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  • 1.
    Aahlin, Eirik K
    et al.
    Department of GI and HPB Surgery, University Hospital Northern Norway, Breivika, Tromsø, Norway; Institute of Clinical Medicine, University of Tromsø, Tromsø, Norway .
    von Meyenfeldt, Maarten
    Department of Surgery, University Hospital Maastricht and NUTRIM School for Nutrition, Toxicology and Metabolism, Maastricht, The Netherlands .
    Dejong, Cornelius Hc
    Department of Surgery, University Hospital Maastricht and NUTRIM School for Nutrition, Toxicology and Metabolism, Maastricht, The Netherlands .
    Ljungqvist, Olle
    Örebro University, School of Medicine, Örebro University, Sweden. Department of Surgery, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro; Department of Molecular Medicine and Surgery, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm.
    Fearon, Kenneth C
    Clinical Surgery, University of Edinburgh, Royal Infirmary of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK .
    Lobo, Dileep N
    Division of Gastrointestinal Surgery, Nottingham Digestive Diseases Centre National Institute for Health Research, Biomedical Research Unit, Nottingham University Hospitals, Queen's Medical Centre, Nottingham, UK .
    Demartines, Nicolas
    Hospital of Lausanne (CHUV), Lausanne, Switzerland .
    Revhaug, Arthur
    Department of GI and HPB Surgery, University Hospital Northern Norway, Breivika, Tromsø, Norway; Institute of Clinical Medicine, University of Tromsø, Tromsø, Norway .
    Wigmore, Stephen J
    Clinical Surgery, University of Edinburgh, Royal Infirmary of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK .
    Lassen, Kristoffer
    Department of GI and HPB Surgery, University Hospital Northern Norway, Breivika, Tromsø, Norway; Institute of Clinical Medicine, University of Tromsø, Tromsø, Norway .
    Functional recovery is considered the most important target: a survey of dedicated professionals2014In: Perioperative medicine, ISSN 2047-0525, Vol. 3, 3:5Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The aim of this study was to survey the relative importance of postoperative recovery targets and perioperative care items, as perceived by a large group of international dedicated professionals.

    Methods: A questionnaire with eight postoperative recovery targets and 13 perioperative care items was mailed to participants of the first international Enhanced Recovery After Surgery (ERAS) congress and to authors of papers with a clear relevance to ERAS in abdominal surgery. The responders were divided into categories according to profession and region.

    Results: The recovery targets 'To be completely free of nausea', 'To be independently mobile' and 'To be able to eat and drink as soon as possible' received the highest score irrespective of the responder's profession or region of origin. Equally, the care items 'Optimizing fluid balance', 'Preoperative counselling' and 'Promoting early and scheduled mobilisation' received the highest score across all groups.

    Conclusions: Functional recovery, as in tolerance of food without nausea and regained mobility, was considered the most important target of recovery. There was a consistent uniformity in the way international dedicated professionals scored the relative importance of recovery targets and care items. The relative rating of the perioperative care items was not dependent on the strength of evidence supporting the items.

  • 2.
    Aaro, Martina
    Örebro University, School of Medicine, Örebro University, Sweden.
    Antibiotic Prophylaxis in Head and Neck Oncologic Surgeryat Örebro University Hospital (USÖ)2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 3.
    Aaro, Martina
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences.
    Polypharmacy and Inappropriate Drug Use among Elderly Patients admitted to a Short-Term Nursing Home in Örebro2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 4.
    Abad-Gurumeta, A.
    et al.
    Hosp Univ la Paz, Dept Anaesthesia, Madrid, Spain.
    Ripolles-Melchor, J.
    Univ Complutense Madrid, Hosp Univ Infanta Leonor, Dept Anaesthesia, Madrid, Spain.
    Casans-Frances, R.
    Hosp Clin Univ Lozano Blesa, Dept Anaesthesia, Zaragoza, Spain.
    Espinosa, A.
    Orebro Univ Hosp, Dept Anaesthesia, Orebro, Sweden.
    Martinez-Hurtado, E.
    Univ Complutense Madrid, Hosp Univ Infanta Leonor, Dept Anaesthesia, Madrid, Spain.
    Fernandez-Perez, C.
    Univ Complutense Madrid, Dept Consultant Prevent Med & Publ Hlth, Madrid, Spain.
    Ramirez, J. M.
    Univ Zaragoza, Dept Colorectal Surg, Zaragoza, Spain.
    Lopez-Timoneda, F.
    Univ Complutense Madrid, Hosp Clin San Carlos, Dept Anaesthesia, Madrid, Spain.
    Calvo-Vecino, J. M.
    Univ Complutense Madrid, Hosp Univ Infanta Leonor, Dept Anaesthesia, Madrid, Spain.
    A systematic review of sugammadex vs neostigmine for reversal of neuromuscular blockade2015In: Anaesthesia, ISSN 0003-2409, E-ISSN 1365-2044, Vol. 70, no 12, 1441-1452 p.Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We reviewed systematically sugammadex vs neostigmine for reversing neuromuscular blockade. We included 17 randomised controlled trials with 1553 participants. Sugammadex reduced all signs of residual postoperative paralysis, relative risk (95% CI) 0.46 (0.29-0.71), p=0.0004 and minor respiratory events, relative risk (95% CI) 0.51 (0.32-0.80), p=0.0034. There was no difference in critical respiratory events, relative risk (95% CI) 0.13 (0.02-1.06), p=0.06. Sugammadex reduced drug-related side-effects, relative risk (95% CI) 0.72 (0.54-0.95), p=0.02. There was no difference in the rate of postoperative nausea or the rate of postoperative vomiting, relative risk (95% CI) 0.94 (0.79-1.13), p=0.53, and 0.87 (0.65-1.17), p=0.36 respectively.

  • 5.
    Abawi, Akram
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences.
    The effect of TGF-B1 and Fetal Bovine Serum on Sema 7A. Expression: An in Vitro study on Bone Marrow derived MSC from patients vith BCR-ABL negative Myeloproliferative neoplasms2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 6.
    Abbas, Monika
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences.
    Bedömning av variabler vid postocklusiv reaktiv hyperemi (PORH)-test med Laser Doppler Flowmetry teknik2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 7.
    Abdallah Athumani, Ngenya
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    Characterization of tick-born encephalitis and West Nile virus non-structural 5 protein interactions with host factors involved in immune evasion and cellular apoptosis.2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 8.
    Abdeldaim, Guma M. K.
    et al.
    Section of Clinical Bacteriology, Department of Medical Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden; Department of Clinical Mycobacteriology, National Center for Diseases Control, Benghazi, Libyan Arab Jamahiriya.
    Strålin, Kristoffer
    Department of Infectious Diseases, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden; Department of Infectious Diseases, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Olcén, Per
    Department of Laboratory Medicine, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden.
    Blomberg, Jonas
    Section of Clinical Virology, Department of Medical Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Mölling, Paula
    Örebro University Hospital. Department of Laboratory Medicine.
    Herrmann, Björn
    Section of Clinical Bacteriology, Department of Medical Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Quantitative fucK gene polymerase chain reaction on sputum and nasopharyngeal secretions to detect Haemophilus influenzae pneumonia2013In: Diagnostic microbiology and infectious disease, ISSN 0732-8893, E-ISSN 1879-0070, Vol. 76, no 2, 141-146 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the fucK gene was developed for specific detection of Haemophilus influenzae. The method was tested on sputum and nasopharyngeal aspirate (NPA) from 78 patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). With a reference standard of sputum culture and/or serology against the patient's own nasopharyngeal isolate, H. influenzae etiology was detected in 20 patients. Compared with the reference standard, fucK PCR (using the detection limit 10(5) DNA copies/mL) on sputum and NPA showed a sensitivity of 95.0% (19/20) in both cases, and specificities of 87.9% (51/58) and 89.5% (52/58), respectively. In a receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, sputum fucK PCR was found to be significantly superior to sputum P6 PCR for detection of H. influenzae CAP. NPA fucK PCR was positive in 3 of 54 adult controls without respiratory symptoms. In conclusion, quantitative fucK real-time PCR provides a sensitive and specific identification of H. influenzae in respiratory secretions.

  • 9.
    Abdi Mohamed, Halimo
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden.
    Järn, David
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden.
    Att leva med kroniskt obstruktiv lungsjukdom2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 10.
    Abdi-Ahmed, Shukri
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences.
    Optimal undersökningsteknik vid utredning an hepatitcellulär cancer med datortomografi2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 11.
    Abdinasir, Ayaan
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden.
    Forsberg, Niklas
    Familjens upplevelser av att leva med en anhörig som har Multipel Skleros: En litteraturstudie2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 12.
    Abdulkadir, Kauser
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences.
    Värdet av datorstödd bildanalys vid CT-colografi2010Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 13.
    Abdulkadir, Nema
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences.
    Analys av Ki67 i relation till den fraktala dimensionen hos coloncancer2010Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 14.
    Abdulla, Lana
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences.
    Recurrent or non-recurrent tamoxifen treated breast cancer2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 15.
    Abdulla, Suzanne
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences.
    Stråldos och bildkvalitet vid konventionell frontalbild av ländryggen med och utan kompression2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 16.
    Abdullahi Ossoble, Rage
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    Use of and patient satisfaction with removable partial dentures and the impact on oral health related quality of life; a cross-sectional survey study2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Removable partial dentures (PRD) are among the treatment options available for partially edentulous patients. The usage of RPD and patient satisfaction with the prosthesis relates to Oral health related quality of life (OHRQoL).

    Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of RPDs, satisfaction with the prostheses as well as OHRQoL in patients provided with a RPD in general practice. A further aim was to identify possible factors related to RPD usage, patient satisfaction and OHRQoL.

    Material and method: A cross-sectional survey study, utilizing a questionnaire regarding patient satisfaction with different aspects of the participants RPD, the Swedish version of OHIP-14 questionnaire and the usage of the prosthesis.

    Results: A majority of respondents, (83.6%) reported that they used their prosthesis daily or often. The overall satisfaction rate among respondents was 83.0% with 39.3% stating that they were highly satisfied with the prosthesis and the mean OHIP- 14 score was 8.5, SD 10.2. The chewing ability was reported to be improved by 58.9% but impairment in chewing was reported by 26.8%. Pain from supporting teeth and soft tissue, sociodemographic factors and dissatisfaction with pre-treatment information and personal treatment were associated with not using the RPD.

    Conclusions: In the present study, treatment with RPD was in most patients associated with improvement in chewing and appearance. Insufficient pretreatment information, perception of treatment and pain from supporting tissue was associated with reduced use of and satisfaction with the RPD.

  • 17.
    Abdurahman, Samir
    et al.
    Division of Clinical Microbiology, Department of Laboratory Medicine, F68, Karolinska University Hospital Huddinge, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Barqasho, Babilonia
    Department of Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Karolinska University Hospital, Sweden.
    Nowak, Piotr
    Department of Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Karolinska University Hospital, Sweden.
    Cuong, Do Duy
    Infectious Diseases Department, Bach Mai Hospital, Hanoi, Viet Nam .
    Amogné, Wondwossen
    Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia .
    Larsson, Mattias
    Division of Global Health (IHCAR), Department of Public Health Sciences, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; Oxford University Clinical Research Unit (OUCRU), Hanoi, Viet Nam .
    Lindquist, Lars
    Department of Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Karolinska University Hospital, Sweden .
    Marrone, Gaetano
    Division of Global Health (IHCAR), Department of Public Health Sciences, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Sönnerborg, Anders
    Division of Clinical Microbiology, Department of Laboratory Medicine, F68, Karolinska University Hospital Huddinge, Stockholm, Sweden; Department of Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Karolinska University Hospital, Sweden.
    Pattern of microbial translocation in patients living with HIV-1 from Vietnam, Ethiopia and Sweden2014In: Journal of the International AIDS Society, ISSN 1758-2652, Vol. 17, 18841- p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    INTRODUCTION: The role of microbial translocation (MT) in HIV patients living with HIV from low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) is not fully known. The aim of this study is to investigate and compare the patterns of MT in patients from Vietnam, Ethiopia and Sweden.

    METHODS: Cross-sectional samples were obtained from treatment-naïve patients living with HIV-1 and healthy controls from Vietnam (n=83; n=46), Ethiopia (n=9492; n=50) and Sweden (n=51; n=19). Longitudinal samples were obtained from a subset of the Vietnamese (n=24) in whom antiretroviral therapy (ART) and tuberculostatics were given. Plasma lipopolysaccharide (LPS), sCD14 and anti-flagellin IgG were determined by the endpoint chromogenic Limulus Amebocyte Assay and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.

    RESULTS: All three biomarkers were significantly increased in patients living with HIV-1 from all countries as compared to controls. No differences were found between males and females. Vietnamese and Ethiopian patients had significantly higher levels of anti-flagellin IgG and LPS, as compared to Swedes. ART reduced these levels for the Vietnamese. Vietnamese patients given tuberculostatics at initiation of ART had significantly lower levels of anti-flagellin IgG and higher sCD14. The biomarkers were lower in Vietnamese who did not develop opportunistic infection.

    CONCLUSIONS: Higher MT is common in patients living with HIV compared to healthy individuals, and in patients from LMICs compared to patients from a high-income country. Treatment with tuberculostatics decreased MT while higher levels of MT are associated with a poorer clinical outcome.

  • 18.
    Abdurahman, Samir
    et al.
    Division of Clinical Microbiology, Karolinska Institutet, F68 Karolinska University Hospital Huddinge, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Végvári, Akos
    Department of Electrical Measurements, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Levi, Michael
    Tripep AB, Huddinge, Sweden.
    Höglund, Stefan
    Department of Biochemistry, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden .
    Högberg, Marita
    Chemilia AB, Huddinge, Sweden.
    Tong, Weimin
    Chemilia AB, Huddinge, Sweden.
    Romero, Ivan
    Chemilia AB, Huddinge, Sweden.
    Balzarini, Jan
    Rega Institute for Medical Research, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Leuven, Belgium.
    Vahlne, Anders
    Division of Clinical Microbiology, Karolinska Institutet, F68 Karolinska University Hospital Huddinge, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Isolation and characterization of a small antiretroviral molecule affecting HIV-1 capsid morphology2009In: Retrovirology, ISSN 1742-4690, Vol. 6, 34- p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Formation of an HIV-1 particle with a conical core structure is a prerequisite for the subsequent infectivity of the virus particle. We have previously described that glycineamide (G-NH2) when added to the culture medium of infected cells induces non-infectious HIV-1 particles with aberrant core structures.

    RESULTS: Here we demonstrate that it is not G-NH2 itself but a metabolite thereof that displays antiviral activity. We show that conversion of G-NH2 to its antiviral metabolite is catalyzed by an enzyme present in bovine and porcine but surprisingly not in human serum. Structure determination by NMR suggested that the active G-NH2 metabolite was alpha-hydroxy-glycineamide (alpha-HGA). Chemically synthesized alpha-HGA inhibited HIV-1 replication to the same degree as G-NH2, unlike a number of other synthesized analogues of G-NH2 which had no effect on HIV-1 replication. Comparisons by capillary electrophoresis and HPLC of the metabolite with the chemically synthesized alpha-HGA further confirmed that the antiviral G-NH2-metabolite indeed was alpha-HGA.

    CONCLUSION: alpha-HGA has an unusually simple structure and a novel mechanism of antiviral action. Thus, alpha-HGA could be a lead for new antiviral substances belonging to a new class of anti-HIV drugs, i.e. capsid assembly inhibitors.

  • 19.
    Abdurahman, Samir
    et al.
    Division of Clinical Microbiology, Karolinska Institutet, F68 Karolinska University Hospital Huddinge, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Végvári, Akos
    Clinical Protein Science, Department of Electrical Measurements, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Youssefi, Masoud
    Division of Clinical Microbiology, Karolinska Institutet, F68 Karolinska University Hospital Huddinge, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Levi, Michael
    Tripep AB, Huddinge, Sweden .
    Höglund, Stefan
    Department of Biochemistry, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden .
    Andersson, Elin
    Department of Clinical Virology, University of Göteborg, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Horal, Peter
    Department of Clinical Virology, University of Göteborg, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Svennerholm, Bo
    Department of Clinical Virology, University of Göteborg, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Balzarini, Jan
    Institute for Medical Research, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Leuven, Belgium.
    Vahlne, Anders
    Division of Clinical Microbiology, Karolinska Institutet, F68 Karolinska University Hospital Huddinge, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Activity of the small modified amino acid alpha-hydroxy glycineamide on in vitro and in vivo human immunodeficiency virus type 1 capsid assembly and infectivity2008In: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, ISSN 0066-4804, E-ISSN 1098-6596, Vol. 52, no 10, 3737-3744 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Upon maturation of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) virion, proteolytic cleavage of the Gag precursor protein by the viral protease is followed by morphological changes of the capsid protein p24, which will ultimately transform the virus core from an immature spherical to a mature conical structure. Virion infectivity is critically dependent on the optimal semistability of the capsid cone structure. We have reported earlier that glycineamide (G-NH(2)), when added to the culture medium of infected cells, inhibits HIV-1 replication and that HIV-1 particles with aberrant core structures were formed. Here we show that it is not G-NH(2) itself but a metabolite thereof, alpha-hydroxy-glycineamide (alpha-HGA), that is responsible for the antiviral activity. We show that alpha-HGA inhibits the replication of clinical HIV-1 isolates with acquired resistance to reverse transcriptase and protease inhibitors but has no effect on the replication of any of 10 different RNA and DNA viruses. alpha-HGA affected the ability of the HIV-1 capsid protein to assemble into tubular or core structures in vitro and in vivo, probably by binding to the hinge region between the N- and C-terminal domains of the HIV-1 capsid protein as indicated by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-mass spectrometry results. As an antiviral compound, alpha-HGA has an unusually simple structure, a pronounced antiviral specificity, and a novel mechanism of antiviral action. As such, it might prove to be a lead compound for a new class of anti-HIV substances.

  • 20.
    Abedi, Mohammad R.
    et al.
    Örebro University Hospital. Department of Laboratory Medicine, Section for Transfusion Medicine.
    Doverud, Ann-Charlotte
    Department of Laboratory Medicine, Section for Transfusion Medicine, Örebro University Hospital.
    Preparation and Pathogen Inactivation of Double Dose Buffy Coat Platelet Products using the INTERCEPT Blood System2012In: Journal of Visualized Experiments, ISSN 1940-087X, E-ISSN 1940-087X, no 70, UNSP e4414Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Blood centers are faced with many challenges including maximizing production yield from the blood product donations they receive as well as ensuring the highest possible level of safety for transfusion patients, including protection from transfusion transmitted diseases. This must be accomplished in a fiscally responsible manner which minimizes operating expenses including consumables, equipment, waste, and personnel costs, among others.

    Several methods are available to produce platelet concentrates for transfusion. One of the most common is the buffy coat method in which a single therapeutic platelet unit (>= 2.0 x10(11) platelets per unit or per local regulations) is prepared by pooling the buffy coat layer from up to six whole blood donations. A procedure for producing "double dose" whole blood derived platelets has only recently been developed.

    Presented here is a novel method for preparing double dose whole blood derived platelet concentrates from pools of 7 buffy coats and subsequently treating the double dose units with the INTERCEPT Blood System for pathogen inactivation. INTERCEPT was developed to inactivate viruses, bacteria, parasites, and contaminating donor white cells which may be present in donated blood. Pairing INTERCEPT with the double dose buffy coat method by utilizing the INTERCEPT Processing Set with Dual Storage Containers (the "DS set"), allows blood centers to treat each of their double dose units in a single pathogen inactivation processing set, thereby maximizing patient safety while minimizing costs. The double dose buffy coat method requires fewer buffy coats and reduces the use of consumables by up to 50% (e.g. pooling sets, filter sets, platelet additive solution, and sterile connection wafers) compared to preparation and treatment of single dose buffy coat platelet units. Other cost savings include less waste, less equipment maintenance, lower power requirements, reduced personnel time, and lower collection cost compared to the apheresis technique.

  • 21.
    Abraha, Genet
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences.
    Patienters upplevda livskvalitet efter en överviktsoperation: En litteraturstudie2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 22. Abraham-Nordling, Mirna
    et al.
    Byström, Kristina
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences.
    Torring, Ove
    Lantz, Mikael
    Berg, Gertrud
    Calissendorff, Jan
    Filipsson Nyström, Helena
    Jansson, Svante
    Jorneskog, Gun
    Karlsson, F. Anders
    Nyström, Ernst
    Ohrling, Hans
    Orn, Thomas
    Hallengren, Bengt
    Wallin, Göran
    Incidence of hyperthyroidism in Sweden2011In: European Journal of Endocrinology, ISSN 0804-4643, E-ISSN 1479-683X, Vol. 165, no 6, 899-905 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: The incidence of hyperthyroidism has been reported in various countries to be 23-93/100000 inhabitants per year. This extended study has evaluated the incidence for similar to 40% of the Swedish population of 9 million inhabitants. Sweden is considered to be iodine sufficient country. Methods:All patients including children, who were newly diagnosed with overt hyperthyroidism in the years 2003-2005, were prospectively registered in a multicenter study. The inclusion criteria are as follows:clinical symptoms and/or signs of hyperthyroidism with plasma TSH concentration below 0.2 mIE/l and increased plasma levels of free/total triiodothyronine and/or free/total thyroxine. Patients with relapse of hyperthyroidism or thyroiditis were not included. The diagnosis of Graves' disease (GD), toxic multinodular goiter (TMNG) and solitary toxic adenoma (STA), smoking, initial treatment, occurrence of thyroid-associated eye symptoms/signs, and demographic data were registered. Results:A total of 2916 patients were diagnosed with de novo hyperthyroidism showing the total incidence of 27.6/100 000 inhabitants per year. The incidence of GD was 21.0/100 000 and toxic nodular goiter (TNG=STA+TMNG) occurred in 692 patients, corresponding to an annual incidence of 6.5/100 000. The incidence was higher in women compared with men (4.2:1). Seventy-five percent of the patients were diagnosed with GD, in whom thyroid-associated eye symptoms/signs occurred during diagnosis in every fifth patient. Geographical differences were observed. Conclusion:The incidence of hyperthyroidism in Sweden is in a lower range compared with international reports. Seventy-five percent of patients with hyperthyroidism had GD and 20% of them had thyroid-associated eye symptoms/signs during diagnosis. The observed geographical differences require further studies.

  • 23.
    Abrahamsson, Anna
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    Aldegren, Sandra
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    Kan musik pre- och intraoperativt lindra patientens postoperativa smärta? -en litteraturstudie2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 24.
    Abrahamsson, Ebba
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    Nyman, Emma
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    Den hjälpande handen i arbetet: En intervjustudie om hörseltekniska hjälpmedel: konferenshjälpmedel2016Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 25.
    Abrahamsson, T. R.
    et al.
    Linköping Univ, Dept Clin & Expt Med, Div Pediat, Linköping, Sweden.
    Jakobsson, H. E.
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Microbiol Tumor & Cell Biol, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Andersson, A. F.
    KTH Royal Inst Technol, Sch Biotechnol, Div Gene Technol, Sci Life Lab, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Björkstén, Bengt
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden.
    Engstrand, L.
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Microbiol Tumor & Cell Biol, Stockholm, Sweden; KTH Royal Inst Technol, Sch Biotechnol, Div Gene Technol, Sci Life Lab, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Jenmalm, M. C.
    Linköping Univ, Dept Clin & Expt Med, Div Pediat, Linköping, Sweden; Linköping Univ, Dept Clin & Expt Med, Div Clin Immunol, Unit Autoimmun & Immune Regulat, Linköping, Sweden.
    Low gut microbiota diversity in early infancy precedes asthma at school age2014In: Clinical and Experimental Allergy, ISSN 0954-7894, E-ISSN 1365-2222, Vol. 44, no 6, 842-850 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Low total diversity of the gut microbiota during the first year of life is associated with allergic diseases in infancy, but little is known how early microbial diversity is related to allergic disease later in school age. Objective To assess microbial diversity and characterize the dominant bacteria in stool during the first year of life in relation to the prevalence of different allergic diseases in school age, such as asthma, allergic rhinoconjunctivitis (ARC) and eczema. Methods The microbial diversity and composition was analysed with barcoded 16S rDNA 454 pyrosequencing in stool samples at 1week, 1month and 12months of age in 47 infants which were subsequently assessed for allergic disease and skin prick test reactivity at 7years of age (ClinicalTrials.gov ID NCT01285830). Results Children developing asthma (n=8) had a lower diversity of the total microbiota than non-asthmatic children at 1week (P=0.04) and 1month (P=0.003) of age, whereas allergic rhinoconjunctivitis (n=13), eczema (n=12) and positive skin prick reactivity (n=14) at 7years of age did not associate with the gut microbiota diversity. Neither was asthma associated with the microbiota composition later in infancy (at 12months). Children having IgE-associated eczema in infancy and subsequently developing asthma had lower microbial diversity than those that did not. There were no significant differences, however, in relative abundance of bacterial phyla and genera between children with or without allergic disease. Conclusion and Clinical Relevance Low total diversity of the gut microbiota during the first month of life was associated with asthma but not ARC in children at 7years of age. Measures affecting microbial colonization of the infant during the first month of life may impact asthma development in childhood.

  • 26.
    Abrahamsson, Thomas R.
    et al.
    Linkoping Univ, Dept Clin & Expt Med, Div Pediat, Linkoping, Sweden..
    Jakobsson, Hedvig E.
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Microbiol Tumor & Cell Biol, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Andersson, Anders F.
    KTH Royal Inst Technol, Sch Biotechnol, Sci Life Lab, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Björksten, Bengt
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden. Karolinska Inst, Inst Environm Med, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Engstrand, Lars
    KTH Royal Inst Technol, Sch Biotechnol, Sci Life Lab, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Jenmalm, Maria C.
    Linkoping Univ, Dept Clin & Expt Med, Div Pediat, Linkoping, Sweden.;Linkoping Univ, Unit Autoimmun & Immune Regulat, Dept Clin & Expt Med, Div Clin Immunol, Linkoping, Sweden..
    Gut microbiota diversity and atopic disease: Does breast-feeding play a role? Reply2013In: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, ISSN 0091-6749, E-ISSN 1097-6825, Vol. 131, no 1, 248-249 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 27.
    Abrahamsson, Thomas R.
    et al.
    Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Pediatrics, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Jakobsson, Hedvig E.
    Department of Preparedness, Swedish Institute for Communicable Disease Control, Solna, Sweden; Department of Microbiology, Tumor and Cell Biology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Andersson, Anders F.
    Science for Life Laboratory, School of Biotechnology, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Björkstén, Bengt
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden. Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; .
    Engstrand, Lars
    Department of Preparedness, Swedish Institute for Communicable Disease Control, Solna, Sweden; Department of Microbiology, Tumor and Cell Biology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Jenmalm, Maria C.
    Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Pediatrics, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden; Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Unit of Autoimmunity and Immune Regulation, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Low diversity of the gut microbiota in infants with atopic eczema2012In: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, ISSN 0091-6749, E-ISSN 1097-6825, Vol. 129, no 2, 434-440.e2 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: It is debated whether a low total diversity of the gut microbiota in early childhood is more important than an altered prevalence of particular bacterial species for the increasing incidence of allergic disease. The advent of powerful, cultivation-free molecular methods makes it possible to characterize the total microbiome down to the genus level in large cohorts.

    Objective: We sought to assess microbial diversity and characterize the dominant bacteria in stool during the first year of life in relation to atopic eczema development.

    Methods: Microbial diversity and composition were analyzed with barcoded 16S rDNA 454-pyrosequencing in stool samples at 1 week, 1 month, and 12 months of age in 20 infants with IgE-associated eczema and 20 infants without any allergic manifestation until 2 years of age (ClinicalTrials.gov ID NCT01285830).

    Results: Infants with IgE-associated eczema had a lower diversity of the total microbiota at 1 month (P = .004) and a lower diversity of the bacterial phylum Bacteroidetes and the genus Bacteroides at 1 month (P = .02 and P = .01) and the phylum Proteobacteria at 12 months of age (P = .02). The microbiota was less uniform at 1 month than at 12 months of age, with a high interindividual variability. At 12 months, when the microbiota had stabilized, Proteobacteria, comprising gram-negative organisms, were more abundant in infants without allergic manifestation (Empirical Analysis of Digital Gene Expression in R [edgeR] test: P = .008, q = 0.02).

    Conclusion: Low intestinal microbial diversity during the first month of life was associated with subsequent atopic eczema.

  • 28. Abrahamsson, Thomas R.
    et al.
    Jakobsson, Ted
    Björkstén, Bengt
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden.
    Oldaeus, Göran
    Jenmalm, Maria C.
    No effect of probiotics on respiratory allergies: a seven-year follow-up of a randomized controlled trial in infancy2013In: Pediatric Allergy and Immunology, ISSN 0905-6157, E-ISSN 1399-3038, Vol. 24, no 6, 556-561 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Supplementation with the probioticLactobacillus reuteri reduced the incidence of IgE-associated allergic disease in infancy. This treatment might therefore also reduce the risk of asthma and allergic rhinoconjunctivitis in school age.

    Objective: To evaluate whether perinatal and infant supplementation withL.reuteri reduced the prevalence of respiratory allergic disease in school age and to explore whether this supplementation was associated with any long-term side effects.

    Methods: A randomized, placebo-controlled trial with oral supplementation withL.reuteriATCC 55730 (1x10(8)CFU) during the last month of gestation and through the first year of life comprising 232 families with allergic disease, of whom 184 completed a 7-yr follow-up. The primary outcomes at 7yr of age were allergic disease and skin prick test reactivity (ClinicalTrials.govID NCT01285830).

    Results: The prevalence of asthma (15% in the probiotic vs. 16% in placebo group), allergic rhinoconjunctivitis (27% vs. 20%), eczema (21% vs. 19%) and skin prick test reactivity (29% vs. 26%) was similar in the probiotic and placebo group. Growth indices and gastrointestinal symptoms were similar in the two groups. No severe adverse events were reported.

    Conclusion: The effect ofL.reuteri on sensitization andIgE-associated eczema in infancy did not lead to a lower prevalence of respiratory allergic disease in school age. Thus, the effect ofL.reuteri on the immune system seems to be transient. Administration ofL.reuteri during the last weeks of gestation and in infancy was not associated with any long-term side effects.

  • 29.
    Abrikossova, Natalia
    et al.
    Division of Molecular Surface Physics and Nanoscience, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden .
    Skoglund, Caroline
    Division of Molecular Surface Physics and Nanoscience, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden; Division of Clinical Medicine, Department of Biomedicine, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Ahrén, Maria
    Division of Molecular Surface Physics and Nanoscience, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Bengtsson, Torbjörn
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden. Division of Clinical Medicine, Department of Biomedicine.
    Uvdal, Kajsa
    Division of Molecular Surface Physics and Nanoscience, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Effects of gadolinium oxide nanoparticles on the oxidative burst from human neutrophil granulocytes2012In: Nanotechnology, ISSN 0957-4484, E-ISSN 1361-6528, Vol. 23, no 27, 275101Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We have previously shown that gadolinium oxide (Gd2O3) nanoparticles are promising candidates to be used as contrast agents in magnetic resonance (MR) imaging applications. In this study, these nanoparticles were investigated in a cellular system, as possible probes for visualization and targeting intended for bioimaging applications. We evaluated the impact of the presence of Gd2O3 nanoparticles on the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) from human neutrophils, by means of luminol-dependent chemiluminescence. Three sets of Gd2O3 nanoparticles were studied, i.e. as synthesized, dialyzed and both PEG-functionalized and dialyzed Gd2O3 nanoparticles. In addition, neutrophil morphology was evaluated by fluorescent staining of the actin cytoskeleton and fluorescence microscopy. We show that surface modification of these nanoparticles with polyethylene glycol (PEG) is essential in order to increase their biocompatibility. We observed that the as synthesized nanoparticles markedly decreased the ROS production from neutrophils challenged with prey (opsonized yeast particles) compared to controls without nanoparticles. After functionalization and dialysis, more moderate inhibitory effects were observed at a corresponding concentration of gadolinium. At lower gadolinium concentration the response was similar to that of the control cells. We suggest that the diethylene glycol (DEG) present in the as synthesized nanoparticle preparation is responsible for the inhibitory effects on the neutrophil oxidative burst. Indeed, in the present study we also show that even a low concentration of DEG, 0.3%, severely inhibits neutrophil function. In summary, the low cellular response upon PEG-functionalized Gd2O3 nanoparticle exposure indicates that these nanoparticles are promising candidates for MR-imaging purposes.

  • 30.
    Acosta, Stefan
    et al.
    Vascular Center, Malmö University Hospital, Malmö, Sweden.
    Block, Tomas
    Department of Surgical Sciences, Vascular Surgery, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Björnsson, Steinarr
    Vascular Center, Malmö University Hospital, Malmö, Sweden.
    Resch, Timothy
    Vascular Center, Malmö University Hospital, Malmö, Sweden.
    Björck, Martin
    Department of Surgical Sciences, Vascular Surgery, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Nilsson, Torbjörn
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden. Department of Clinical Chemistry, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden.
    Diagnostic pitfalls at admission in patients with acute superior mesenteric artery occlusion2012In: Journal of Emergency Medicine, ISSN 0736-4679, E-ISSN 1090-1280, Vol. 42, no 6, 635-641 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Acute superior mesenteric artery (SMA) occlusion leads to acute intestinal ischemia and is associated with high mortality. Early diagnosis is often missed, and confounding factors leading to diagnostic delays need to be highlighted.

    OBJECTIVES: To identify potential diagnostic laboratory pitfalls at admission in patients with acute SMA occlusion.

    METHODS: Fifty-five patients with acute SMA occlusion were identified from the in-hospital register during a 4-year period, 2005-2009.

    RESULTS: The median age was 76 years; 78% were women. The occlusion was embolic in 53% and thrombotic in 47% of patients. At admission, troponin I was above the clinical decision level (> 0.06 μg/L) for acute ischemic myocardial injury in 9/19 (47%) patients with embolic occlusion. Elevated pancreas amylase and normal plasma lactate were found in 12/45 and 13/27, respectively. A troponin I (TnI) above the clinical decision level was associated with a high frequency of referrals from the general surgeon to a specialist in internal medicine (p = 0.011) or a cardiologist (p = 0.024). The diagnosis was established after computed tomography angiography in 98% of the patients. The overall in-hospital mortality rate was 33%. Attempting intestinal revascularization (n = 43; p < 0.001), with a 95% frequency rate of completion control of the vascular procedure, was associated with a higher survival rate, whereas referral to the cardiologist was associated with a higher mortality rate (p = 0.018).

    CONCLUSION: Elevated TnI was common in acute SMA occlusion, and referral to the cardiologist was found to be associated with adverse outcome. Elevated pancreas amylase and normal plasma lactate values are also potential pitfalls at admission in patients with acute SMA occlusion.

  • 31.
    Acosta, Stefan
    et al.
    Vascular Center, Skåne University Hospital, Malmö, Sweden.
    Nilsson, Torbjörn
    Department of Clinical Chemistry, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden.
    Current status on plasma biomarkers for acute mesenteric ischemia2012In: Journal of Thrombosis and Thrombolysis, ISSN 0929-5305, E-ISSN 1573-742X, Vol. 33, no 4, 355-361 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Clinical diagnosis of acute mesenteric ischemia is difficult. The aim of this review is to provide current status on the search for an accurate plasma biomarker for acute mesenteric ischemia. A search using the medical subject heading terms marker and mesenteric ischemia or intestinal ischemia or superior mesenteric artery occlusion or mesenteric venous thrombosis in the Medline and Embase databases from 1980 to 2011. Studies without a control group or a control group consisted of healthy individuals (human studies), or studies on intestinal reperfusion were excluded. Twenty animal and twelve human studies were identified. In human studies, the studied series of patients had a control group that had a need of laparotomy (n = 2), suspected acute mesenteric ischemia (n = 7), acute abdomen (n = 2) or systemic inflammatory response syndrome (n = 1). D: -dimer has been found to be the most consistent highly sensitive early marker, but specificity was low. The follow-up study on α-glutathione S-transferase yielded inferior sensitivity and accuracy than the preliminary study, clearly questioning the value of this marker. Intestinal fatty acid binding globulin (I-FABP) and D: -lactate are both interesting markers, but the results were conflicting. Different cut-off levels have been used in the studies on I-FABP. The encouraging preliminary result of cobalt-albumin and urinary FABP as an accurate marker needs to be addressed in other study populations. The early clinical and laboratory diagnosis of intestinal ischemia remains a challenge. None of the proposed plasma-derived tests for acute mesenteric ischemia has as yet entered routine clinical practice. The proposed biomarkers need to be evaluated in a prospective clinical research project in patients with acute abdomen.

  • 32. Acosta, Stefan
    et al.
    Nilsson, Torbjörn K
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences.
    Malina, Janne
    Malina, Martin
    L-lactate after embolization of the superior mesenteric artery2007In: Journal of Surgical Research, ISSN 0022-4804, E-ISSN 1095-8673, Vol. 143, no 2, 320-328 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Plasma markers for intestinal ischemia have not proven to be accurate. The value of L-lactate is unclear. Experimental models based on open surgery confound the effects of surgical trauma with that of ischemia. The aim was to create an endovascular model for acute superior mesenteric artery thromboembolism, and then to study L-lactate and lactate dehydrogenase (LD) activity in plasma and peritoneal fluid in pigs with extensive, high-grade intestinal ischemia. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Nine pigs underwent full superior mesenteric artery embolization with 4 h of intended intestinal ischemia, whereas six were control animals. Sampling of central venous and arterial blood was performed throughout the experiment, ending with laparotomy to collect peritoneal fluid and segmental intestinal biopsies. A pathologist, blinded to the performed interventions, graded the ischemic lesions. RESULTS: There were no differences in plasma L-lactate (P = 0.61) or LD activity levels (P = 0.69), measured at different time points from baseline to end of study, between animals with extensive, high-grade intestinal ischemia and sham. Intraperitoneal L-Lactate (P = 0.005) and LD activity (P = 0.018) levels were elevated compared with sham. There were differences in grades of ischemia in the duodenum (P = 0.003), small intestine (P < 0.001), proximal (P < 0.001), and sigmoid (P = 0.032) colon between experimental animals and sham. The grade of small bowel ischemia (n = 15) correlated to intraperitoneal fluid L-lactate (r = 0.80; P < 0.001) and LD activity levels (r = 0.72; P = 0.003). CONCLUSIONS: This endovascular study in a porcine model showed that L-lactate and LD activity levels in peritoneal fluid, not in plasma, reflect intestinal ischemia. The study suggests that plasma L-lactate not is a useful early marker in patients with suspicion of intestinal ischemia.

  • 33.
    Adam, Linnea
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences.
    Saied, Morsal
    Familjefokuserad omvårdnad: Barn med kroniska sjukdomar2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 34.
    Adamic, M.
    et al.
    Dermatol Ctr Parmova, Ljubljana, Slovenia..
    Pavlovic, M. D.
    Dermatol Ctr Parmova, Ljubljana, Slovenia.;Univ Maribor, Fac Med, SLO-2000 Maribor, Slovenia..
    Rubin, A. Troilius
    Skane Univ Hosp, Ctr Laser & Vasc Anomalies, Dept Dermatol, Malmo, Sweden..
    Palmetun-Ekback, M.
    Örebro University Hospital. Dept Dermatol.
    Boixeda, P.
    Univ Alcala De Henares, Ramon & Cajal Hosp, Dept Dermatol, Laser Serv, Madrid, Spain..
    Guidelines of care for vascular lasers and intense pulse light sources from the European Society for Laser Dermatology2015In: Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology, ISSN 0926-9959, E-ISSN 1468-3083, Vol. 29, no 9, 1661-1678 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AimLasers and non-coherent intense pulse light sources (IPLS) are based on the principle of selective photothermolysis and can be used for the treatment of many vascular skin lesions. A variety of lasers has been developed for the treatment of congenital and acquired vascular lesions which incorporate these concepts into their design. Although laser and light sources are very popular due to their non-invasive nature, caution should be considered by practitioners and patients to avoid permanent side-effects. The aim of these guidelines is to give evidence-based recommendations for the use of lasers and IPLS in the treatment of vascular lesions. MethodsThese guidelines were produced by a Consensus Panel made up of experts in the field of vascular laser surgery under the auspices of the European Society of Laser Dermatology. Recommendations on the use of vascular lasers and IPLS were made based on the quality of evidence for efficacy, safety, tolerability, cosmetic outcome, patient satisfaction/preference and, where appropriate, on the experts' opinion. The recommendations of these guidelines are graded according to the American College of Chest Physicians Task Force recommendations on Grading Strength of Recommendations and Quality of Evidence in Clinical Guidelines. ResultsLasers and IPLS are very useful and sometimes the only available method to treat various vascular lesions. It is of a paramount importance that the type of laser or IPLS and their specific parameters are adapted to the indication but also that the treating physician is familiar with the device to be used. The crucial issue in treating vascular lesions is to recognize the immediate end-point after laser treatment. This is the single most important factor to ensure both the efficacy of the treatment and avoidance of serious side-effects.

  • 35.
    Adams, A.
    et al.
    University of Edinburgh, Institute of Genetics and Molecular Medicine, Edinburgh, United Kingdom.
    Kalla, R.
    University of Edinburgh, Institute of Genetics and Molecular Medicine, Edinburgh, United Kingdom.
    Vatn, S.
    University of Oslo, Institute of Clinical Medicine, EpiGen, Campus Ahus, Oslo, Norway.
    Bonfiglio, F.
    BioCruces Health Research Institue, Bilbao, Spain.
    Nimmo, E.
    University of Edinburgh, Institute of Genetics and Molecular Medicine, Edinburgh, United Kingdom.
    Kennedy, N.
    University of Edinburgh, Institute of Genetics and Molecular Medicine, Edinburgh, United Kingdom.
    Ventham, N.
    University of Edinburgh, Institute of Genetics and Molecular Medicine, Edinburgh, United Kingdom.
    Vatn, M.
    University of Oslo, Institute of Clinical Medicine, EpiGen, Campus Ahus, Oslo, Norway.
    Ricanek, P.
    Akershus University, Department of Gastroenterology, Akershus, Norway.
    Bergemalm, Daniel
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences. Örebro University Hospital. Department of Gastroenterology.
    Halfvarson, Jonas
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences. Örebro University Hospital. Department of Gastroenterology.
    Söderholm, J.
    Linköping University Hospital, Department of Surgery, Linköping, Sweden;.
    Pierik, M.
    Maastricht University Medical Center (MUMC), Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Maastricht, Netherlands.
    Törkvist, L.
    Karolinska Institute, Department of Clinical Science, Intervention and Technology, Stock-holm, Sweden.
    Gomollon, F.
    University Hospital Clinic Lozano Blesa, Zaragoza, Spain.
    Gut, I.
    CNAG-CRG Centre for Genomic Regulation, Barcelona Institute of Science and Technology, Barcelona, Spain.
    Jahnsen, J.
    University of Oslo, Institute of Clinical Medicine, EpiGen, Campus Ahus, Oslo, Norway.
    Satsangi, J.
    University of Edinburgh, Institute of Genetics and Molecular Medicine, Edinburgh, United Kingdom.
    Epigenetic alterations at diagnosis predict susceptibility, prognosis and treatment escalation in inflammatory bowel disease - IBD Character2017In: Journal of Crohn's & Colitis, ISSN 1873-9946, E-ISSN 1876-4479, Vol. 11, no Suppl. 1, S108-S108 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 36.
    Adenfelt, Gunilla
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences.
    Warnemark, Elisabeth
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences.
    Arbetsskador hos sjukgymnaster: -en litteraturstudie2008Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 37.
    Adenäs, Josefine
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences.
    Trostek, Martina
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences.
    Arbetsterapeutiska interventioner för behandling av stressrelaterad smärta: En litteraturstudie2009Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 38.
    Adeteg, Sandra
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences.
    Bergman, Eva-Lena
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences.
    Att vara ung vuxen med reumatisk sjukdom och leva med kronisk smärta och trötthet: En kvalitativ intervjustudie2009Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med studien var att fånga in hur trötthet och smärta påverkar vardagen för unga vuxna med reumatisk sjukdom.

    Metoden är kvalitativ och för datainsamlingen gjordes semistrukturerade intervjuer. Materialet transkriberades transkriberades i sin helt och när det var klart påbörjades analysering av det som framkommit. I analysen sökte vi efter meningsbärande enheter och försökte ordna dem i kategorier och underkategorier.

    Resultatet visar att sjukdomen har en stor påverkan på våra informanters liv, men att de också har bra strategier för att kunna leva med sjukdomen. Det visar också på att även om strategierna är bra och de vet hur de ska hantera sjukdomen så stöter de på hinder, till exempel har skolgången blivit negativt påverkad för de flesta av informanterna. Något som visat sig vara extra viktigt har varit vännerna och det sociala nätverket. Alla informanter har på ett eller annat sätt verkligen understrykt betydelsen av vänner som är förstående och som på det sättet hjälper till att hitta det positiva med livet.

    Slutsatsen som kan dras utifrån detta arbete är att vara ung och ha en reumatisk sjukdom är något som påverkar hela livet. Vi har sett på informanterna i studien att trots detta flyter livet på och de lyckas i de flesta fall att få balans mellan aktivitet och vila. Just denna balans är mycket viktig.

     

  • 39.
    Adler, Madeleine
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    Hugosson, Elin
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    Att vårda både barn och vuxna på en gemensam akutmottagning: - En fenomenografisk studie 2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 40.
    Adler, Therese
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden.
    Johnsson Koli, Anette
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden.
    En kartläggning av tillgängligheten på gym för rullstolsburna personer.: En deskriptiv observationsstudie.2012Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte: Syftet med studien var att kartlägga och beskriva tillgängligheten på gym för rullstolsburna personer.

    Undersökningsmetod: Studien var en deskriptiv observationsstudie. Undersökningen var en tvärsnittsstudie, då mätningar gjordes vid ett tillfälle. Datainsamlingen utfördes genom strukturerade observationer av olika bedömningsområden, t.ex. närliggande utomhusmiljö, entré, träningslokal, omklädningsrum m.m. med hjälp av en egen utarbetad checklista.

    Resultat: Resultatet visade att hinder i tillgänglighet i huvudsak inte fanns i den närliggande utomhusmiljön runt gymmet. Däremot framkom problem med trappor/trappsteg, höga trösklar och tunga dörrar utan automatik vid entrén, samt trappor och nivåskillnader i omklädningsrum och duschutrymmen. Även avsaknad av hissar och handikappanpassade toaletter var vanligt förekommande hinder i tillgängligheten. Av resultatet framgick att störst tillgänglighet fanns inom bedömningsområdet "Gymlokal".

    Slutsats: Resultatet visade att inget gym var fullt tillgängligt i samtliga bedömningsområden.Mycket kvarstår att göra gällande tillgängligheten på gym för rullstolsburna personer. Många hinder ansåg vi dock vara enkelt avhjälpta hinder, till exempel utjämning av nivåskillnader, avfasning av trösklar och uppsättning av automatiska dörröppnare. Den här studien kan ge en ökad förståelse för vilka faktorer i gymmiljön som är hinder för tillgängligheten. Det skulle då kunna öka medvetenheten om vilka åtgärder som kan göra gymmen mer tillgängliga för rullstolsburna personer.

  • 41.
    Adlitzer, Helena
    et al.
    Regionalt cancercentrum Stockholm Gotland.
    Andershed, Birgitta
    Ersta Sköndal Högskola.
    Axelsson, Bertil
    Östersunds sjukhus; Umeå universitet.
    Blomberg, Karin
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    Fridegren, Inger
    Nacka Närsjukhus.
    Friedrichsen, Maria
    Palliativt kompetenscentrum Östergötland, Vrinnevisjukhuset; Linköpings Universitet .
    Fürst, Carl-Johan
    Palliativt utvecklingscentrum, Lunds universitet och Region Skåne.
    Heedman, Per-Anders
    Palliativt kompetenscentrum i Östergötland.
    Henoch, Ingela
    Sahlgrenska akademin; Göteborgs universitet.
    Kenne Sarenmalm, Elisabeth
    FoU Centrum, Skaraborgs sjukhus, Skövde.
    Löfdahl, Elisabet
    Palliativa sektionen SU/Sahlgrenska universitetssjukhuset.
    Melin-Johansson, Christina
    Mittuniversitetet.
    Molander, Ulla
    Sahlgrenska Universitetssjukhuset, Göteborg.
    Persson, Hans
    Danderyds sjukhus.
    Pessah-Rasmussen, Hélène
    Skånes Universitetssjukhus (SUS).
    Rasmussen, Birgit H
    Lunds universitet och Region Skåne.
    Schaufelberger, Maria
    Sahlgrenska universitetssjukhuset.
    Seiger Cronfalk, Berit
    Ersta Sköndal Högskola; Karolinska Institutet.
    Silk, Gerd
    Kvalitets- och utvecklingsenheten Region Gotland.
    Strang, Peter
    Karolinska Institutet och Stockholms Sjukhem, Stockholm.
    Strömberg, Anna
    Linköpings universitetssjukhus.
    Tavemark, Sofia
    Örebro kommun.
    Ternestedt, Britt-Marie
    Ersta Sköndal Högskola, Stockholm.
    Wennman-Larsen, Agneta
    Sophiahemmet Högskola; Karolinska Institutet.
    Wikström, Gerhard
    Uppsala Universitet.
    Österlind, Jane
    Ersta Sköndal högskola.
    Palliativ vård i livets slutskede: Nationellt vårdprogram2016Report (Other academic)
  • 42.
    Adolfsson, Adam
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    Ideellt engagemang: En studie om motivationen bakom det ideella engagemanget inom idrotten2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 43.
    Adolfsson, Annsofie
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden.
    A conceptual model of miscarriage for use in clinical practice and research2010Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 44. Adolfsson, Annsofie
    A description of a Swedish midwifery work environment in an assistance project in West africa]1992In: Jordemodern, ISSN 0021-7468, Vol. 105, no 1-2, 20-23 p.Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 45. Adolfsson, Annsofie
    Applying Heidegger's interpretive phenomenology to women's miscarriage experience2010In: Psychology Research and Behavior Management, ISSN 1179-1578, Vol. 3, 75-79 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Much has been written about measuring the feelings and impressions of women regarding their experience of miscarriage. According to the existential philosopher Heidegger life experiences such as the experience of a woman having a miscarriage can be interpreted and explained only in the context of the totality of the women's experiences in the past, the present, and the future. Thirteen in-depth interviews with women about their experiences of miscarriage were interpreted with respect to Heidegger's "Being and Time". By using his interpretive phenomenology the essence of the miscarriage experience was explored and defined. The women's feelings and impressions were influenced by past experiences of miscarriage, pregnancy, and births. Present conditions in the women's lives contributing to the experience include their relationships, working situation, and living conditions. Each woman's future prospects and hopes have been structurally altered with regard to their aspirations for their terminated pregnancy. The impact of miscarriage in a woman's life was found to be more important than caregiver providers and society have previously attributed to in terms of scale. The results of the interviews reveal that the women believed that only women who had experienced their own miscarriages were able to fully understand this complex womanly experience and its effects on the woman who had miscarried.

  • 46. Adolfsson, Annsofie
    Barnmorskans avancerade kliniska omvårdnad vid gynekologisk öppenvårdsmottagning2011In: Avancerad klinisk sjuksköterska: avancerad klinisk omvårdnad i teori och praxis / [ed] Lisbeth Fagerström, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2011, 1, 355-376 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 47. Adolfsson, Annsofie
    Blödning under tidig graviditet2009In: Lärobok för barnmorskor, Lund: Studentlitteratur, 2009, 3, 118-124 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 48.
    Adolfsson, Annsofie
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden.
    Confronting the inevitable: a conceptual model of miscarriage for use in clinical practice and research2010In: , 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 49.
    Adolfsson, Annsofie
    School of Life Sciences, University of Skövde; Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Skaraborg Hospital, Skövde, Sweden.
    Meta-analysis to obtain a scale of psychological reaction after perinatal loss: focus on miscarriage2011In: Psychology Research and Behavior Management, ISSN 1179-1578, Vol. 4, 29-39 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Pregnancy has different meanings to different women depending upon their circumstances. A number of qualitative studies have described the experience of miscarriage by women who had desired to carry their pregnancy to full term. The aim of this meta-analysis was to identify a scale of psychological reaction to miscarriage. Meta-analysis is a quantitative approach for reviewing articles from scientific journals through statistical analysis of findings from individual studies. In this review, a meta-analytic method was used to identify and analyze psychological reactions in women who have suffered a miscarriage. Different reactions to stress associated with the period following miscarriage were identified. The depression reaction had the highest average, weighted, unbiased estimate of effect (d(+) = 0.99) and was frequently associated with the experience of perinatal loss. Psychiatric morbidity was found after miscarriage in 27% of cases by a diagnostic interview ten days after miscarriage. The grief reaction had a medium d(+) of 0.56 in the studies included. However, grief after miscarriage differed from other types of grief after perinatal loss because the parents had no focus for their grief. The guilt is greater after miscarriage than after other types of perinatal loss. Measurement of the stress reaction and anxiety reaction seems to be difficult in the included studies, as evidenced by a low d(+) (0.17 and 0.16, respectively). It has been recommended that grief after perinatal loss be measured by an adapted instrument called the Perinatal Grief Scale Short Version.

  • 50. Adolfsson, Annsofie
    Miscarriage: women’s experience and its cumulative incidence2006Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Many women experience miscarriage every year. Every fourth woman who has given birth reports that she has previous experience of miscarriage. In a study of all women in the Swedish Medical Birth Register 1983-2003, we found that the number of cases of self reported miscarriage had increased in Sweden during this 21 year period. This increase can be explained by the introduction of sensitive pregnancy tests around 1990, as well as an increase in the mean age of the mothers, by approximately 3 years, during the observation period. The risk of miscarriage is 13% with the first child. With subsequent pregnancies, the risk of miscarriage is 8%, 6% and 4% with the second, third and fourth child, respectively.

    Thirteen of these women who had suffered a recent miscarriage were interviewed four months later, and their feelings of guilt and emptiness were explored. Their experience was that they wanted their questions to be answered, and that they wanted others to treat them as the mothers to be that they felt themselves to be. They also experienced the need for time to grieve their loss.

    Measurement of grief by means of the Perinatal Grief Scale (PGS) is used in research but has also been proposed for clinical use. We have translated this psychological instrument to Swedish, back-translated and tested it in a small pilot study. In a randomized controlled study, women with early miscarriage were allocated, either to a structured visit (study group) or a regular visit (control group) to a midwife. The structured visit was conducted according to the Swanson caring theory. We could conclude that the structured visit had no significant effect on grief compared to the regular visit, as measured using the PGS. However, women with the sub-diagnosis missed abortion have significantly more grief four months after early miscarriage, regardless of visit type.

    We also performed a content analysis of the tape-recorded structured follow-up visit. The code-key used was Bonanno and Kaltman’s general grief categorization. Women’s expression of grief after miscarriage was found to be very similar to the grief experienced following the death of a relative. Furthermore, the grief was found to be independent of number of children, women’s age, or earlier experience of miscarriage.

    Conclusions: Every fourth woman who gives birth reports that she has also experienced early miscarriage. The experience of these women is that they have suffered a substantial loss and their reaction is grief similar to that experienced following the death of a relative.

    List of papers
    1. Cumulative incidence of previous spontaneous abortion in Sweden in 1983-2003: a register study
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Cumulative incidence of previous spontaneous abortion in Sweden in 1983-2003: a register study
    2006 (English)In: Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-6349, E-ISSN 1600-0412, Vol. 85, no 6, 741-747 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    AIM: The aim of this study is to find out how common miscarriages are among women who have delivered a child. METHODS: The numbers of deliveries and miscarriages were extracted from the Swedish Medical Birth Register between 1983 and 2003. Linear regression was performed in order to investigate whether the increasing mean age of mothers or differences in pregnancy identification methods could explain the increased frequency of miscarriage. RESULTS: The reported number of miscarriages increased each year during the 21-year period, with a marked increase between 1991 and 1993 and only a slight increase during the final 10 years. For primiparous women, the frequency of reported miscarriages per delivery increased from 8.6% in 1983 to 13.9% in 2003. The corresponding figures for 2-parous women showed an increase from 14.5% to 21.3% respectively. Women aged 30-34 years had an odds ratio of 1.43 (95% CI 1.40-1.45) to suffer spontaneous abortion compared to the age group 25-29 years. Linear regression showed that an increase in mean age at delivery could only partly explain the increase in the frequency of reported miscarriages. A possible explanation could be differences in methods of identifying early pregnancy. CONCLUSION: Of all women who deliver a child, nearly 20% have experienced previous miscarriage. The increased mean age of women could only explain a small portion of the seen increase in miscarriage. The marked increase from 1991 to 1993 is interesting. Possible reasons for the increase are discussed.

    Keyword
    Abortion, Spontaneous/*epidemiology
    National Category
    Medical and Health Sciences
    Research subject
    Medicine
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-27333 (URN)10.1080/00016340600627022 (DOI)16752269 (PubMedID)
    Available from: 2013-02-05 Created: 2013-02-05 Last updated: 2017-10-17Bibliographically approved
    2. Guilt and emptiness: women's experiences of miscarriage
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Guilt and emptiness: women's experiences of miscarriage
    2004 (English)In: Health Care for Women International, ISSN 0739-9332, E-ISSN 1096-4665, Vol. 25, no 6, 543-560 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Women who lose an early pregnancy are shocked when they are first given the information that they have miscarried. Later they feel guilt and emptiness. Heideggerian interpretive phenomenology has been used with 13 women from southwest Sweden to uncover their lived experience of miscarriage. Women plan their future with a child during early pregnancy. When miscarriage occurs it is not a gore, an embryo, or a fetus they lose, it is their child. They feel that they are the cause of the miscarriage through something they have done, eaten, or thought. They feel abandonment and they grieve for their profound loss; they are actually in bereavement.

    National Category
    Nursing
    Research subject
    Nursing Science
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-25616 (URN)10.1080/07399330490444821 (DOI)15354621 (PubMedID)
    Available from: 2012-08-30 Created: 2012-08-30 Last updated: 2017-10-17Bibliographically approved
    3. Translation of the short version of the Perinatal Grief Scale into Swedish
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Translation of the short version of the Perinatal Grief Scale into Swedish
    2006 (English)In: Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences, ISSN 0283-9318, E-ISSN 1471-6712, Vol. 20, no 3, 269-273 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    INTRODUCTION: Women's emotions and grief after miscarriage are influenced not only by the context in which the miscarriage occurred but also by their past experience, the circumstances around the miscarriage and their future prospects. Their emotions therefore express a specific form of grief. Normally the time needed to work through the loss varies. A number of different scales, measuring women's emotions and grief after miscarriage have been published. One instrument that measures the specific grief, such as the grief after miscarriage is the Perinatal Grief Scale (PGS) that was designed to measure grief after perinatal loss and has good reliability and validity.

    AIMS: The purpose of this study was to translate the PGS into Swedish and to use the translation in a small pilot study.

    MATERIAL AND METHOD: The original short version of the PGS was first translated from English into Swedish and then back-translated into English, using different translators. During translation and back-translation, not only the linguistic and grammatical aspects were considered but also cultural differences. The Likert 5-point and a 10-point scale were tested in a pilot study where 12 volunteers anonymously answered the PGS twice. The intra-personal correlations were compared and analysed with weighted kappa-coefficient.

    FINDINGS: In all, five different versions were tested before the final Swedish version was established. The weighted kappa-coefficient for the volunteers was 0.58, which is regarded as representing good reproducibility.

    CONCLUSION: The PGS was translated successfully into Swedish and could be used in a Swedish population. As this work is rather time-consuming we therefore wish to publish the Swedish version so that it may be used by other researchers.

    National Category
    Nursing
    Research subject
    Nursing Science
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-25613 (URN)10.1111/j.1471-6712.2006.00404.x (DOI)16922980 (PubMedID)
    Available from: 2012-08-30 Created: 2012-08-30 Last updated: 2017-10-17Bibliographically approved
    4. Effect of a structured follow-up visit to a midwife on women with early miscarriage: a randomized study
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Effect of a structured follow-up visit to a midwife on women with early miscarriage: a randomized study
    2006 (English)In: Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-6349, E-ISSN 1600-0412, Vol. 85, no 3, 330-335 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Women's grief after miscarriage is substantial and important. Women who experience early miscarriage do not constitute a homogenous group. The aim of this study is to measure whether a structured follow-up visit to a midwife (group 1) at 21-28 days after early miscarriage could reduce the women's grief, measured using the perinatal grief scale Swedish short version (PGS) after a further 3 months (i.e. 4 months after the miscarriage), compared to a regular follow-up visit to a midwife (group 2).

    Methods: We performed an open randomized study of women who experienced early miscarriage (n = 88). The midwife's attitude in group 1 came from Swanson science theory of midwifery. In group 2, the women were offered only the ordinary type of consultation at a regular visit. A questionnaire with the PGS was used in both groups. Four months after the miscarriage, a second questionnaire with the same perinatal grief scale was sent by post.

    Results: There was a 30% greater reduction in grief in group 1 than that in group 2, when comparing the first and second measurements (not significant). The biggest differences were in the subscales active grief and difficulty in coping. Women with the subdiagnosis missed abortions had, as a group, significantly higher PGS scores at both visits, especially in active grief and difficulty in coping, regardless of the type of follow-up visit.

    Conclusions: A structured follow-up visit did not, in comparison with a regular follow-up visit, imply any significant reduction in grief as measured using the PGS scale. However, the subgroup missed abortion had more extensive grief than the other women with miscarriage. Structured follow-up visits are not imperative for all women with early miscarriage.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Oslo, Norway: Taylor & Francis, 2006
    Keyword
    Early miscarriage, grief, midwife, support, treatment
    National Category
    Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Medicine Nursing
    Research subject
    Caring sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-25614 (URN)000236110500012 ()16553182 (PubMedID)
    Available from: 2012-08-30 Created: 2012-08-30 Last updated: 2017-10-17Bibliographically approved
    5. Applicability of general grief theory to Swedish women's experience after early miscarriage, with factor analysis of Bonanno's taxonomy, using the Perinatal Grief Scale
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Applicability of general grief theory to Swedish women's experience after early miscarriage, with factor analysis of Bonanno's taxonomy, using the Perinatal Grief Scale
    2010 (English)In: Upsala Journal of Medical Sciences, ISSN 0300-9734, E-ISSN 2000-1967, Vol. 115, no 3, 201-209 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Grief is a normal phenomenon but showing great variation depending on cultural and personal features. Bonanno and Kaltman have nonetheless proposed five aspects of normal grief. The aim of this study was to investigate if women with miscarriage experience normal grief.

    MATERIAL AND METHODS: Content analyses of 25 transcribed conversations with women 4 weeks after their early miscarriages were classified depending on the meaning-bearing units according to Bonanno and Kaltman's categories. In the factor analyses, these categories were compared with the Perinatal Grief Scale and women's age, number of children and number of miscarriages, and gestational weeks.

    RESULTS: Women with miscarriage fulfill the criteria for having normal grief according to Bonanno and Kaltman. All of the 25 women had meaning-bearing units that were classified as cognitive disorganization, dysphoria, and health deficits, whereas disrupted social and occupational functioning and positive aspects of bereavement were represented in 22 of 25 women. From the factor analysis, there are no differences in the expression of the intensity of the grief, irrespective of whether or not the women were primiparous, younger, or had suffered a first miscarriage.

    CONCLUSION: Women's experience of grief after miscarriage is similar to general grief after death. After her loss, the woman must have the possibility of expressing and working through her grief before she can finish her pregnancy emotionally. The care-giver must facilitate this process and accept that the intensity of the grief is not dependent on the woman's age, or her number of earlier miscarriages.

    National Category
    Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Medicine Nursing
    Research subject
    Nursing Science
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-25610 (URN)10.3109/03009731003739851 (DOI)20636255 (PubMedID)
    Note

    Per-Göran Larsson is also affiliated toDepartment of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Skaraborgs sjukhus, Kärnsjukhuset Skövde, Skövde, SwedenandDivision of Women and Child Health, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Faculty of Health and Sciences, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden

    Available from: 2012-08-30 Created: 2012-08-30 Last updated: 2017-10-17Bibliographically approved
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