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  • 101.
    Bothe, Hans-H.
    et al.
    Örebro University, Department of Technology.
    Persson, Martin
    Örebro University, Department of Technology.
    Biel, Lena
    Örebro University, Department of Technology.
    Rosenholm, Magnus
    Örebro University, Department of Technology.
    Multivariate sensor fusion by a neural network modelManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 102.
    Bouguerra, Abdel
    et al.
    Örebro University, Department of Technology.
    Karlsson, Lars
    Örebro University, Department of Technology.
    PC-SHOP: a probabilstic-conditional hierarchical task planner2005In: Intelligenza Artificiale, ISSN 1724-8035, Vol. 2, no 4, 44-50 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we report on the extension of the classical HTN planner SHOP to plan in partially observable domains with uncertainty. Our algorithm PC-SHOP uses belief states to handle situations involving incomplete and uncertain information about the state of the world. Sensing and acting are integrated in the primitive actions through the use of a stochastic model. PC-SHOP is showed to scale up well compared to some of the state-of-the-art planners. We outline the main characteristics of the algorithm, and present performance results on some problems found in the literature.

  • 103.
    Bouguerra, Abdelbaki
    Örebro University, Department of Technology.
    Robust execution of robot task-plans: a knowledge-based approach2008Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Autonomous mobile robots are being developed with the aim of accomplishing complex tasks in different environments, including human habitats as well as less friendly places, such as distant planets and underwater regions. A major challenge faced by such robots is to make sure that their actions are executed correctly and reliably, despite the dynamics and the uncertainty inherent in their working space. This thesis is concerned with the ability of a mobile robot to reliably monitor the execution of its plans and detect failures.

    Existing approaches for monitoring the execution of plans rely mainly on checking the explicit effects of plan actions, i.e., effects encoded in the action model. This supposedly means that the effects to monitor are directly observable, but that is not always the case in a real-world environment. In this thesis, we propose to use semantic domain-knowledge to derive and monitor implicit expectations about the effects of actions. For instance, a robot entering a room asserted to be an office should expect to see at least a desk, a chair, and possibly a PC. These expectations are derived from knowledge about the type of the room the robot is entering. If the robot enters a kitchen instead, then it should expect to see an oven, a sink, etc.

    The major contributions of this thesis are as follows.

    • We define the notion of Semantic Knowledge-based Execution Monitoring SKEMon, and we propose a general algorithm for it based on the use of description logics for representing knowledge.

    • We develop a probabilistic approach of semantic Knowledge-based execution monitoring to take into account uncertainty in both acting and sensing. Specifically, we allow for sensing to be unreliable and for action models to have more than one possible outcome. We also take into consideration uncertainty about the state of the world. This development is essential to the applicability of our technique, since uncertainty is a pervasive feature in robotics.

    • We present a general schema to deal with situations where perceptual information relevant to SKEMon is missing. The schema includes steps for modeling and generating a course of action to actively collect such information. We describe approaches based on planning and greedy action selection to generate the information-gathering solutions. The thesis also shows how such a schema can be applied to respond to failures occurring before or while an action is executed. The failures we address are ambiguous situations that arise when the robot attempts to anchor symbolic descriptions (relevant to a plan action) in perceptual information. The work reported in this thesis has been tested and verified using a mobile robot navigating in an indoor environment. In addition, simulation experiments were conducted to evaluate the performance of SKEMon using known metrics. The results show that using semantic knowledge can lead to high performance in monitoring the execution of robot plans.

  • 104.
    Bouguerra, Abdelbaki
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Andreasson, Henrik
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Lilienthal, Achim J.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Åstrand, Björn
    Halmstad University, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Rögnvaldsson, Thorsteinn
    Halmstad University, Halmstad, Sweden.
    An autonomous robotic system for load transportation2009In: 2009 IEEE Conference on Emerging Technologies & Factory Automation (EFTA 2009), New York: IEEE conference proceedings, 2009, 1563-1566 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents an overview of an autonomous robotic material handling system. The goal of the system is to extend the functionalities of traditional AGVs to operate in highly dynamic environments. Traditionally, the reliable functioning of AGVs relies on the availability of adequate infrastructure to support navigation. In the target environments of our system, such infrastructure is difficult to setup in an efficient way. Additionally, the location of objects to handle are unknown, which requires that the system be able to detect and track object positions at runtime. Another requirement of the system is to be able to generate trajectories dynamically, which is uncommon in industrial AGV systems.

  • 105.
    Bouguerra, Abdelbaki
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Andreasson, Henrik
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Lilienthal, Achim J.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Åstrand, Björn
    Halmstad University.
    Rögnvaldsson, Thorsteinn
    Halmstad University, Sweden.
    MALTA: a system of multiple autonomous trucks for load transportation2009In: Proceedings of the 4th European conference on mobile robots (ECMR) / [ed] Ivan Petrovic, Achim J. Lilienthal, 2009, 93-98 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents an overview of an autonomousrobotic material handling system. The goal of the system is toextend the functionalities of traditional AGVs to operate in highlydynamic environments. Traditionally, the reliable functioning ofAGVs relies on the availability of adequate infrastructure tosupport navigation. In the target environments of our system,such infrastructure is difficult to setup in an efficient way.Additionally, the location of objects to handle are unknown,which requires that the system be able to detect and track objectpositions at runtime. Another requirement of the system is to beable to generate trajectories dynamically, which is uncommon inindustrial AGV systems.

  • 106.
    Bouguerra, Abdelbaki
    et al.
    Örebro University, Department of Technology.
    Karlsson, Lars
    Örebro University, Department of Technology.
    Hierarchical task planning under uncertainty2004Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we present an algorithm for planning in non-deterministic domains. Our algorithm C-SHOP extends the successful classical HTN planner SHOP, by introducing new mechanisms to handle situations where there is incomplete and uncertain information about the state of the environment. Being an HTN planner, C-SHOP supports coding domain-dependent knowledge in a powerful way that describes how to solve the planning problem.

    To handle uncertainty, belief states are used to represent incomplete information about the state of the world, and actions are allowed to have stochastic outcomes. This allows our algorithm to solve problems involving partial observability through feedback at execution time. We outline the main characteristics of the algorithm, and present performance results on some problems found in literature.

  • 107.
    Bouguerra, Abdelbaki
    et al.
    Örebro University, Department of Technology.
    Karlsson, Lars
    Örebro University, Department of Technology.
    Symbolic probabilistic-conditional plans execution by a mobile robot2005Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we report on the integration of a high-level plan executor with a behavior-based architecture. The executor is designed to execute plans that solve problems in partially observable domains. We discuss the different modules of the overall architecture and how we made the different modules interact using a shared representation. We also give a detailed description of the hierarchical architecture of the executor and how execution-time failures are handled.

  • 108.
    Bouguerra, Abdelbaki
    et al.
    Örebro University, Department of Technology.
    Karlsson, Lars
    Örebro University, Department of Technology.
    Synthesizing plans for multiple domains2005In: Abstraction, reformulation and approximation: Proceedings of the 6th international symposium, SARA 2005 / [ed] Jean-Daniel Zucker, Lorenza Saitta, Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2005, 30-43 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Intelligent agents acting in real world environments need to synthesize their course of action based on multiple sources of knowledge. They also need to generate plans that smoothly integrate actions from different domains. In this paper we present a generic approach to synthesize plans for solving planning problems involving multiple domains. The proposed approach performs search hierarchically by starting planning in one domain and considering subgoals related to the other domains as abstract tasks to be planned for later when their respective domains are considered. To plan in each domain, a domain-dependent planner can be used, making it possible to integrate different planners, possibly with different specializations. We outline the algorithm, and the assumptions underlying its functionality. We also demonstrate through a detailed example, how the proposed framework compares to planning in one global domain.

  • 109.
    Bouguerra, Abdelbaki
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Karlsson, Lars
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Saffiotti, Alessandro
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Handling uncertainty in semantic-knowledge based execution monitoring2007In: Intelligent Robots and Systems, 2007. IROS 2007. IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Oct. 29 2007-Nov. 2 2007, NEW YORK: IEEE , 2007, 443-449 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Executing plans by mobile robots, in real world environments, faces the challenging issues of uncertainty and environment dynamics. Thus, execution monitoring is needed to verify that plan actions are executed as expected. Semantic domain-knowledge has lately been proposed as a source of information to derive and monitor implicit expectations of executing actions. For instance, when a robot moves into a room asserted to be an office, it would expect to see a desk and a chair. We propose to extend the semantic knowledge-based execution monitoring to take uncertainty in actions and sensing into account when verifying the expectations derived from semantic knowledge. We consider symbolic probabilistic action models, and show how semantic knowledge is used together with a probabilistic sensing model in the monitoring process of such actions. Our approach is illustrated by showing test scenarios ran in an indoor environment using a mobile robot

  • 110.
    Bouguerra, Abdelbaki
    et al.
    Örebro University, Department of Technology.
    Karlsson, Lars
    Örebro University, Department of Technology.
    Saffiotti, Alessandro
    Örebro University, Department of Technology.
    Handling uncertainty in semantic-knowledge based execution monitoring2007In: IEEE/RSJ international conference on intelligent robots and systems, IROS 2007 San Diego, CA, 2007, New York: IEEE , 2007, 437-443 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Executing plans by mobile robots, in real world environments, faces the challenging issues of uncertainty and environment dynamics. Thus, execution monitoring is needed to verify that plan actions are executed as expected. Semantic domain-knowledge has lately been proposed as a source of information to derive and monitor implicit expectations of executing actions. For instance, when a robot moves into a room asserted to be an office, it would expect to see a desk and a chair. We propose to extend the semantic knowledge-based execution monitoring to take uncertainty in actions and sensing into account when verifying the expectations derived from semantic knowledge. We consider symbolic probabilistic action models, and show how semantic knowledge is used together with a probabilistic sensing model in the monitoring process of such actions. Our approach is illustrated by showing test scenarios run in an indoor environment using a mobile robot.

  • 111.
    Bouguerra, Abdelbaki
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Karlsson, Lars
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Saffiotti, Alessandro
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Monitoring the execution of robot plans using semantic knowledge2008In: Robotics and Autonomous Systems, ISSN 0921-8890, E-ISSN 0921-8830, Vol. 56, no 11, 942-954 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Even the best laid plans can fail, and robot plans executed in real world domains tend to do so often. The ability of a robot to reliably monitor the execution of plans and detect failures is essential to its performance and its autonomy. In this paper, we propose a technique to increase the reliability of monitoring symbolic robot plans. We use semantic domain knowledge to derive implicit expectations of the execution of actions in the plan, and then match these expectations against observations. We present two realizations of this approach: a crisp one, which assumes deterministic actions and reliable sensing, and uses a standard knowledge representation system (LOOM); and a probabilistic one, which takes into account uncertainty in action effects, in sensing, and in world states. We perform an extensive validation of these realizations through experiments performed both in simulation and on real robots.

  • 112.
    Broxvall, Mathias
    et al.
    Örebro University, Department of Technology.
    Coradeschi, Silvia
    Örebro University, Department of Technology.
    Karlsson, Lars
    Örebro University, Department of Technology.
    Saffiotti, Alessandro
    Örebro University, Department of Technology.
    Have another look on failures and recovery planning in perceptual anchoring2004Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An important requirement for autonomous systems is the ability to detect and recover from exceptional situations such as failures in observations. In this paper we demonstrate how techniques for planning with sensing under uncertainty can play a major role in solving the problem of recovering from such situations. In this first step we concentrate on failures in perceptual anchoring, that is how to connect a symbol representing an object to the percepts of that object. We provide a classification of failures and present planning-based methods for recovering from them. We illustrate our approach by showing tests run on a mobile robot equipped with a color camera.

  • 113.
    Broxvall, Mathias
    et al.
    Örebro University, Department of Technology.
    Coradeschi, Silvia
    Örebro University, Department of Technology.
    Karlsson, Lars
    Örebro University, Department of Technology.
    Saffiotti, Alessandro
    Örebro University, Department of Technology.
    Recovery planning for ambiguous cases in perceptual anchoring2005In: Proceedings of the 20th national conference on Artificial intelligence, AAAI-05: volume 3, 2005, 1254-1260 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An autonomous robot using symbolic reasoning, sensing and acting in a real environment needs the ability to create and maintain the connection between symbols representing objects in the world and the corresponding perceptual representations given by its sensors. This connection has been named perceptual anchoring. In complex environments, anchoring is not always easy to establish: the situation may often be ambiguous as to which percept actually corresponds to a given symbol. In this paper, we extend perceptual anchoring to deal robustly with ambiguous situations by providing general methods for detecting them and recovering from them. We consider different kinds of ambiguous situations and present planning-based methods to recover from them. We illustrate our approach by showing experiments involving a mobile robot equipped with a color camera and an electronic nose.

  • 114.
    Broxvall, Mathias
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Daoutis, Marios
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Developing Medical Image Processing Algorithms for GPU assisted parallel computation2013In: Computer Vision in Medical Imaging / [ed] C H Chen, World Scientific, 2013, 245-270 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    GPU’s have recently emerged as a significantly more powerful computing plat-form, capable of several orders of magnitude faster computations compared toCPU based approaches. However, they require significant changes in the algorithmic design compared to traditional programming paradigms. In this chapter we specifically introduce the reader to an overview of GPGPU development tools and the potential algorithmic pitfalls and bottlenecks when developing medical imaging algorithms for the GPU. We present a few general methodologies and building blocks for implementing fast image processing on GPUs. More specifically they include: methods for performing fast image convolutions and filtering;line detection, and bandwidth and memory considerations when processing volumetric datasets. Finally we conclude with a discourse on numerical precision as well as on mixing single floating-point versus double floating-point code.

  • 115.
    Broxvall, Mathias
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology. Centre of Biomedical Engineering Research (MTFC), Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden.
    Emilsson, Kent
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden. epartment of Clinical Physiology, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden.
    Thunberg, Per
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden. Department of Medical Physics and Centre of Biomedical Engineering Research (MTFC), Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden.
    Fast GPU based adaptive filtering of 4D echocardiography2012In: IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging, ISSN 0278-0062, E-ISSN 1558-254X, Vol. 31, no 6, 1165-1172 p., 6099625Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Time resolved three-dimensional (3D) echocardiography generates four-dimensional (3D+time) data sets that bring new possibilities in clinical practice. Image quality of four-dimensional (4D) echocardiography is however regarded as poorer compared to conventional echocardiography where time-resolved 2D imaging is used. Advanced image processing filtering methods can be used to achieve image improvements but to the cost of heavy data processing. The recent development of graphics processing unit (GPUs) enables highly parallel general purpose computations, that considerably reduces the computational time of advanced image filtering methods. In this study multidimensional adaptive filtering of 4D echocardiography was performed using GPUs. Filtering was done using multiple kernels implemented in OpenCL (open computing language) working on multiple subsets of the data. Our results show a substantial speed increase of up to 74 times, resulting in a total filtering time less than 30 s on a common desktop. This implies that advanced adaptive image processing can be accomplished in conjunction with a clinical examination. Since the presented GPU processor method scales linearly with the number of processing elements, we expect it to continue scaling with the expected future increases in number of processing elements. This should be contrasted with the increases in data set sizes in the near future following the further improvements in ultrasound probes and measuring devices. It is concluded that GPUs facilitate the use of demanding adaptive image filtering techniques that in turn enhance 4D echocardiographic data sets. The presented general methodology of implementing parallelism using GPUs is also applicable for other medical modalities that generate multidimensional data.

  • 116.
    Broxvall, Mathias
    et al.
    Örebro University, Department of Technology.
    Karlsson, Lars
    Örebro University, Department of Technology.
    Saffiotti, Alessandro
    Örebro University, Department of Technology.
    Steps toward detecting and recovering from perceptual failures2004In: Proceedings of the 8th international conference on intelligent autonomous systems, 2004, 793-800 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An important requirement for autonomous systems is the ability to detect and recover from exceptional situations such as failures in observations. In this paper we investigate how traditional AI planning techniques can be used to reason about observations and to recover from these situations. In this first step we concentrate on failures in perceptual anchoring. We illustrate our approach by showing experiments run on a mobile robot equipped with a color camera.

  • 117.
    Broxvall, Mathias
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Loutfi, Amy
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Saffiotti, Alessandro
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Interacting with a robot ecology using task templates2007In: 2007 RO-MAN: 16TH IEEE INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON ROBOT AND HUMAN INTERACTIVE COMMUNICATION, VOLS 1-3, NEW YORK: IEEE , 2007, 486-491 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Robot ecologies provide a new paradigm for assistive, service, industrial, and entertainment robotics which is quickly gaining popularity. These ecologies contain a large number of robotic components pervasively embedded in the environment and interacting with each other. Human users of such systems need to be able to interface with both the system as a whole and, if desired, which each individual component. The humans should be able to transmit, in a natural way, commands that range from basic ones, such as ''turn on the lights in the bedroom'', to abstract ones, such as ''bring me a cup of coffee''. Human users may also need to interact with task execution especially at decision points. In this paper, we introduce an approach to interface a human user to a specific type of robot ecology, called an ecology of Physically Embedded Intelligent Systems, or PEIS-Ecology. The ecology includes simple sensors and actuators and more complicated devices such as mobile robots. The proposed interface satisfies two requirements: 1) to easily and automatically generate component interfaces, and 2) to provide a simple mechanism by which to request and monitor the execution of tasks in the ecology.

  • 118.
    Bruno, Barbara
    et al.
    Department of Informatics, Bioengineering, Robotics and Systems Engineering, University of Genova, Genova, Italy.
    Grosinger, Jasmin
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Mastrogiovanni, Fulvio
    Department of Informatics, Bioengineering, Robotics and Systems Engineering, University of Genova, Genova, Italy.
    Pecora, Federico
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Saffiotti, Alessandro
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Sathyakeerthy, Subhash
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Sgorbissa, Antonio
    Department of Informatics, Bioengineering, Robotics and Systems Engineering, University of Genova, Genova, Italy.
    Multi-modal sensing for human activity recognition2015In: Proceedings of the 24th IEEE International Symposium on Robot and Human Interactive Communication, Kobe, Japan, Aug 31 - Sept 4, 2015, New York: IEEE conference proceedings , 2015, 594-600 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Robots for the elderly are a particular category of home assistive robots, aiming at assisting the elderly inthe execution of daily life tasks to extend their independent life. To this aim, such robots should be able to determine the level of independence of the user and track its evolution over time, to adapt the assistance to the person capabilities and needs. Human Activity Recognition systems employ various sensing strategies, relying on environmental or wearable sensors,to recognize various daily life activities which provide insights on the health status of a person. The main contribution of the article is the design of an heterogeneous information management framework, allowing for the description of a wide variety of human activities in terms of multi-modal environmental and wearable sensing data and providing accurate knowledge about the user activity to any assistive robot.

  • 119.
    Bruno, Barbara
    et al.
    Department of Informatics, Bioengineering, Robotics and Systems Engineering, University of Genova, Genova, Italy.
    Mastrogiovanni, Fulvio
    Department of Informatics, Bioengineering, Robotics and Systems Engineering, University of Genova, Genova, Italy.
    Saffiotti, Alessandro
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Sgorbissa, Antonio
    Department of Informatics, Bioengineering, Robotics and Systems Engineering, University of Genova, Genova, Italy.
    Using fuzzy logic to enhance classification of human motion primitives2014In: Information Processing and Management of Uncertainty in Knowledge-Based Systems: 15th International Conference, IPMU 2014, Montpellier, France, July 15-19, 2014, Proceedings, Part II / [ed] Laurent, A., Strauss, O., Bouchon-Meunier, B., Yager, R.R., Springer, 2014, 596-605 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The design of automated systems for the recognition of specific human activities is among the most promising research activities in Ambient Intelligence. The literature suggests the adoption of wearable devices, relying on acceleration information to model the activities of interest and distance metrics for the comparison of such models with the run-time data. Most current solutions do not explicitly model the uncertainty associated with the recognition, but rely on crisp thresholds and comparisons which introduce brittleness and inaccuracy in the system. We propose a framework for the recognition of simple activities in which recognition uncertainty is modelled using possibility distributions. We show that reasoning about this explicitly modelled uncertainty leads to a system with enhanced recognition accuracy and precision.

  • 120.
    Bunz, Elsa
    et al.
    Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Chadalavada, Ravi Teja
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Andreasson, Henrik
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Krug, Robert
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Schindler, Maike
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Lilienthal, Achim
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Spatial Augmented Reality and Eye Tracking for Evaluating Human Robot Interaction2016In: Proceedings of RO-MAN 2016 Workshop: Workshop on Communicating Intentions in Human-Robot Interaction, 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Freely moving autonomous mobile robots may leadto anxiety when operating in workspaces shared with humans.Previous works have given evidence that communicating in-tentions using Spatial Augmented Reality (SAR) in the sharedworkspace will make humans more comfortable in the vicinity ofrobots. In this work, we conducted experiments with the robotprojecting various patterns in order to convey its movementintentions during encounters with humans. In these experiments,the trajectories of both humans and robot were recorded witha laser scanner. Human test subjects were also equipped withan eye tracker. We analyzed the eye gaze patterns and thelaser scan tracking data in order to understand how the robot’sintention communication affects the human movement behavior.Furthermore, we used retrospective recall interviews to aid inidentifying the reasons that lead to behavior changes.

  • 121.
    Buschka, Pär
    Örebro University, Department of Technology.
    An investigation of hybrid maps for mobile robots2005Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Autonomous robots typically rely on internal representations of the environment, or maps, to plan and execute their tasks. Several types of maps have been proposed in the literature, and there is general consensus that different types have different advantages and limitations, and that each type is more suited to certain tasks and less to others. Because of these reasons, it is becoming common wisdom in the field of mobile robotics to use hybrid maps that integrate several representations, usually of different types. Hybrid maps provide scalability and multiple views, allowing for instance to combine robot-centered and human-centered representations. There is, however, little understanding of the general principles that can be used to combine different maps into a hybrid one, and to make it something more than the sum of its parts. There is no systematic analysis of the different ways in which different maps can be combined, and how they can be made to cooperate. This makes it difficult to evaluate and compare different systems, and precludes us from getting a clear understanding of how a hybrid map can be designed or improved.

    The investigation presented in this thesis aims to contribute to fill this foundational gap, and to get a clearer understanding of the nature of hybrid maps. To help in this investigation, we develop two tools: The first one is a conceptual tool, an analytical framework in which the main ingredients of a hybrid map are described; the second one is an empirical tool, a new hybrid map that allows us to experimentally verify our claims and hypotheses.

    While these tools are themselves important contributions of this thesis, our investigation has resulted in the following additional outcomes:

    • A set of concepts that allow us to better understand the structure and operation of hybrid maps, and that help us to design them, compare them, identify their problems, and possibly improve them;

    • The identification of the notion of synergy as the fundamental way in which component maps inside a hybrid map cooperate.

    To assess the significance of these outcomes, we make and validate the following claims:

    1. Our framework allows us to classify and describe existing maps in a uniform way. This claim is validated constructively by making a thorough classification of the hybrid maps reported in the literature.

    2. Our framework also allows us to enhance an existing hybrid map by identifying spots for improvement. This claim is verified experimentally by modifying an existing map and evaluating its performance against the original one.

    3. The notion of synergy plays an important role in hybrid maps. This claim is verified experimentally by testing the performance of a hybrid map with and without synergy.

  • 122.
    Buschka, Pär
    et al.
    Örebro University, Department of Technology.
    Saffiotti, Alessandro
    Örebro University, Department of Technology.
    A virtual sensor for room detection2002In: Proceedings of the IEEE/RSJ international conference on intelligent robots and systems: IROS - Lausanne, CH, 2002, 2002, 637-642 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Indoor environments typically consist of sets of connected room-like spaces. We present a local technique that uses range data to detect these spaces during navigation. Our technique includes two parts: segmentation, which isolates room-like spaces and detects when the robot has entered a new one; and feature extraction, which associates each space with a set of geometric features useful for navigation or recognition. Many such features can be considered: here we propose a new method to compute width and length of a rectangular room in a way which is largely invariant with respect to the configuration of the furniture. We report experimental results that show the performance of our technique, and hint at a possible use of this technique for coarse localization on a topological map

  • 123.
    Buschka, Pär
    et al.
    Örebro University, Department of Technology.
    Saffiotti, Alessandro
    Örebro University, Department of Technology.
    Room detection for topology-based map building2002In: Proceedings of the 2nd Swedish workshop on autonomous robots, 2002, 39-44 p.Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Indoor environments typically consist of sets of connected room-like spaces. We present a local technique that uses range data to detect these spaces during navigation. This is done by a segmentation which isolates room-like spaces and detects when the robot has entered a new one. These spaces can be seen as nodes in a topological map and we show how to incrementally build such a map. We also report experimental results that show the performance of our technique

  • 124.
    Buschka, Pär
    et al.
    Örebro University, Department of Technology.
    Saffiotti, Alessandro
    Örebro University, Department of Technology.
    Some notes on the use of hybrid maps for mobile robots2004In: Proceedings of the 8th international conference on intelligent autonomous systems, 2004, 547-556 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Hybrid maps are quickly becoming popular in the field of mobile robotics. There is, however, little understanding of the general principles that can be used to combine different maps into a hybrid one, and to make these maps to cooperate. In this note, we propose a definition and a classification of hybrid maps, and discuss the synergies that can make a hybrid map something more than the sum of its parts. We illustrate these points with experimental results obtained on a metric-topological map.

  • 125.
    Buschka, Pär
    et al.
    Örebro University, Department of Technology.
    Saffiotti, Alessandro
    Örebro University, Department of Technology.
    Wasik, Zbigniew
    Örebro University, Department of Technology.
    Fuzzy landmark-based localization for a legged robot2000In: Proceedings, 2000 IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems: IROS 2000 - Takamatsu, Japan, 2000, 2000, 1205-1210 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We describe a new technique for landmark-based self-localization which is suitable for robots with poor odometry. This technique uses fuzzy logic to account for errors and imprecision in visual recognition, and for extreme uncertainty in the estimate of the robot's motion. It only requires an approximate model of the sensor system and a qualitative estimate of the robot's displacement, and it has a moderate computational cost. We show examples of use of our technique on a Sony AIBO legged robot in the RoboCup domain.

  • 126.
    Cajander, Åsa
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Grünloh, Christiane
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Lind, Thomas
    Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Scandurra, Isabella
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Designing eHealth Services for Patients and Relatives: Critical Incidents and Lessons to Learn2016In: Proceedings of the NordiCHI '16: The 9th Nordic Conference on Human-Computer Interaction - game changing design, Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The number of eHealth services for patients and relatives is rapidly increasing as many countries are launching such services as a means to manage an ageing population, to increase efficiency in healthcare, and to empower patients. However, design and deployment of eHealth services for patients is challenging due to the complex setting and the multitude of affected stakeholders, which in turn make the task of eliciting and managing the needs and requirements equally challenging. Hence, this workshop(1) aims to make use of critical incident analysis as a method for collecting and jointly reflecting on practices, assumptions, and experiences in relation to the design, deployment, and use of eHealth services for patients and relatives. The goal of the workshop is to engage in joint reflection, and to find potential ways forward in relation to critical incidents as well as supporting the shaping and reshaping of eHealth design and development. This full day workshop invites researchers and practitioners to apply/provide their critical reflection in order to derive changed practices and theories about practice. We also especially invite the patients' perspective as this is crucial to achieve successful eHealth services. This workshop provides a venue for challenging the process of eHealth service design and development and is built around a concept of active participation, where the workshop participants will analyse and discuss the critical incidents together.

  • 127.
    Canelhas, Daniel R.
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Stoyanov, Todor
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Lilienthal, Achim J.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    From Feature Detection in Truncated Signed Distance Fields to Sparse Stable Scene Graphs2016In: IEEE Robotics and Automation Letters, ISSN 2377-3766, Vol. 1, no 2, 1148-1155 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With the increased availability of GPUs and multicore CPUs, volumetric map representations are an increasingly viable option for robotic applications. A particularly important representation is the truncated signed distance field (TSDF) that is at the core of recent advances in dense 3D mapping. However, there is relatively little literature exploring the characteristics of 3D feature detection in volumetric representations. In this paper we evaluate the performance of features extracted directly from a 3D TSDF representation. We compare the repeatability of Integral invariant features, specifically designed for volumetric images, to the 3D extensions of Harris and Shi & Tomasi corners. We also study the impact of different methods for obtaining gradients for their computation. We motivate our study with an example application for building sparse stable scene graphs, and present an efficient GPU-parallel algorithm to obtain the graphs, made possible by the combination of TSDF and 3D feature points. Our findings show that while the 3D extensions of 2D corner-detection perform as expected, integral invariants have shortcomings when applied to discrete TSDFs. We conclude with a discussion of the cause for these points of failure that sheds light on possible mitigation strategies.

  • 128.
    Canelhas, Daniel R.
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Stoyanov, Todor
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Lilienthal, Achim J.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Improved local shape feature stability through dense model tracking2013In: Proceedings of the IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS), IEEE, 2013, 3203-3209 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this work we propose a method to effectively remove noise from depth images obtained with a commodity structured light sensor. The proposed approach fuses data into a consistent frame of reference over time, thus utilizing prior depth measurements and viewpoint information in the noise removal process. The effectiveness of the approach is compared to two state of the art, single-frame denoising methods in the context of feature descriptor matching and keypoint detection stability. To make more general statements about the effect of noise removal in these applications, we extend a method for evaluating local image gradient feature descriptors to the domain of 3D shape descriptors. We perform a comparative study of three classes of such descriptors: Normal Aligned Radial Features, Fast Point Feature Histograms and Depth Kernel Descriptors; and evaluate their performance on a real-world industrial application data set. We demonstrate that noise removal enabled by the dense map representation results in major improvements in matching across all classes of descriptors as well as having a substantial positive impact on keypoint detection reliability

  • 129.
    Canelhas, Daniel R.
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Stoyanov, Todor
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Lilienthal, Achim J.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    SDF tracker: a parallel algorithm for on-line pose estimation and scene reconstruction from depth images2013In: Proceedings of the IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS), IEEE, 2013, 3671-3676 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ego-motion estimation and environment mapping are two recurring problems in the field of robotics. In this work we propose a simple on-line method for tracking the pose of a depth camera in six degrees of freedom and simultaneously maintaining an updated 3D map, represented as a truncated signed distance function. The distance function representation implicitly encodes surfaces in 3D-space and is used directly to define a cost function for accurate registration of new data. The proposed algorithm is highly parallel and achieves good accuracy compared to state of the art methods. It is suitable for reconstructing single household items, workspace environments and small rooms at near real-time rates, making it practical for use on modern CPU hardware

  • 130.
    Canelhas, Daniel Ricão
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Truncated Signed Distance Fields Applied To Robotics2017Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis is concerned with topics related to dense mapping of large scale three-dimensional spaces. In particular, the motivating scenario of this work is one in which a mobile robot with limited computational resources explores an unknown environment using a depth-camera. To this end, low-level topics such as sensor noise, map representation, interpolation, bit-rates, compression are investigated, and their impacts on more complex tasks, such as feature detection and description, camera-tracking, and mapping are evaluated thoroughly. A central idea of this thesis is the use of truncated signed distance fields (TSDF) as a map representation and a comprehensive yet accessible treatise on this subject is the first major contribution of this dissertation. The TSDF is a voxel-based representation of 3D space that enables dense mapping with high surface quality and robustness to sensor noise, making it a good candidate for use in grasping, manipulation and collision avoidance scenarios.

    The second main contribution of this thesis deals with the way in which information can be efficiently encoded in TSDF maps. The redundant way in which voxels represent continuous surfaces and empty space is one of the main impediments to applying TSDF representations to large-scale mapping. This thesis proposes two algorithms for enabling large-scale 3D tracking and mapping: a fast on-the-fly compression method based on unsupervised learning, and a parallel algorithm for lifting a sparse scene-graph representation from the dense 3D map.

    The third major contribution of this work consists of thorough evaluations of the impacts of low-level choices on higher-level tasks. Examples of these are the relationships between gradient estimation methods and feature detector repeatability, voxel bit-rate, interpolation strategy and compression ratio on camera tracking performance. Each evaluation thus leads to a better understanding of the trade-offs involved, which translate to direct recommendations for future applications, depending on their particular resource constraints.

  • 131.
    Canovas, Juan-Pedro
    et al.
    University of Murcia, Spain.
    LeBlanc, Kevin
    Örebro University, Department of Technology.
    Saffiotti, Alessandro
    Örebro University, Department of Technology.
    Cooperative object localization using fuzzy logic2003In: Proceedings of the IEEE international conference on methods and models in automation and robotics: MMAR, 2003, 773-778 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cooperative localization of objects is an important challenge in multi-robot systems. We propose a new approach to cooperative object localization by a group of communicating robots. In our approach we see each robot as an expert which provides unreliable information about the location of objects. The information provided by different robots is combined using fuzzy logic techniques, in order to reach agreement between the robots. This contrasts with current techniques, which average the information provided by different robots, and can incur well-known problems when information is unreliable. We have tested our technique on a team of Sony AIBO robots in the RoboCup domain. We present experimental results obtained by sharing information about the location of the ball

  • 132.
    Canovas, Juan-Pedro
    et al.
    University of Murcia, Spain.
    LeBlanc, Kevin
    Örebro University, Department of Technology.
    Saffiotti, Alessandro
    Örebro University, Department of Technology.
    Robust multi-robot object localization using fuzzy logic2005In: RoboCup 2004: robot soccer world cup VIII / [ed] Daniele Nardi, Martin Riedmiller, Claude Sammut, José Santos-Victor, Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2005, 247-261 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cooperative localization of objects is an important challenge in multi-robot systems. We propose a new approach to this problem where we see each robot as an expert which shares unreliable information about object locations. The information provided by different robots is then combined using fuzzy logic techniques, in order to reach a consensus between the robots. This contrasts with most current probabilistic techniques, which average information from different robots in order to obtain a tradeoff, and can thus incur well-known problems when information is unreliable. In addition, our approach does not assume that the robots have accurate self-localization. Instead, uncertainty in the pose of the sensing robot is propagated to object position estimates. We present experimental results obtained on a team of Sony AIBO robots, where we share information about the location of the ball in the RoboCup domain

  • 133.
    Carrascosa, Carlos
    et al.
    Universitat Politécnica de Valencia, Valencia, Spain.
    Klügl, Franziska
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Ricci, Alessandro
    Universita di Bologna, Cesena, Italy.
    Virtual Environments 4 MAS2014In: E4MAS - 10 Years Later. Workshop at AAMAS 2014 / [ed] D. Weyns et al., 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The environment is a key point when talking about MASapplications, being a key concept when developing a platform or appli-cation in the past ten years: what is important in it and how to access it.At the same time, technology has evolved so that Virtual Environment-kinds of applications have grown out of science ction novels till researchpapers and even real applications. Current technology makes possible toMAS to interact also in this environments.In this paper, we have looked for the common ground that have all thedierent domains relating Virtual Environments as E4MAS, and we havecharacterized those domains according to three dimensions: connectionto the physical world of the environment, agents nature, and sociability.Moreover, we comment one of these domains, Mirror Worlds, as it is oneof the most complex domains commented, that we believe that is one ofthe topics to take into account in the near future both as a researh anddeveloping domain.

  • 134.
    Carrascosa, Carlos
    et al.
    DSIC, Universitat Politècnica de València, Camino de Vera sn, Valencia, Spain.
    Klügl, Franziska
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Ricci, Alessandro
    DISI, Alma Mater Studiorum - Università di Bologna, Via Sacchi 3, Cesena, Italy.
    Boissier, Olivier
    FAYOL - ENS Mines and Laboratoire Hubert Curien CNRS:UMR 5516, Saint-Etienne, France.
    From Physical to Virtual: Widening the Perspective on Multi-Agent Environments2015In: Agent Environments for Multi-Agent Systems IV, Springer, 2015, 1, 133-146 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Since more than a decade, the environment is seen as a key element when analyzing, developing or deploying Multi-Agent Systems (MAS) applications. Especially, for the development of multi-agent platforms, it has become a key concept, similarly to many application in the area of location-based, distributed systems. An emerging, prominent application area for MAS is related to Virtual Environments. The underlying technology has evolved in a way, that these applications have grown out of science fiction novels till research papers and even real applications. Even more, current technologies enable MAS to be key components of such virtual environments.

    In this paper, we widen the concept of the environment of a MAS to encompass new and mixed physical, virtual, simulated, etc. forms of environments. We analyze currently most interesting application domains based on three dimensions: the way different "realities" are mixed via the environment, the underlying natures of agents, the possible forms and sophistication of interactions. In addition to this characterization, we discuss how this widened concept of possible environments influences the support it can give for developing applications in the respective domains.

  • 135.
    Cavallo, Filippo
    et al.
    BioRobotics Institute, Scuola Superiore Sant’Anna, Pisa, Italy.
    Limosani, Raffaele
    BioRobotics Institute, Scuola Superiore Sant’Anna, Pisa, Italy.
    Manzi, Alessandro
    BioRobotics Institute, Scuola Superiore Sant’Anna, Pisa, Italy.
    Bonaccorsi, Manuele
    BioRobotics Institute, Scuola Superiore Sant’Anna, Pisa, Italy.
    Esposito, Raffaele
    BioRobotics Institute, Scuola Superiore Sant’Anna, Pisa, Italy.
    Di Rocco, Maurizio
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Pecora, Federico
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Teti, Giancarlo
    Robotech Srl, Peccioli, Italy.
    Saffiotti, Alessandro
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Dario, Paolo
    BioRobotics Institute, Scuola Superiore Sant’Anna, Pisa, Italy.
    Development of a socially believable multi-robot solution from town to home2014In: Cognitive Computation, ISSN 1866-9956, E-ISSN 1866-9964, Vol. 6, no 4, 954-967 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Technological advances in the robotic and ICT fields represent an effective solution to address specific societal problems to support ageing and independent life. One of the key factors for these technologies is that they have to be socially acceptable and believable to the end-users. This paper aimed to present some technological aspects that have been faced to develop the Robot-Era system, a multi-robotic system that is able to act in a socially believable way in the environments daily inhabited by humans, such as urban areas, buildings and homes. In particular, this paper focuses on two services-shopping delivery and garbage collection-showing preliminary results on experiments conducted with 35 elderly people. The analysis adopts an end-user-oriented perspective, considering some of the main attributes of acceptability: usability, attitude, anxiety, trust and quality of life.

  • 136. Cesta, Amedeo
    et al.
    Bahadori, Shahram
    Cortellessa, Gabriella
    Grisetti, Giorgio
    Giuliani, Vittoria
    Iocchi, Luca
    Leone, Riccardo G.
    Nardi, Daniele
    Oddi, Angelo
    Pecora, Federico
    Örebro University, Department of Technology.
    Rasconi, Riccardo
    Saggese, Anna
    Scopelliti, Massimiliano
    The RoboCare project, cognitive systems for the care of the elderly2003Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 137. Cesta, Amedeo
    et al.
    Cortellessa, Gabriella
    Giuliani, M. Vittoria
    Pecora, Federico
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Scopelliti, Massimiliano
    Tiberio, Lorenza
    The RoboCare project: the user’s view2008In: Aging, disability and independence: selected papers from the 4th international conference on aging, disability and independence / [ed] William C. Mann, IOS Press, 2008, 85-104 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 138. Cesta, Amedeo
    et al.
    Cortellessa, Gabriella
    Giuliani, Vittoria
    Pecora, Federico
    Örebro University, Department of Technology.
    Rasconi, Riccardo
    Scopelliti, Massimiliano
    Tiberio, Lorenza
    Proactive assistive technology: an empirical study2007In: Human-Computer Interaction: INTERACT 2007 / [ed] Cécilia Calani Baranauskas, Philippe Palanque, Julio Abascal, Simone Diniz Junqueira Barbosa, Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2007, 255-268 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper analyzes the problem of evaluating elderly people’s perception of assistive robots and domotic environments. Specifically, we focus on aspects related to the modalities in which interaction can occur between an elder user and an assistive robotic agent. Our work benefits from the products of project RoboCare, namely, a domestic environment in which sensors, intelligent software components and a domestic robot provide a set of cognitive support services for the elder user. This paper analyzes a number of evaluation criteria in detail, specifically related to the robot’s aspect, the way in which it communicates with the user, and the perceived usefulness of its support services. Among these criteria, the paper proposes and reports an evaluation of the Proactive interaction modality (where the system takes the initiative) and On-demand interaction (in which the user explicitly requests a service). Users evaluate the On-demand support services in personal safety scenarios as particularly useful, and less so in scenarios which are not critical. The paper also provides a discussion which can be useful for the design of future assistive agents and robotic companions. This research is partially supported by MIUR (Italian Ministry of Education, University and Research) under project RoboCare (A Multi-Agent System with Intelligent Fixed and Mobile Robotic Components).

  • 139. Cesta, Amedeo
    et al.
    Cortellessa, Gabriella
    Giuliani, Vittoria
    Pecora, Federico
    Örebro University, Department of Technology.
    Scopelliti, Massimiliano
    Tiberio, Lorenza
    Caring about the user’s view: the joys and sorrows of experiments with people2007Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 140. Cesta, Amedeo
    et al.
    Cortellessa, Gabriella
    Giuliani, Vittoria
    Pecora, Federico
    Örebro University, Department of Technology.
    Scopelliti, Massimiliano
    Tiberio, Lorenza
    Psychological implications of domestic assistive technology for the elderly2007In: PsychNology Journal, ISSN 1720-7525, Vol. 5, no 3, 229-252 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The ROBOCARE Domestic Environment (RDE) is the result of a three-year project aimed at developing cognitive support technology for elderly people. Specifically, the domestic environment is equipped with sensors, intelligent software components and devices which cooperate to provide cognitive support to the assisted person. The ROBOCARE interaction capabilities have been concentrated in a robotic mediator who acts as the main communication channel between the users and the intelligent domestic environment. This paper presents an evaluation of elderly people's perception of assistive robots and smart domotic environments. Results show how the acceptability of robotic devices in home setting does not depend only on the practical benefits they can provide, but also on complex relationships between the cognitive, affective and emotional components of people's images of robot. Specially, we analyzes a number of evaluation criteria related to the robot's aspect, the way in which it communicates with the user, and the perceived usefulness of its support services. Among these criteria, the paper proposes and reports an evaluation of how perceived frailty, with reference to both health in general and fear of cognitive weakening, more specifically, can influence the evaluation of a potential aid in everyday life, namely the robotic assistant. The paper also provides a discussion which can be useful for the design of future assistive agents and socially interactive robotic.

  • 141. Cesta, Amedeo
    et al.
    Cortellessa, Gabriella
    Pecora, Federico
    Örebro University, Department of Technology.
    Rasconi, Riccardo
    Coordinating heterogeneous agents to synthesize proactive monitoring2007Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 142. Cesta, Amedeo
    et al.
    Cortellessa, Gabriella
    Pecora, Federico
    Örebro University, Department of Technology.
    Rasconi, Riccardo
    Intelligent supervision for ambient intelligence: customizing scheduling technology2005Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 143. Cesta, Amedeo
    et al.
    Cortellessa, Gabriella
    Pecora, Federico
    Örebro University, Department of Technology.
    Rasconi, Riccardo
    Mediating the knowledge of end-users and technologists: a problem in the deployment of scheduling technology2005Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 144. Cesta, Amedeo
    et al.
    Cortellessa, Gabriella
    Pecora, Federico
    Örebro University, Department of Technology.
    Rasconi, Riccardo
    Monitoring domestic activities with scheduling techniques2005In: RoboCare, RC-Ws-2: proceedings of the second RoboCare workshop / [ed] Amedeo Cesta, 2005, 31-38 p.Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 145. Cesta, Amedeo
    et al.
    Cortellessa, Gabriella
    Pecora, Federico
    Örebro University, Department of Technology.
    Rasconi, Riccardo
    Supporting interaction in the robocare intelligent assistive environment2007Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 146. Cesta, Amedeo
    et al.
    Cortellessa, Gabriella
    Pecora, Federico
    Örebro University, Department of Technology.
    Rasconi, Riccardo
    Synthesizing proactive assistance with heterogeneous agents2007In: AI*IA 2007: Artificial Intelligence and Human-Oriented Computing: Proceedings of the 10th Congress of the Italian Association for Artificial Intelligence, Rome, Italy, September 10-13, 2007, Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2007, Vol. 4733, no 1, 495-506 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 147. Cesta, Amedeo
    et al.
    Cortellessa, Gabriella
    Rasconi, Riccardo
    Pecora, Federico
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Scopelliti, Massimiliano
    Tiberio, Lorenza
    Monitoring elderly people with the robocare domestic environment: interaction synthesis and user evaluation2011In: Computational intelligence, ISSN 0824-7935, E-ISSN 1467-8640, Vol. 27, no 1, 60-82 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article describes aspects of a fully implemented artificial intelligence (AI) system that integrates multiple intelligent components to actively assist an elderly person at home. Specifically, we describe how constraint-based scheduling technology is used to actively monitor a pattern of activities executed by the person and how detected temporal constraint violations are used to trigger meaningful and contextualized proactive interactions. This article also presents a psychological evaluation of the system focusing on elderly people’s attitudes, in which system acceptability, perceived utility, interaction modality, and emotional response are considered.

  • 148. Cesta, Amedeo
    et al.
    Farinelli, Alessandro
    Iocchi, Luca
    Leone, Riccardo G.
    Nardi, Daniele
    Pecora, Federico
    Örebro University, Department of Technology.
    Rasconi, Riccardo
    “Robotically Rich” environments for supporting elderly people at home: the RoboCare experience2005Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 149. Cesta, Amedeo
    et al.
    Fratini, Simone
    Oddi, Angelo
    Pecora, Federico
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    APSI Case# 1: pre-planning science operations in Mars Express2008In: iSAIRAS-08, 2008Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 150. Cesta, Amedeo
    et al.
    Fratini, Simone
    Pecora, Federico
    Örebro University, Department of Technology.
    A multi-component framework for planning and scheduling integration2007Conference paper (Refereed)
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