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  • 201.
    Bergwall, Andreas
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Hemmi, Kirsti
    Åbo Akademi University, Åbo, Finland; Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    The State of Proof in Finnish and Swedish Mathematics Textbooks: Capturing Differences in Approaches to Upper-Secondary Integral Calculus2017In: Mathematical Thinking and Learning, ISSN 1098-6065, E-ISSN 1532-7833, Vol. 19, no 1, p. 1-18Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Students’ difficulties with proof, scholars’ calls for proof to be a consistent part of K-12 mathematics, and the extensive use of textbooks in mathematics classrooms motivate investigations on how proof-related items are addressed in mathematics textbooks. We contribute to textbook research by focusing on opportunities to learn proof-related reasoning in integral calculus, a key subject in transitioning from secondary to tertiary education. We analyze expository sections and nearly 2000 students’ exercises in the four most frequently used Finnish and Swedish textbook series. Results indicate that Finnish textbooks offer more opportunities for learning proof than do Swedish textbooks. Proofs are also more visible in Finnish text-books than in Swedish materials, but the tasks in the latter reflect a higher variation in nature of proof-related reasoning. Our results are compared with methodologically similar U.S. studies. Consequences for learning and transition to university mathematics, as well as directions for future research, are discussed.

  • 202.
    Bergwall, Andreas
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Knutsson, Malin
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Students’ views on mathematical challenges in working as a teacher2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many frameworks for teacher knowledge describe the work of a mathematics teacher as highly complex and therefore requires specialized competences (e.g. Rowland & Ruthven, 2011). At the same time, countries around the world have difficulties in recruiting highly qualified students to teacher education. Furthermore, teacher educators often express that prospective teachers question the amount and level of mathematics that they have to learn. Research on views about teaching often focuses on teachers’ views (Philipp, 2007). Less is known about students’ views about working as a teacher and how those might influence their choice of a profession. The focus of this study is on the views that students have on mathematical challenges associated with the work of a mathematics teacher, when compared to other occupations.

  • 203.
    Berna, Amalia
    et al.
    CSIRO Ecosystem Sciences and CSIRO Food Futures Flagship, ACT, Australia.
    Vergara, Alexander
    University of California San Diego, USA.
    Trincavelli, Marco
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Huerta, Ramon
    University of California San Diego, USA.
    Afonja, Ayo
    Department of Chemistry, University College London, London, UK.
    Parkin, Ivan
    Binions, Russell
    Trowell, Stephen
    Evaluating zeolite-modified sensors: towards a faster set of chemical sensors2011In: Olfaction and electronic nose: proceedings of the 14th International Symposium on Olfaction and Electronic Nose (ISOEN 2011), May 2-5, 2011, New York City, USA, 2011, p. 50-52Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The response of zeolite-modified sensors, prepared by screen printing layers of chromium titanium oxide (CTO), were compared to unmodified tin oxide sensors using amplitude and transient responses. For transient responses we used a family of features, derived from the exponential moving average (EMA), to characterize chemo-resistive responses. All sensors were tested simultaneously against 20 individual volatile compounds from four chemical groups. The responses of the two types of sensors showed some independence. The zeolite modified CTO sensors discriminated compounds better using either amplitude response or EMA features and CTO-modified sensors also responded three times faster.

  • 204.
    Bernau, Maja
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Olsson, Tobias
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Kundtjänster för mobilapplikationer: Utveckling av rapportgenerator, symbolgenerator,RevitArchitecture–add-in och metadatahantering2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The goal of this project was to streamline and automate a business system. This was achieved through the implementation of four subtasks. This report describes what parts of the system that needed to be updated and why. It also describes how the development was carried out and what results the project ultimately led to.

     

    The project's tasks were to: Create a report generator designed to generate Excel documents.

    Develop a symbol generator where a user, through a web-based interface, could generate

    symbols. The symbols could then be used in the company's mobile application. Create an

    interface for a web service, and to develop an add-in for the modeling software Revit

    Architecture 2014.

  • 205.
    Bertilsson, Anders
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Alternative welding methods for nitrogen alloyed steel2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This project explores the feasibility of the solid-state welding method direct-drive friction welding to be used as a joining method for the nitrogen alloyed steel Uddeholm Vanax SuperClean, produced via processes based on powder metallurgy. Vanax SuperClean cannot be welded using fusion welding methods where the base material melts, due to nitrogen escaping the material, resulting in inferior quality welds. The cost of the material motivates the use of Vanax SuperClean for critical parts in applications, combined with a less costly material for the remaining parts, causing alternative joining methods to be examined.

    Vanax SuperClean is friction welded to itself and to Uddeholm steel types Stavax ESR and UHB 11. Samples are prepared for a number of examinations. Microstructures of the samples are examined using microscopy, microhardness testing is carried out per the Vickers principle, retained austenite is measured using X-ray diffraction and tensile testing of the welded samples is performed. Defect-free welds are produced in all examined samples, showing that the method is suitable for Vanax SuperClean and that no preheating or slow cooling of workpieces are necessary.

    The possibility of using friction stir welding as a joining method for Vanax SuperClean is discussed.

  • 206.
    Bertilsson, Jimmy
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Andersson, Joakim
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Ställtidsoptimering2012Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Emhart Glass Ltd is a world leader in glass bottle manufacturing. They designautomated machines that shape glass bottles. In Sweden there are two factories,one in Örebro and one in Sundsvall. In Örebro they manufacture primarily spareparts and new parts for the machines while they in Sundsvall assemble themachines. There are a total of 15 factories and offices around the world with theheadquarter located in Swiss Cham.Since Emhart Glass Örebro has long setup times on some of their machines. Thisis why we want to identify the current setup process and how the setup processdiffers between operators. We will also look at whether there are anyopportunities for improvement to be made and if they have a standardized way towork. A document that describes how to setup work should be done will also bedeveloped.An excellent tool to shorten the setup time in a production is the SMED method.The philosophy behind SMED is that you should analyze and separate the innerand outer activities. Inner and outer activities mean those activities which canonly be performed when the machine is turned off, respectively those activitiesthat can be performed when the machine is in operation.In order to standardize the adjustment process so that all operators are working ina similar way it's required that you make a documentation about how the workshould be done. Therefore, checklists been developed to the operator. "Checklista- Omställning.xls" is a checklist with the purpose to be able to check which partsof the preparations they have made before the next setup work. It has beendesigned to be easy to keep track of what parts you have done if you had to workwith the machine between the trial or if you quit your shift and leaving parts of thework to the next operator.If all of these improvements are implemented, we expect a set-up time reductionof 20.5% which corresponds to about 35min per set-up. By ignoring the runningtime and only check on the setup times, one can see an improvement of 36.4%.

  • 207.
    Besold, Tarek R.
    et al.
    Institute of Cognitive Science, University of Osnabrück, Osnabrück, Germany.
    Kuehnberger, Kai-Uwe
    Institute of Cognitive Science, University of Osnabrück, Osnabrück, Germany.
    Garcez, Artur d'Avila
    City University London, London, UK.
    Saffiotti, Alessandro
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Fischer, Martin H.
    University of Potsdam, Potsdam, Germany.
    Bundy, Alan
    University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, Scotland.
    Anchoring Knowledge in Interaction: Towards a Harmonic Subsymbolic/Symbolic Framework and Architecture of Computational Cognition2015In: Artificial General Intelligence (AGI 2015), Springer, 2015, p. 35-45Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We outline a proposal for a research program leading to a new paradigm, architectural framework, and prototypical implementation, for the cognitively inspired anchoring of an agent's learning, knowledge formation, and higher reasoning abilities in real-world interactions: Learning through interaction in real-time in a real environment triggers the incremental accumulation and repair of knowledge that leads to the formation of theories at a higher level of abstraction. The transformations at this higher level filter down and inform the learning process as part of a permanent cycle of learning through experience, higher-order deliberation, theory formation and revision.

    The envisioned framework will provide a precise computational theory, algorithmic descriptions, and an implementation in cyber-physical systems, addressing the lifting of action patterns from the subsymbolic to the symbolic knowledge level, effective methods for theory formation, adaptation, and evolution, the anchoring of knowledge-level objects, realworld interactions and manipulations, and the realization and evaluation of such a system in different scenarios. The expected results can provide new foundations for future agent architectures, multi-agent systems, robotics, and cognitive systems, and can facilitate a deeper understanding of the development and interaction in human-technological settings.

  • 208.
    Bhatt, Mehul
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology. Human-Centred Cognitive Assistance Lab. (HCC), University of Bremen, Bremen, Germany.
    Cutting, James
    Cornell University, Ithaca, USA.
    Levin, Daniel
    Department of Psychology and Human Development, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, USA.
    Lewis, Clayton
    University of Colorado, Boulder, USA.
    Cognition, Interaction, Design: Discussions as Part of the Codesign Roundtable 20172017In: Künstliche Intelligenz, ISSN 0933-1875, E-ISSN 1610-1987, Vol. 31, no 4, p. 363-371Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This transcript documents select parts of discus-sions on the confluence of cognition, interaction, design, and human behaviour studies. The interview and related events were held as part of the CoDesign 2017 Roundtable (Bhatt in CoDesign 2017—The Bremen Summer of Cognition and Design/CoDesign Roundtable. University of Bremen, Bremen, 2017) at the University of Bremen (Germany) in June 2017. The Q/A sessions were moderated by Mehul Bhatt (University of Bremen, Germany., and Örebro Uni-versity, Sweden) and Daniel Levin (Vanderbilt University, USA). Daniel Levin served in a dual role: as co-moderator of the discussion, as well as interviewee. The transcript is published as part of a KI Journal special issue on “Seman-tic Interpretation of Multi-Modal Human Behaviour Data” (Bhatt and Kersting in Special Issue on: Semantic Interpre-tation of Multimodal Human Behaviour Data, Artif Intell, 2017).

  • 209.
    Bhatt, Mehul
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology. Human-Centred Cognitive Assistance Lab. (HCC), University of Bremen, Bremen, Germany.
    Kersting, Kristian
    Technical University of Dortmund (DE), Dortmund, Germany.
    Semantic Interpretation of Multi-Modal Human-Behaviour Data: Making Sense of Events, Activities, Processes2017In: Künstliche Intelligenz, ISSN 0933-1875, E-ISSN 1610-1987, Vol. 31, no 4, p. 317-320Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This special issue presents interdisciplinary research—at the interface of artificial intelligence, cogni-tive science, and human-computer interaction—focussing on the semantic interpretation of human behaviour. The special issue constitutes an attempt to highlight and steer founda-tional methods research in artificial intelligence, in particular knowledge representation and reasoning, for the develop-ment of human-centred cognitive assistive technologies. Of specific interest and focus have been application outlets for basic research in knowledge representation and reason-ing and computer vision for the cognitive, behavioural, and social sciences.

  • 210.
    Bhatt, Mehul
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology. Cognitive Systems, University of Bremen, Bremen, Germany; Sonderforschungsbereich Transregional Collaborative Research Center 8, Spatial Cognition, University of Bremen, Bremen, Germany.
    Suchan, Jakob
    Cognitive Systems, University of Bremen, Bremen, Germany; Sonderforschungsbereich Transregional Collaborative Research Center 8, Spatial Cognition, University of Bremen, Bremen, Germany.
    Schultz, Carl
    Cognitive Systems, University of Bremen, Bremen, Germany; Sonderforschungsbereich Transregional Collaborative Research Center 8, Spatial Cognition, University of Bremen, Bremen, Germany.
    Cognitive Interpretation of Everyday Activities - Toward Perceptual Narrative Based Visuo-Spatial Scene Interpretation2013In: 2013 Workshop on Computational Models of Narrative / [ed] Mark A. Finlayson; Bernhard Fisseni; Benedikt Löwe; Jan Christoph Meister, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik , 2013, Vol. 32, p. 24-29Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We position a narrative-centred computational model for high-level knowledge representation and reasoning in the context of a range of assistive technologies concerned with visuo-spatial perception and cognition tasks. Our proposed narrative model encompasses aspects such as space, events, actions, change, and interaction from the viewpoint of commonsense reasoning and learning in large-scale cognitive systems. The broad focus of this paper is on the domain of human-activity interpretation in smart environments, ambient intelligence etc. In the backdrop of a smart meeting cinematography domain, we position the proposed narrative model, preliminary work on perceptual narrativisation, and the immediate outlook on constructing general-purpose open-source tools for perceptual narrativisation.

  • 211. Bidot, Julien
    et al.
    Karlsson, Lars
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Lagriffoul, Fabien
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Saffiotti, Alessandro
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Geometric backtracking for combined task and motion planning in robotic systems2017In: Artificial Intelligence, ISSN 0004-3702, E-ISSN 1872-7921, Vol. 247, p. 229-265Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Planners for real robotic systems should not only reason about abstract actions, but also about aspects related to physical execution such as kinematics and geometry. We present an approach to hybrid task and motion planning, in which state-based forward-chaining task planning is tightly coupled with motion planning and other forms of geometric reasoning. Our approach is centered around the problem of geometric backtracking that arises in hybrid task and motion planning: in order to satisfy the geometric preconditions of the current action, a planner may need to reconsider geometric choices, such as grasps and poses, that were made for previous actions. Geometric backtracking is a necessary condition for completeness, but it may lead to a dramatic computational explosion due to the large size of the space of geometric states. We explore two avenues to deal with this issue: the use of heuristics based on different geometric conditions to guide the search, and the use of geometric constraints to prune the search space. We empirically evaluate these different approaches, and demonstrate that they improve the performance of hybrid task and motion planning. We demonstrate our hybrid planning approach in two domains: a real, humanoid robotic platform, the DLR Justin robot, performing object manipulation tasks; and a simulated autonomous forklift operating in a warehouse.

  • 212.
    Bidot, Julien
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Karlsson, Lars
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Lagriffoul, Fabien
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Saffiotti, Alessandro
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Geometric backtracking for combined task and path planning in robotic systemsManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Planners for real, possibly complex, robotic systems should not only reason about abstract actions, but also about aspects related to physical execution such as kinematics and geometry. We present an approach in which state-based forward-chaining task planning is tightly coupled with sampling-based motion planning and other forms of geometric reasoning. We focus on the problem of geometric backtracking which arises when a planner needs to reconsider geometric choices, like grasps and poses, that were made for previous actions, in order to satisfy geometric preconditions of the current action. Geometric backtracking is a necessary condition for completeness, but it may lead to a dramatic computational explosion due to the systematic exploration of the space of geometric states. In order to deal with that, we introduce heuristics based on the collisions between the robot and movable objects detected during geometric backtracking and on kinematic relations between actions. We also present a complementary approach based on propagating explicit constraints which are automatically generated from the symbolic actions to be evaluated and from the kinematic model of the robot. We empirically evaluate these dierent approaches. We demonstrate our planner on a real advanced robot, the DLR Justin robot, and on a simulated autonomous forklift. 

  • 213.
    Bimer, Hampus
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Stenmark, Jonas
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Optimering av produktionslinje för att reducera ledtiden: En fallstudie på Seco Tools AB i Arboga2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This case study has been carried out at the Seco Tools factory in Arboga. Seco Tools is one of the world's largest providers of comprehensive metal cutting solutions for milling, turning, holemaking and tooling systems. The majority of the Arboga factory are at the front edge with continuous improvements. However, since a time back problems have occurred with one of their manufacturing lines. The problem that Seco Tools considers to have with the line is the long lead time and the current layout is far from optimal.

    The purpose of this case study was to make a mapping of the process and then analyze and make suggestions on how the process could be more effective with considerations of reducing lead time. The proposals have been made by empirical data collection through interviews with employees as well as observations in production. The information obtained has been studied and analyzed using several theories and tools, and thereafter suggestions have been made for improvements. Five proposals for different alternative layouts have been made, but also more general improvement proposals have been put forward to accomplish a positive impact on the lead time of the process. These proposals will serve as a supporting basis for Seco Tools in their continued efforts to improve the process.

  • 214. Birk, Andreas
    et al.
    Poppinga, Jann
    Stoyanov, Todor
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Nevatia, Yashodhan
    Planetary Exploration in USARSim: A Case Study including Real World Data from Mars2009In: RoboCup 2008: Robot Soccer World Cup XII / [ed] Volume editors: Luca Iocchi, Hitoshi Matsubara, Alfredo Weitzenfeld, Changjiu Zhou, Springer Berlin Heidelberg , 2009, p. 463-472Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

     Intelligent Mobile Robots are increasingly used in unstructured domains; one particularly challenging example for this is, planetary exploration. The preparation of according missions is highly non-trivial, especially as it is difficult to carry out realistic experiments without, very sophisticated infrastructures. In this paper, we argue that, the, Unified System for Automation and Robot Simulation (USARSim) offers interesting opportunities for research on planetary exploration by mobile robots. With the example of work on terrain classification, it, is shown how synthetic as well as real world data, from Mars call be used to test an algorithm's performance in USARSim. Concretely, experiments with an algorithm for the detection of negotiable ground oil a, planetary surface are presented. It is shown that the approach performs fast; and robust on planetary surfaces.

  • 215. Birk, Andreas
    et al.
    Stoyanov, Todor
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Nevatia, Yashodhan
    Ambrus, Rares
    Poppinga, Jan
    Pathak, Kaustubh
    Terrain Classification for Autonomous Robot Mobility: from Safety, Security Rescue Robotics to Planetary Exploration2008Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 216.
    Biro, Alexander
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Combining adjustable autonomyand shared control as a newplatform for controlling roboticsystems with ROS on TurtleBot2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Fully autonomous robotic systems can fulfill their functionality, without humaninteraction, but their efficiency is way lower, than a robotic system,which is teleoperated by a specialist. The teleoperation of robotic systemsrequires continuously high attention from the operator, if this attention istaken away or reduced, the efficiency drops heavily. The combination of AdjustableAutonomy and Shared Control represent a promising approach, ofhow great efficiency could be maintained in a robotic system, with a minimumof human interaction.The goal of this project is the re-implementation of the utilitarian votingscheme for navigation for usage with modern robotic platforms, as proposedin the publication “Experiments in Adjustable Autonomy” by JacobW. Crandall and Michael A. Goodrich. This voting scheme combines a proposeddirection, which is given by a human operator, with environmentalsensor data to determine the best direction for a robots next movement.The implemented prototype in this project was developed with ROS onTurtleBot and is processing the sensor data and calculating the best directionfor the robot’s movement in the same way, as the original prototype. Sincethe original setup consists of a Nomad SuperScout robot with sixteen sonarrange finders, adjustments needed to be made, to run the same algorithm ona different setup. The correct processing of the input data and estimation ofthe best direction was verified by pen and paper calculations. Finally, furtherideas for improving the implemented prototype and usage in other scenarioswere presented.

  • 217.
    Bjuhr, Jessica
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Jansson, Maria
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Förstudie kring verktyg för DCN registrering/uppföljning2016Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis work has been performed on a department that works with preparation for new products. They are in charge of coordinating several different units during these preparations. In the current situation, this process does not work optimally. There is no common approach to monitoring and documentation of the process which leads to difficulties in the interaction between the units. Problems have also arisen when the product has been put into production. The company is also working with the ISO 9001 and 14001, which requires documentation and monitoring of the process.

    The aim of the project is to present the basic steps for a new approach for documentation and monitoring in this process from a case study. Interviews with employees in the process have been conducted to gather information about the current approach. In addition, literary studies and benchmarking have been used as methods.

    Based on this, improvement proposals for the work of documentation and monitoring have been developed. The proposals may also contribute to increased understanding of the process and improved collaboration between the employees. However, this is not something that can be guaranteed. The improvement proposals should be seen just as a suggestion for improvement and not hindsight on how the work should be designed in the process.

  • 218.
    Bjureland, Sofie
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Lagré, Daniel
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Problemlösning - en systematisk litteraturstudie över undervisningsmetoder som främjar elevers problemlösningsförmåga2016Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This systematic review aims to present teaching methods that research show enhances students´ problem solving skills. The review is completed by an analysis of 66 international articles. The analysis resulted in an identification of nine teaching methods. The overall result of the study shows that the nine teaching methods all enhances students’ problem solving skills. The results also suggest that the single most important factor to enhance students´ problem solving skills is the implementation of a specific teaching method. Consequences for education and future research are discussed.

  • 219.
    Bjurlid, Filip
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans: from source of emission to human exposure2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Brominated flame retardants (BFRs), which are ubiquitous in modern life and the environment, are the major source for polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans (PBDD/Fs). The knowledge about PBDD/Fs is lim-ited compared to other environmental pollutants, even though PBDD/Fs show similar toxicity as polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans (PCDD/Fs) which are considered to be among the most toxic man-made substances. The aim of the thesis was to provide a better understanding of PBDD/Fs by investigating the occurrence and distribution of PBDD/Fs in the following matrices: soot and gas from an accidental fire site which is a typical source of emission, blubber from marine mammals living in both far remote areas as well as areas close to anthropogenic sources, and finally in human milk from ten nursing mothers.

    PBDD/Fs was detected in blubber from pilot whales sampled around Faroe Islands, which proved the occurrence in marine mammals in a far remote area. The findings of PBDD/Fs in blubber from Baltic ringed seals showed slightly higher concentrations compared to the pilot whales, which is expected since the Baltic Sea in among the world’s most contam-inated water areas. In the pilot whales and the ringed seals, the average contribution from PBDD/Fs to the total (PCDD/F+PBDD/F) Total Equiv-alent Quantity (TEQ) was low, (1-8%). In gas and soot samples from the accidental fire site, PBDD/Fs were detected in all samples and the contri-bution of PBDD/Fs to the total TEQ was close to 100%. In the human milk samples, PBDD/Fs were detected in all samples and the average con-tribution of PBDD/Fs to the total TEQ was 40%. The results indicate that PBDD/Fs are of concern for human exposure, and should be monitored together with PCDD/Fs in future studies. Moreover, the occurrence at ac-cidental fire sites indicate that PBDD/Fs are a source for occupational ex-posure for firefighters and other professionals. The impact from PBDD/Fs on marine mammalians seems to be of less concern.

    List of papers
    1. Occurrence of brominated dioxins in a study using various firefighting methods
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Occurrence of brominated dioxins in a study using various firefighting methods
    2017 (English)In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 599-600, p. 1213-1221Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The use of different firefighting methods influences how fast a fire is extinguished and how fast the temperature drops in the area affected by the fire. These differences may also influence the formation of harmful pollutants during firefighting of an accidental fire. The aim was to study occurrence of brominated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans (PBDD/Fs) in gas and soot during five fire scenarios resembling a small apartment fire and where different firefighting methods were used. Samples of gas and soot were taken both during the buildup of the fire and during the subsequent extinguishing of the fire while using different firefighting methods (nozzle, compressed air foam system, cutting extinguisher) and an extinguishing additive. New containers equipped with identical sets of combustible material were used for the five tests. The use of different firefighting methods and extinguishing additive induced variations in concentration and congener profiles of detected PBDD/Fs. The concentration range of Sigma PBDD/Fs in gas was 4020-18,700 pg/m(3), and in soot 76-4092 pg/m(2). PBDFs were the predominant congeners and 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpBDF was the most abundant congener. Chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans (PCDD/Fs) were also monitored. The PBDD/Fs contributed with in average 97% to the total (PCDD/Fs plus PBDD/Fs) toxic equivalents, in soot and gas. During extinguishing, the shorter time the temperature was around 300 degrees C, the lower occurrence of PBDD/Fs. In the study the firefighting methods showed a difference in how effectively they induced a temperature decrease below 300 degrees C in the fire zone during quenching, where cutting extinguishing using additive and the compressed air foam system showed the fastest drop in temperature.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Elsevier, 2017
    Keyword
    PBDD/F, PCDD/F, Fire, Cutting extinguisher, Foam, Additive, Nozzle, Formation
    National Category
    Environmental Sciences
    Research subject
    Enviromental Science
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-59123 (URN)10.1016/j.scitotenv.2017.05.087 (DOI)000405253500018 ()28514839 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85019068316 (Scopus ID)
    Funder
    Swedish Civil Contingencies Agency
    Available from: 2017-08-22 Created: 2017-08-22 Last updated: 2017-12-18Bibliographically approved
    2. Occurrence of polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans (PBDD/Fs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in pilot whales (Globicephala melas) caught around the Faroe Islands
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Occurrence of polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans (PBDD/Fs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in pilot whales (Globicephala melas) caught around the Faroe Islands
    2018 (English)In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 195, no Supplement C, p. 11-20Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Elsevier, 2018
    Keyword
    PBDD/Fs, PBDEs, PCDD/Fs, Pilot whale blubber, Faroe Islands
    National Category
    Other Chemistry Topics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-63414 (URN)10.1016/j.chemosphere.2017.12.044 (DOI)
    Available from: 2017-12-18 Created: 2017-12-18 Last updated: 2018-01-26Bibliographically approved
    3. Temporal trends of PBDD/Fs, PCDD/Fs, PBDEs and PCBs in ringed seals from the Baltic Sea (Pusa hispida botnica) between 1974 and 2015
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Temporal trends of PBDD/Fs, PCDD/Fs, PBDEs and PCBs in ringed seals from the Baltic Sea (Pusa hispida botnica) between 1974 and 2015
    2018 (English)In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 616-617, p. 1374-1383Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Keyword
    Dioxins, Furans, POPs, Marine mammal
    National Category
    Other Chemistry Topics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-63413 (URN)10.1016/j.scitotenv.2017.10.178 (DOI)29066193 (PubMedID)
    Available from: 2017-12-18 Created: 2017-12-18 Last updated: 2018-01-26Bibliographically approved
    4. Polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans and Stockholm Convention POPs in human milk: evaluation of the effects of breastfeeding duration
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans and Stockholm Convention POPs in human milk: evaluation of the effects of breastfeeding duration
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    National Category
    Other Chemistry Topics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-63415 (URN)
    Available from: 2017-12-18 Created: 2017-12-18 Last updated: 2017-12-18Bibliographically approved
  • 220.
    Bjurlid, Filip
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Dam, Maria
    Environment Agency, Argir, Faroe Islands.
    Hoydal, Katrin
    Environment Agency, Argir, Faroe Islands.
    Hagberg, Jessika
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Occurrence of polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans (PBDD/Fs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in pilot whales (Globicephala melas) caught around the Faroe Islands2018In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 195, no Supplement C, p. 11-20Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 221.
    Bjurlid, Filip
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Hagberg, Jessika
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology. Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Faculty of Medicine and Health, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans and Stockholm Convention POPs in human milk: evaluation of the effects of breastfeeding durationManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 222.
    Bjurlid, Filip
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Kärrman, Anna
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Ricklund, Niklas
    Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Faculty of Medicine and Health, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Hagberg, Jessika
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology. Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine Faculty of Medicine and Health, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Occurrence of brominated dioxins in a study using various firefighting methods2017In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 599-600, p. 1213-1221Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of different firefighting methods influences how fast a fire is extinguished and how fast the temperature drops in the area affected by the fire. These differences may also influence the formation of harmful pollutants during firefighting of an accidental fire. The aim was to study occurrence of brominated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans (PBDD/Fs) in gas and soot during five fire scenarios resembling a small apartment fire and where different firefighting methods were used. Samples of gas and soot were taken both during the buildup of the fire and during the subsequent extinguishing of the fire while using different firefighting methods (nozzle, compressed air foam system, cutting extinguisher) and an extinguishing additive. New containers equipped with identical sets of combustible material were used for the five tests. The use of different firefighting methods and extinguishing additive induced variations in concentration and congener profiles of detected PBDD/Fs. The concentration range of Sigma PBDD/Fs in gas was 4020-18,700 pg/m(3), and in soot 76-4092 pg/m(2). PBDFs were the predominant congeners and 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpBDF was the most abundant congener. Chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans (PCDD/Fs) were also monitored. The PBDD/Fs contributed with in average 97% to the total (PCDD/Fs plus PBDD/Fs) toxic equivalents, in soot and gas. During extinguishing, the shorter time the temperature was around 300 degrees C, the lower occurrence of PBDD/Fs. In the study the firefighting methods showed a difference in how effectively they induced a temperature decrease below 300 degrees C in the fire zone during quenching, where cutting extinguishing using additive and the compressed air foam system showed the fastest drop in temperature.

  • 223.
    Bjurlid, Filip
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Roos, Anna
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ericson Jogsten, Ingrid
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Hagberg, Jessika
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology. Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Faculty of Medicine and Health, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Temporal trends of PBDD/Fs, PCDD/Fs, PBDEs and PCBs in ringed seals from the Baltic Sea (Pusa hispida botnica) between 1974 and 20152018In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 616-617, p. 1374-1383Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 224.
    Bjärnhall, Leila
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Påverkan av sätthärdning på kugghjulets geometri2015Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The heat treatment of a gear takes place by case hardening. This is done in order to modify the tooth's physical and mechanical properties. The gear hardened surface will be abrasion resistant, while the tough core shows greater flexibility for transferring loads, such as torque moment. For reaching the desired characteristics, a gear, is heated in a carbon rich environment (hearth furnace) and is retained for a certain period. Immediately after leaving the oven the gear is subjected to a subsequent rapid cooling. These operations typically entail geometric deviations and deformations of the gear. Correction of these deviations will be difficult to achieve in afterward. It would involve high manufacturing costs. Today gear manufactures choose optimal manufacturing processes, in order to prevent or minimize these kind of geometric defects. So that the manufacturers can provide appropriate measures to compensate for these geometric errors, they must have sufficient knowledge of the deviated dimension. Knowing the pattern of deviation is the right way to be able to handle them. This thesis is written at Örebro University in cooperation with Meritor HVS in Lindesberg and treats geometrical deviations of a spur gear, affected by heat treatment, known as case hardening. The gear is also called Sun wheel and it is the core component of a planetary gear transmission system (as a part of a nave- reaction) which sits at the rear axle of heavy vehicle there, wheel is located. In this work, I have studied the gears geometric deviation of dimensional in shape, size and orientation, Figure 1. During comparison of data before and after the process of case hardening, a hypothetical deviation model was produced. The model can be significant for the sun gear production’s geometry change in general, affected by case hardening, and can be further used as the assessment of compensating solutions. Due to the difficulties in forming of a hardened surface of tooth, geometric correction as solution is implemented at earlier process stage. An example of this can be over dimensioning of gear that might turn shrinking in more advanced process stages. My solution in this thesis would be a solution that is implemented on an early process stage in a way of optimizing the manufacturing processes.

    Figure 1.

  • 225.
    Björk, Emelie
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Isolation and Identification of Lactic Acid Bacteria in Certain Traditional Fermented Swedish Food2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 226.
    Björkbom, Carina
    et al.
    Laboratory of Aquatic Pathobiology, Environmental and Marine Biology, Department of Biosciences, Åbo Akademi University, Turku, Finland.
    Mustamäki, Noora
    Laboratory of Aquatic Pathobiology, Environmental and Marine Biology, Department of Biosciences, Åbo Akademi University, Turku, Finland.
    Olsson, Per-Erik
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Katsiadaki, Ioanna
    Cefas Weymouth Laboratory, Weymouth, United Kingdom .
    Wiklund, Tom
    Laboratory of Aquatic Pathobiology, Environmental and Marine Biology, Department of Biosciences, Åbo Akademi University, Turku, Finland.
    Assessment of reproductive biomarkers in three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) from sewage effluent recipients2013In: Environmental Toxicology, ISSN 1520-4081, E-ISSN 1522-7278, Vol. 28, no 4, p. 229-237Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to examine the occurrence of endocrine disruption close to sewage treatment plant effluent discharges along the Finnish Baltic Sea coast using a set of reproductive biomarkers present in adult three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus). Possible variation and sensitivity of the biomarkers during an entire reproductive period were also examined. The analysis of vitellogenin (VTG) for estrogenic activity and spiggin for androgenic activity, together with histopathological analysis indicated that sticklebacks were exposed to estrogenic loads sufficient to cause inappropriate production of VTG and to disrupt normal testicular structure in adult male sticklebacks. No androgenic disruption was observed. The results emphasize the need of a combination of several reproductive biomarkers in fish and repeated sampling for the detection of potential endocrine modulating substances under field condition

  • 227.
    Björkegren, Joakim
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Stenberg, Björn
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Utveckling av drivmekanism för automatiserad paletthantering2014Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis is a development project that deals with the transmission mechanism of pallets in robotic welding systems.

    Details to be welded are mounted on pallets. These are automatically transferred from a roller table to a workpiece positioner, holding the pallet in place during welding. The difficulty is due to the limited movements of the workpiece positioner. It is not always known what the customer wants to mount on the pallet. This limits the space available for the drive mechanism. The current system is built into the workpiece positioner. Increased competition has driven the need to reduce cost of the robotic welding systems. The drive mechanism for the pallets is an area where the company believes that costs can be cut.

    The report includes an idea generating process, development and simulation of a proposed solution to a design that replaces the current solution. The results section presents a solution proposal in the form of a conveyor which replaces both the current drive mechanism and one of the roller tables. Cost estimation is presented where the proposed solution is compared to today's solution.

  • 228.
    Björklund, Johanna
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Framgångsrika recept för hållbara måltider i offentliga kök: Erfarenheter baserade på utvärderingen av projektet Hållbara måltider i Örebro län 2014-20162016Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 229.
    Björklund, Johanna
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Hållbara måltider i Örebro län 1.0: Ett bra exempel på lärande för hållbar utveckling2014Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 230.
    Björklund, Johanna
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Araya, Hailu
    Institute for Sustainable Development, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
    Edwards, Sue
    Institute for Sustainable Development, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
    Goncalves, André
    Instituto Federal Catarinense–Campus Rio do Sul and Centro Ecológico, Dom Pedro de Alcantara, Brazil.
    Höök, Karin
    Swedish Society for Nature Conservation, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Lundberg, Jakob
    Stockholm Resilience Centre Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Medina, Charito
    MASIPAG, Los Baños, Laguna, Philippines.
    Ecosystem-based agriculture combining production and conservation: a viable way to feed the world in the long term?2012In: Journal of Sustainable Agriculture, ISSN 1044-0046, E-ISSN 1540-7578, Vol. 36, no 7, p. 824-855Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study analyzed examples of sustainable ecosystem-based agriculture where management methods supported livelihoods of smallholders while at the same time local ecosystem services were enhanced in Ethiopia, Brazil, and the Philippines. Participation by farmers and collective actions were found to be a crucial driving force, as local specific knowledge and “learning by doing” were main components of the development. Social cohesion, particularly through associations and cooperatives, and improved marketing opportunities were also important drivers. Furthermore, recognition by authorities at all levels was perceived as crucial. Effects of climate change, insecure property rights, and political instability were potential threats. The possibilities of such systems to be scaled up beyond self-sufficiency raised further questions.

  • 231.
    Björklund, Johanna
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Eksvärd, Karin
    Inspire and action research ab.
    Schaffer, Christina
    Stockholms universitet, Stockholm,. Sverige.
    Assessing ecosystem services in perennial intercropping systems: participatory action research in Swedish modern agrofores2014In: Farming systems facing global challenges: Capacities and strategies / [ed] Schobert, H., Riecher, M.-C., Fischer, H. Aenis, T. & Knierim, 2014, p. 112-113Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The focus of this paper is on how to assess ecosystem services in complex agroforestry systems using a case of edible forest gardens. Benefits of doing these assessments in a participatory learning and action research (PLAR) context are elaborated, as well as difficulties and questions that this has raised. The PLAR group comprised farmers on 13 smallholdings, researchers and a facilitator, which through collaboration and participatory methods have developed a general design of a forest garden, 60 m2 in size and established it on all 13 participating farms. Important values of the work are that ecosystem services are related to specific local contexts and that methodology for multi-criteria assessments of the generation of ecosystem services on a farm scale are being developed. Farmers engaged in formulating research questions, development of field trial designs, sampling and analysis of results improves the relevance and quality of the research as well as advance the adoption of new knowledge.

  • 232.
    Björklund, Johanna
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Johansson, Börje
    Hulta Norrgård, Linköping, Sweden.
    Assessing multifunctionality in relation to resource use: a holistic approach to measure efficiency, developed by participatory research2012In: Methods and procedures for building sustainable farming systems / [ed] Marta-Costa, A. A. & Soares da Silva, E. L. D. G, Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands, 2012, p. 161-173Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Today’s intensive agriculture needs to be transformed into sustainable production of food, and this process requires good tools that can assess whether an action is leading towards this in the long term. A critical issue is what optimal yield comprises in terms of other functions of agriculture, as higher yields might lead to e.g. a reduction in biodiversity or soil carbon. In this study, emergy analysis and footprinting were combined to assess and illustrate the total resource use caused by a farming activity (milk production) and to identify the renewable fraction of this resource use. The total efficiency was defined as a function of the resource use and the multifunctionality of production. The classification of ecosystem services in the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (MA) was used as the basis for ranking multifunctionality. The results were expressed in the form of ecosystem bundles for the four MA categories (provisioning, supporting, regulating and cultural functions). Three scenarios with different degrees of input intensity and milk production were constructed and compared with the current production mode. The ratio of local renewable resource use to total resource use differed greatly between the different production strategies, being 1:3 for a self-sufficient organic farm and 1:14 for a conventional farm with maximum milk yield. Milk production was five-fold higher on the conventional farm, while generation of ecosystem services increased with increasing self-sufficiency under the local conditions prevailing in the study. Ecosystem services in all categories except provisioning were ranked higher when self-sufficiency increased.

  • 233.
    Björklund, Johanna
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Morfeldt, Peter
    Att använda skolmåltiden som pedagogiskt redskap: Erfarenheter från en forskningscirkel med lärare i åk 5-­62015Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 234.
    Björklund, Sofie
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Validation of a Cleanup Method for Analysis of Novel Brominated Flame Retardants in Biota Matrices Sofie Björklund 2015-05-30 Supervisors Ingrid Ericson2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Brominated flame retardants is a group of compounds present in numerous types of materials in our surroundings. Although their purpose is to slow the progression of a fire, many has been shown to be toxic to the environment. Novel brominated flame retardants have been introduced to the market as old ones have been removed. Reliable methods are crucial to be able to monitor how the novel brominated flame retardant spread and accumulate in the environment. To achieve this, a method validation of a cleanup method using multilayer silica followed by analysis by atmospheric pressure gas chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectroscopy was performed. This method had been previously used for polybrominated diphenyl ethers and the aim was to see if it could be used for analysis of novel brominated flame retardants as well. Spiking experiments showed generally good results, with recoveries of the native compound ranging from 40% to 174%.

    To apply the method on real matrix samples, eight samples of osprey eggs and five samples of adipose tissue of ringed seal was analyzed. Several novel brominated flame retardants were found, most abundant being the methoxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers. Dominant congener was 2'-Methoxy-2,3',4,5'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (2PMBDE#68) followed by 6-Methoxy-2,2',4,4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (6PMBDE#47), 5-Methoxy-2,2',4,4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (5PMBDE#47) and 5-Methoxy-2,2',4,4',6-pentabromodiphenyl ether (5PMBDE#100) with concentrations ranging from <0,13-13 ng/g lipid weight in osprey eggs and <0,003-249 ng/g lipid weight in ringed seal blubber. Also 1,2-Bis(2,4,6-tribromophenoxy)ethane and pentabromobenzene were found in both osprey eggs and ringed seal blubber. Hexabromobenzene was found in ringed seal blubber and 2,3,5,6-tetrabromo-p-xylene was identified in osprey eggs.

  • 235.
    Björnsdotter, Maria
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Leaching of Residual Monomers, Oligomers and Additives from Polyethylene, Polypropylene, Polyvinyl Chloride, High-density Polyethylene and Polystyrene Virgin Plastics2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Plastic debris are accumulating in our oceans and are degraded into smaller pieces which eventually becomes small enough to be available to lower thropic level organisms. Microplastics, commonly defined as plastic particles <5 mm, are globally distributed and found at remote locations far away from industrialized and populated areas. The effects of macro sized plastics is well understood whilst the effects of microplastics is hard to predict. It is known that microplastics act as transfer vectors for a wide range of toxic chemicals into organisms, and it is also known that the particle itself can cause toxic responses such as increased immune response and endocrine disruption. Researchers utilize virgin plastic pellets in order to determine the toxicological effect of the plastic particle itself, but resent research suggest that these virgin plastics may release chemicals that contribute to the toxic response and thus complicates the interpretation of the results. In present study, five different virgin plastics were allowed to leach in artificial seawater under conditions that mimic those used in particle toxicity studies. Plastics included were polyethylene, polypropylene, polyvinyl chloride, high-density polyethylene and polystyrene. Leachable monomers and oligomers were found in three of the five plastics tested: polyvinyl chloride, high-density polyethylene and polystyrene. Leached compounds from polyvinyl chloride were not identified due to time limitations. Aliphatic hydrocarbons in the size C14-C22 were leached out from high-density polyethylene in the concentration range 0.47 × 10-3 – 1.13 × 10-3 μg ml-1 within 24 hours. Polystyrene was found to leach styrene monomer which reached a concentration of 0.17 μg ml-1 within 24 hours.

  • 236.
    Blanc, Mélanie
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Kärrman, Anna
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Kukučka, Petr
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Scherbak, Nikolai
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Keiter, Steffen
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Mixture-specific gene expression in zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos exposed to perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS), perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA) and 3,3′,4,4′,5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB126)2017In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 590-591, p. 249-257Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) and 3,3′,4,4′,5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB126) are persistent organic pollutants of high concern because of their environmental persistence, bioaccumulation and toxic properties. Besides, the amphiphilic properties of fluorinated compounds such as PFOS and perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA) suggest a role in increasing cell membrane permeability and solubilizing chemicals. The present study aimed at investigating whether PFOS and PFHxA are capable of modifying the activation of PCB126 toxicity-related pathways. For this purpose, zebrafish embryos were exposed in semi-static conditions to 7.5 μg/L of PCB126 alone, in the presence of 25 mg/L of PFOS, 15.7 mg/L of PFHxA or in the presence of both PFOS and PFHxA. Quantitative PCR was performed on embryos aged from 24 h post fertilization (hpf) to 96 hpf to investigate expression changes of genes involved in metabolism of xenobiotics (ahr2, cyp1a), oxidative stress (gpx1a, tp53), lipids metabolism (acaa2, osbpl1a), and epigenetic mechanisms (dnmt1, dnmt3ba). Cyp1a and ahr2 expression were significantly induced by the presence of PCB126. However, after 72 and 78 h of exposure, induction of cyp1a expression was significantly lower when embryos were co-exposed to PCB126 + PFOS + PFHxA when compared to PCB126-exposed embryos. Significant upregulation of gpx1a occurred after exposure to PCB126 + PFHxA and to PCB126 + PFOS + PFHxA at 30 and 48 hpf. Besides, embryos appeared more sensitive to PCB126 + PFOS + PFHxA at 78 hpf: acaa2 and osbpl1a were significantly downregulated; dnmt1 was significantly upregulated. While presented as environmentally safe, PFHxA demonstrated that it could affect gene expression patterns in zebrafish embryos when combined to PFOS and PCB126, suggesting that such mixture may increase PCB126 toxicity. This is of particular relevance since PFHxA is persistent and still being ejected into the environment. Moreover, it provides additional information as to the importance to integrate mixture effects of chemicals in risk assessment and biomonitoring frameworks.

  • 237.
    Blanco, Jose Luis
    et al.
    University of Màlaga, Màlaga, Spain.
    Monroy, Javier G.
    University of Màlaga, Màlaga, Spain.
    Gonzalez-Jimenez, Javier
    University of Màlaga, Màlaga, Spain.
    Lilienthal, Achim J.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    A Kalman Filter Based Approach To Probabilistic Gas Distribution Mapping2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Building a model of gas concentrations has important indus-trial and environmental applications, and mobile robots ontheir own or in cooperation with stationary sensors play animportant role in this task. Since an exact analytical de-scription of turbulent flow remains an intractable problem,we propose an approximate approach which not only esti-mates the concentrations but also their variances for eachlocation. Our point of view is that of sequential Bayesianestimation given a lattice of 2D cells treated as hidden vari-ables. We first discuss how a simple Kalman filter pro-vides a solution to the estimation problem. To overcomethe quadratic computational complexity with the mappedarea exhibited by a straighforward application of Kalmanfiltering, we introduce a sparse implementation which runsin constant time. Experimental results for a real robot vali-date the proposed method.

  • 238.
    Blom, Oskar
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Kovan, Novan
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Implementering av ett bokningssystem med Google Calendar2014Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This report describes the implementation of a booking system with the integration of Google Calendar API. The objective was primarily to evaluate the potential of a booking system where Google Calendar was used as schedules for staff. The project could also be used as a base system for customizing booking systems for different business models.

    The final system consisted of a website for making appointments, a Web API for communicating with the website, integration of Google Calendar API to retrieve and add appointments to the schedules of the staff and storing data in a database.

  • 239.
    Blom, Robin
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Dimberg, Mathias
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Yatzy - Optimala spelstrategier2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna uppsats redogör för olika begrepp, metoder och beräkningar som är nödvändiga för att optimera sin spelstrategi i tärningsspelet Yatzy. De begrepp som tas upp i denna uppsats är bl.a. vad Markov-kedjor, sållprincipen och framför allt vad väntevärden är för något, och hur vi kan tillämpa dessa begrepp i spelet Yatzy. Metoderna som har använts när vi beräknat väntevärden kommer i många fall vara relativt likvärdiga, men vi kommer även att påvisa skiljaktigheter. Tanken med uppsatsen är att i varje situation som kan uppstå under spelets gång, kunna välja den spelstrategi som leder till så optimala förhållanden som möjligt.

  • 240.
    Blomberg, Tommy
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Build Server Dashboard2013Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The development of large software projects often involves several developers that works on different parts of the code. Developers at Sigma Örebro follow a software engineering practice known as continuous integration. The main purpose with the continuous integration practice is to always keep the developing software in a working state.Thisreport covers my graduation work that I performed for Sigma Örebro.The assignment was to create a web based dashboard application that would displayinformation about the on-going projects at Sigma. For each project the dashboard should show the build time and test status for the latest checkedin builds. It would also calculate and display the overall success rate for each project and theamount of tests each project was subjected to. At last it would also display a graph that shows the amount of tests performed over time. The dashboard application should be fully automatedwithout the need of user interaction. All this information was to be presented as a single viewon a flat screen TV or monitor.

  • 241.
    Blomqvist, Edith
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Dahlgren, Katarina
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Konceptframtagning av kontorsmöbel2016Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This report describes the product development of office furniture. The thesis was executed within the engineering program of industrial design and product development at Örebro University.

    The project was an assignment from the company Nitton93. The firm is based in Örebro and provides store interior. After inquiry from their customers the firm started the development of a line of office furniture. Office furniture has looked basically the same for many years and Nitton93 wanted to change that through creating a line of office furniture for the future. The assignment was to develop a storage furniture for an office environment.

    This project began with pre-study containing information gathering of existing solutions, working environment, safety, ergonomics and use. After the pre-study an analysis was executed and from these two the demands and requests on the final product was set. Ideas were found in the phase of generating concept with the help of different methods and tools. Four concepts were chosen from these ideas and later evaluated.

    The chosen concept was developed further and the result was a storage furniture fitted for open offices. The size of the unit contributes to screening and lots of storage. The screening and the design of the furniture contributes to a calm working environment.

    The project extended to concept development, therefore the next step for the outsourcer was to produce production data. This thesis is well worked through and should form a good foundation for continued work with production and sale.

  • 242.
    Blomqvist, Emil
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Konstruktion av lyftredskap2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This report consists of the mechanical design of a lifting tool. The project was commissioned by ELE Engineering AB and carried out as part of the bachelor’s program in Mechanical engineering on Örebro University.

    ELE Engineering AB has received a request from a client to design a lifting tool that will remove the need for manual lifting of one of their components, the component is cylindrical and come in various sizes. This lifting tool need to be completely mechanical and adjustable by hand. The project was divided into separate stages in a similar way to the projects done previously in the university program. It starts with generating design concepts and then working its way to the producing of manufacturing plans and drawings.

    The result is a lifting tool that fulfils all the requirements and standards, only a handful of work is left until the project is lifting tool is completed and ready for manufacturing. These are to produce instructions for operation and maintenance to fulfil the requirements for CE marking, fabrication of a prototype for test lifting and a detailed cost analysis. The lifting tool consists of a beam onto which a lifting hook and a threaded rod is mounted. The threaded rod creates a sideways motion for two connected lifting arms when rotated and thus enabling adjustments to be made.

  • 243.
    Boberg, Ann-Sofie
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Ekelund, Johanna
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Aritmetik: Undervisningsstrategier och räknestrategier2015Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study is to identify teaching strategies and counting strategies in addition and subtraction as previous research highlights. The study is designed as a systematic literature study and articles have been searched through the database Web of Science. The results show that earlier research highlights teaching through problem solving, digital tools, concrete materials and factorial teaching. Research that includes counting strategies shows that students use different counting strategies and that they go through different stages to find effective strategies to solve arithmetic operations. The conclusions of this is that there are several different types of teaching strategies. A variation of teaching strategies can help students to learn mathematics and arithmetic. It is important for the teacher to pay attention to what counting strategies students use to help them in their development of arithmetical skills. That’s because the students are using different types of counting strategies and goes through phases of developing the counting strategies.

  • 244.
    Boberg, Johanna B.
    et al.
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Uppsala BioCtr, Dept Forest Mycol & Plant Pathol, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Finlay, Roger D.
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Uppsala BioCtr, Dept Forest Mycol & Plant Pathol, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Stenlid, Jan
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Uppsala BioCtr, Dept Forest Mycol & Plant Pathol, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Ekblad, Alf
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Lindahl, Björn D.
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Uppsala BioCtr, Dept Forest Mycol & Plant Pathol, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Nitrogen and Carbon Reallocation in Fungal Mycelia during Decomposition of Boreal Forest Litter2014In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 9, no 3, p. e92897-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Boreal forests are characterized by spatially heterogeneous soils with low N availability. The decomposition of coniferous litter in these systems is primarily performed by basidiomycete fungi, which often form large mycelia with a well-developed capacity to reallocate resources spatially-an advantageous trait in heterogeneous environments. In axenic microcosm systems we tested whether fungi increase their biomass production by reallocating N between Pinus sylvestris (Scots pine) needles at different stages of decomposition. We estimated fungal biomass production by analysing the accumulation of the fungal cell wall compound chitin. Monospecific systems were compared with systems with interspecific interactions. We found that the fungi reallocated assimilated N and mycelial growth away from well-degraded litter towards fresh litter components. This redistribution was accompanied by reduced decomposition of older litter. Interconnection of substrates increased over-all fungal C use efficiency (i.e. the allocation of assimilated C to biomass rather than respiration), presumably by enabling fungal translocation of growth-limiting N to litter with higher C quality. Fungal connection between different substrates also restricted N-mineralization and production of dissolved organic N, suggesting that litter saprotrophs in boreal forest ecosystems primarily act to redistribute rather than release N. This spatial integration of different resource qualities was hindered by interspecific interactions, in which litters of contrasting quality were colonised by two different basidiomycete species. The experiments provide a detailed picture of how resource reallocation in two decomposer fungi leads to a more efficient utilisation of spatially separated resources under N-limitation. From an ecosystem point of view, such economic fungal behaviour could potentially contribute to organic matter accumulation in the litter layers of boreal forests.

  • 245.
    Bodin, Tomas
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Dimensionering av två olika typer av träbroar2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I denna rapport dimensioneras två olika träbroar efter Eurokoderna. En med underspänning och en utan. Syftet var att jämföra konstruktionstyperna. Hjälpmedel för att åstadkomma detta var beräkningsprogrammet Rstab och Mathcad. Resultatet visade att vibrationer spelar en stor roll vid dimensioneringen. Plattan utan underspänning behövde vara två och en halv gånger så hög som den med underspänning för att klara vibrationskraven. Vilket medförde att den fick en låg utnyttjandegrad rörande hållfasthet. För bron med underspänning blev både hållfastheten och vibrationerna i stort sett lika avgörande vid dimensionering.

  • 246.
    Bodur, Sara
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Billinger, Petter
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Design av AerosolTraps applikationshölje - Arbetsprocessen2013Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    AerosolTrap AB has developed a filter-free system for particle separation in different flows like fluids and gases. This patented product is suitable for a variety of environments depending on the purpose. For example, the restaurant environment in which this application is called the "grease trap". This thesis is based on the design process needed to develop a casing for the restaurant application that shortly will be installed in the Scandic Grand Hotel kitchen in Örebro.

     

    The process includes a feasibility study in forms of interviews and basic research, as well as brainstorming and concept evaluation. Meetings were arranged with supervisors at the university and the AerosolTrap office to obtain constant feedback on our achievements. During the final phase of the project the opportunity to visit the Scandic Grand Hotel's restaurant kitchen was given. Thus an investigation could be done on whether any changes were needed before the final concept. Hand sketches, CAD models and edited images were used throughout the project to simply illustrate the esthetics, functions and materials.

     

    The result is consistent with the given requirements, and as a concept it leaves room for further development and adaptation.

  • 247.
    Bodén, Mattias
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Rakovic, Nandin
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    ChessCraft nätverk2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This report is describing the process for the development of the networking part of the game called ChessCraft. This game is submitted to the largest game developing contest in Scandinavia that goes under the name of Swedish Game Awards.

  • 248.
    Bodö, Linn
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    En skogsträdgårds potential att täcka en människas närings- och energibehov2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Detta arbete är en del av ett deltagardrivet forskningsprojekt; Hållbar livsmedelsproduktion i Sverige – att odla och äta från perenna system. Projektet undersöker vilken potential agroforestry har att fungera för livsmedelsproduktion i Sverige. Dessa produktionssystem skulle vara ett bra komplement eller kunna ers.tta delar av dagens produktionssystem vilka medför ett flertal problem, bland annat negativa effekter på klimat och miljö. Skogsträdgårdar är en typ av agroforestry och utanför Höör i Skåne ligger Holma skogsträdgård. Den startades 2004 och är uppbyggd enligt permakulturs principer, som är en ansats för hållbara produktionsmetoder. Detta arbete är en fallstudie av örtlunden som är 200 m. och ligger i Holma skogsträdgård. Syftet var att undersöka om örtlunden har potential att täcka en människas närings- och energibehov under ett år. Frågeställningar som också behandlades var vilka näringsämnen och energigivare som kan komma att bli ett problem att uppnå om man lever på en kost av örtlundens växter. Fokus låg även på att undersöka hur man ska tillaga örtlundens växer för att ta tillvara på dess näringsämnen och energigivare.

    Metoden som användes var en litteraturgenomgång. Information samlades om örtlundens 29 växtarter, vilket resulterade i data om näringsinnehåll för 16 växter och data om energiinnehåll för 14 växter. övriga växtarter var alltför ovanliga för konsumtion och odling och saknade därför data, vilket ledde till att arbetet också presenterar var i växtens delar man sannolikt kan finna specifika näringsämnen och energigivare. Exempel anges också när man med fördel bör skörda växterna med hänsyn till dess närings- och energiinnehåll men generellt bör alla växer skördas på morgonen. För åtta av växterna hittades data om vad de kan avkasta. Ett flertal studier tar upp att skörd är något som varierar mycket på olika platser och i olika klimat så att mäta skörden direkt i örtlunden är därför något som bör göras i framtiden. Totalt var materialet för litet för att kunna svara fullständigt på frågeställningarna. Fem av örtlundens växter uppnådde fullständiga data från litteraturgenomgången och beräkning gjordes på hur mycket näring och energi dessa kan ge per planta. Växterna som beräknades var hassel (Corylus avellana), svarta vinbär (Ribes nigrum), krusbär (Ribes uva-crispa), päron (Pyrus communis) och hallon (Rubus idaeus). Tillsammans med övrigt material visar de att örtlunden har potentialen att kunna fungera för livsmedelsproduktion, även om alla näringsämnen och energigivare inte kan förses från örtlunden som den ser ut idag. Ett flertal närings.mnen exempelvis vitamin B12, jod, selen och zink kommer det sannolikt att kunna uppstå brist av om inte åtgärder vidtas. Protein och fett behöver också troligtvis ökas i örtlunden och också komma från fler källor om man ska kunna täcka en människas närings- och energibehov.

    Livsmedelsverket rekommenderar att dagligen äta 500 gram frukt och gönt. Av data som hittades om avkastning gjordes en beräkning på hur många dagar skogsträdgården kan förse en människa med 500 gram frukt och grönt. Skörd från päron (Pyrus communis), svarta vinbär (Ribes nigrum), bärhäggmispel (Amelanchier alnifolia), hallon (Rubus idaeus), mullbär (Morus accidosa) och krusbär (Ribes uva-crispa) ger en människa 500 gram dagligen i 404 dagar. De viktigaste växtarterna i örtlunden var hassel (Corylus avellana), löktrav (Alliaria petiolata), rosenkvitten (Chaenomeles japonica) samt svarta och röda vinbär (Ribes nigrum och rubrum). Detta för att de bidrar med speciellt viktig näring och energi, exempelvis jod från röda vinbär och fett i hasselnötter. För att ta till vara på så mycket som möjligt av växternas näring och energi ges förslag på hur dessa ska tillagas och hanteras, baserat på näringsämnenas och energigivarnas egenskaper. Resultatet blev att det mesta ska ätas färskt, utan tillagning, för att behålla näringsvärdet. Vissa växter bör tillagas för att kunna utnyttja dess protein och svårnedbrytbara kolhydrater till fullo och andra växter behöver tillagas för att minska halten av toxiska ämnen. På ett flertal plaster i världen är skogsträdgårdar en viktig källa till föda. Jämförelse gjordes med två andra skogsträdgårdar  om vad dessa kan avkasta och resultatet visade att en skogsträdgård i England kan avkasta i princip lika mycket som en skogsträdgård i Australien. skogsträdgården i England producerade från 2,6 upp till 3,3 kg mat per kvadratmeter och skogsträdgård i Australien 3,15 kg mat per kvadratmeter. Då England och Sverige har relativt likt klimat bekräftar detta potentialen av att skogsträdgårdar även fungerar bra i tempererat klimat.

  • 249. Bogdal, C.
    et al.
    Abad, E.
    Abalos, M.
    van Bavel, Bert
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Hagberg, Jessika
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Scheringer, M.
    Fiedler, Heidelore
    UNEP Chemicals, CH-1219 Châtelaine (GE), Switzerland.
    Worldwide distribution of persistent organic pollutants in air, including results of air monitoring by passive air sampling in five continents2013In: TrAC. Trends in analytical chemistry, ISSN 0165-9936, E-ISSN 1879-3142, Vol. 46, p. 150-161Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article provides an overview of concentrations of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in ambient air on a global scale, including recent measurements and an extensive compilation of literature data. In this study, passive air samplers (PASs) were successfully employed to assess concentrations of POPs in ambient air from Africa, Latin America, the Caribbean, and the Pacific Islands. The project aimed to extend the knowledge on environmental contamination by POPs in these regions, where the currently available data are still limited to a few monitoring studies.

    The ambient air concentrations of PCB in Africa were relatively high when compared to other regions. Waste, in particular electronic waste, exported to Africa from industrialized countries may be a possible source of PCB in Africa, where PCB have never been extensively used or produced. For DDTs, the wide range of concentrations and particularly high levels in some countries of Africa and the Pacific Islands reflect the use of DDT for malaria control in these regions. For PCDD/PCDF, concentrations in Africa and Latin America are similar to or even higher than in Europe, probably due to unfavorable combustion practices of chlorine-containing materials.

    The data support the needs for further monitoring in developing countries and countries with economies in transition, and action to reduce environmental contamination by, and human exposure to, hazardous chemicals.

  • 250.
    Bonaccorsi, Manuele
    et al.
    The BioRobotics Institute, Scuola Superiore Sant’Anna, Viale R. Piaggio, Pontedera, Italy.
    Fiorini, L
    The BioRobotics Institute, Scuola Superiore Sant’Anna, Viale R. Piaggio, Pontedera, Italy.
    Sathyakeerthy, Subhash
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Saffiotti, Alessandro
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Cavallo, Filippo
    The BioRobotics Institute, Scuola Superiore Sant’Anna, Viale R. Piaggio, Pontedera, Italy.
    Dario, Paolo
    The BioRobotics Institute, Scuola Superiore Sant’Anna, Viale R. Piaggio, Pontedera, Italy.
    Design of cloud robotic services for senior citizens to improve independent living in multiple environments2015In: Intelligenza Artificiale, ISSN 1724-8035, Vol. 9, no 1, p. 63-72Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper proposed a cloud robotic solution for the healthcare management of senior citizens, to demonstrate the opportunity to remotely provide continuous assistive robotic services to a number of seniors regardless to their position in the monitored environment. In particular, a medication reminding, a remote home monitoring and an user indoor localization service were outsourced in the cloud and provided to the robots, users and caregivers on request. The proposed system was composed of a number of robotic agents distributed over two smart environments: a flat at the Domocasa Lab (Peccioli, IT) and a condominium at the Angen site of the Orebro science park (Orebro, SE). The cloud acquired data from remote smart environments and enabled the local robots to provide advanced assistive services to a number of users. The proposed smart environments were able to collect raw data for the environmental monitoring and the localization of the users by means of wireless sensors, and provide such data to the cloud. On the cloud, specific algorithms improved the local robots, by providing event scheduling to accomplish assistive services and situation awareness on the users position and environments’ status. The indoor user localization service, was provided by means of commercial and ad-hoc sensors distributed over the environments and a sensor fusion algorithm on the cloud. The entire cloud solution was evaluated in terms of Quality of Service (QoS) to estimate the effectiveness of the architecture.

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