24 lessons in two Grade six classrooms in the subject areas of Laws and Right and Information and Commercials. Our focus is on in what ways the digital resources and their content are introduced and drawn upon, and which approaches of source criticism that are integrated. We ask:

    • What digital resources are included?

    • In what ways are these resources introduced and used?

    • What approaches of source criticism emerge?

    • Do any differences emerge when comparing digital and printed resources?

    Drawing on video recordings and retrospective interviews with teachers and students, we have analysed the data in relation to the above aim and questions. The analysis reveals the multifaceted possibilities of digital resources, such as web sites, video clips, online educational portals and so on. The analysis makes it clear that interaction and dialogue in relation to the digital resources tend to be overlooked, when compared with the printed resources. Further, the result sheds light on the challenges regarding source criticism. In both subject areas, norms and values are present, but not deepened in relation to the subject content.

    We argue, that in order to compare and evaluate digital and online information, and to create knowledge, students need to be supported in the beginning of and throughout the learning process (Alexander, 2008; Schmidt & Skoog, 2016). In addition, we argue that critical reflections must be connected to subject specific content in relation to diversity and equality, and articulated and practiced through teachers’ and students’ own talk (Alexander, 2008; Schmidt & Skoog, 2017).

    ReferencesAlexander, R. (2008). Essays on Pedagogy. London & New York: Routledge.Cummins, J. (2001). Negotiating Identities: Education for Empowerment in a Diverse Society. Second Edition. Los Angeles: California Association for Bilingual Education.Janks, H. (2010). Literacy and Power. London: Routledge.Kress, G. & Selander, S. (2011). Multimodal design, learning and cultures of recognition. Internet and Higher Education 15 (2012) 265–268Schmidt, C. & Skoog, M. (2016). Classroom interaction and its potential for literacy learning. Nordic Journal of Literacy Research 3, pp. 45–60. http://dx.doi.org/10.23865/njlr.v3.474Walsh, M. (2008). Worlds have collided and modes have merged: classroom evidence of changed literacy practices. Literacy, 42 (2), pp. 101–108.

  • 5.
    Schmidt, Catarina
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Skoog, Marianne
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Repertoires of classroom interaction and its potential for literacy learning in two Swedish classrooms in the middle school years2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper discusses interactional conditions and possibilities in classrooms related to literacy education during the middle school years. The paper draws on an ongoing study[1], where interactional processes of learning through languages, literacies and texts, were followed closely during one year in two multilingual Swedish classrooms. Students as all citizens need to be able to sort, comprehend and critically review texts and their content, capacities, that all are stressed in the Swedish national curriculum (National Agency of Education, 2011). Our work is informed by understandings of literacy as social practice in the tradition of the New Literacy Studies (see for example Street, 2003). Literacy practices here embody multifaceted and pluralistic uses of literacies for different purposes, which include a wide range of texts and languages. These literacy practices are socially situated in student’s everyday lives, in and out of school. We conceptualize language and literacy learning as depending on comprehensible input as well as interaction and meaningful use of literacies and languages, where also more formal aspects of the latter have to be integrated (Cummins, 2001). This is not to suggest that there is not a cognitive element to how well students learn literacy, but we believe there is also a social element to learning literacy and to how students are constructed as literacy learners (see for example Heath, 1983; Heller, 2008). Here processes of interaction play a crucial role for the establishing of classroom literacy practices, which efficiently support all students’ literacy learning. We bring this conceptual framework to an analysis of classroom interaction, drawing on the above study, and more specifically three lessons from respectively two multilingual classrooms with twelve-year-old students. Each of the two units of lessons covers the interdisciplinary theme Law and Right and World Religions. Our aim is to draw key insights for how processes of interaction are organized to support literacy learning across the curriculum. We look for ways of organizing interaction in different situations and aspects of everyday classroom practices, such as; whole class teaching, collective group work led by teacher, collaborative and pupil led group work, one-to-one (teacher and pupil) and pupils working in pairs (see Alexander, 2008, p. 187). We ask:

    • What repertoires of classroom interaction can be identified?

    • Do different repertoires of classroom interaction interplay with each other and, if so, in what ways?

    • What are the consequences considering the above questions for the participating students learning of reading and writing across the curriculum?

    [1] The ongoing research project, which the above case studies are a part of, has got the title Understanding Curriculum Reforms – A Theory-oriented Evaluation of the Swedish Curriculum Reform Lgr 11. Scientific leaders are Ninni Wahlström, Professor in Pedagogy and Daniel Sundberg, Professor in Pedagogy, at Linnaeus University in Sweden. This research project, which is financed by the Swedish Research Council, got started in 2014 and will be finished in 2017. For more information see http://lnu.se/employee/ninni.wahlstrom?l=en

    Method: This study is centered on different ways of organizing interaction for the teaching and learning of content and capabilities across the curriculum in two Swedish and multilingual classrooms. Video- and audio recording has been conducted of three lessons in two classrooms. In the course of time two interviews with the class teacher and groups of different students have been carried out. In the interviews the recordings have functioned as shared content, making reflection and analyses of communication- and interaction processes possible from both teachers’ and students’ perspectives. In this field work, inspired by ethnographical methods, we have been striving for a reflexive approach, meaning that we have sought to take part of the participating teacher’s and student’s perspectives within contextualized social practices (Hammersley & Atkinson, 1989). Altogether transcripts from video- and audio recording and interviews together with field notes and photos of artifacts and works samples create the empirical data.

    In analyzing the data Alexander’s (2008) categories of organizing classroom interaction has been used. Through detailed descriptions from what we have observed together with the students and the teachers explanations and utterances, a fine-grained observation scheme has been developed and used for the analysis of the created empirical material.  This analysis of the visible and existent interactional processes will in the next step be related to Cummins (2001) conclusions of approaches that make successful literacy learning possible for all students.

    Expected outcomes: By analyzing processes of interaction in these classrooms we believe that we are able to identify some key insights regarding literacy pedagogy in relation to conditions and possibilities of language and literacy learning (Cummins, 2001). The paper aims to shed light on and develop conceptual understandings of the relationships between processes of interaction and access to quality literacy teaching and learning. The key intent of this paper is to provide insight into how carefully organized and closely followed and evaluated processes of interaction across the curriculum can mean literacy success for all students, something that is high on the educational agenda in contemporary Europe. In contemporary times, teachers meet demands of assessing student’s literacy learning, in ways, which might result in the creating of learning spaces where the same target might get lost (see for example Vesteraas Danbolt & Iversen Kulbrandstad, 2012). Such policy initiatives might result in our schools and educators losing sight of the importance of classroom interaction as well as the resources and experiences of literacy that students might bring to school. In this paper we aim to fore ground the implications of interaction and the crucial role it plays for students language and literacy learning across the curriculum. We argue that the latter is crucial for all students and in whole necessary for multilingual learners. The paper is relevant to European classrooms and by providing key insights from this smaller classroom study our ambition is to contribute to spaces for dialogue and comparison between researchers and educators in Europe as well as between nations and systems. 

    References

    Alexander, Robin (2008). Essays on Pedagogy. London, New York: Routledge.

    Cummins, Jim (2001). Negotiating Identities: Education for Empowerment in a Diverse Society. Second Edition. Los Angeles: California Association for Bilingual Education.

    Hammersley & Atkinson, 1989

    Heath, Brice Shirley (1983). Ways with words. Language, life and work in communities and classrooms. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

    Heller, Monica (2008): Bourdieu and literacy education. In James Albright, & Alan Luke, red: Pierre Bourdieu and literacy education, s. 50-67. New York: Routledge.

    National Agency for Education (2011). Curriculum for the compulsory school, preschool class and the leisure-time centre 2011. Stockholm: National Agency for Education.

    Street, Brian V. (2003). "What's "new" in New Literacy Studies? Critical approaches to literacy in theory and practice". Current issues in comparative education 5 (2): 77–91.

    Vesteraas Danbolt, Anne Marit & Iversen Kulbrandstad, Lise (2012). Teacher Reflections Under

    Changing Conditions for Literacy Learning in Multicultural Schools in Oslo. In Anne Pitkänen-Huhta & Lars Holm, ed: Literacy Practices in Transition. Perspectives from the Nordic Countries, p. 209-227. Bristol, NY, Ontario: Multilingual Matters.

  • 6.
    Schmidt, Catarina
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Skoog, Marianne
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Textual Resources in Diverse Classrooms: Combining Functional Use with Approaches of Criticality2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    INTRODUCTION

    Every classroom is affected by institutional conditions as well as curriculums and guidelines that steer and set standards for education, which are connected to and affected by ideas created and negotiated at the national level and within the EU and the OECD. Pedagogy within classrooms, including that of the two Swedish classrooms discussed in this paper consolidates these levels. Drawing on a larger classroom study[1] the paper focuses on teachers and students use of textual resources offline and online during over one year in two Grade six classrooms. It is within the practices of classrooms that students’ participation, and abilities to understand, question and draw conclusions from text content can be supported and developed. ‘Mainstream’ classrooms of today are characterized of standardized curriculums and of diversity in relation to student’s multilingual and cultural backgrounds as well as of a plurality of texts offline and online. Students with different backgrounds, needs and resources, are in the middle school years facing demands of coping with more compact texts of subjects’ content, including more of specific academic language (Gibbons, 2009). Basic and functional literacy cannot be dismissed, but needs to be integrated with meaning-making and critical analysis of text content (Cummins 2001; Luke & Freebody 1997; Janks, 2010; Langer 2011; Schmidt & Skoog, 2017; Schmidt & Skoog, 2018). This study draws on Alexander's (2001) methodological framework regarding teaching talk and learning talk together with Cummins (2001) framework for successful academic learning. Cummins (2001) and Alexander (2008) shed light on the need for students to learn about subject content while at the same time having access to subject-specific ways of understanding, talking, reading and writing where critical approaches are embedded. Reading texts in active and critically reflective ways relates to critical literacy and to the research drawing on this concept (e.g. Janks, 2010; Comber, 2013, 2016). In Sweden, new knowledge demands regarding digital competence are to be implemented 2018/19. The reasons for these changes in the national Curriculum Standards for Compulsory School are, in short, to enhance the student’s abilities to use and understand digital systems and to relate to media and information in critical and responsible ways[2]. These changes create increased challenges for teachers and students to sift, interpret, evaluate, question, compare and judge the trustworthiness of media. To understand who has produced a text and with what purpose, and how to evaluate this information, are part of fundamental critical approaches (Janks, 2010). This paper focuses on teachers’ and students’ use of textual resources offline and online during 24 lessons over one year in two Grade six classrooms in the subject areas of Information and Commercials and Laws and Rights. Our focus is on in what ways these textual resources and their content are introduced and drawn upon, and which approaches of critical approaches, including source criticism, that are integrated. Since digital resources, compared with printed resources, bring about other ways of producing and using texts in terms of multimodality and hybridity across time and space, this challenge the conditions for in what ways teaching and learning is carried out in classroom practices (Kress & Selander, 2011; Walsh, 2008). We ask:

    • What textual resources are included?

    • In what ways are these resources introduced and used?

    • What approaches of criticality emerge?

    • Do any differences emerge when comparing digital and printed resources?

    MEDTHODOLOGY

    Through ethnographic studies of children’s literacy practices, Heath (1983) revealed the different ‘ways with words’ that children from various socioeconomic and cultural-ethnic backgrounds had. The work of Heath (1983) illustrates how power works in relation to uses of languages and literacies, something which we in this paper strived to be aware of and take into consideration when conducting this study, and above all when analysing the ethnographic material. The data of this study encompasses video recordings of 24 lessons from two different classrooms in two different schools and municipalities in Sweden, which altogether means 21.5 hours of video recordings. In each class, 12 lessons have been recorded in order to capture dimensions of classroom interaction and to document the use of instructional materials and texts. Further, five individual interviews with the two teachers and five group interviews with 4-6 students from each class have been conducted and transcribed literally. The interviews lasted from 20 minutes to one hour and were focused on the teachers’ and the students’ reflections considering the purpose, forms and content of the recorded lessons and their learning repertoires. During the interviews, parts of the video recordings were shown in order to make retrospective reflections possible from both teachers’ and students’ perspectives. Both classrooms are characterized of being culturally and linguistically diverse, where at least one quarter of the students have another linguistic background and/or speak another language than Swedish in their respective homes. The study has been carried out in accordance with the general requirements for Research Ethics (Swedish Research Council, 2011). All participating schools and informants have been given fictitious names in order to protect their identities during and after the finished project. The students as well as their parents have been informed about the aim of the study, and then asked to give their written consent for participation in the study, which they all did. By analysing the video recordings and the transcriptions of the retrospective interviews, this paper presents in which ways the used texts and media were introduced and drawn upon in the two classrooms, and which approaches of criticality, including source criticism, that were integrated.

    EXPECTED OUTCOMES AND CONCLUSIONS

    The analysis reveals that printed material such as subject specific textbooks are introduced during whole class in the initial phases of the subject areas, and also that this text content is elaborated on more thoroughly when compared with the online resources. The analysis sheds light on the multifaceted possibilities of digital resources, such as web sites, educational movies, video clips, online educational portals and so on, and makes it clear that interaction and dialogue in relation to these resources tend to be overlooked compared with the printed resources. Further, the result sheds light on the challenges regarding how to integrate approaches of criticality. In both subject areas, norms and values that target diversity in various ways are present, but those are not deepened in relation to the subject content. Source criticism are mentioned, but tend to be simplified. We argue, that in order to compare and evaluate information, and to create knowledge from textual and digital resources, students need to be supported in the beginning of and throughout the learning process (Alexander, 2008; Schmidt & Skoog, 2017, Schmidt & Skoog, 2018). In addition, we argue that critical reflections must be connected to subject specific content and in relation to diversity and equality, and articulated and practiced through teachers’ and students’ own talk (Alexander, 2008; Schmidt & Skoog, 2018). Altogether this refers to conditions and possibilities for students to master literacy within and about subject content, and in relation to democratic values of the curriculum. Through the use of various textual resources offline and online, it is crucial that education support student’s subject- and literacy learning in integrated ways across the curriculum (Cummins, 2001; Schmidt & Skoog, 2016, 2018). Reflecting the conference theme of ECER 2018, this also highlights complex issues of access, inclusion and exclusion within education.

    REFERENCES

    Alexander, R. (2008). Essays on Pedagogy. London and New York: Routledge.

    Comber, B. (2016). Literacy, Place and Pedagogies of Possibility. London and New York: Routledge.

    Comber, B. (2013). Critical Literacy in the Early Years: Emergence and Sustenance in an Age of Accountability. In J. Larson & J. Marsh (Eds.), The SAGE Handbook of Early Childhood Literacy (p. 587-601).  London: SAGE/Paul Chapman.

    Cummins, J. (2001). Negotiating Identities: Education for Empowerment in a Diverse Society. Second Edition. Los Angeles: California Association for Bilingual Education.


    Gibbons, P. (2009). English learners academic literacy and thinking. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.

    Heath B. S. 1983. Ways with words. Language, life and work in communities and classrooms. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

    Janks, H. (2010). Literacy and Power. London: Routledge.

    Kress, G. & Selander, S. (2011). Multimodal design, learning and cultures of recognition. Internet and Higher Education 15 (2012), 265–268.

    Langer, J. 2011. Envisioning Literature: Literary Understanding and Literature Instruction. New York: Teachers College Press.

    Luke, A. (2004). On the material consequences of literacy. Language and Education,

    18(4), 331-335.

    Schmidt, C. & Skoog, M. (2018). The Question of Teaching Talk: Targeting Diversity and Participation. In N. Wahlström and D. Sundberg (Ed.), Transnational Curriculum Standards and Classroom Practices. The New Meaning of Teaching, (p. 83-97). London and New York: Routledge.

    Schmidt, C. & Skoog, M. (2017). Classroom interaction and
its potential for literacy learning. Nordic Journal of Literacy Research 3, 45–60. doi:10.23865/njlr.v3.474

    Swedish Research Council (2011). Good Research Practice. Stockholm: Swedish Research Council.

    Walsh, M. (2008). Worlds have collided and modes have merged: classroom evidence of changed literacy practices. Literacy, 42 (2), 101–108.

    [1] This paper is part of the larger project 'Understanding Curriculum Reforms - A Theory-Oriented Evaluation of the Swedish Curriculum Reform Lgr 11', funded by the Swedish Research Council.

    [2] https://www.skolverket.se/skolutveckling/resurser-for-larande/itiskolan/styrdokument

  • 7.
    Schmidt, Catarina
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Skoog, Marianne
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    The Question of Teaching Talk2017In: 3rd European Conference on Curriculum Studies Curriculum: Theory, Policy, Practice: 16-17 June 2017, University of Stirling: Book of Abstracts, 2017, p. 77-78Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    1) An overview/summary of the paperThis paper is part of the larger project 'Understanding Curriculum Reforms - A Theory-Oriented Evaluation of the Swedish Curriculum Reform Lgr 11'. Mainstream classrooms of today are characterized of standardized curriculums, but also of diversity in relation to student’s multilingual and cultural backgrounds as well of a plurality of texts offline and online. Students with different backgrounds, needs and resources, are in the middle school years facing demands of coping with more compact texts of subjects content, including more of specific academic language (Gibbons, 2009).

    Drawing on data from two Swedish grade six classrooms in the subjects of social sciences, this paper focuses on the repertoire of teaching talk and especially the issue of used and posed questions.

    The aim is to identify what characterizes the register of teaching talk and to explore how this relate to and affect student´s own learning talk, and possibilities of participation within education.

    2) Theoretical and methodological approaches (as applicable)This study draws on Alexander's (2001) methodological framework regarding teaching talk and learning talk together with Cummins (2001) framework for successful academic learning, which highlight conditions and possibilities essential for all students learning, despite variation in language backgrounds. Students’ possibilities of learning talk means altogether an active use of language and subject content such as asking different kind of questions and acting upon different kind of answers (Alexander, 2001; Cummins, 2001).

    The data encompasses video recordings of 24 lessons from two different classrooms in two different schools and municipalities in Sweden, which altogether means 21.5 hours of video recordings. Further, interviews with students and teachers have been conducted. Both classrooms are characterized of being culturally and linguistically diverse.

    3) Key findings and/or conclusionsThe identified possibilities of teaching talk comprise to a high extent of instruction, monologue and recitation/ rote, which often blend into one another. This case study, and the result of the larger study as a whole, reveals how pseudo-enquiry questions are used rhetorically, being embedded in teaching talk of mainly recitation and instruction. The use of pseudo questions and also of how the teachers are steering away from ‘dilemmas” that appear through the subject content as well as through the students own authentic questions about the same content, reveals an uncertainty of dealing with diversity. Altogether this refers to conditions and possibilities for students to master literacy within and about subjects content, and in relation to democratic values of the curriculum.

    4) The significance of the paperThis paper sheds light on in what ways the curriculum is enacted and broken down into tasks and activities through the repertoire of teaching talk, which will be related to the larger comparative classroom study as a whole and in relation to both pedagogy as act and pedagogy as discourse (Alexander, 2009).

  • 8.
    Schmidt, Catarina
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Skoog, Marianne
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    The question of teaching talk: Targeting diversity and participation2018In: Transnational curriculum standards and classroom practices: the new meaning of teaching / [ed] Ninni Wahlström & Daniel Sundberg, London: Taylor & Francis, 2018, p. 83-97Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 9.
    Skoog, Marianne
    Örebro University, Department of Education.
    Literacy encounters in the early school years: research issues2003Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    My research interest is related to issues concerning children’s linguistic socialisation with a special focus on literacy environments during their early grades in institutionalized settings. In this paper I would like to discuss some theoretical and methodological points of departure in my doctoral research. The theoretical framework for my study is based upon a sociocultural approach to the understanding of language, learning and development. The study is methodologically inspired from an ethnographic point of departure. From a sociocultural approach individuals are viewed as embedded in culture which means that development and learning are seen as taking place between individuals in communicative and interactive processes in different kinds of social practices. My standpoint is that children’s early socialisation into literacy also needs to be understood as an ongoing process which develops interactively and not only as cognitive processes within an individual child.

    I intend to follow a group of children for the first two years in the compulsory school system (preschool year [6 years] and grade 1 [7 year]) in order to try and understand what kind of

    literacy practices that children receive opportunities to participate in. At present my research questions are: In what ways are children in a preschool group exposed to written language and how are they encouraged to participate in literacy activities? What kinds of literacy practices do children encounter in the preschool setting and in the grade 1 setting? In what ways are children’s previous literacy and cultural experiences used as resources in the two settings?

    During the spring term of 2003 a pilot study will be carried out in a preschool group. Preliminary findings from the pilot study will be discussed in this paper.

     

     

     

     

     

     

  • 10.
    Skoog, Marianne
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Skriftspråkande i förskoleklass och årskurs 12012Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
  • 11.
    Skoog, Marianne
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Tellgren, Britt
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Carlsson, Reidun
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Different Influences on Learning and Teaching Practices in Preschool and Preschool Class2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 12.
    Skoog, Marianne
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Wahlström, Ninni
    Linnéuniversitetet, Växjö, Sverige.
    Skillmark, Albin
    Ett sociopolitiskt perspektiv på critical literacy i en tid av globalisering2015In: Critical literacy i svensk klassrumskontext / [ed] Berit Lundgren & Ulla Damber, Umeå: Umeå universitet , 2015, p. 175-188Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 13.
    Sundberg, Bodil
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Areljung, Sofie
    Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Skoog, Marianne
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Ottander, Christina
    Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Due, Karin
    Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Broar för naturvetenskap: kontinuitet i övergången mellan förskola, förskoleklass och årskurs 1-32018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Sessionen inleds med en presentation av de första resultaten från ett nystartat projekt som avser att synliggöra hinder och möjligheter för en kontinuitet i undervisning av naturvetenskap för yngre barn i de olika skolformerna förskola, förskoleklass samt åk 1-3.

    Projektets har två utgångspunkter: 1) de forskningsrön som indikerar att barns ämnesmässiga erfarenheter inte tas tillvara i samband med övergångar mellan skolformerna och 2) den speciella problematik som uppstår i samband med övergångar just mellan förskola, förskoleklass och skola där barnen övergår från en undervisningskultur till en annan. Kulturerna skiljer sig när det gäller synen på barnet, lärande och kunskap vilket i sin tur påverkar hur man formar aktiviteter med ett lärandeinnehåll. De olika skolformerna styrs också av två olika läroplaner: Lpfö 98 och Lgr 11 med olika krav på t.ex. barns deltagande och lärande.

    Projektet bygger på praktiknära forskningsmetoder utifrån tredje generationens verksamhetsteori och teorin om expansivt lärande (Engeström & Sannino 2010). Det genomförs via formativa interventioner (Penuel 2014) där forskare samarbetar med lärare från tre olika enheter som vardera omfattar förskola, förskoleklass och lågstadium.  Målet är att bidra med både generell kunskap om verksamhetsutveckling i pedagogiska miljöer, och specifik kunskap om hur barn/elever kan erbjudas ämnesmässig kontinuitet i samband med övergångar.

    Resultatpresentationen fokuseras till två av projektets fem huvudfrågor: 1) Vilka föreställningar har lärare i förskola, förskoleklass samt åk 1-3 om sitt uppdrag att undervisa i naturvetenskap och vad får det för betydelse för hur naturvetenskapliga aktiviteter formas i respektive utbildningskultur? 2) Vilka hinder och möjligheter finns för kontinuitet mellan skolformerna generellt när det gäller pedagogisk verksamhet och specifikt i samband med undervisning i naturvetenskap?

    Utifrån de resultat som presenteras inbjuds deltagarna till en diskussion om hur ämnesmässig kontinuitet kan främjas i samband med övergångar mellan skolformer.

  • 14.
    Tellgren, Britt
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Carlsson, Reidun
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Skoog, Marianne
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Two different influences of learning for younger children2012Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this paper is to explore issues about and the relation between children’s play and learning in Swedish preschool and preschool class settings. The research reported in the paper emerges from empirical data of three different theses (Carlsson 2010, Skoog 2012, Tellgren 2008).

     

    Market oriented ideas are today influencing school practices and they can be recognized even in preschool settings. We can identify characteristics as an increasing emphasis on formalized, teacher directed learning for younger children, increased documentation and assessment of children’s individual learning and development expressed as individual development plans (IUP), together with increased government demands for accountability on local and school level to thereby enhance quality in preschool and school (Wahlström 2009). These ideas can be recognized internationally as well (e.g. Dahlberg, Moss & Pence 2003). We argue that there is a tension on a policy level between the re-emerged ideas on formal learning in the Swedish education system  (cf. ESO –report 2012) and the ideas expressed especially in the Swedish preschool curriculum, where it is stressed that preschool activities should support children’s play, creativity and playful learning (Lpfö 98/2010, p 9). Several researchers (e.g. Johansson & Pramling 2007; Dahlberg, Moss & Pence 2003) are strongly supporting the idea of learning through play and in interaction with peers and adults (Pramling Samuelsson & Asplund Carlsson 2003, Tellgren 2004, Williams 2004).

     

     The tension between, what we call formulized learning and playful learning, are two quite different perspectives of learning and are both recognized in preschool practices. A consequence may be that children’s play is separated from teacher directed learning activities and that young children are being pushed into formal education too early. From our own studies we can present some examples on this theme.

    Marianne Skoog (2012) shows that children´s literacy learning in preschool class is characterized by teacher- directed formal training of literacy skills, while practices where children have the possibility to act as meaning-making textusers in playful forms are unusual. Child-initiated play is thus not used as a pedagogical tool in order to stimulate children’s interest in reading and writing.

  • 15. Wahlström, Ninni
    et al.
    Skillmark, Albin
    Skoog, Marianne
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Contextualizing critical literacy2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper concerns critical literacy and its relation to society. The microanalytic focus on texts, methods and learners in critical literacy studies needs to be supplemented by addressing how local text practices are shaped in relation to larger social forces and global changes, as Luke & Freebody (1997) argue, when they emphasize that these larger perspectives “can form the very bases and objects of study of a critical literacy curriculum”. They ask for a stronger social imagination in guiding literacy education, acknowledging globalized political and environmental challenges as well as new communication patterns. To capture these wider social conditions, we take our starting point in the concept of cosmopolitanism.

    Drawing on a growing interest for empirical studies in critical literacy and literacy content in early literacy education (e.g. Bergöö & Jönsson 2012, Schmidt & Gustavsson 2011), we will in this paper more clearly address the question: ‘critical literacy in relation to what?’ when conducting empirical studies. Thus, the aim of this paper is to answer the following two interrelated research questions: With what concepts can the ambiguous term ‘critical literacy’ be characterized? How can critical literacy be related to the wider society through the concept of cosmopolitanism?

    This study is a conceptual analysis in the border zone between empirical literacy studies and studies in sociology/philosophy, where we examine the possibilities of establishing a link between the concepts of critical literacy and cosmopolitanism. Thus we examine connections between basic assumptions in critical literacy through the lens of three scholars within the genre: Anne Haas Dyson (1997), Vivian Maria Vasques (2004) and Hilary Janks (2010), in relation to three perspectives on cosmopolitanism: as cosmopolitan orientation, as cosmopolitanization and as a communicative cosmopolitanism.

    The analysis shows that critical literacy can be understood as a socio-political approach to literacy, framed by a critical social theory of cosmopolitanism, in its focus on deconstructing and reconstruction of texts and images.

    Relevance: The paper elaborate on the relation between two topical international research concepts, critical literacy and cosmopolitanism, which represent an interest for Nordic researchers

  • 16.
    Wahlström, Ninni
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Skoog, Marianne
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    A 'pluralistic literacy' - is there a need for such a didactic concept?2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With the concept of pluralistic literacy, we base the term literacy as a critical notion in an education characterized by pluralism (c.f. Kalantzis & Cope 2000), and transaction (c.f. Dewey 1949/1991). Pluralistic literacy is critical because it starts from the assumption that literacy is about “social power” and that a critical literacy education needs to go beyond literacy as a skill, “to engage students in the analysis and reconstruction of social fields” (Luke 2000, p. 451). Luke starts from the presupposition that reading and writing are about social power (ibid.). The critical aspect opens a reflective gap for the students to what is well-known as well as to what has earlier been unknown; a gap in which students reach a necessary distance to understand others, and others point of view (c.f. Haas Dyson 1997). Besides “which offer of meaning”, or “which story” the teacher choose to teach from, the didactic questions will be:  What sort of literacy do I invite my students to be (new) members of?  Is it possible for my students to ‘carry over’ some of their earlier experiences from other literacies into this literacy?  How to analyze the didactic questions of the what and the how is discussed in relation to an ethnographic two-years study of “written language learning” (and teaching), from preschool class through the first school year (Skoog 2012).

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