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  • 751.
    Treptow, André
    et al.
    University of Tubingen.
    Cielniak, Grzegorz
    Örebro University, Department of Technology.
    Duckett, Tom
    Örebro University, Department of Technology.
    Comparing measurement models for tracking people in thermal images on a mobile robot2005Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    While most vision systems for tracking people on mobile robots use skin color information, we present an approach using thermal images and two different measurement models together with a Particle Filter. With this method a person can be detected independently from current light conditions and in situations were no skin color is visible (the person is not close or does not face the robot). The results show that a measurement model that was learned from local greyscale features improved on the performance of an elliptic contour model, and that both models could be used in combination to further improve performance with minimal extra computational cost

  • 752.
    Treptow, André
    et al.
    University of T ubingen.
    Cielniak, Grzegorz
    Örebro University, Department of Technology.
    Duckett, Tom
    University of Lincoln.
    Real-time people tracking for mobile robots using thermal vision2006In: Robotics and Autonomous Systems, ISSN 0921-8890, E-ISSN 1872-793X, Vol. 54, no 9, 729-739 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a vision-based approach for tracking people on a mobile robot using thermal images. The approach combines a particle filter with two alternative measurement models that are suitable for real-time tracking. With this approach a person can be detected independently from current light conditions and in situations where no skin colour is visible. In addition, the paper presents a comprehensive, quantitative evaluation of the different methods on a mobile robot in an office environment, for both single and multiple persons. The results show that the measurement model that was learned from local greyscale features could improve on the performance of the elliptic contour model, and that both models could be combined to further improve performance with minimal extra computational cost.

  • 753.
    Triebel, Rudolph
    et al.
    Department of Computer Science, TU, Munich, Germany.
    Arras, Kai
    Social Robotics Lab, University of Freiburg, Freiburg im Breisgau, Germany.
    Alami, Rachid
    LAAS-CNRS: Laboratory for Analysis and Architecture of Systems, Toulouse, France.
    Beyer, Lucas
    RWTH Aachen, Aachen, Germany.
    Breuers, Stefan
    RWTH Aachen, Aachen, Germany.
    Chatila, Raja
    ISIR-CNRS: Institute for Intelligent Systems and Robotics, Paris, France.
    Chetouani, Mohamed
    ISIR-CNRS: Institute for Intelligent Systems and Robotics, Paris, France.
    Cremers, Daniel
    Department of Computer Science, TU, Munich, Germany.
    Evers, Vanessa
    University of Twente, Enschede, Netherlands.
    Fiore, Michelangelo
    LAAS-CNRS: Laboratory for Analysis and Architecture of Systems, Toulouse, France.
    Hung, Hayley
    Delft University of Technology, Delft, Netherlands.
    Ramirez, Omar A. Islas
    ISIR-CNRS: Institute for Intelligent Systems and Robotics, Paris, France.
    Joosse, Michiel
    University of Twente, Enschede, Netherlands.
    Khambhaita, Harmish
    LAAS-CNRS: Laboratory for Analysis and Architecture of Systems, Toulouse, France.
    Kucner, Tomasz
    Leibe, Bastian
    RWTH Aachen, Aachen, Germany.
    Lilienthal, Achim J.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Linder, Timm
    Social Robotics Lab, University of Freiburg, Freiburg im Breisgau, Germany.
    Lohse, Manja
    University of Twente, Enschede, Netherlands.
    Magnusson, Martin
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Okal, Billy
    Social Robotics Lab, University of Freiburg, Freiburg im Breisgau, Germany.
    Palmieri, Luigi
    Social Robotics Lab, University of Freiburg, Freiburg im Breisgau, Germany.
    Rafi, Umer
    RWTH Aachen, Aachen, Germany.
    van Rooij, Marieke
    University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, Netherlands.
    Zhang, Lu
    University of Twente, Enschede, Netherlands; Delft University of Technology, Delft, Netherlands.
    SPENCER: A Socially Aware Service Robot for Passenger Guidance and Help in Busy Airports2016In: Field and Service Robotics: Results of the 10th International Conference / [ed] David S. Wettergreen, Timothy D. Barfoot, Springer, 2016, 607-622 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present an ample description of a socially compliant mobile robotic platform, which is developed in the EU-funded project SPENCER. The purpose of this robot is to assist, inform and guide passengers in large and busy airports. One particular aim is to bring travellers of connecting flights conveniently and efficiently from their arrival gate to the passport control. The uniqueness of the project stems from the strong demand of service robots for this application with a large potential impact for the aviation industry on one side, and on the other side from the scientific advancements in social robotics, brought forward and achieved in SPENCER. The main contributions of SPENCER are novel methods to perceive, learn, and model human social behavior and to use this knowledge to plan appropriate actions in real-time for mobile platforms. In this paper, we describe how the project advances the fields of detection and tracking of individuals and groups, recognition of human social relations and activities, normative human behavior learning, socially-aware task and motion planning, learning socially annotated maps, and conducting empirical experiments to assess socio-psychological effects of normative robot behaviors.

  • 754.
    Trincavelli, Marco
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Gas discrimination for mobile robots2010Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The problem addressed in this thesis is discrimination of gases with an array of partially selective gas sensors. Metal oxide gas sensors are the most common gas sensing technology since they have, compared to other gas sensing technologies, a high sensitivity to the target compounds, a fast response time,they show a good stability of the response over time and they are commercially available. One of the most severe limitation of metal oxide gas sensors is the scarce selectivity, that means that they do not respond only to the compound for which they are optimized but also to other compounds. One way to enhance the selectivity of metal oxide gas sensors is to build an array of sensorswith different, and partially overlapping, selectivities and then analyze the response of the array with a pattern recognition algorithm. The concept of anarray of partially selective gas sensors used together with a pattern recognition algorithm is known as an electronic nose (e-nose).In this thesis the attention is focused on e-nose applications related mobile robotics. A mobile robot equipped with an e-nose can address tasks like environmental monitoring, search and rescue operations or exploration of hazardous areas. In e-noses mounted on mobile robots the sensing array is most often directly exposed to the environment without the use of a sensing chamber.This choice is often made because of constraints in weight, costs and because the dynamic response obtained by the direct interaction of the sensors with the gas plume contains valuable information. However, this setup introduces additional challenges due to the gas dispersion that characterize natural environments.Turbulent and chaotic gas dispersal causes the array of sensors to be exposed to rapid changes in concentration that cause the sensor response to behighly dynamic and to seldom reach a steady state. Therefore the discriminationof gases has to be performed on features extracted from the dynamics of the signal. The problem is further complicated by variations in temperature and humidity, physical variables to which metal oxide gas sensors are crossensitive.For these reasons the problem of discrimination of gases when an array of sensors is directly exposed to the environment is different from when the array of sensors is in a controlled chamber.

    This thesis is a compilation of papers whose contributions are two folded.On one side new algorithms for discrimination of gases with an array of sensors directly exposed to the environment are presented. On the other side, innovative experimental setups are proposed. These experimental setups enable the collection of high quality data that allow a better insight in the problem of discrimination of gases with mobile robots equipped with an e-nose. The algorithmic contributions start with the design and validation of a gas discrimination algorithm for gas sensors array directly exposed to the environment. The algorithmis then further developed in order to be able to run online on a robot, thereby enabling the possibility of creating an olfactory driven path-planning strategy. Additional contributions aim at maximizing the generalization capabilitiesof the gas discrimination algorithm with respect to variations in the environmental conditions. First an approach in which the odor discrimination is performed by an ensemble of linear classifiers is considered. Then a feature selection method that aims at finding a feature set that is insensitive to variations in environmental conditions is designed. Finally, a further contribution in this thesis is the design of a pattern recognition algorithm for identification of bacteria from blood vials. In this case the array of gas sensors was deployed ina controlled sensing chamber.

    List of papers
    1. Towards environmental monitoring with mobile robots
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Towards environmental monitoring with mobile robots
    Show others...
    2008 (English)In: IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems, IROS 2008, New York: IEEE , 2008, 2210-2215 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we present initial experiments towards environmental monitoring with a mobile platform. A prototype of a pollution monitoring robot was set up which measures the gas distribution using an “electronic nose” and provides three dimensional wind measurements using an ultrasonic anemometer. We describe the design of the robot and the experimental setup used to run trials under varying environmental conditions. We then present the results of the gas distribution mapping. The trials which were carried out in three uncontrolled environments with very different properties:

    an enclosed indoor area, a part of a long corridor with open ends and a high ceiling, and an outdoor scenario are presented and discussed.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    New York: IEEE, 2008
    Keyword
    mobile, robot, olfaction
    National Category
    Computer Science Robotics
    Research subject
    Computer Science
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-4619 (URN)10.1109/IROS.2008.4650755 (DOI)978-1-4244-2057-5 (ISBN)
    Conference
    IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems, IROS 2008, 22-26 Sept, Nice
    Available from: 2008-10-02 Created: 2008-10-02 Last updated: 2017-10-18Bibliographically approved
    2. Classification of odours with mobile robots based on transient response
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Classification of odours with mobile robots based on transient response
    2008 (English)In: IEEE/RSJ international conference on intelligent robots and systems, IROS 2008, New York: IEEE , 2008, 4110-4115 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Classification of odours with an array of gas sensors mounted on a mobile robot is a challenging and still relatively unexplored topic. Mobile robots able to classify an odour could navigate to a specific source or isolate high concentration areas in applications such as environmental monitoring. A key aspect to classification is to be able to process the data collected while moving the robot and using a simple and compact sensor system. In order to achieve this, we present a classification algorithm that is based in the transient response from the sensors. An analysis of how classification results vary with regards to the movement of the robot is provided and subsequently the experimental validations show that the classification performance depends more on how

    the robot traverses the odour plume and the quality of the transient than on the distance from the source location. The experimental validation has been done in a large unmodified indoor environment.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    New York: IEEE, 2008
    Keyword
    mobile, robot, olfaction
    National Category
    Computer Science Robotics
    Research subject
    Computer Science
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-4618 (URN)10.1109/IROS.2008.4650713 (DOI)978-1-4244-2057-5 (ISBN)
    Conference
    IEEE/RSJ international conference on intelligent robots and systems, IROS 2008, 22-26 Sept, Nice
    Available from: 2008-10-02 Created: 2008-10-02 Last updated: 2017-10-18Bibliographically approved
    3. Online classification of gases for environmental exploration
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Online classification of gases for environmental exploration
    2009 (English)In: IEEE/RSJ international conference on intelligent robots and systems, IROS 2009, New York: IEEE, 2009, 3311-3316 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we investigate how a mobile robot equipped with tin dioxide gas sensors and an anemometer can use an online classification algorithm in order to improve the exploration strategy. The purpose of the platform is to establish the character of a gas source with accuracy while minimizing the time required for exploration. For this to be possible, the output of the classification algorithm is probabilistic, feeding in a sequence of posterior probabilities to a path planner. To further assist path planning, a 3d-ultrasonic anemometer is available which give indication on the average wind speed and direction. In addition to evaluating different olfaction driven path planning strategies, experimental validations also evaluate the classification algorithms and its application to different environments with varying characteristics.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    New York: IEEE, 2009
    Series
    IEEE Conference Publications, ISSN 2153-0858, E-ISSN 2153-0866
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology Computer Science
    Research subject
    Computer Science
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-7853 (URN)10.1109/IROS.2009.5354635 (DOI)000285372901226 ()2-s2.0-76249096898 (Scopus ID)978-1-4244-3803-7 (ISBN)
    Conference
    IEEE/RSJ international conference on intelligent robots and systems, IROS 2009, 10-15 Oct, St. Louis, MO, USA
    Available from: 2009-09-08 Created: 2009-09-08 Last updated: 2017-10-18Bibliographically approved
    4. Classification of odours for mobile robots using an ensemble of linear classifiers
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Classification of odours for mobile robots using an ensemble of linear classifiers
    2009 (English)In: Olfaction and electronic nose: proceedings of the 13th international symposium on olfaction and electronic nose / [ed] Matteo Pardo, Giorgio Sberveglieri, American Institute of Physics (AIP), 2009, 475-478 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates the classification of odours using an electronic nose mounted on a mobile robot. The samples are collected as the robot explores the environment. Under such conditions, the sensor response differs from typical three phase sampling processes. In this paper, we focus particularly on the classification problem and how it is influenced by the movement of the robot. To cope with these influences, an algorithm consisting of an ensemble of classifiers is resented. Experimental results show that this algorithm increases classification performance compared to other traditional classification methods.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    American Institute of Physics (AIP), 2009
    Series
    AIP conference proceedings, ISSN 0094-243X ; 1137
    Keyword
    Odour Classification; Mobile Robotics
    National Category
    Computer Science Robotics
    Research subject
    Computer Science
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-7851 (URN)10.1063/1.3156587 (DOI)000268929400118 ()2-s2.0-70450140369 (Scopus ID)978-0-7354-0674-2 (ISBN)
    Conference
    13th international symposium on olfaction and electronic nose, Brescia, Italy, April 15–17, 2009
    Available from: 2009-09-08 Created: 2009-09-08 Last updated: 2017-10-18Bibliographically approved
    5. Odour classification system for continuous monitoring applications
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Odour classification system for continuous monitoring applications
    2009 (English)In: Sensors and actuators. B, Chemical, ISSN 0925-4005, E-ISSN 1873-3077, Vol. 58, no 2, 265-273 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we investigate the classification performance of an electronic nose system, based on tin dioxide gas sensors. In contrast to previous studies, the electronic nose is mounted on a mobile platform and samples are analyzed using only transient information in the signals. The motivation behind this work is to explore the feasibility of using electronic nose devices for odour classification in a number of future application domains which require fast and possibly real-time odour identification. To perform transient based analysis of the signals, a comparative study of different methods for feature extraction was performed. Additionally, the application of a relevance vector machine classifier is explored to further analyze the classification performance based on quality of the obtained samples. The results presented in this study can be used for the development of electronic nose devices particularly suitable for environmental monitoring applications.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Elsevier, 2009
    Keyword
    Chemical sensors array, Odour classification, Mobile olfaction, Relevance vector machines
    National Category
    Computer Science Robotics
    Research subject
    Computer Science
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-7838 (URN)10.1016/j.snb.2009.03.018 (DOI)000267159700002 ()2-s2.0-66349087011 (Scopus ID)
    Available from: 2009-09-08 Created: 2009-09-08 Last updated: 2017-12-13Bibliographically approved
    6. A statistical approach to gas distribution modelling with mobile robots: the Kernel DM+V algorithm
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>A statistical approach to gas distribution modelling with mobile robots: the Kernel DM+V algorithm
    Show others...
    2009 (English)In: IEEE/RSJ international conference on intelligent robots and systems: IROS 2009, IEEE conference proceedings, 2009, 570-576 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Gas distribution modelling constitutes an ideal application area for mobile robots, which – as intelligent mobile gas sensors – offer several advantages compared to stationary sensor networks. In this paper we propose the Kernel DM+V algorithm to learn a statistical 2-d gas distribution model from a sequence of localized gas sensor measurements. The algorithm does not make strong assumptions about the sensing locations and can thus be applied on a mobile robot that is not primarily used for gas distribution monitoring, and also in the case of stationary measurements. Kernel DM+V treats distribution modelling as a density estimation problem. In contrast to most previous approaches, it models the variance in addition to the distribution mean. Estimating the predictive variance entails a significant improvement for gas distribution modelling since it allows to evaluate the model quality in terms of the data likelihood. This offers a solution to the problem of ground truth evaluation, which has always been a critical issue for gas distribution modelling. Estimating the predictive variance also provides the means to learn meta parameters and to suggest new measurement locations based on the current model. We derive the Kernel DM+V algorithm and present a method for learning the hyper-parameters. Based on real world data collected with a mobile robot we demonstrate the consistency of the obtained maps and present a quantitative comparison, in terms of the data likelihood of unseen samples, with an alternative approach that estimates the predictive variance.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    IEEE conference proceedings, 2009
    Series
    IEEE Conference Publications, ISSN 2153-0858, E-ISSN 2153-0866
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology Other Computer and Information Science
    Research subject
    Computer and Systems Science
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-8435 (URN)10.1109/IROS.2009.5354304 (DOI)000285372900101 ()2-s2.0-76249127720 (Scopus ID)978-1-4244-3803-7 (ISBN)
    Conference
    IEEE/RSJ international conference on intelligent robots and systems, IROS 2009. 10-15 Oct, St. Louis, MO.
    Available from: 2009-11-08 Created: 2009-11-02 Last updated: 2017-10-18Bibliographically approved
    7. Feature selection for gas identification with a mobile robot
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Feature selection for gas identification with a mobile robot
    2010 (English)In: 2010 IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation (ICRA), IEEE conference proceedings, 2010, 2852-2857 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we analyze the problem of discrimination of gases with mobile robots. Previously, it has been shown that the conditions in which data is collected heavily influence the characteristics of the signal to be identified. As a result, the already difficult task of selecting features which characterize a gas is made more challenging by the absence of a steady state response. This is often due to the movement of the robot, and/or the physical properties of the environment, e. g., turbulent airflow creating patches and eddies in the plume. In this work we compare two approaches for feature selection which are able to consider explicitly the information on the experimental setup and optimize the subset of features used in the recognition process. The approaches are tested on a large data set collected with a mobile robot moving in different environments (outdoors and indoors). The results show that the classification performance is improved resulting in a higher average accuracy and lower variance in the accuracy across the different experimental setups.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    IEEE conference proceedings, 2010
    National Category
    Computer Science Robotics
    Research subject
    Computer Science
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-13995 (URN)10.1109/ROBOT.2010.5509617 (DOI)000284150003046 ()978-1-4244-5038-1 (ISBN)
    Conference
    2010 IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation (ICRA)
    Available from: 2011-01-17 Created: 2011-01-17 Last updated: 2017-10-18Bibliographically approved
    8. An inspection of signal dynamics using an open sampling system for gas identification
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>An inspection of signal dynamics using an open sampling system for gas identification
    2010 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation only (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Odour discrimination with a sensor array directly exposed to the environment is of great interest in many applications ranging from environmental monitoring to search and rescue and exploration of hazardous areas. Metal oxide based sensors are typically used in such applications for gas detection as they are compact, low costing and exhibit fast response time to an analyte. Given the characteristics of the metal oxide sensors as well as the chaotic nature of the airflow in a natural environment, it has been assumed that a reliable odour discrimination system working in this condition has to work with features that capture the transient characteristics of the signal. In this work we present an experimental setup that enables a deeper insight into transient-based analysis for open sampling systems. Observations on the  properties of the signal collected under a controlled experimental condition using an open sampling system are presented. These observations suggest that in a scenario in which the sensors are exposed to different compounds without the possibility to recover the baseline value in between a gas identification, a model of the dynamics of the system is needed and a notion of the sensor state should be maintained that captures the past history of the sensor response.

    National Category
    Computer Science
    Research subject
    Computer Science
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-14498 (URN)
    Conference
    ICRA Workshop on Networked and Mobile Robot Olfaction in Natural, Dynamic Environments, 2010
    Available from: 2011-02-07 Created: 2011-02-07 Last updated: 2017-10-17Bibliographically approved
    9. Direct identification of bacteria in blood culture samples using an electronic nose
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Direct identification of bacteria in blood culture samples using an electronic nose
    Show others...
    2010 (English)In: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering, ISSN 0018-9294, E-ISSN 1558-2531, Vol. 57, no 12, 2884-2890 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we introduce a method for identification of bacteria in human blood culture samples using an electronic nose. The method uses features, which capture the static (steady state) and dynamic (transient) properties of the signal from the gas sensor array and proposes a means to ensemble results from consecutive samples. The underlying mechanism for ensembling is based on an estimation of posterior probability, which is extracted from a support vector machine classifier. A large dataset representing ten different bacteria cultures has been used to validate the presented methods. The results detail the performance of the proposed algorithm and show that through ensembling decisions on consecutive samples, significant reliability in classification accuracy can be achieved.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Piscataway, USA: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2010
    Keyword
    Bacteria identification, electronic nose, sepsis
    National Category
    Computer Science Robotics
    Research subject
    Computer Science
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-12831 (URN)10.1109/TBME.2010.2049492 (DOI)000284360100011 ()20460199 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-78649274345 (Scopus ID)
    Available from: 2011-01-11 Created: 2011-01-03 Last updated: 2017-12-11Bibliographically approved
    10. Collecting a database for studying gas distribution mapping and gas source localization with mobile robots
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Collecting a database for studying gas distribution mapping and gas source localization with mobile robots
    2010 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation only (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we present our initial experiments to collect a database for studying mobile robot olfaction. Mobile robots with olfactory sensing capabilities are expected to be used in various applications including gas distribution mapping and gas source localization. Owing to the turbulent nature of the airflow field and the gas distribution, these robots must be equipped with algorithms that can cope with chaotic environments. Since it is important to check the applicability of such algorithms in a diversity of environments, we propose to build a database with which the users can test the performances of their own algorithms in various environments. The database collected so far consists of two parts: a basic data set collected in a well-characterized controlled indoor environment and applied data sets collected in uncontrolled indoor and outdoor environments. A result of applying the database for testing a gas-source localization algorithm are shown as an example. We believe that such database will accelerate the research advancements on mobile robot olfaction.

    National Category
    Computer Science
    Research subject
    Computer Science
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-14499 (URN)
    Conference
    International Conference on Advanced Mechatronics, Osaka, Japan, October 4-6, 2010
    Available from: 2011-02-07 Created: 2011-02-07 Last updated: 2017-10-17Bibliographically approved
  • 755.
    Trincavelli, Marco
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Gas discrimination for mobile robots2011In: Künstliche Intelligenz, ISSN 0933-1875, E-ISSN 1610-1987, Vol. 25, no 4, 351-354 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Robots with gas sensing capabilities can address tasks like monitoring of polluted areas, detection of gas leaks, exploration of hazardous zones or search for explosives. Most of the currently available gas sensing technologies suffer from a number of shortcomings like lack of selectivity (the sensor responds to more than one chemical compound), slow response, drift in the response, and cross-sensitivity to physical variables like temperature and humidity. The main topic of this dissertation is the discrimination of gases, therefore the scarce selectivity and slow response are the limitations of direct concern. One of the possible solutions to overcome the poor selectivity of a single sensor is to use an array of gas sensors and to interpret the response of the whole array using signal processing techniques and pattern recognition algorithms. This is an established technology as long as the sensors are placed in a measuring chamber. However, discrimination of gases with a mobile robot presents additional challenges because the sensors are directly exposed to the highly dynamic environment to be analyzed. Given the slow dynamics of the sensors, the steady-state of the response is never achieved and therefore the discrimination has to be performed on the transient phase. The contributions presented in the summarized thesis focus around the design of algorithms for gas identification in the transient phase, thus they are particularly suited to mobile robotics applications.

  • 756.
    Trincavelli, Marco
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Coradeschi, Silvia
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Loutfi, Amy
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Classification of odours for mobile robots using an ensemble of linear classifiers2009In: Olfaction and electronic nose: proceedings of the 13th international symposium on olfaction and electronic nose / [ed] Matteo Pardo, Giorgio Sberveglieri, American Institute of Physics (AIP), 2009, 475-478 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates the classification of odours using an electronic nose mounted on a mobile robot. The samples are collected as the robot explores the environment. Under such conditions, the sensor response differs from typical three phase sampling processes. In this paper, we focus particularly on the classification problem and how it is influenced by the movement of the robot. To cope with these influences, an algorithm consisting of an ensemble of classifiers is resented. Experimental results show that this algorithm increases classification performance compared to other traditional classification methods.

  • 757.
    Trincavelli, Marco
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Coradeschi, Silvia
    Örebro University, Department of Technology.
    Loutfi, Amy
    Örebro University, Department of Technology.
    Classification of odours with mobile robots based on transient response2008In: IEEE/RSJ international conference on intelligent robots and systems, IROS 2008, New York: IEEE , 2008, 4110-4115 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Classification of odours with an array of gas sensors mounted on a mobile robot is a challenging and still relatively unexplored topic. Mobile robots able to classify an odour could navigate to a specific source or isolate high concentration areas in applications such as environmental monitoring. A key aspect to classification is to be able to process the data collected while moving the robot and using a simple and compact sensor system. In order to achieve this, we present a classification algorithm that is based in the transient response from the sensors. An analysis of how classification results vary with regards to the movement of the robot is provided and subsequently the experimental validations show that the classification performance depends more on how

    the robot traverses the odour plume and the quality of the transient than on the distance from the source location. The experimental validation has been done in a large unmodified indoor environment.

  • 758.
    Trincavelli, Marco
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Coradeschi, Silvia
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Loutfi, Amy
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Odour classification system for continuous monitoring applications2009In: Sensors and actuators. B, Chemical, ISSN 0925-4005, E-ISSN 1873-3077, Vol. 58, no 2, 265-273 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we investigate the classification performance of an electronic nose system, based on tin dioxide gas sensors. In contrast to previous studies, the electronic nose is mounted on a mobile platform and samples are analyzed using only transient information in the signals. The motivation behind this work is to explore the feasibility of using electronic nose devices for odour classification in a number of future application domains which require fast and possibly real-time odour identification. To perform transient based analysis of the signals, a comparative study of different methods for feature extraction was performed. Additionally, the application of a relevance vector machine classifier is explored to further analyze the classification performance based on quality of the obtained samples. The results presented in this study can be used for the development of electronic nose devices particularly suitable for environmental monitoring applications.

  • 759.
    Trincavelli, Marco
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Coradeschi, Silvia
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Loutfi, Amy
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Online classification of gases for environmental exploration2009In: IEEE/RSJ international conference on intelligent robots and systems, IROS 2009, New York: IEEE, 2009, 3311-3316 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we investigate how a mobile robot equipped with tin dioxide gas sensors and an anemometer can use an online classification algorithm in order to improve the exploration strategy. The purpose of the platform is to establish the character of a gas source with accuracy while minimizing the time required for exploration. For this to be possible, the output of the classification algorithm is probabilistic, feeding in a sequence of posterior probabilities to a path planner. To further assist path planning, a 3d-ultrasonic anemometer is available which give indication on the average wind speed and direction. In addition to evaluating different olfaction driven path planning strategies, experimental validations also evaluate the classification algorithms and its application to different environments with varying characteristics.

  • 760.
    Trincavelli, Marco
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Coradeschi, Silvia
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Loutfi, Amy
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Söderquist, Bo
    Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden .
    Thunberg, Per
    Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden .
    Direct identification of bacteria in blood culture samples using an electronic nose2010In: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering, ISSN 0018-9294, E-ISSN 1558-2531, Vol. 57, no 12, 2884-2890 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we introduce a method for identification of bacteria in human blood culture samples using an electronic nose. The method uses features, which capture the static (steady state) and dynamic (transient) properties of the signal from the gas sensor array and proposes a means to ensemble results from consecutive samples. The underlying mechanism for ensembling is based on an estimation of posterior probability, which is extracted from a support vector machine classifier. A large dataset representing ten different bacteria cultures has been used to validate the presented methods. The results detail the performance of the proposed algorithm and show that through ensembling decisions on consecutive samples, significant reliability in classification accuracy can be achieved.

  • 761.
    Trincavelli, Marco
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Hernandez Bennetts, Victor
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Lilienthal, Achim J.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    A Least Squares approach for learning gas distribution maps from a set of integral gas concentration measurements obtained with a TDLAS sensor2012In: Proceedings of the IEEE Sensors Conference, 2012, IEEE Sensors Council, 2012, 550-553 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Applications related to industrial plant surveillance and environmental monitoring often require the creation of gas distribution maps (GDM). In this paper an approach for creating a gas distribution map using a Tunable Diode Laser Absorption Spectroscopy (TDLAS) sensor and a laser range scanner mounted on a pan tilt unit is presented. The TDLAS sensor can remotely sense the target gas, in this case methane, requiring novel GDM algorithms compared to the ones developed for traditional in-situ chemical sensors. The presented setup makes it possible to create a 3D model of the environment and to calculate the path travelled by the TDLAS beam. The knowledge of the beam path is of crucial importance since a TDLAS sensor provides an integral measurement of the gas concentration over that path. An efficient GDM algorithm based on a quadratic programming formulation is proposed. The approach is tested in an indoor scenario where transparent bottles filled with methane are successfully localized.

  • 762.
    Trincavelli, Marco
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Loutfi, Amy
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    An inspection of signal dynamics using an open sampling system for gas identification2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Odour discrimination with a sensor array directly exposed to the environment is of great interest in many applications ranging from environmental monitoring to search and rescue and exploration of hazardous areas. Metal oxide based sensors are typically used in such applications for gas detection as they are compact, low costing and exhibit fast response time to an analyte. Given the characteristics of the metal oxide sensors as well as the chaotic nature of the airflow in a natural environment, it has been assumed that a reliable odour discrimination system working in this condition has to work with features that capture the transient characteristics of the signal. In this work we present an experimental setup that enables a deeper insight into transient-based analysis for open sampling systems. Observations on the  properties of the signal collected under a controlled experimental condition using an open sampling system are presented. These observations suggest that in a scenario in which the sensors are exposed to different compounds without the possibility to recover the baseline value in between a gas identification, a model of the dynamics of the system is needed and a notion of the sensor state should be maintained that captures the past history of the sensor response.

  • 763.
    Trincavelli, Marco
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Loutfi, Amy
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Feature selection for gas identification with a mobile robot2010In: 2010 IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation (ICRA), IEEE conference proceedings, 2010, 2852-2857 p.Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we analyze the problem of discrimination of gases with mobile robots. Previously, it has been shown that the conditions in which data is collected heavily influence the characteristics of the signal to be identified. As a result, the already difficult task of selecting features which characterize a gas is made more challenging by the absence of a steady state response. This is often due to the movement of the robot, and/or the physical properties of the environment, e. g., turbulent airflow creating patches and eddies in the plume. In this work we compare two approaches for feature selection which are able to consider explicitly the information on the experimental setup and optimize the subset of features used in the recognition process. The approaches are tested on a large data set collected with a mobile robot moving in different environments (outdoors and indoors). The results show that the classification performance is improved resulting in a higher average accuracy and lower variance in the accuracy across the different experimental setups.

  • 764.
    Trincavelli, Marco
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Monroy, Javier G.
    Lilienthal, Achim J.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Blanco, Jose Luis
    González-Jimenez, Javier
    Calibration of mox gas sensors in open sampling systems based on gaussian processes2012In: Proceedings of the IEEE Sensors Conference, 2012, IEEE conference proceedings, 2012, 1-4 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Calibration of metal oxide (MOX) gas sensor for continuous monitoring is a complex problem due to the highly dynamic characteristics of the gas sensor signal when exposed to natural environment (Open Sampling System - OSS). This work presents a probabilistic approach to the calibration of a MOX gas sensor based on Gaussian Processes (GP). The proposed approach estimates for every sensor measurement a probability distribution of the gas concentration. This enables the calculation of confidence intervals for the predicted concentrations. This is particularly important since exact calibration is hard to obtain due to the chaotic nature that dominates gas dispersal. The proposed approach has been tested with an experimental setup where an array of MOX sensors and a Photo Ionization Detector (PID) are placed downwind w.r.t. the gas source. The PID is used to obtain ground truth concentration. Comparison with standard calibration methods demonstrates the advantage of the proposed approach.

  • 765.
    Trincavelli, Marco
    et al.
    Örebro University, Department of Technology.
    Reggente, Matteo
    Örebro University, Department of Technology.
    Coradeschi, Silvia
    Örebro University, Department of Technology.
    Loutfi, Amy
    Örebro University, Department of Technology.
    Ishida, Hiroshi
    Lilienthal, Achim J.
    Örebro University, Department of Technology.
    Towards environmental monitoring with mobile robots2008In: IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems, IROS 2008, New York: IEEE , 2008, 2210-2215 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we present initial experiments towards environmental monitoring with a mobile platform. A prototype of a pollution monitoring robot was set up which measures the gas distribution using an “electronic nose” and provides three dimensional wind measurements using an ultrasonic anemometer. We describe the design of the robot and the experimental setup used to run trials under varying environmental conditions. We then present the results of the gas distribution mapping. The trials which were carried out in three uncontrolled environments with very different properties:

    an enclosed indoor area, a part of a long corridor with open ends and a high ceiling, and an outdoor scenario are presented and discussed.

  • 766.
    Trincavelli, Marco
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Vergara, A.
    Rulkov, N.
    Murguia, J. S.
    Lilienthal, Achim J.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Huerta, R.
    Optimizing the operating temperature for an array of MOX sensors on an open sampling system2011In: Olfaction and electronic nose: Proceedings of the 14th international symposium on olfaction and electonic nose, 2011, 225-227 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Chemo-resistive transduction is essential for capturing the spatio-temporal structure of chemical compounds dispersed in different environments. Due to gas dispersion mechanisms, namely diffusion, turbulence and advection, the sensors in an open sampling system, i.e. directly exposed to the environment to be monitored, are exposed to low concentrations of gases with many fluctuations making, as a consequence, the identification and monitoring of the gases even more complicated and challenging than in a controlled laboratory setting. Therefore, tuning the value of the operating temperature becomes crucial for successfully identifying and monitoring the pollutant gases, particularly in applications such as exploration of hazardous areas, air pollution monitoring, and search and rescue I. In this study we demonstrate the benefit of optimizing the sensor's operating temperature when the sensors are deployed in an open sampling system, i.e. directly exposed to the environment to be monitored.

  • 767.
    Ullberg, Jonas
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    2009Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Public demand for intelligent services in their home environments can be expected to grow in the near future once the required technology becomes more widely available and mature. Many intelligent home services cannot be provided in a purely reactive fashion though since they require contextual knowledge about the environment and most importantly the activities the residents are engaged in at any given time. This poses a problem since information about a human’s behavior is not easily accessible and has to be recognized from aggregated sensor data in most cases. Numerous activity recognition techniqueshave been studied in the literature. In this thesis we focus on one such technique which takes a temporal reasoning approach to activity recognition, namely recognizing activities by planning for them with a temporal planner. OMPS is an example of such a planner that has been used in previous work to recognize activities of humans in domestic environments. An important requirement for monitoring activities in a real world application is the ability to do so continuously and reliably. Two shortcomings in the previous approach hindered OMPS’s capability to meet this requirement, namely maintaining the performance of the activity recognition over long monitoring horizons, and ensuring future temporal consistency of recognized activities. This thesis will define the two problems, detail their solutions, and finally evaluate the modified system with the corresponding changes implemented.

  • 768.
    Ullberg, Jonas
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Coradeschi, Silvia
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Pecora, Federico
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    On-line ADL recognition with prior knowledge2010In: STAIRS 2010: proceedings of the fifth Starting AI Researchers' Symposium / [ed] Thomas Ågotnes, Amsterdam: IOS Press, 2010, 354-366 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper addresses the problem of recognizing activities of daily living. The novelty lies in the use of an existing knowledge base (ConceptNet) to introduce prior knowledge into the system in order to reduce the amount of learning required to deploy the system in a real environment. The use of household objects is central in the recognition of activities that are being performed, and we attach semantic meaning to both the objects and activities that are being recognized. The paper describes a framework which is specifically geared towards realizing activity recognition systems which leverage prior knowledge. A preliminary implementation of a neural network based recognition system built on this framework is shown, and the added value of prior knowledge is evaluated through the use of various data sets.

  • 769.
    Ullberg, Jonas
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Loutfi, Amy
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Pecora, Federico
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    A customizable approach for monitoring activities of elderly users in their homes2014In: Activity Monitoring by Multiple Distributed Sensing: Second International Workshop, AMMDS 2014, Stockholm, Sweden, August 24, 2014, Revised Selected Papers / [ed] Mazzeo, Pier Luigi and Spagnolo, Paolo and Moeslund, Thomas B., Cham: Springer International Publishing , 2014, 13-25 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents an implemented context recognition system that enables caregivers to query and visualize daily activities of elderly who live in their own homes. The system currently serves several homes across Europe and provides caregivers with the ability to correlate activities with specific health indicators. The system also allows to define conditions under which alarms should be raised.

  • 770.
    Ullberg, Jonas
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Loutfi, Amy
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Pecora, Federico
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Towards continuous activity monitoring with temporal constraints2009Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper focuses on a temporal reasoning approach for human activity recognition. Specifically, we show how search and temporal propagation are used to enable long term and continuous activity recognition. Two specific issues are addressed, namely maintaining performance over long monitoring horizons and ensuring future temporal consistency of recognized activities. We propose a complete search algorithm for activity recognition which addresses these issues, in which an admissible pruning technique allows improved performance. We show a sufficient condition for guaranteeing future admissibility, and experimental results which test the limits and practical applicability of the system are presented.

  • 771.
    Ullberg, Jonas
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Pecora, Federico
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Propagating temporal constraints on sets of intervals2012In: ICAPS Workshop on Planning and Scheduling with Timelines, 2012, 25-32 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we propose a method of propagating quantitative Allen interval constraints on sets of intervals defined by polygons in a two dimensional space. The method is used to solve the problem of inferring timelines of human activities from timelines representing traces of sensor data. The main advantage of this method over others is that it allows a more general description of the events that the intervals are taken to reflect during inference. This paper deals with the algorithmic issues underlying the timeline recognition process. In this context, we compare the performance of our method to that of a state of the art approach based on classical temporal constraint reasoning techniques (Dousson and Maigat, 2007).

  • 772.
    Vadi-Dris, David
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Pasma, Miika
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Game Entry to Swedish Game Awards: "Winds of Kahlara"2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This is a report that describes the implementation of a computer technical examination project at Örebro University. More specifically it is about how two students have developed a computer game as an entry for Swedish Game Awards, a competition for games developed without interaction from commercial companies. The game, titled “Winds of Kahlara”, is written for PC and lets the participants compete against each other over a network in a 3D environment. The graphical theme is fantasy and the players utilize among other things magical attacks to kill their opponents. The development itself has taken more than a year since the complexity of the game has required extensive technical research and graphical designing.

  • 773.
    Vajdi, Amir
    et al.
    Department of Computer Science, University of Massachusetts Boston, Boston, MA, United States.
    Haspel, Nurit
    Department of Computer Science, University of Massachusetts Boston, Boston, MA, United States.
    Banaee, Hadi
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    A New DP Algorithm for Comparing Gene Expression Data Using Geometric Similarity2015In: Proceedings 2015 IEEE International Conference on Bioinformatics and Biomedicine, New York: IEEE conference proceedings , 2015, 1157-1161 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Microarray gene expression data comes as a time series, where the expression level of a gene is recorded at specific time points. Comparing the time series produced by two genes can give us information about the regulatory or inhibitory relationship between the genes. We present a Dynamic Programming (DP) method to compare gene expression data using geometric similarity. We aim to detect similarities and relationships between genes, based on their expression time series. By representing the time series as polygons and compare them, we can find relationships that are not available when the two time series are compared point-by-point. We applied our algorithm on a dataset of 343 regulatory pairs from the alpha dataset and compared them to randomly generated pairs. Using an SVM classifier, we find the optimal similarity score that separates the regulatory dataset from the random pairs. Our results show that we can detect similar pairs better than simple Pearson correlation and we outperform many of the existing methods. This method is an ongoing approach, that can be applied to finding the similarity of any data that can convert to 2D polygon. In the future, we plan to introduce this method as a new classifier.

  • 774.
    Valencia, Rafael
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Saarinen, Jari
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Andreasson, Henrik
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Vallvé, Joan
    CSIC-UPC, Barcelona,Spain.
    Andrade-Cetto, Juan
    CSIC-UPC, Barcelona, Spain.
    Lilienthal, Achim J.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Localization in highly dynamic environments using dual-timescale NDT-MCL2014In: 2014 IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation (ICRA), IEEE Robotics and Automation Society, 2014, 3956-3962 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Industrial environments are rarely static and oftentheir configuration is continuously changing due to the materialtransfer flow. This is a major challenge for infrastructure freelocalization systems. In this paper we address this challengeby introducing a localization approach that uses a dualtimescaleapproach. The proposed approach - Dual-TimescaleNormal Distributions Transform Monte Carlo Localization (DTNDT-MCL) - is a particle filter based localization method,which simultaneously keeps track of the pose using an aprioriknown static map and a short-term map. The short-termmap is continuously updated and uses Normal DistributionsTransform Occupancy maps to maintain the current state ofthe environment. A key novelty of this approach is that it doesnot have to select an entire timescale map but rather use thebest timescale locally. The approach has real-time performanceand is evaluated using three datasets with increasing levels ofdynamics. We compare our approach against previously proposedNDT-MCL and commonly used SLAM algorithms andshow that DT-NDT-MCL outperforms competing algorithmswith regards to accuracy in all three test cases.

  • 775.
    Valgren, Christoffer
    et al.
    Department of Computer Science, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Lilienthal, Achim J.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    SIFT, SURF & seasons: Appearance-based long-term localization in outdoor environments2010In: Robotics and Autonomous Systems, ISSN 0921-8890, E-ISSN 1872-793X, Vol. 58, no 2, 149-156 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we address the problem of outdoor, appearance-based topological localization, particularly over long periods of time where seasonal changes alter the appearance of the environment. We investigate a straight-forward method that relies on local image features to compare single image pairs. We rst look into which of the dominating image feature algorithms, SIFT or the more recent SURF, that is most suitable for this task. We then ne-tune our localization algorithm in terms of accuracy, and also introduce the epipolar constraint to further improve the result. The nal localization algorithm is applied on multiple data sets, each consisting of a large number of panoramic images, which have been acquired over a period of nine months with large seasonal changes. The nal localization rate in the single-image matching, cross-seasonal case is between 80 to 95%.

  • 776.
    van den Besselaar, Peter
    et al.
    Vrije University Amsterdam, Department of Social Informatics, Amsterdam, Netherlands; Vrije University, Network Institution, Amsterdam, Netherlands.
    Sandström, Ulf
    Örebro University. INDEK, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Does Quantity Make a Difference?2015In: Proceedings of ISSI 2015 Istanbul: 15th International Society of Scientometrics and Informetrics Conference, International Society of Scientometrics and Informetrics , 2015, 577-583 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Do highly productive researchers have significantly higher probability to produce top cited papers? Or does the increased productivity in science only result in a sea of irrelevant papers as a perverse effect of competition and the increased use of indicators for research evaluation and accountability focus? We use a Swedish author disambiguated dataset consisting of 48,000 researchers and their WoS-listed publications during the period of 2008-2011 with citations until 2014 to investigate the relation between productivity and production of highly cited papers. As the analysis shows, quantity does make a difference.

  • 777.
    van den Besselaar, Peter
    et al.
    Department of Organization Sciences & Network Institute, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
    Sandström, Ulf
    Örebro University. INDEK, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Gender differences in research performance and its impact on careers: a longitudinal case study2016In: Scientometrics, ISSN 0138-9130, E-ISSN 1588-2861, Vol. 106, no 1, 143-162 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We take up the issue of performance differences between male and female researchers, and investigate the change of performance differences during the early career. In a previous paper it was shown that among starting researchers gendered performance differences seem small to non-existent (Van Arensbergen et al. 2012). If the differences do not occur in the early career anymore, they may emerge in a later period, or may remain absent. In this paper we use the same sample of male and female researchers, but now compare performance levels about 10 years later. We use various performance indicators: full/fractional counted productivity, citation impact, and relative citation impact in terms of the share of papers in the top 10 % highly cited papers. After the 10 years period, productivity of male researchers has grown faster than of female researcher, but the field normalized (relative) citation impact indicators of male and female researchers remain about equal. Furthermore, performance data do explain to a certain extent why male careers in our sample develop much faster than female researchers' careers; but controlling for performance differences, we find that gender is an important determinant too. Consequently, the process of hiring academic staff still remains biased.

  • 778.
    Vasirani, Matteo
    et al.
    Distributed Information Systems Laboratory, École Polytechnique Fédérale, Lausanne, Switzerland.
    Klügl, Franziska
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Camponogara, Eduardo
    Department of Automation and Systems Engineering, Federal University of Santa Catarina, Florianopolis, Brazil.
    Hattori, Hiromitsu
    Graduate School of Informatics, Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan.
    Special issue on intelligent agents in traffic and transportation2015In: Journal of Intelligent Transportation Systems / Taylor & Francis, ISSN 1547-2450, E-ISSN 1547-2442, Vol. 19, no 1, 1-2 p.Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 779.
    Vaskevicius, N.
    et al.
    Jacobs University, Bremen, Germany.
    Mueller, C. A.
    Jacobs University, Bremen, Germany.
    Bonilla, M.
    University of Pisa, Italy.
    Tincani, V.
    University of Pisa, Italy.
    Stoyanov, Todor
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Fantoni, G.
    University of Pisa, Italy.
    Pathak, K.
    Jacobs University, Bremen, Germany.
    Lilienthal, Achim J.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Bicchi, A.
    University of Pisa, Italy.
    Birk, A.
    Jacobs University, Bremen, Germany.
    Object recognition and localization for robust grasping with a dexterous gripper in the context of container unloading2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The work presented here is embedded in research on an industrial application scenario, namely autonomous shipping-container unloading, which has several challenging constraints: the scene is very cluttered, objects can be much larger than in common table-top scenarios; the perception must be highly robust, while being as fast as possible. These contradicting goals force a compromise between speed and accuracy. In this work, we investigate a state of the art perception system integrated with a dexterous gripper. In particular, we are interested in pose estimation errors from the recognition module and whether these errors can be handled by the abilities of the gripper.

  • 780.
    Vergara, Alexander
    et al.
    University of California, San Diego.
    Fonollosa, Jordi
    University of California, San Diego.
    Mahiques, Jonas
    University of California, San Diego.
    Trincavelli, Marco
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Rulkov, Nikolai
    University of California, San Diego.
    Huerta, Ramon
    University of California, San Diego.
    On the performance of gas sensor arrays in open sampling systems using inhibitory support vector machines2013In: Sensors and actuators. B, Chemical, ISSN 0925-4005, E-ISSN 1873-3077, Vol. 185, no August 2013, 462-477 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Chemo-resistive transduction presents practical advantages for capturing the spatio-temporal and structural organization of chemical compounds dispersed in different human habitats. In an open sampling system, however, where the chemo-sensory elements are directly exposed to the environment being monitored, the identification and monitoring of chemical substances present a more difficult challenge due to the dispersion mechanisms of gaseous chemical analytes, namely diffusion, turbulence, and advection. The success of such actively changeable practice is influenced by the adequate implementation of algorithmically driven formalisms combined with the appropriate design of experimental protocols. On the basis of this functional joint-formulation, in this study we examine an innovative methodology based on the inhibitory processing mechanisms encountered in the structural assembly of the insect's brain, namely Inhibitory Support Vector Machine (ISVM) applied to training a sensor array platform and evaluate its capabilities relevant to odor detection and identification under complex environmental conditions. We generated - and made publicly available - an extensive and unique dataset with a chemical detection platform consisting of 72 conductometric metal-oxide based chemical sensors in a custom-designed wind tunnel test-bed facility to test our methodology. Our findings suggest that the aforementioned methodology can be a valuable tool to guide the decision of choosing the training conditions for a cost-efficient system calibration as well as an important step toward the understanding of the degradation level of the sensory system when the environmental conditions change.

  • 781.
    Vermesan, Ovidiu
    et al.
    SINTEF, Norway.
    Bröring, Arne
    SIEMENS AG, Germany.
    Tragos, Elias
    National University of Ireland Galway, Ireland.
    Serrano, Martin
    National University of Ireland Galway, Ireland.
    Bacciu, Davide
    University of Pisa, Italy.
    Chessa, Stefano
    University of Pisa, Italy.
    Gallicchio, Claudio
    University of Pisa, Italy.
    Micheli, Alessio
    University of Pisa, Italy.
    Dragone, Mauro
    Heriot-Watt University, UK.
    Saffiotti, Alessandro
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Simoens, Pieter
    Ghent University – imec, Belgium.
    Cavallo, Filippo
    Scuola Superiore Sant’Anna, Italy.
    Bahr, Roy
    SINTEF, Norway.
    Internet of robotic things: converging sensing/actuating, hypoconnectivity, artificial intelligence and IoT Platforms2017In: Cognitive Hyperconnected Digital Transformation: Internet of Things Intelligence Evolution / [ed] Ovidiu Vermesan,‎ Joel Bacquet, River Publishers, 2017, 97-155 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Internet of Things (IoT) concept is evolving rapidly and influencing newdevelopments in various application domains, such as the Internet of MobileThings (IoMT), Autonomous Internet of Things (A-IoT), Autonomous Systemof Things (ASoT), Internet of Autonomous Things (IoAT), Internetof Things Clouds (IoT-C) and the Internet of Robotic Things (IoRT) etc.that are progressing/advancing by using IoT technology. The IoT influencerepresents new development and deployment challenges in different areassuch as seamless platform integration, context based cognitive network integration,new mobile sensor/actuator network paradigms, things identification(addressing, naming in IoT) and dynamic things discoverability and manyothers. The IoRT represents new convergence challenges and their need to be addressed, in one side the programmability and the communication ofmultiple heterogeneous mobile/autonomous/robotic things for cooperating,their coordination, configuration, exchange of information, security, safetyand protection. Developments in IoT heterogeneous parallel processing/communication and dynamic systems based on parallelism and concurrencyrequire new ideas for integrating the intelligent “devices”, collaborativerobots (COBOTS), into IoT applications. Dynamic maintainability, selfhealing,self-repair of resources, changing resource state, (re-) configurationand context based IoT systems for service implementation and integrationwith IoT network service composition are of paramount importance whennew “cognitive devices” are becoming active participants in IoT applications.This chapter aims to be an overview of the IoRT concept, technologies,architectures and applications and to provide a comprehensive coverage offuture challenges, developments and applications.

  • 782.
    Vidal, Thierry
    et al.
    Ecole Nationale d'Ingénieurs de Tarbes, Tarbes, France.
    Bidot, Julien
    Ecole Nationale d'Ingénieurs de Tarbes, Tarbes, France.
    Dynamic sequencing of tasks insSimple temporal networks with uncertainty2001Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Planning or scheduling systems that handle tasks with uncertain durations mightuse an extension of the Simple Temporal Network (STN) with a distinction between controllable and contingent variables and constraints. Temporal consistency is then redefined in terms of Dynamic Controllability, which means the ability to decide the precise timing of tasks only at execution time, depending on observations made, and still satisfying all no constraints. This property has been recently proven to be checkable in polynomial time through a simple path consistency-like algorithm. In this paper, we are interested in using such a model in scheduling applications, in which tasks may compete for the same resource, and should thus be sequenced. Such constraints make the problem NP-hard, and cannot be directly expressed in an STN. In the presence of uncertainty, one might also wish to postpone task sequencing until execution time. This paper provides the characterization of such a Dynamic Sequencing ability. Then, we propose an incomplete checking method still relying on the STNU for the sake of temporal reasoning efficiency, adding further filtering techniques to account for sequencing constraints.

  • 783.
    Vuka, Mikel
    et al.
    Dipartitmento di Elettronica, Informazione e Bioingegneria, Politecnico di Milano, Milano, Italy.
    Schaffernicht, Erik
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Schmuker, Michael
    University of Hertfordshire, School of Computer Science, College Lane, Hatfield, Herts, United Kingdom.
    Hernandez Bennetts, Victor
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Amigoni, Francesco
    Dipartitmento di Elettronica, Informazione e Bioingegneria, Politecnico di Milano, Milano, Italy.
    Lilienthal, Achim J
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Exploration and Localization of a Gas Source with MOX Gas Sensorson a Mobile Robot: A Gaussian Regression Bout Amplitude Approach2017In: 2017 ISOCS/IEEE International Symposium on Olfaction and Electronic Nose (ISOEN 2017): Proceedings, IEEE, 2017, 164-166 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mobile robot olfaction systems combine gas sensorswith mobility provided by robots. They relief humansof dull, dirty and dangerous tasks in applications such assearch & rescue or environmental monitoring. We address gassource localization and especially the problem of minimizingexploration time of the robot, which is a key issue due toenergy constraints. We propose an active search approach forrobots equipped with MOX gas sensors and an anemometer,given an occupancy map. Events of rapid change in the MOXsensor signal (“bouts”) are used to estimate the distance to agas source. The wind direction guides a Gaussian regression,which interpolates distance estimates. The contributions of thispaper are two-fold. First, we extend previous work on gassource distance estimation with MOX sensors and propose amodification to cope better with turbulent conditions. Second,we introduce a novel active search gas source localizationalgorithm and validate it in a real-world environment.

  • 784.
    Wada, Yuta
    et al.
    Department of Mechanical Systems Engineering, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Japan..
    Trincavelli, Marco
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Fukazawa, Yuichiro
    Department of Mechanical Systems Engineering, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Japan..
    Ishida, Hiroshi
    Department of Mechanical Systems Engineering, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Japan..
    Collecting a database for studying gas distribution mapping and gas source localization with mobile robots2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we present our initial experiments to collect a database for studying mobile robot olfaction. Mobile robots with olfactory sensing capabilities are expected to be used in various applications including gas distribution mapping and gas source localization. Owing to the turbulent nature of the airflow field and the gas distribution, these robots must be equipped with algorithms that can cope with chaotic environments. Since it is important to check the applicability of such algorithms in a diversity of environments, we propose to build a database with which the users can test the performances of their own algorithms in various environments. The database collected so far consists of two parts: a basic data set collected in a well-characterized controlled indoor environment and applied data sets collected in uncontrolled indoor and outdoor environments. A result of applying the database for testing a gas-source localization algorithm are shown as an example. We believe that such database will accelerate the research advancements on mobile robot olfaction.

  • 785.
    Wahlman, Johan
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Administratörsverktyg för IOT-enheter2015Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    IoT (Internet of Things) are devices which are usually equipped with different kinds of sensors, these sensor values are then sent to a server where these values are somehow processed. It’s predicted that the usage of IoT devices will increase significantly during the upcoming years.

     

    Microsoft has a service named Azure IoT Hub, which is designed for easy administration of IoT devices, but Azure IoT Hub provides no user interface to administer these IoT devices. The task of this project is to create a user interface for Azure IoT Hub.

  • 786.
    Wakabi, Wairagala
    et al.
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Grönlund, Åke
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Citizen-to-Citizen vs. Citizen-to-Government eParticipation in Uganda: Implications for Research and Practice2015In: Electronic Participation, ePart 2015, Springer, 2015, 95-107 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) is growing globally, as is interest in the use of digital technologies to improve citizens' participation in governance. In African countries, where ICT use remains low and where there is a democratic deficit, the nature and extent of citizens' participation via ICT is unknown. Based on a print questionnaire with 322 internet users in Uganda, this paper compares citizen-to-citizen (C2C) participation and citizen-to-government (C2G) participation, examines the factors that hinder greater C2C and C2G online participation, and explores the implications for greater eParticipation in future. For effective eParticipation, the majority of Ugandan internet users need to become more active as creators of online content, as well as conversationalists and critics. Results show that regardless of whether it is engagements among citizens or between citizens and leaders, most citizens are spectators.

  • 787.
    Wandel, Michael
    et al.
    University of Tubingen.
    Lilienthal, Achim J.
    Örebro University, Department of Technology.
    Duckett, Tom
    Örebro University, Department of Technology.
    Weimar, Udo
    University of Tubingen.
    Zell, Andreas
    University of Tubingen.
    Gas distribution in unventilated indoor environments inspected by a mobile robot2003In: Proceedings of the IEEE international conference on advanced robotics: ICAR 2003, 2003, 507-512 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Gas source localisation with robots is usually performed in environments with a strong, unidirectional airflow created by artificial ventilation. This tends to create a strong, well defined analyte plume and enables upwind searching. By contrast, this paper presents experiments conducted in unventilated rooms. Here, the measured concentrations also indicate an analyte plume with, however, different properties concerning its shape, width, concentration profile and stability over time. In the results presented in this paper, two very different mobile robotic systems for odour sensing were investigated in different environments, and the similarities as well as differences in the analyte gas distributions measured are discussed.

  • 788.
    Wandel, Michael
    et al.
    University of Tubingen.
    Lilienthal, Achim J.
    Örebro University, Department of Technology.
    Zell, Andreas
    University of Tubingen.
    Weimar, Udo
    University of Tubingen.
    Mobile robot using different senses2002In: Proceedings of the international symposium on olfaction and electronic nose: ISOEN 2002, 2002, 128-129 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 789.
    Wandel, Michael R.
    et al.
    University of Tubingen.
    Weimar, Udo
    University of Tubingen.
    Lilienthal, Achim J.
    Örebro University, Department of Technology.
    Zell, Andreas
    University of Tubingen.
    Leakage localisation with a mobile robot carrying chemical sensors2001In: The 8th IEEE international conference on electronics, circuits and systems: ICECS 2001, 2001, 1247-1250 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    On the way to developing an electronic watchman one more sense, i.e. gas sensing facilities, are added to an autonomous mobile robot. For the gas detection, up to eight metal oxide sensors are operated using a commercial sensor system. The robot is able to move and navigate autonomously. The geometric information is extracted from laser range finder data. This input is used to build up an internal map while driving. Using the new sensor the localisation of a gas source in unventilated in-house environments is performed. First experiments in a one-dimensional case show a very good correlation between the peak and the gas source. The one-dimensional concentration profile is repeatedly recorded and stable for at least two hours. The two-dimensional experiments exhibit a circulation of the air within the room due to temperature and hence density effects. The latter is limiting the available recording time for the two-dimensional mapping

  • 790.
    Wang, Yan
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    A domain-specific language for protocol stack implementation in embedded systems2011Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Embedded network software has become increasingly interesting for both research and business as more and more networked embedded systems emerge. Well-known infrastructure protocol stacks are reimplemented on new embedded hardware and software architectures. New requirements of modern applications and devices require to implement newly designed or revised protocols. However, implementing protocol stacks for embedded systems remains a time-consuming and error-prone task due to the complexity and performancecritical nature of network software. It is even more so when targeting resource constrained embedded systems: implementations have to minimize energy consumption, memory usage etc., while programming efficiency is needed to improve on time-to-market, scalability, maintainability and product evolution. Therefore, it is worth researching on how to make protocol stack implementations for embedded systems both easier and more likely to be correct within the resource limits.

    In the work presented in this thesis, we take a language-based approach and aim to facilitate the implementation of protocol stacks while realizing performance demands and being aware of energy consumption and memory usage within the constraints imposed by embedded systems. We give background on DSL implementation techniques, investigate common practices in network protocol development to determine the potential of domain-specifi languages (DSLs) for embedded network software, and propose a domain-specifi embedded language (DSEL), Protege (Protocol Implementation Generator), for declaratively describing overlaid protocol stacks. In Protege, a high-level packet specification is dually compiled into an internal data representation for protocol logic implementation, and packet processing methods which are then integrated into the dataflow framework of a protocol overlay specification. Constructs for finite state machines allow to specify protocol logic in a concise manner, close to the protocol specification style. Protege specifications are compiled to highly portable C code for various architectures.

    Four attached scientific papers report our main results in more detail: an embedded implementation of the data description calculus in Haskell, a compilation framework for generating packet processing code with overlays, the domain-specific language Protege in overview (including embedding techniques and runtime system features), and a real-world case study implementing an industrial application protocol.

    List of papers
    1. A library for processing ad hoc data in Haskell: embedding a data description language
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>A library for processing ad hoc data in Haskell: embedding a data description language
    2008 (English)In: Implementation and application of functional languages   / [ed] Sven-Bodo Scholz, Olaf Chitil, 2008, 174-191 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ad hoc data formats, i.e. semistructured non-standard dataformats, are pervasive in many domains that need software tools—bioinformatics,demographic surveys, geophysics and network software are justa few. Building tools becomes easier if parsing and other standard inputoutputprocessing can be automated. Modern approaches for dealingwith ad hoc data formats consist of domain specific languages based ontype systems. Compilers for these languages generate data structures andparsing functions in a target programming language in which tools andapplications are then written. We present a monadic library in Haskellthat implements a data description language. Using our library, Haskellprogrammers have access to data description primitives that can be usedfor parsing and that can be integrated with other libraries and applicationprograms without the need of yet another compiler.

    Series
    Lecture notes in computer science, 5836
    Keyword
    Ad hoc Data, Haskell
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology Computer Science
    Research subject
    Computer and Systems Science
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-15277 (URN)10.1007/978-3-642-24452-0_10 (DOI)978-3-642-24451-3 (ISBN)
    Conference
    20th International Symposium, IFL 2008, Hatfield, UK, September 10-12, 2008
    Projects
    IPS
    Available from: 2009-10-05 Created: 2011-04-15 Last updated: 2017-10-17Bibliographically approved
    2. A Domain Specific Approach to Network Software Architecture: Assuring Conformance Between Architecture and Code
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Domain Specific Approach to Network Software Architecture: Assuring Conformance Between Architecture and Code
    2009 (English)In: Fourth International Conference on Digital Telecommunications, 2009. ICDT '09, Piscataway, N.J.: IEEE, 2009, 127-132 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Network software is typically organized according toa layered architecture that is well understood. However, writingcorrect and efficient code that conforms with the architecture stillremains a problem. To overcome this problem we propose to usea domain specific language based approach. The architecturalconstraints are captured in a domain specific notation that can beused as a source for automatic program generation. Conformancewith the architecture is thus assured by construction. Knowledgefrom the domain allows us to generate efficient code. In addition,this approach enforces reuse of both code and designs, one ofthe major concerns in software architecture. In this paper, weillustrate our approach with PADDLE, a tool that generates packetprocessing code from packet descriptions. To describe packets weuse a domain specific language of dependent types that includespacket overlays. From the description we generate C librariesfor packet processing that are easy to integrate with other partsof the code. We include an evaluation of our tool.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Piscataway, N.J.: IEEE, 2009
    Keyword
    Network Software Architecture
    National Category
    Telecommunications Engineering and Technology Computer Science
    Research subject
    Computer and Systems Science
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-15278 (URN)10.1109/ICDT.2009.4 (DOI)000274805500026 ()2-s2.0-70449602416 (Scopus ID)978-0-7695-3695-8 (ISBN)
    Conference
    Fourth International Conference on Digital Telecommunications, 2009. ICDT '09
    Note

    ©2009 IEEE. Personal use of this material is permitted. However, permission to reprint/republish this material for advertising or promotional purposes or for creating new collective works for resale or redistribution to servers or lists, or to reuse any copyrighted component of this work in other works must be obtained from the IEEE.

    Available from: 2011-04-15 Created: 2011-04-15 Last updated: 2017-10-18Bibliographically approved
    3. An embedded language for programming protocol stacks in embedded systems
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>An embedded language for programming protocol stacks in embedded systems
    2011 (English)In: Proceedings of the 20th ACM SIGPLAN workshop on Partial evaluation and program manipulation: PEPM'11, New York, NY, USA: ACM Digital Library, 2011, 63-72 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Protocol stack specifications are well-structured documents that follow a number of conventions and notations that have proven very useful for the design and dissemination of communication protocols. Protocol stack implementations on the other hand, are done in low-level languages, using error-prone programming techniques resulting in programs that are difficult to relate to the specifications, difficult to maintain, modify, extend and reuse. To overcome these problems we propose a domain-specific language that provides abstractions close to the notations used in protocol specifications. From descriptions in our language we generate C programs that can be integrated with other systems software. The language provides constructs to describe packet formats, including physical layout, constraints and dependencies. It also provides constructs for state machines and for layering protocols into stacks. Experiments show that the C programs we generate are comparable in performance and binary size to hand-crafted C programs.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    New York, NY, USA: ACM Digital Library, 2011
    Keyword
    domain-specific language, embedded compilation, embedded network software
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology Computer Science
    Research subject
    Computer and Systems Science
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-15279 (URN)10.1145/1929501.1929511 (DOI)978-1-4503-0485-6 (ISBN)
    Conference
    PEPM'11
    Available from: 2011-03-17 Created: 2011-04-15 Last updated: 2017-10-18Bibliographically approved
    4. A compositional implementation of Modbus in Protege
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>A compositional implementation of Modbus in Protege
    2011 (English)In: 6th IEEE International Symposium on Industrial Embedded Systems (SIES), 2011, IEEE conference proceedings, 2011, 123-131 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This is a case study for Protege. The language is used to produce a radically modular implementation of the Modbus [Mod06a] protocol for industrial process controllers. We show that Protege is an excellent tool to produce customized subset implementations, a commonly used technique to reduce software size and complexity in small industrial controller units.

    Modbus is one of the most widely used network protocols in industrial automation applications, and a typical example of an industrial protocol with rich functionality, relatively simple data structures, and several communication layer variants in practical use. The original ModbusSerial uses legacy serial communication protocol standards (RS232 or RS485) for communication between Fieldbus-enabled equipments, e.g. micro-controllers and PLCs within an industrial controller network. ModbusTCP is a more recent Modbus variant that oers Modbus messaging services over TCP/IP networks, to connect modern devices like intelligent sensors or advanced PLCs to a Modbus network.

    As already described in Sections 4.1 and 4.3, Modbus divides into several specification and implementation documents [Mod06a, Mod06c, Mod06b]. The core functionality of Modbus is given as the Modbus application protocol [Mod06a], which is independent of the underlying communication layer variants and specifes a large number of relatively simple functions to read and manipulate device state. Separate specications for the communication layer [Mod06b, Mod06c] describe how the Modbus application messaging service should inter-operate with the seria

    l line or the TCP/IP stack, respectively resulting in either ModbusSerial or ModbusTCP.

    Good maintainability, modularity and code reuse are key features for quick time-to-market, and especially attractive properties in the area of industrial protocols, characterised by long-lived standards and ongoing integration work. In our paper, we show the advantages of our compilation-based DSL approach Protege. We exemplify how to systematically decompose industrial protocols like Modbus, and propose a modular Modbus implementation concept which not only separates the communiation layer as in the specification, but also decomposes Modbus application protocol functionality into separate modules. A Modbus protocol implementation can be decomposed into the two underlying communication layer variants and a number of application layer functions. These application layer functionalities can be seen as independent modules of an entire application layer, acting as small sub-protocols of their own and sharing only the common communication infrastructure below. Furthermore, every protocol in the picture splits into a client and a server part, which operate on the same packet layouts as sender and receiver.

    The compilation-based Protege approach provides the necessary setting to reflect this multi-level modularity faithfully in the code. By defining each function code as a separate (sub-)protocol of its own, they can be freely combined to custom implementations tailored towards small controller devices with limited functionality. In addition, the compilation-based high-level approach of Protege enables code reuse for the packet processing code. Parsing (receiver) and marshaling code (sender) are generated from the same Protege source code, imported into the client and server modules. And from the separation of runtime system features for Protege, our implementation gains a large degree of platform-independence; Modbus can thus be integrated in various platforms with specialized embedded operating systems.

    In total, our case study implementing Modbus demonstrates that Protege increases flexibility in several aspects and thereby considerably reduces implementation cost. New customized Modbus implementations can be produced very quickly using our approach, which makes integration and maintenance much easier and results in drastically reduced time-to-market, a key feature. for success especially in the industrial setting.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    IEEE conference proceedings, 2011
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology Computer Science
    Research subject
    Computer and Systems Science
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-15280 (URN)10.1109/SIES.2011.5953654 (DOI)978-1-61284-818-1 (ISBN)
    Conference
    6th IEEE International Symposium on Industrial Embedded Systems (SIES 2011), June 15th - 17th, 2011, Västerås, Sweden
    Available from: 2011-04-15 Created: 2011-04-15 Last updated: 2017-10-18Bibliographically approved
  • 791.
    Wang, Yan
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Gaspes, Veronica
    A compositional implementation of Modbus in Protege2011In: 6th IEEE International Symposium on Industrial Embedded Systems (SIES), 2011, IEEE conference proceedings, 2011, 123-131 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This is a case study for Protege. The language is used to produce a radically modular implementation of the Modbus [Mod06a] protocol for industrial process controllers. We show that Protege is an excellent tool to produce customized subset implementations, a commonly used technique to reduce software size and complexity in small industrial controller units.

    Modbus is one of the most widely used network protocols in industrial automation applications, and a typical example of an industrial protocol with rich functionality, relatively simple data structures, and several communication layer variants in practical use. The original ModbusSerial uses legacy serial communication protocol standards (RS232 or RS485) for communication between Fieldbus-enabled equipments, e.g. micro-controllers and PLCs within an industrial controller network. ModbusTCP is a more recent Modbus variant that oers Modbus messaging services over TCP/IP networks, to connect modern devices like intelligent sensors or advanced PLCs to a Modbus network.

    As already described in Sections 4.1 and 4.3, Modbus divides into several specification and implementation documents [Mod06a, Mod06c, Mod06b]. The core functionality of Modbus is given as the Modbus application protocol [Mod06a], which is independent of the underlying communication layer variants and specifes a large number of relatively simple functions to read and manipulate device state. Separate specications for the communication layer [Mod06b, Mod06c] describe how the Modbus application messaging service should inter-operate with the seria

    l line or the TCP/IP stack, respectively resulting in either ModbusSerial or ModbusTCP.

    Good maintainability, modularity and code reuse are key features for quick time-to-market, and especially attractive properties in the area of industrial protocols, characterised by long-lived standards and ongoing integration work. In our paper, we show the advantages of our compilation-based DSL approach Protege. We exemplify how to systematically decompose industrial protocols like Modbus, and propose a modular Modbus implementation concept which not only separates the communiation layer as in the specification, but also decomposes Modbus application protocol functionality into separate modules. A Modbus protocol implementation can be decomposed into the two underlying communication layer variants and a number of application layer functions. These application layer functionalities can be seen as independent modules of an entire application layer, acting as small sub-protocols of their own and sharing only the common communication infrastructure below. Furthermore, every protocol in the picture splits into a client and a server part, which operate on the same packet layouts as sender and receiver.

    The compilation-based Protege approach provides the necessary setting to reflect this multi-level modularity faithfully in the code. By defining each function code as a separate (sub-)protocol of its own, they can be freely combined to custom implementations tailored towards small controller devices with limited functionality. In addition, the compilation-based high-level approach of Protege enables code reuse for the packet processing code. Parsing (receiver) and marshaling code (sender) are generated from the same Protege source code, imported into the client and server modules. And from the separation of runtime system features for Protege, our implementation gains a large degree of platform-independence; Modbus can thus be integrated in various platforms with specialized embedded operating systems.

    In total, our case study implementing Modbus demonstrates that Protege increases flexibility in several aspects and thereby considerably reduces implementation cost. New customized Modbus implementations can be produced very quickly using our approach, which makes integration and maintenance much easier and results in drastically reduced time-to-market, a key feature. for success especially in the industrial setting.

  • 792.
    Wang, Yan
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Gaspes, Veronica
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Embedded Systems (CERES).
    A Domain Specific Approach to Network Software Architecture: Assuring Conformance Between Architecture and Code2009In: Fourth International Conference on Digital Telecommunications, 2009. ICDT '09, Piscataway, N.J.: IEEE, 2009, 127-132 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Network software is typically organized according toa layered architecture that is well understood. However, writingcorrect and efficient code that conforms with the architecture stillremains a problem. To overcome this problem we propose to usea domain specific language based approach. The architecturalconstraints are captured in a domain specific notation that can beused as a source for automatic program generation. Conformancewith the architecture is thus assured by construction. Knowledgefrom the domain allows us to generate efficient code. In addition,this approach enforces reuse of both code and designs, one ofthe major concerns in software architecture. In this paper, weillustrate our approach with PADDLE, a tool that generates packetprocessing code from packet descriptions. To describe packets weuse a domain specific language of dependent types that includespacket overlays. From the description we generate C librariesfor packet processing that are easy to integrate with other partsof the code. We include an evaluation of our tool.

  • 793.
    Wang, Yan
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Gaspes, Veronica
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Embedded Systems (CERES).
    A library for processing ad hoc data in Haskell: embedding a data description language2008In: Implementation and application of functional languages   / [ed] Sven-Bodo Scholz, Olaf Chitil, 2008, 174-191 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ad hoc data formats, i.e. semistructured non-standard dataformats, are pervasive in many domains that need software tools—bioinformatics,demographic surveys, geophysics and network software are justa few. Building tools becomes easier if parsing and other standard inputoutputprocessing can be automated. Modern approaches for dealingwith ad hoc data formats consist of domain specific languages based ontype systems. Compilers for these languages generate data structures andparsing functions in a target programming language in which tools andapplications are then written. We present a monadic library in Haskellthat implements a data description language. Using our library, Haskellprogrammers have access to data description primitives that can be usedfor parsing and that can be integrated with other libraries and applicationprograms without the need of yet another compiler.

  • 794.
    Wang, Yan
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Gaspes, Veronica
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE).
    An embedded language for programming protocol stacks in embedded systems2011In: Proceedings of the 20th ACM SIGPLAN workshop on Partial evaluation and program manipulation: PEPM'11, New York, NY, USA: ACM Digital Library, 2011, 63-72 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Protocol stack specifications are well-structured documents that follow a number of conventions and notations that have proven very useful for the design and dissemination of communication protocols. Protocol stack implementations on the other hand, are done in low-level languages, using error-prone programming techniques resulting in programs that are difficult to relate to the specifications, difficult to maintain, modify, extend and reuse. To overcome these problems we propose a domain-specific language that provides abstractions close to the notations used in protocol specifications. From descriptions in our language we generate C programs that can be integrated with other systems software. The language provides constructs to describe packet formats, including physical layout, constraints and dependencies. It also provides constructs for state machines and for layering protocols into stacks. Experiments show that the C programs we generate are comparable in performance and binary size to hand-crafted C programs.

  • 795.
    Wasik, Zbigniew
    Örebro University, Department of Technology.
    A behavior-based control system for mobile manipulation2005Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The field of industrial robotics can be defined as the study, design and use of robot manipulators for manufacturing. Although the problem of designing a controller for industrial robots has been subject of intensive study, a number of assumptions are usually made which may seriously limit the applicability of these robots. First, the robotic manipulator is usually considered to be positioned at one place, which means that it can only work in its limited working envelope fixed to this position. Second, it is usually assumed that the environment of the manipulator (workcell) is carefully engineered to suit the task and the configuration of the arm. Finally, the control program of the manipulator is often designed assuming that the task will not change. These restriction make current industrial robots unsuitable for the new demands of flexible automation in small and medium enterprises. In this thesis, we develop techniques that extend the applicability of current robotic manipulators, by addressing the

    above limitations. We propose an approach to sensor-based manipulation that: 1) has flexible and modular control system, in order to easily to new tasks and environments, 2) the execution is sensor-based for robustness in less controlled environment, and 3) our approach applies to the more general problem of combined mobility and manipulation, in order to extend the work space of the manipulator.

  • 796.
    Wasik, Zbigniew
    et al.
    Örebro University.
    Saffiotti, Alessandro
    Örebro University, Department of Technology.
    A behavior-based control system for mobile manipulation2005Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 797.
    Wasik, Zbigniew
    et al.
    Örebro University, Department of Technology.
    Saffiotti, Alessandro
    Örebro University, Department of Technology.
    A fuzzy behavior-based control system for manipulation2002In: IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems, 2002, 2002, 1596-1601 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Behavior-based approaches to robot control are extremely popular in mobile robotics, but still rarely used for manipulation. We propose a behavior-based system that performs manipulation tasks using visual feedback. The distinctive points of our proposal are: (i) visual behaviors are implemented using a new camera-based approach; (ii) reactive fuzzy rules are used to arbitrate behaviors; and (iii) the outputs of concurrent behaviors are fused using fuzzy logic. We show experiments on a real arm performing a pick-and-place task that illustrate our approach and demonstrate its advantages over current approaches.

  • 798.
    Wasik, Zbigniew
    et al.
    Örebro University, Department of Technology.
    Saffiotti, Alessandro
    Örebro University, Department of Technology.
    A hierarchical behavior-based approach to manipulation tasks2003In: IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation: Proceedings : ICRA '03., 2003, 2780-2785 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Typical mobile robots can be customized to perform a variety of different tasks by combining in different ways a set of basic control modules, or behaviors. By contrast, most current systems for manipulation are still designed for just one specific task. In this paper, we propose a hierarchical behavior-based system that can perform several vision-based manipulation tasks by using different combinations of the same set of basic behaviors. Behaviors can run concurrently, and they are arbitrated through "if-then" rules. We show experiments involving object tracking, grasping and placing, both with static and moving objects.

  • 799.
    Wasik, Zbigniew
    et al.
    Örebro University, Department of Technology.
    Saffiotti, Alessandro
    Örebro University, Department of Technology.
    Robust color segmentation for the RoboCup domain2002In: Proceedings 16th International Conference on Pattern Recognition, 2002, 2002, 651-654 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Color segmentation is crucial in robotic applications, such as RoboCup, where the relevant objects can be distinguished by their color. In these applications, real-time performance and robustness are primary concerns. We present a hybrid method for color segmentation based on seeded region growing (SRG) in which the initial seeds are provided by a conservative threshold color segmentation. The key to the robustness of our approach is to use multiple seeds to perform local blob growing, and then merge blobs that belong to the same region. We have implemented our technique on a team of Sony AIBO 4-legged robots, and have successfully tested it in the RoboCup 2001 competition

  • 800.
    Wasik, Zbigniew
    et al.
    Örebro University, Department of Technology.
    Saffiotti, Alessandro
    Örebro University, Department of Technology.
    Using hierarchical fuzzy behaviors for manipulation2003In: Proc. of the World Congress of the Int. Fuzzy Systems Association, 2003Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Behavior-based systems have become extremely popular in autonomous robotics. These systems are typically used to control robots with few degrees of fredom (DOF), like mobile platforms. We propose a behaviorbased system able to control a complex plant with several DOF. The key to deal with complexity is the use of fuzzy logic techniques to compose simple behaviors into more complex ones. In this paper, we illustrate our approach on a 5DOF real manipulator, on which several tasks are performed using the same set of basic behaviors.

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