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  • 1. Burk, William J.
    et al.
    Kerr, Margaret
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Stattin, Håkan
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    The co-evolution of early adolescent friendship networks, school involvement, and delinquent behaviors2008In: Revue française de sociologie, ISSN 0035-2969, E-ISSN 1958-5691, Vol. 49, no 3, 499-522 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [fr]

    Cette étude examine les processus de sélection et d’influence liés à l’engagement scolaire et au comportement délinquant dans les relations d’amitié chez les adolescents. Nous appliquons des modèles d’analyse de réseaux dynamiques (Snijders, Steglich et Schweinberger, 2007) examinant la co-évolution des comportements et des réseaux à un échantillon longitudinal de jeunes suédois (n = 445) observé pendant cinq ans. Les résultats indiquent que les choix des jeunes sont caractérisés par un fort niveau de réciprocité, de transitivité, d’homophilie de genre et d’homophilie fondée sur des niveaux semblables d’engagement scolaire et de comportement déviant. Des effets d’influence indiquent que les jeunes adoptent les comportements déviants de leurs amis. Le niveau d’engagement scolaire permet de prédire des changements dans le comportement déviant et ce dernier permet en retour de prédire une évolution dans l’engagement scolaire.

  • 2.
    Burk, William J.
    et al.
    Örebro University, Department of Behavioural, Social and Legal Sciences.
    Steglich, Christian E. G.
    Snijders, A. B.
    Beyond dyadic interdependence: actor-oriented models for co-evolving social networks and individual behaviors2007In: International Journal of Behavioral Development, ISSN 0165-0254, E-ISSN 1464-0651, Vol. 31, no 4, 397-404 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Actor-oriented models are described as a longitudinal strategy for examining the co-evolution of social networks and individual behaviors. We argue that these models provide advantages over conventional approaches due to their ability to account for inherent dependencies between individuals embedded in a social network (i.e., reciprocity, transitivity) and model interdependencies between network and behavioral dynamics. We provide a brief explanation of actor-oriented processes, followed by a description of parameter estimates, model specification, and selection procedures used by the Simulation Investigation for Empirical Network Analyses (SIENA) software program (Snijders, Steglich, Schweinberger, & Huisman, 2006). To illustrate the applicability of these models, we provide an empirical example investigating the co-evolution of friendship networks and delinquent behaviors in a longitudinal sample of Swedish adolescents with the goal of simultaneously assessing selection and influence processes. Findings suggest both processes play a substantive role in the observed dynamics of delinquent behaviors, with influence having a relatively stronger role than selection (especially in reciprocated friendships).

  • 3.
    Burk, William J.
    et al.
    Behavioural Science Institute, Radboud University Nijmegen, Nijmegen, Netherlands.
    van der Vorst, Haske
    Behavioural Science Institute, Radboud University Nijmegen, Nijmegen, Netherlands.
    Kerr, Margaret
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Stattin, Håkan
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Alcohol use and friendship dynamics: selection and socialization in early-, middle-, and late-adolescent peer networks2012In: Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, ISSN 1937-1888, E-ISSN 1938-4114, Vol. 73, no 1, 89-98 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: This study examined developmental trends of peer selection and socialization related to friends' alcohol use in early-, middle-, and late-adolescent peer networks, with the primary goal of identifying when these mechanisms emerge, when these mechanisms exert their strongest effects, and when (or if) they decrease in importance. Gender and reciprocity are also tested as moderators of selection and socialization.

    Method: Cross-sequential study (three age cohorts assessed at three annual measurements) of 950 youth (53% male) initially attending classrooms in Grade 4 (n = 314; M = 10.1 years), Grade 7 (n = 335; M = 13.1 years), and Grade 10 (n = 301; M = 16.2 years).

    Results: Similarity between friends' drinking behaviors emerged in Grade 6, peaked in Grade 8, and decreased throughout late adolescence. Adolescents in all three age groups selected peers with similar drinking behaviors, with effects being more robust for early-adolescent males and for late-adolescent females. Peers' alcohol use emerged as a significant predictor of middle-adolescent alcohol use and remained a significant predictor of individual drinking behaviors throughout late adolescence. Socialization did not differ as a function of gender or reciprocity.

    Conclusions: Alcohol-related peer selection was relatively more important than socialization in early-adolescent friendship networks; both mechanisms contributed to explaining similarity between the drinking behaviors of friends in middle and late adolescence. Effects of peer socialization emerged in middle adolescence and remained throughout late adolescence. (J Stud. Alcohol Drugs, 73, 89-98, 2012)

  • 4.
    Giannotta, Fabrizia
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Burk, William J.
    Ciairano, Silvia
    The role of inhibitory control in children’s cooperative behaviors during a structured puzzle task2011In: Journal of experimental child psychology (Print), ISSN 0022-0965, E-ISSN 1096-0457, Vol. 110, no 3, 287-298 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examined the role of inhibitory control (measured by Stroop interference) in children’s cooperative behaviors during a structured puzzle task. The sample consisted of 250 8-, 10-, and 12-year-olds (117 girls and 133 boys) attending classrooms in three primary schools in Northern Italy. Children individually completed an elaborated Stroop task, were paired with classmates into 125 dyads, and were observed during a 10-min puzzle task. Results confirmed that interaction partners exhibited similar levels of cooperative behaviors, and the cooperative behaviors of children predicted changes in the cooperative behaviors of their partners throughout the puzzle task. Cooperative behaviors of each interaction partner were predicted by the child’s own inhibitory control as well as the inhibitory control of the partner. Findings are discussed within a developmental contextual framework.

  • 5. Hafen, Christopher A.
    et al.
    Laursen, Brett
    Burk, William J.
    Kerr, Margaret
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Stattin, Håkan
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Homophily in stable and unstable adolescent friendships: Similarity breeds constancy2011In: Personality and Individual Differences, ISSN 0191-8869, E-ISSN 1873-3549, Vol. 51, no 5, 607-612 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines homophily among adolescent friends. Participants were drawn from a community-based sample of Swedish youth who ranged from 11 to 18 years old. A total of 436 girls and 338 boys identified their closest friends and described their own delinquent activities, intoxication frequency, achievement motivation, and self-worth. Correlations and difference scores describe similarity between reciprocally nominated friends on each dimension. Adolescents who remained friends from one year to the next tended to be more similar than those who did not, during the friendship and, to a lesser extent, before the friendship. Comparisons with random pairs of same-age peers revealed that age-group homophily accounts for most of the similarity between unstable friends but only a fraction of the similarity between stable friends.

  • 6.
    Kerr, Margaret
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Stattin, Håkan
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Burk, William J.
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    A reinterpretation of parental monitoring in longitudinal perspective2010In: Journal of research on adolescence, ISSN 1050-8392, E-ISSN 1532-7795, Vol. 20, no 1, 39-64 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A commonly used measure of parental monitoring is parents’ knowledge of adolescents’ daily activities. This measure has been criticized on the grounds that parents get more knowledge about teenagers’ daily activities through willing youth disclosure than through their own active monitoring efforts, but this claim was based on cross-sectional data. In the present study, we re-examine this claim with longitudinal data over two years from 938 7th and 8th graders and their parents. Youth disclosure was a significant longitudinal predictor of parental knowledge in single-rater and cross-rater models. Neither measure of parents’ monitoring efforts—control or solicitation—was a significant predictor. In analyses involving delinquency, parental monitoring efforts did not predict changes in delinquency over time, but youth disclosure did. We conclude that because knowledge measures do not seem to represent parental monitoring efforts, the conclusions from studies using these measures should be reinterpreted.

  • 7.
    Laursen, Brett
    et al.
    Department of Psychology, Florida Atlantic University.
    Popp, Danielle
    Department of Psychology, Florida Atlantic University.
    Burk, William J.
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Kerr, Margaret
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Stattin, Håkan
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Incorporating interdependence into developmental research: examples from the study of homophily and homogeneity2008In: Modeling dyadic and interdependent data in the developmental and behavioral sciences / [ed] Noel A. Card, James P. Selig, Todd Little, New York: Routledge , 2008, 11-37 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    (From the chapter) Our chapter is divided into three sections. The first section includes an overview of developmental approaches to interdependent data. The limitations of previous analytic strategies will be considered, followed by a discussion of procedures that address these limitations. Although these points apply to research on all close relationships, we will limit our examples to research on peers. Our particular focus is peer similarity, which encompasses selection and socialization influences. The second section describes a novel adaptation of the Actor-Partner Interdependence Model (APIM; Kashy & Kenny, 2000; Kenny & Cook, 1999) to longitudinal data on friendship homophily. Conventional APIM procedures are well suited to describe concurrent patterns of association; our modified structural equation modeling approach utilizes multiple group analyses with indistinguishable dyads to shed light on socialization and selection effects across time. The third section describes a new statistical application designed to estimate peer group homogeneity from longitudinal data. The SIENA statistical software package (Snijders, Pattison, Robins, & Handcock, 2006) simultaneously models selection and socialization effects over time. We describe how to partition variance into parameters that ascribe similarity to networks, dyads, and individuals. We close with a call for developmental scholars to take seriously the need to incorporate interdependence into the design of new research.

  • 8.
    Popp, Danielle
    et al.
    Department of Psychology, Florida Atlantic University.
    Laursen, Brett
    Department of Psychology, Florida Atlantic University.
    Kerr, Margaret
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Stattin, Håkan
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Burk, William K.
    Modeling homophily over time with an actor-partner interdependence model2008In: Developmental Psychology, ISSN 0012-1649, E-ISSN 1939-0599, Vol. 44, no 4, 1028-1039 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Selection and socialization have been implicated in friendship homophily, but the relative contributions of each are difficult to measure simultaneously because of the nonindependent nature of the data. To address this problem, the authors applied a multiple-groups longitudinal actor-partner interdependence model (D. A. Kashy & D. A. Kenny, 2000) for distinguishable dyads to 3 consecutive years of intoxication frequency data from a large community-based sample of Swedish youth. Participants, ranging from 12 to 18 years old (M = 14.35, SD = 1.56) at the start of the study, included 902 adol escents (426 girls and 476 boys) with at least one reciprocated friend during at least one time point and 212 adolescents (84 girls and 128 boys) without reciprocated friends at any time. Similarity estimates indicated strong effects for selection and socialization in friends' intoxication frequency. Over time, younger members of these dyads had less stable patterns of intoxication than older members, largely because younger partners changed their drinking behavior to resemble that of older partners.

  • 9.
    Preciado, Paulina
    et al.
    University of Oxford, Department of Statistics, Oxford, United Kingdom.
    Snijders, Tom A. B.
    University of Oxford, Nuffield College, Oxford, United Kingdom; University of Groningen, Netherlands.
    Burk, William J.
    Radboud Universiteit Nijmegen, Nijmegen, Netherlands.
    Stattin, Håkan
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Kerr, Margaret
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Does proximity matter?: Distance dependence of adolescent friendships2012In: Social Networks, ISSN 0378-8733, E-ISSN 1879-2111, Vol. 34, no 1, 18-31 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Geographic proximity is a determinant factor of friendship. Friendship datasets that include detailed geographic information are scarce, and when this information is available, the dependence of friendship on distance is often modelled by pre-specified parametric functions or derived from theory without further empirical assessment. This paper aims to give a detailed representation of the association between distance and the likelihood of friendship existence and friendship dynamics, and how this is modified by a few basic social and individual factors. The data employed is a three-wave network of 336 adolescents living in a small Swedish town, for whom information has been collected on their household locations. The analysis is a three-step process that combines (1) nonparametric logistic regressions to unravel the overall functional form of the dependence of friendship on distance, without assuming it has a particular strength or shape; (2) parametric logistic regressions to construct suitable transformations of distance that can be employed in (3) stochastic models for longitudinal network data, to assess how distance, individual covariates, and network structure shape adolescent friendship dynamics. It was found that the log-odds of friendship existence and friendship dynamics decrease smoothly with the logarithm of distance. For adolescents in different schools the dependence is linear, and stronger than for adolescents in the same school. Living nearby accounts, in this dataset, for an aspect of friendship dynamics that is not explicitly modelled by network structure or by individual covariates. In particular, the estimated distance effect is not correlated with reciprocity or transitivity effects. (C) 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 10.
    Selfhout, Maarten
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Burk, William
    Radboud Univ Nijmegen, Nijmegen, Netherlands.
    Branje, Susan
    Univ Utrecht, NL-3508 TC Utrecht, Netherlands.
    Denissen, Jaap
    Humboldt Univ, D-1086 Berlin, Germany.
    van Aken, Marcel
    Univ Utrecht, NL-3508 TC Utrecht, Netherlands.
    Meeus, Wim
    Univ Utrecht, NL-3508 TC Utrecht, Netherlands.
    Emerging late adolescent friendship networks and Big Five personality traits: a social network approach2010In: Journal of personality, ISSN 0022-3506, E-ISSN 1467-6494, Vol. 78, no 2, 509-538 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The current study focuses on the emergence of friendship networks among just-acquainted individuals, investigating the effects of Big Five personality traits on friendship selection processes. Sociometric nominations and self-ratings on personality traits were gathered from 205 late adolescents (mean age=19 years) at 5 time points during the first year of university. SIENA, a novel multilevel statistical procedure for social network analysis, was used to examine effects of Big Five traits on friendship selection. Results indicated that friendship networks between just-acquainted individuals became increasingly more cohesive within the first 3 months and then stabilized. Whereas individuals high on Extraversion tended to select more friends than those low on this trait, individuals high on Agreeableness tended to be selected more as friends. In addition, individuals tended to select friends with similar levels of Agreeableness, Extraversion, and Openness.

  • 11.
    Stattin, Håkan
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Persson, Stefan
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Burk, William J.
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Kerr, Margaret
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Adolescents' perceptions of the democratic functioning in their families2010In: European Psychologist, ISSN 1016-9040, E-ISSN 1878-531X, Vol. 16, no 1, 32-42 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Democratic family functioning has traditionally been interpreted as effects of parenting, leaving little room for the child in shaping the democratic climate. Based on a bidirectional view of family relationships, we argued that families characterized by openness and fair treatment should be the families adolescents experience as democratic. It should be the same families where parents know much about their adolescents’ whereabouts outside home. We used a longitudinal study following a group of 13-15 year old adolescents (N = 527) over two years, and we combined variable- and person-oriented methods. The results using variable-oriented methods confirmed that both adolescent and parental behaviors were concurrently, prospectively, and bidirectionally linked to adolescents’ perceptions of the democratic family climate. Using person-oriented methods, we found that adolescents perceived a highly democratic family climate in families characterized by both parental and adolescent openness and parental fair treatment. Parental knowledge was also highest in these families. Over time, increases or decreases in family functioning corresponded to increases or decreases in adolescents’ perceptions of their influence in family matters and in parental knowledge. We conclude that conceptions of the democratic functioning of the family have to include the behaviors of both parents and adolescents and that mutual responsivity is a marker of the democratic family functioning.

  • 12.
    Svensson, Ylva
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Burk, William J.
    Radboud University Nijmegen, Netherlands.
    Stattin, Håkan
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Kerr, Margaret
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Peer selection and influence of delinquent behavior of immigrant and nonimmigrant youths: does context matter?2012In: International Journal of Behavioral Development, ISSN 0165-0254, E-ISSN 1464-0651, Vol. 36, no 3, 178-185 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines selection and influence related to delinquent behaviors of immigrant and nonimmigrant adolescents attending three majority-immigrant schools (54% to 65.2% immigrant) and four minority-immigrant schools (11.1% to 25.1% immigrant) in one community. The sample included 1,169 youths (50.4% male; 24.2% immigrant) initially between the ages of 12 and 16 years (M =13.92, SD = 0.85). Results showed that immigrant and nonimmigrant adolescents were similar to their peers on delinquent behaviors, and peer selection and social influence operated in a complementary manner to explain this similarity. The processes did not differ between immigrants and nonimmigrants or between school contexts, suggesting that immigrants do not differ from nonimmigrants on either the prevalence or the processes behind delinquency.

  • 13.
    Tillfors, Maria
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Persson, Stefan
    Centre for Research on Child and Adolescent Mental Health, Karlstad University, Karlstad, Sweden.
    Willén, Maria
    School of Law, Psychology and Social work, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Burk, William J.
    Behavioural Science Institute, Raboud University Nijmegen, Netherlands.
    Prospective links between social anxiety and adolescent peer relations2012In: Journal of Adolescence, ISSN 0140-1971, E-ISSN 1095-9254, Vol. 35, no 5, 1255-1263 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines bi-directional links between social anxiety and multiple aspects of peer relations (peer acceptance, peer victimization, and relationship quality) in a longitudinal sample of 1528 adolescents assessed twice with one year between (754 females and 774 males; M = 14.7 years of age). Lower levels of peer acceptance predicted increases in social anxiety. Social anxiety predicted decreases in relationship support for males and increases in peer victimization for females. Collectively our findings suggest that peers seem to play a significant role for adolescent mental health and social anxiety seems to interfere with healthy peer relations. Importantly, developmental pathways for social anxiety seem to differ for adolescent females and males.

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