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  • 1.
    Aramo-Immonen, Heli
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Handelshögskolan vid Örebro Universitet.
    Carlborg, Per
    Örebro universitet, Handelshögskolan vid Örebro Universitet.
    Geissinger, Andrea
    Örebro universitet, Handelshögskolan vid Örebro Universitet.
    Hasche, Nina
    Örebro universitet, Handelshögskolan vid Örebro Universitet.
    Kask, Johan
    Örebro universitet, Handelshögskolan vid Örebro Universitet.
    Linton, Gabriel
    Örebro universitet, Handelshögskolan vid Örebro Universitet.
    Nykvist, Rasmus
    Örebro universitet, Handelshögskolan vid Örebro Universitet.
    Öberg, Christina
    Örebro universitet, Handelshögskolan vid Örebro Universitet.
    Shahin Moghadam, Sarah
    Örebro universitet, Handelshögskolan vid Örebro Universitet.
    Jussila, Jari J.
    Jyväskylä University, Jyväskylä, Finland.
    Mustafee, Navonil
    University of Exeter Business School, Exeter, United Kingdom.
    Shams, Tawfiq
    Örebro universitet, Handelshögskolan vid Örebro Universitet.
    Clustering the imp thought: searching roots and diversities in imp research2018Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    IMP research is often treated as an empirical perspective describing complexities of repeated business-to-business exchanges and their embeddedness. While building on some common understandings and concepts, this paper asks: How homogeneous is the IMP research? This paper uses cluster analysis to capture the roots and various sub-groups of IMP research as means to depict the question of homogeneity (i.e. a core focus in the research) or heterogeneity (i.e. using references from other fields or specific to sub-fields) of the IMP thought. In this scientific work in progress paper we introduce how we design to use bibliographical methods in order to harvest data from an extensive amount of IMP-related articles written from the 1970’s onwards. In this first attempt to reveal IMP we used overall 294 articles yielded to 10,615 co-citation relationships. A threshold of minimum number of citations of a cited reference was set to five (5) to capture such references that have been cited in multiple publications. We introduce visual mapping of defined subject area clusters and as an example we describe shortly clusters. Perhaps not surprisingly our findings suggest that IMP research is not so homogenous, with at least four clear clusters of IMP-research each utilizing different key references.

  • 2. Bocconcelli, Roberta
    et al.
    Carlborg, Per
    Örebro universitet, Handelshögskolan vid Örebro Universitet.
    Harrison, Debbie
    Hasche, Nina
    Örebro universitet, Handelshögskolan vid Örebro Universitet.
    Hedvall, Klas
    Huang, Lei
    Resource interaction and resource integration: Similarities, differences, reflections2019Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 3.
    Carlborg, Per
    Örebro universitet, Handelshögskolan vid Örebro Universitet.
    Circular Servitization in SME's: A Practice Approach2019Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 4.
    Carlborg, Per
    Industriell marknadsföring och industriell ekonomi, Linköpings universitet, Linköping, Sweden.
    Extending the Service Innovation Concept: Realization and Productivity2013Licentiatavhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to contribute to a better understanding of service innovation by exploring realization as a part of service innovation. Service innovation can be described as something that creates value for customers through new service offerings or service processes while realization refers to the actual use or deployment of the service.

    My research approach is based on a multiple case study, that focuses on three international firms with origins in Sweden. Empirical material has been gathered through interviews and focus groups. A literature review that tracks the evolution of service innovation further contributes to the exploration of the service innovation concept.

    Innovation has traditionally been connected to new technology and new products. However the present study has found that service innovation has evolved into a multifaceted concept. Specifically, service innovation is not restricted to the development of new products and services in the shape of new offerings, it also becomes relevant to consider the actual usage of the service offerings. In order to fully understand the process of service innovation, it is important to include the usage of a service offering in the service innovation concept. This realization occurs when the service offering is introduced and used in the customer’s processes, and typically involves both the customer and the provider.

    This research illustrates how realization requires resources from both the provider and the customer. In general, the realization part of the service innovation process requires more participation from the customer than the development of new offerings. However, this can vary depending on the customer’s competence, intention to interact and level of commitment. Considering an active or recipient customer role and also whether the service offering is directed at the products or the customer processes, this study shows how these different service offerings will have different impacts on service innovation realization, for example, in terms of different resources being required.

    The extended view of the service innovation concept, includes realization, and is therefore not limited to developing new offerings. This view implies that new areas of innovation that do not necessary need to include new technology, but contribute in other ways to customer value creation must be propelled into focus. Productivity improvements in customer processes are becoming important since they help create customer value (reduced costs, improved quality, reduced down-time etc.). Empirical evidence shows how service offerings that emphasize improvements in customer processes have become more important. This thesis discusses how this view of productivity can result in important benefits for customers, as consideration is given to both customer satisfaction and the use of customer resources. In this respect, productivity becomes a part of the extended service innovation concept.

    Extending the service innovation concept by adding realization implies an increased emphasis on deployment, and implicitly on customer value creation. Thus, service innovation becomes critical for gaining long-term sustainable competitive advantages through service.

    Delarbeid
    1. The evolution of service innovation research: a critical review and synthesis
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>The evolution of service innovation research: a critical review and synthesis
    2014 (engelsk)Inngår i: Service Industries Journal, ISSN 0264-2069, E-ISSN 1743-9507, Vol. 34, nr 5, s. 373-398Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The number of service innovation articles has increased dramatically in the past 25 years. By reviewing 128 articles published between 1986 and 2010, primarily in leading marketing and innovation journals, this study analyzes the progression of service innovation research according to topicality and perspective. The authors summarize prior research by clustering it into three evolutional phases and drawing parallels with the evolution of the wider services marketing field. Overall, the view of service innovation has evolved, from a complement of traditional product innovation to a multidimensional, all-encompassing notion that entails several functions, both within and outside the firm.

    sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
    Routledge, 2014
    Emneord
    service innovation, product innovation, review article, service development
    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-63746 (URN)10.1080/02642069.2013.780044 (DOI)000334060600001 ()2-s2.0-84897069333 (Scopus ID)
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2018-01-02 Laget: 2018-01-02 Sist oppdatert: 2019-03-26bibliografisk kontrollert
  • 5.
    Carlborg, Per
    Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell ekonomi, Linköpings universitet, Linköping, Sweden.
    On Service Innovation and Realization in Manufacturing Firms2015Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Service innovation is increasingly becoming a basis for manufacturing firms to reach and sustain competitive advantages. While traditional product innovation typically includes how new technology can be utilized in new products, service innovation spans a broader area that is not exclusively focused on new technology, but rather how resources can be developed into value propositions and then integrated in the customer’s process in order to support customer value creation through realization. However, manufacturing firms that infuse services struggle with service innovation; this becomes especially evident in the realization phase.

    This thesis is a compilation of five papers discussing different aspects of service innovation realization and the inherited challenges. The study builds upon empirical data from four Swedish manufacturing firms that infuse services and develop new value propositions that include both products and services to support customer processes.

    The thesis illustrates realization as a phase in service innovation where the firm interacts with its customer in order to adjust, revise and further find new ways of improving the customer’s processes through for example customer training. Realization is characterized by a deployment phase and a post-deployment phase that represent the ongoing relationship between the customer and the firm.

    Depending on who has the competencies or ability to integrate the resources that are needed for service innovation, different interaction patterns are identified. Through indirect interaction, the firm facilitates the customer’s value creation through, for example, preventive maintenance, while through direct interaction the firm acts as a co-creator in the service innovation process and hence work jointly together with the customer in order to improve customer value creation.

    This thesis contributes to the literature by characterizing service innovation realization and by increasing the understanding for different interaction patterns in the service innovation process.

    Delarbeid
    1. The evolution of service innovation research: a critical review and synthesis
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>The evolution of service innovation research: a critical review and synthesis
    2014 (engelsk)Inngår i: Service Industries Journal, ISSN 0264-2069, E-ISSN 1743-9507, Vol. 34, nr 5, s. 373-398Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The number of service innovation articles has increased dramatically in the past 25 years. By reviewing 128 articles published between 1986 and 2010, primarily in leading marketing and innovation journals, this study analyzes the progression of service innovation research according to topicality and perspective. The authors summarize prior research by clustering it into three evolutional phases and drawing parallels with the evolution of the wider services marketing field. Overall, the view of service innovation has evolved, from a complement of traditional product innovation to a multidimensional, all-encompassing notion that entails several functions, both within and outside the firm.

    sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
    Routledge, 2014
    Emneord
    service innovation, product innovation, review article, service development
    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-63746 (URN)10.1080/02642069.2013.780044 (DOI)000334060600001 ()2-s2.0-84897069333 (Scopus ID)
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2018-01-02 Laget: 2018-01-02 Sist oppdatert: 2019-03-26bibliografisk kontrollert
    2. A lean approach for service productivity improvements: synergy or oxymoron?
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>A lean approach for service productivity improvements: synergy or oxymoron?
    2013 (engelsk)Inngår i: Managing Service Quality, ISSN 0960-4529, E-ISSN 1758-8030, Vol. 23, nr 4, s. 291-304Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: Service productivity continues to receive ever-greater amounts of attention as service covers a greater portion of the economy. As competition increases, service productivity becomes increasingly important. This study aims to explore the applicability of lean principles in a service context and to conceptualize how these principles impact service productivity.

    Design/methodology/approach: This paper presents a conceptual analysis of the six most commonly used lean principles in manufacturing and their applicability to a service context for different types of services. Using this analysis, six propositions are developed to examine the influence of lean on service productivity.

    Findings: This study suggests promising synergies, as well as important obstacles, for applying lean principles in services. Standardizing services and increasing reliability in service processes through lean principles can increase efficiency. However, the customer's active role in certain services and, simultaneously, high diversity make the application of lean principles increasingly difficult. Also, customer satisfaction must be considered when improving service productivity, otherwise the positive long-term effects of a lean approach in service will be absent.

    Practical implications: These findings are useful for organizations aiming to improve their service productivity Particularly, lean principles are invaluable to increase efficiency and customer satisfaction for services with low diversity and low customer participation. This paper suggests a direction for the proper use of lean principles for different service types, and how efficiency and customer satisfaction are affected through a lean approach.

    Originality/value: This study contributes to the research on service productivity and continues the discussion on prototypic characteristics of service and manufacturing orientations.

    sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
    Emerald Group Publishing Limited, 2013
    Emneord
    Lean principles, Service productivity, Service process, Efficiency, Customer satisfaction, Lean production
    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-63745 (URN)10.1108/MSQ-04-2013-0052 (DOI)000321087100003 ()2-s2.0-84879329959 (Scopus ID)
    Konferanse
    7th AMA SERVSIG International Service Research Conference, Helsinki, Finland, June 7-9, 2012
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2018-01-02 Laget: 2018-01-02 Sist oppdatert: 2019-03-26bibliografisk kontrollert
    3. Service process modularization and modular strategies
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Service process modularization and modular strategies
    2014 (engelsk)Inngår i: The journal of business & industrial marketing, ISSN 0885-8624, E-ISSN 2052-1189, Vol. 29, nr 4, s. 313-323Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: This paper aims to investigate the role of service modularity in developing and deploying efficient services, while at the same time meeting diverse customer needs. The analysis distinguishes between different service types and sets forth key issues for service modularization, identifying supporting resources (both internal and customer) and associated modular strategies for the different types.

    Design/methodology/approach: The study design used an exploratory case study approach, focusing on three Swedish manufacturing firms that are moving toward an increased service focus (service infusion). Data were collected through interviews and focus groups, and the collected data were analyzed independently, before being merged and synthesized in a cross-case analysis. Themes and patterns were extracted and linked to the theoretical framework following a systematic combining process.

    Findings: This study contributes insights to the emerging field of service modularity by investigating process modularization and modular strategies. A framework is put forward outlining modular strategies for four different service types covering both a passive and an active role for a customer. From a theoretical point of view, the role of the customer is added to the discussion to advocate for the necessity of a co-creative perspective in service modularity.

    Originality/value: This article contributes to the emerging research field of service modularity by providing empirical insights into how modularization and modular strategies can enable more efficient services. Depending on service type, different modular strategies are set forth. This study also highlights the need to recognize customer-specific activities, resources and competencies as pivotal parts of the modular service processes. Such insights are particularly relevant given the established view of service modules as functions of intra-firm activities.

    sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
    Emerald Group Publishing Limited, 2014
    Emneord
    Service development, B2B services, Modular strategies, Modularization, Service deployment, Service modularity
    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-63752 (URN)10.1108/JBIM-08-2013-0170 (DOI)000341888300006 ()2-s2.0-84899030787 (Scopus ID)
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2018-01-02 Laget: 2018-01-02 Sist oppdatert: 2019-03-26bibliografisk kontrollert
    4. Triadic Value Propositions: When It Takes More Than Two to Tango
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Triadic Value Propositions: When It Takes More Than Two to Tango
    2016 (engelsk)Inngår i: Service Science, ISSN 2164-3962, E-ISSN 2164-3970, Vol. 8, nr 3, s. 282-299Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Value propositions are reciprocal resource-integration promises and value alignment mechanisms operating to and from actors seeking an equitable exchange. In a business triad, any change in the relationship between two actors also affects relationships with the third actor, influencing resource integration and value creation at the value constellation level. This study of the development of a triadic value proposition analyzes how the discontinuous effects of a new service initiative alter the relationships among actors in a manufacturer-dealer-user triad. A qualitative empirical inquiry examines a 10-year process, in which a leading industry incumbent enters the service business by crafting a triadic value proposition. As the value proposition evolves over time, the network ties-and thus the interdependence among manufacturer, dealer, and user-strengthen. The findings offer firms a better understanding of how to involve and collaborate with key actors to initiate discontinuous changes at the firm and network levels. These insights are particularly timely in light of the difficulties that product firms face when intermediaries are decisive for the success of their service-led growth initiatives.

    sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
    Institute for Operations Research and the Management Sciences (INFORMS), 2016
    Emneord
    value proposition, network ties, relationship development, service systems, case study application
    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-63753 (URN)10.1287/serv.2016.0145 (DOI)000390566500004 ()
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2018-01-02 Laget: 2018-01-02 Sist oppdatert: 2019-03-26bibliografisk kontrollert
    5. Who Involves Whom?: Interaction modes in service innovation
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Who Involves Whom?: Interaction modes in service innovation
    2015 (engelsk)Manuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: Collaboration with customers and the involvement of a customer’s resources have been regarded as a key issues in the service innovation process. However, research that covers collaboration in service innovation tends to have a one-sided focus, as it especially concentrates on the involvement of customer resources in the firm’s development of the offering per se and hence foresees the firm’s involvement of resources in the later part of the service innovation. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to analyze resource involvement from both the firm and the customer in the service innovation process.

    Design/methodology/approach: The study used an exploratory case study approach, focusing on two Swedish manufacturing firms in a business-to-business context that add services to their core product offerings (service infusion). Data was collected through interviews and focus groups.

    Findings: The study found that different types of interaction modes are related to the integration of varying key resources from both the firm and the customer. A typology of interaction modes in service innovation, based on different levels of involvement, is developed.

    Managerial implications: Increased and more specific knowledge of the customer’s resources is required in order to manage and coordinate how and with what resources the customer and the firm should contribute to the service innovation process.

    Originality/Value: The previous service innovation literature tends to focus on how the customer can be involved in the firm’s development of offerings per se. This article suggests that focus should also include the firm’s involvement in the later phases of the service innovation process. The study contributes to the research on involvement in service innovation by showing how resources from both the customer and the firm are integrated in the service innovation process.

    Emneord
    Service innovation, involvement, resource integration, co-creation, B2B, reciprocity.
    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-62335 (URN)
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2015-05-19 Laget: 2017-11-13 Sist oppdatert: 2019-03-26bibliografisk kontrollert
  • 6.
    Carlborg, Per
    Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Who Involves Whom?: Interaction modes in service innovation2015Manuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: Collaboration with customers and the involvement of a customer’s resources have been regarded as a key issues in the service innovation process. However, research that covers collaboration in service innovation tends to have a one-sided focus, as it especially concentrates on the involvement of customer resources in the firm’s development of the offering per se and hence foresees the firm’s involvement of resources in the later part of the service innovation. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to analyze resource involvement from both the firm and the customer in the service innovation process.

    Design/methodology/approach: The study used an exploratory case study approach, focusing on two Swedish manufacturing firms in a business-to-business context that add services to their core product offerings (service infusion). Data was collected through interviews and focus groups.

    Findings: The study found that different types of interaction modes are related to the integration of varying key resources from both the firm and the customer. A typology of interaction modes in service innovation, based on different levels of involvement, is developed.

    Managerial implications: Increased and more specific knowledge of the customer’s resources is required in order to manage and coordinate how and with what resources the customer and the firm should contribute to the service innovation process.

    Originality/Value: The previous service innovation literature tends to focus on how the customer can be involved in the firm’s development of offerings per se. This article suggests that focus should also include the firm’s involvement in the later phases of the service innovation process. The study contributes to the research on involvement in service innovation by showing how resources from both the customer and the firm are integrated in the service innovation process.

  • 7.
    Carlborg, Per
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Handelshögskolan vid Örebro Universitet. Department of Management and Engineering, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Ellström, Daniel
    Department of Management and Engineering, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Kowalkowski, Christian
    Department of Management and Engineering, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    When service turns smart: Implications for customer-firm relationships2016Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 8.
    Carlborg, Per
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Handelshögskolan vid Örebro Universitet.
    Hasche, Nina
    Örebro universitet, Handelshögskolan vid Örebro Universitet.
    Kask, Johan
    Örebro universitet, Handelshögskolan vid Örebro Universitet.
    Business model transformation: a dynamic network approach2018Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 9.
    Carlborg, Per
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Handelshögskolan vid Örebro Universitet.
    Hasche, Nina
    Örebro universitet, Handelshögskolan vid Örebro Universitet.
    Kask, Johan
    Örebro universitet, Handelshögskolan vid Örebro Universitet.
    Forecasting the network transformation of electric utilities in the 2020s: A Delphi-based scenario approach2019Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 10.
    Carlborg, Per
    et al.
    Division of Industrial Marketing, Department of Management and Engineering, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Kindström, Daniel
    Division of Industrial Marketing, Department of Management and Engineering, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Service modularity for flexibility2013Inngår i: Managing industrial service in dynamic landscapes: A flexibility perspective / [ed] Fredrik Nordin, Solna: MTC , 2013, s. 69-80Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 11.
    Carlborg, Per
    et al.
    Department of Management and Engineering, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Kindström, Daniel
    Department of Management and Engineering, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Service process modularization and modular strategies2014Inngår i: The journal of business & industrial marketing, ISSN 0885-8624, E-ISSN 2052-1189, Vol. 29, nr 4, s. 313-323Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: This paper aims to investigate the role of service modularity in developing and deploying efficient services, while at the same time meeting diverse customer needs. The analysis distinguishes between different service types and sets forth key issues for service modularization, identifying supporting resources (both internal and customer) and associated modular strategies for the different types.

    Design/methodology/approach: The study design used an exploratory case study approach, focusing on three Swedish manufacturing firms that are moving toward an increased service focus (service infusion). Data were collected through interviews and focus groups, and the collected data were analyzed independently, before being merged and synthesized in a cross-case analysis. Themes and patterns were extracted and linked to the theoretical framework following a systematic combining process.

    Findings: This study contributes insights to the emerging field of service modularity by investigating process modularization and modular strategies. A framework is put forward outlining modular strategies for four different service types covering both a passive and an active role for a customer. From a theoretical point of view, the role of the customer is added to the discussion to advocate for the necessity of a co-creative perspective in service modularity.

    Originality/value: This article contributes to the emerging research field of service modularity by providing empirical insights into how modularization and modular strategies can enable more efficient services. Depending on service type, different modular strategies are set forth. This study also highlights the need to recognize customer-specific activities, resources and competencies as pivotal parts of the modular service processes. Such insights are particularly relevant given the established view of service modules as functions of intra-firm activities.

  • 12.
    Carlborg, Per
    et al.
    Division of Industrial Marketing, Department of Management and Engineering, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Kindström, Daniel
    Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Shaping markets: moving beyond the dyad2016Inngår i: Marketing in the age of data / [ed] Klemens Knoeferle, European Marketing Academy (EMAC) , 2016, s. 209-209Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This study explores factors that influence market shaping in a B2B market channel. Through a case study from the Swedish steel industry insights in how actors connect to each other in order to shape markets and to enable new innovations are drawn. This study finds that by approaching downstream actors a supplier can influence, and even shape, the development of the market in a favorable direction. The shaping of new markets is dependent on both the power of the supplier, and the characteristics of the market. For suppliers who find their customer to be a barrier for the development of a market, finding new ways to interact with downstream actors might be a valid market opportunity and mutually beneficial to the entire market channel. By leveraging its knowledge, the supplier can develop innovative paths to shape a new market. This study contributes to understand market innovation and how the supplier can influence downstream actors to build markets and to increase competitiveness.

  • 13.
    Carlborg, Per
    et al.
    Department of Management and Engineering, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Kindström, Daniel
    Department of Management and Engineering, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Kowalkowski, Christian
    Centre for Relationship Marketing and Service Management, Department of Marketing, Hanken School of Economics, Helsinki, Finland.
    A lean approach for service productivity improvements: synergy or oxymoron?2013Inngår i: Managing Service Quality, ISSN 0960-4529, E-ISSN 1758-8030, Vol. 23, nr 4, s. 291-304Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: Service productivity continues to receive ever-greater amounts of attention as service covers a greater portion of the economy. As competition increases, service productivity becomes increasingly important. This study aims to explore the applicability of lean principles in a service context and to conceptualize how these principles impact service productivity.

    Design/methodology/approach: This paper presents a conceptual analysis of the six most commonly used lean principles in manufacturing and their applicability to a service context for different types of services. Using this analysis, six propositions are developed to examine the influence of lean on service productivity.

    Findings: This study suggests promising synergies, as well as important obstacles, for applying lean principles in services. Standardizing services and increasing reliability in service processes through lean principles can increase efficiency. However, the customer's active role in certain services and, simultaneously, high diversity make the application of lean principles increasingly difficult. Also, customer satisfaction must be considered when improving service productivity, otherwise the positive long-term effects of a lean approach in service will be absent.

    Practical implications: These findings are useful for organizations aiming to improve their service productivity Particularly, lean principles are invaluable to increase efficiency and customer satisfaction for services with low diversity and low customer participation. This paper suggests a direction for the proper use of lean principles for different service types, and how efficiency and customer satisfaction are affected through a lean approach.

    Originality/value: This study contributes to the research on service productivity and continues the discussion on prototypic characteristics of service and manufacturing orientations.

  • 14.
    Carlborg, Per
    et al.
    Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Kindström, Daniel
    Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Kowalkowski, Christian
    Hanken School of Economics, Helsinki, Finland.
    Lean principles in business-to-business services: Synergy or oxymoron?2012Inngår i: Innovative Service Prespectives: Proceedings from the AMA SERVSIG International Service ResearchConference, Helsinki, Finland, June 7-9 2012 / [ed] Jacob Mickelsson and Anu Helkkula, Hanken School of Economics , 2012Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: As customer needs becomes more heterogeneous, and as the importance of service grows, customer-specific requirements have led to increased demand for efficient and customized services in many industry sectors. However, there is scant research on developing services that are both efficient and customized. The objective of the present study is to explore the applicability of Lean, one of the best-known practices for manufacturing efficiency, in business-to-business services.

    Design / Methodology / Approach: The empirical part consists of a multiple study of service-providing industrial companies in Northern Europe. Data was gathered through semi-structured interviews and participating observations.

    Findings: The study suggests promising synergies, but also important obstacles when applying Lean principles to business-to-business service operations. The ability to standardize service elements and increase reliability in service processes through Lean principles can increase service efficiency and ensure service quality. However, the active role of the customer in certain services makes it increasingly difficult to apply Lean. Furthermore, there are certain key differences in the view on value creation between a service perspective and a Lean principles perspective, which should be addressed.

    Practical Implications: The findings are useful for companies looking to improve their service deployment. In particular, Lean is a valuable tool with which to increase standardization and reliability in service processes.

    Originality / Value: The study contributes to the research on service efficiency and customization. It also contributes to the continuous discussion on prototypic characteristics of service and manufacturing orientations.

  • 15.
    Carlborg, Per
    et al.
    Division of Industrial Marketing, Department of Management and Engineering, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Kindström, Daniel
    Division of Industrial Marketing, Department of Management and Engineering, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Kowalkowski, Christian
    Division of Industrial Marketing, Department of Management and Engineering, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Service innovation and new service development: An analysis of research 1986-20122013Inngår i: Proceedings of the QUIS13 International Research Symposium on Service Excellence in Management, 2013, s. 480-482Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 16.
    Carlborg, Per
    et al.
    Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Kindström, Daniel
    Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Kowalkowski, Christian
    Hanken School of Economics, Helsinki, Finland.
    Service modularity as an enabler for value co-creation2012Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: Traditional notions of product and service modularity miss the link between the provider and customer. By recognizing the potential role of customer competences and activities in service modules, this study aims to investigate how modular services can enhance collaboration and value cocreation between the service provider and the customer.

    Design/methodology/approach: A qualitative study of four Swedish manufacturing firms moving into service and integrated solution fields was conducted, with modular business services as the unit of analysis. Data was collected through interviews, focus groups, and participant observations. The gathered data enabled a conceptualization of modular services based on provider and customer components, activities, and competences.

    Findings: The decomposition of services into modules is not only a decomposition of components; activities and competences must also be considered. In addition, given that services can be co-created, service modules may also include customer elements. This increases the complexity of the modules, but also the potential value for the customer and provider. The observation of customer-specific and supplier-specific parts of modules is an important finding with which to further develop modularity in a service context.

    Originality/Value: The paper contributes to the emerging research field of service modularity by providing empirical insights into how service modularity can help achieve more efficient services. In particular, the paper addresses the need to recognize customer-specific activities and competences as a pivotal part of modular services. Such insights are particularly relevant given the established views ofservice modules as a function of intra-firm components.

  • 17.
    Carlborg, Per
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Handelshögskolan vid Örebro Universitet.
    Kindström, Daniel
    Department of Management and Engineering, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Kowalkowski, Christian
    Department of Management and Engineering, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Servitization Practices: A Co-Creation Taxonomy2018Inngår i: Practices and Tools for Servitization: Managing Service Transition / [ed] Kohtamäki, M.; Baines, T.; Rabetino, R.; Bigdeli, A.Z., Springer, 2018, s. 309-321Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 18.
    Carlborg, Per
    et al.
    Department of Management and Engineering, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Kindström, Daniel
    Department of Management and Engineering, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Kowalkowski, Christian
    Department of Management and Engineering, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden; Department of Marketing, CERS – Centre for Relationship Marketing and Service Management, Hanken School of Economics, Helsinki, Finland.
    The evolution of service innovation research: a critical review and synthesis2014Inngår i: Service Industries Journal, ISSN 0264-2069, E-ISSN 1743-9507, Vol. 34, nr 5, s. 373-398Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The number of service innovation articles has increased dramatically in the past 25 years. By reviewing 128 articles published between 1986 and 2010, primarily in leading marketing and innovation journals, this study analyzes the progression of service innovation research according to topicality and perspective. The authors summarize prior research by clustering it into three evolutional phases and drawing parallels with the evolution of the wider services marketing field. Overall, the view of service innovation has evolved, from a complement of traditional product innovation to a multidimensional, all-encompassing notion that entails several functions, both within and outside the firm.

  • 19.
    Carlborg, Per
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Handelshögskolan vid Örebro Universitet.
    Nord, Tomas
    Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Transforming business models: a well-being and ecosystem approach2017Inngår i: 24th Nordic Academy of Management Conference (NFF 2017) - Nordic Opportunities, 2017Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Given that we are spending more times indoors, there is a need for re-formulation of business model in the wood-product industry. A business model transformation (BMT) towards an outward-looking business model with the user’s well-being in loci is surfacing. This study develops a framework for how a business model can be configured based on well-being and value in context.

    Preliminary result indicates a business model transformation; from emphasizing products to emphasizing well-being and the experiences of the customer (e.g., how the end-user perceive in-door wooden material). Interestingly, the business model expand the market view from a narrow focus on e.g., market shares and total revenues, to include the whole ecosystem and hence including environmental considerations as well as human well-being.

    Given that markets are shaped by the actors engaging in market activities, this research emphasize key factors in business model transformation by companies aiming to form sustainable business models where the well-being of humans are emphasized and where environmental effects are taken into considerations. We believe the Nordic countries with their expanding wood-industry can serve as a raw-model for developing sustainable business models that can meet future requirements of sustainable markets.

  • 20.
    Kask, Johan
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Handelshögskolan vid Örebro Universitet.
    Van, Thi Phuong
    Örebro universitet, Handelshögskolan vid Örebro Universitet.
    Carlborg, Per
    Örebro universitet, Handelshögskolan vid Örebro Universitet.
    Business Models, Ecosystem and Adaptive Fit: The Case of Electric Utilities2019Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 21.
    Kindström, Daniel
    et al.
    Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Marketing and Industrial Economics, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Carlborg, Per
    Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Marketing and Industrial Economics, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Nordin, Fredrik
    Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Kowalkowski, Christian
    Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Marketing and Industrial Economics, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Service selling in industrial organizations: An exploratory study of challenges and opportunities2011Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 22.
    Kindström, Daniel
    et al.
    Industriell marknadsföring och industriell ekonomi, Linköpings universitet,Linköping, Sweden.
    Kowalkowski, Christian
    Industriell marknadsföring och industriell ekonomi, Linköpings universitet, Linköping, Sweden.
    Carlborg, Per
    Industriell marknadsföring och industriell ekonomi, Linköpings universitet, Linköping, Sweden.
    An increased focus on service selling: Implications for the sales function2011Inngår i: QUIS 12: Advances in service quality, innovation, and excellence / [ed] Bo van der Rhee, Liana Victorino, Cornell University Press, 2011, s. 136-139Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 23.
    Kindström, Daniel
    et al.
    Department of Management and Engineering, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Ottosson, Mikael
    Department of Management and Engineering, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Carlborg, Per
    Örebro universitet, Handelshögskolan vid Örebro Universitet. Department of Management and Engineering, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Unraveling firm-level activities for shaping markets2018Inngår i: Industrial Marketing Management, ISSN 0019-8501, E-ISSN 1873-2062, Vol. 68, s. 36-45Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    As the marketing literature increasingly construes markets as malleable entities, research studies of ‘market-shaping’ strategies have gained increasing attention in recent years. Those are proactive, deliberate initiatives which a firm takes with the aim of re-shaping an operating environment comprising direct customers, customers' customers, and other actors such as its competitors. Our study derives a theoretical framework for market-shaping from the existing literature and an in-depth case study of one market-leading firm in the steel industry, which has been working actively in the shaping of a market. Analysis of the responses of a range of experienced executive staff to unstructured and semi-structured interviews shows, among other things, that in order to shape the market, the firm performed many individual and aggregated activities at three levels of influence – system, market offer and technology – with various actors in the market in focus. These findings are the basis of a proposed activity framework for the proactive shaping of a market: that is, what firms can do in order to shape an existing market, drive growth and create sustainable competitive advantage.

  • 24.
    Kowalkowski, Christian
    et al.
    Hanken School of Economics, Helsinki, Finland.
    Kindström, Daniel
    Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Carlborg, Per
    Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Triadic value propositions in service networks: A longitudinal case study2014Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    As manufacturers initiate service-led growth, the interdependence between manufacturer, intermediary, and user increases. In this study, we conceptualize a triadic value proposition and analyze how the structural, economic, and social dimensions of the value proposition between manufacturer, dealer, and user change when the manufacturer enters the service market. The research is based on a five-year study of a multinational industry incumbent entering the service business by offering a new service for professional users (B2B). Primary data comes from interviews with respondents from the manufacturer, dealers, and end-users in the Netherlands, Sweden, and the US. What makes the context and time particularly interesting to study from a value proposition perspective is the fact that (1) the dealers sell multiple brands and have no specific loyalty towards a particular manufacturer, and (2) entering the service market implied a redefinition of the existing relationship and value proposition characteristics in order to succeed. Results show the dynamics of the triadic value proposition throughout the entire service development process, from idea and concept to launch and sales. Modifications and adaptations take place due to factors such as emergent opportunities, unexpected limitations, and internal strategic re-prioritizations, as well as inputs from dealers and customers along the way. By analyzing how the proposition evolves over time, we can better understand how to involve and collaborate with key actors in order to initiate a disruptive change on a firm and network level. This is particularly timely given the major difficulties related to service infusion when intermediaries play a decisive role for the success.

  • 25.
    Kowalkowski, Christian
    et al.
    Department of Management and Engineering, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden; Department of Marketing, Centre for Relationship Marketing and Service Management, Hanken School of Economics, Helsinki, Finland.
    Kindström, Daniel
    Department of Management and Engineering, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Carlborg, Per
    Department of Management and Engineering, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Triadic Value Propositions: When It Takes More Than Two to Tango2016Inngår i: Service Science, ISSN 2164-3962, E-ISSN 2164-3970, Vol. 8, nr 3, s. 282-299Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Value propositions are reciprocal resource-integration promises and value alignment mechanisms operating to and from actors seeking an equitable exchange. In a business triad, any change in the relationship between two actors also affects relationships with the third actor, influencing resource integration and value creation at the value constellation level. This study of the development of a triadic value proposition analyzes how the discontinuous effects of a new service initiative alter the relationships among actors in a manufacturer-dealer-user triad. A qualitative empirical inquiry examines a 10-year process, in which a leading industry incumbent enters the service business by crafting a triadic value proposition. As the value proposition evolves over time, the network ties-and thus the interdependence among manufacturer, dealer, and user-strengthen. The findings offer firms a better understanding of how to involve and collaborate with key actors to initiate discontinuous changes at the firm and network levels. These insights are particularly timely in light of the difficulties that product firms face when intermediaries are decisive for the success of their service-led growth initiatives.

1 - 25 of 25
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