oru.sePublikationer
Change search
Refine search result
12 1 - 50 of 67
CiteExportLink to result list
Permanent link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Rows per page
  • 5
  • 10
  • 20
  • 50
  • 100
  • 250
Sort
  • Standard (Relevance)
  • Author A-Ö
  • Author Ö-A
  • Title A-Ö
  • Title Ö-A
  • Publication type A-Ö
  • Publication type Ö-A
  • Oldest first
  • Newest first
Select
The maximal number of hits you can export is 250. When you want to export more records please use the 'Create feeds' function.
  • 1.
    Ahonen, Lia
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work, Örebro University, Sweden.
    Changing behaviors or behavioral change?: A study of moral development and transbehavioral processes in juvenile institutional care2012Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    List of papers
    1. Moral development as a crucial treatment goal for young people in institutional care: a critical comparison between milieu therapy and cognitive behavioral therapy
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Moral development as a crucial treatment goal for young people in institutional care: a critical comparison between milieu therapy and cognitive behavioral therapy
    2012 (English)In: Therapeutic Communities: International Journal for Therapeutic and Supportive Organizations, ISSN 0964-1866, E-ISSN 2052-4730, Vol. 33, no 1, 4-15 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: This article aims to analyze and discuss the role of moral development in treatment of behavior problems and, further, to describe differences and similarities between two different methods – Milieu Therapy (MT) and Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) – in terms of addressing criminogenic needs and promoting moral development.

    Design: By performing a literature review, the study shows that even though there are both pros and cons using MT and CBT in institutional care, relationships strong enough to restructure a young person’s moral reasoning require time, and involves not only the young person’s parents and social network members, but also a genuine therapeutic alliance with clinical staff at the institution.

    Findings:These are central factors articulated in both CBT and MT, but are more explicitly expressed in MT. The results of this article highlight some important practical implications: In order to redevelop moral self and societal values, an overly narrow focus on criminogenic needs might exclude other components or processes of treatment and behavioral change. Together with a treatment program that view close staffresident interactions as of secondary importance, this could impair the possibility to obtain positive and long-lasting treatment results.

    Implications: In practice, moral development itself should be considered as an overall treatment goal, integrated into the daily life at the institution, twenty-four hours a day. Finally, the possibility to work with moral development in institutional settings is discussed.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Emerald Group Publishing Limited, 2012
    Keyword
    Moral development, criminogenic needs, cognitive behavioral therapy, milieu therapy, institutional treatment
    National Category
    Social Work
    Research subject
    Psychology; Social Work
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-26556 (URN)10.1108/09641861211286285 (DOI)2-s2.0-84879927127 (Scopus ID)
    Available from: 2012-11-30 Created: 2012-11-30 Last updated: 2016-03-14Bibliographically approved
    2. Negative peer cultures in juvenile institutional settings: staff as couch coaches or couch slouches
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Negative peer cultures in juvenile institutional settings: staff as couch coaches or couch slouches
    2012 (English)In: Journal of Offender Rehabilitation, ISSN 1050-9674, E-ISSN 1540-8558, Vol. 51, no 5, 316-330 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Juveniles in institutional treatment lack the skills to cope with societal expectations, rules, and moral values. If not prevented by staff, bonds are established with other deviant youth and the placement serves as a perfect "school of crime." This article aims to explore staff strategies to prevent negative peer cultures, as well as their theoretical foundations and relation to staff academic level and professional experience. Data were collected at eight Swedish institutions, using the Correctional Program Assessment Inventory 2000, questionnaires, observations, and interviews with clinical staff. Results show that most facilities lack negative-peer-culture strategies, but this is not related to academic level or experience. The importance, in terms of influencing the residents, of theoretical knowledge concerning psychological group-processes, peer culture, and moral development, as these relate to staff-supervised or unsupervised time, is discussed.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Taylor & Francis Group, 2012
    Keyword
    adolescent; institutional care; peer culture; staff education; treatment
    National Category
    Social Work
    Research subject
    Social Work
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-26557 (URN)10.1080/10509674.2012.683238 (DOI)2-s2.0-84863907740 (Scopus ID)
    Note

    Founding Agency:

    The Swedish National Board of Institutional Care

    Available from: 2012-11-30 Created: 2012-11-30 Last updated: 2015-11-11Bibliographically approved
    3. Staff group unanimity in care of juveniles in institutional treatment: routines, rituals, and relationships
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Staff group unanimity in care of juveniles in institutional treatment: routines, rituals, and relationships
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    To promote behavioral change processes in young people in institutional care, it is important that staff groups have common therapeutic goals, a unified view on how to achieve change, and similar attitudes towards the use of theory and methods. This article examines the level of Staff Group Unanimity at 8 treatment wards, by using the Correctional Program Assessment Inventory 2000 (CPAI), a questionnaire, additional interviews with key staff, and observations. Results show that most staff members have different views of the theory and methods used, low common therapeutic goals, and low agreement on how treatment should be performed, accompanied by low to modest confidence in management overall, and management’s ability to promote staff unity. The complexity of promoting positive interactions in the staff group without also creating distance to the residents is discussed.

    Keyword
    staff unanimity, residential treatment, therapeutic goals, rituals, interactions
    National Category
    Social Work
    Research subject
    Social Work
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-26558 (URN)
    Available from: 2012-11-30 Created: 2012-11-30 Last updated: 2016-12-12Bibliographically approved
  • 2.
    Alexanderson, Karin
    Örebro University, Department of Behavioural, Social and Legal Sciences.
    Vilja, kunna, förstå: om implementering av systematisk dokumentation för verksamhetsutveckling i socialtjänsten2006Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study is to analyse conditions that either promote or hamper the implementation of methods for systematic documentation, follow-up and evaluation in social-work services with individuals and families. The theoretical framework consists of organization theories. Human Service Organizations (HSO) theory is complemented with concepts from the new institutionalism, domain theory, implementation theory, and theory about interventions.

    A concrete case, a project has been studied. The purpose of project was to implement methods for systematic documentation in public social services. With the notation “integrated” is meant that the methods should be built in and adjusted to the social-work practice. The methods were ASI (Addiction Severity Index) and IUS (a locally based model for integrated evaluation by inspiration from Göran Sandell).

    Data has been captured in a pretest/ posttest design (Marlow 2000). This means that “state of things” has been described before the intervention and after. The methods used were surveys and interviews (individual and group). The process has been documented through research notes proceeding records, protocols and some diaries written by social workers. Four municipalities from the middle of Sweden took part with five working groups. Two groups contained social workers acting with children and families and three groups were working with drug abusers. The population consisted of the social workers, the managers responsible for the individual and family entities, the politicians and the clients who were affected during the time of the project.

    The implementation of ASI and IUS has not occurred in the extent that was stated in the intervention theory. This means that ASI and IUS were not used in all new cases that occurred during the time of the project. The interviews supposed to be done in the beginning of the clients contact with the agency tended to be done more often than the follow-up interviews. After the project ended, three of five working groups decided to continue to use ASI (one group) and IUS (two groups). The overall impression is that the respondents comprehend, they have the willingness but they do not have the capability of using ASI and IUS. The organization does not seem to have the capacity of imposing requirements and giving resources. The outcomes do not seem to be the most important issue for the social services. These conditions are discussed in the study by means of the theoretical concepts. In the end, there is an effort to adjust the implementation theory to human service organizations.

  • 3.
    Almqvist, Lena
    Örebro University, Department of Behavioural, Social and Legal Sciences.
    Children's health and developmental delay: positive functioning in every-day life2006Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The general aim of this thesis was to gain understanding of what patterns of child and environment characteristics that promote and sustain health and positive functioning of children with and without developmental delay or disabilities. The focus was on promotion of strengths and competencies rather than on prevention of risk factors, with an emphasis on children’s functioning in every-day life. Both cross-sectional and longitudinal studies were conducted on representative samples of children. In Study I, participation in school activities were used as an outcome of positive functioning of children with disabilities. The findings indicated that autonomy, locus of control, child-peer interaction, and availability of activities were most influential in relation to participation in a pattern of child and environment factors. No significant difference was found across groups in type and degree of disability. Study II was conducted to gain knowledge of how young children perceive health. The interviews revealed that children perceived health in a multidimensional perspective, well represented by the health dimensions of ICF. The children largely related consequences of health to engagement. In Study III, engagement was used as an outcome of children’s interaction with their natural environment. The focus was to describe how children with and without developmental delay, divided into homogenous groups according to a pattern of child-environment interaction factors, engaged in developmentally appropriate behavior in their preschool and home environment. Groups of children with different patterns showed similar outcomes of engagement. Children with developmental delay were represented across groups, implying that developmental delay was less of a factor by itself influencing level of engagement. Study IV was longitudinal and the aim was to identify pathways of children’s engagement over time of children with and without developmental delay. Child-peer interaction seemed to promote high level engagement, while developmental delay only showed to be influential of low level engagement over time if combined with behavior problems. Children without developmental delay or behavior problems were met with greater teacher responsiveness, and at the same time teacher responsiveness predicted stable patterns of high level engagement or change to higher level engagement over time. The general finding in this thesis supported a both a multidimensional perspective of health and positive functioning, in where developmental delay and disability is viewed as a function of child and environmental characteristics. The results are discussed in a systemic perspective, in where the role of the delay or disability, as of other factors related to health and positive functioning in the whole child-environment system is determined by a multitude of factors. The dynamic character of children’s development makes it difficult to predict children’s future functioning, from isolated factors such as disability or developmental delay. Thus, a disability or developmental delay only becomes a risk factor of health, when combined with other risk factors that decrease the functioning of children in their every-day life.

    List of papers
    1. Participation in school environment of children and youth with disabilities: a person-oriented approach
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Participation in school environment of children and youth with disabilities: a person-oriented approach
    2005 (English)In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 46, no 3, 305-314 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigated patterns of interrelated positive subject and environmental factors related to participation in school activities of pupils with different kinds of disabilities. Questionnaires concerning participation were collected from 472 pupils with disabilities and their teachers, parents and special education consultants. A person-oriented approach with the aim to identify patterns of variables related to a high degree of participation of pupils with disabilities was used. Cluster-groups were formed based on scores for individual subjects on factors identified as important for participation. Groups with a high degree of participation were characterized by high scores in autonomy and perceived interaction with peers and teachers and an internal locus of control. Type and degree of disability did not predict cluster group membership. A conclusion is that the outcome participation is better predicted by patterns of interrelated positive subject and environmental factors than by type of disability or any other single factor.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Oxford: Blackwell, 2005
    National Category
    Social Sciences Social Work Psychology
    Research subject
    Psychology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-3103 (URN)10.1111/j.1467-9450.2005.00460.x (DOI)
    Available from: 2006-08-25 Created: 2006-08-25 Last updated: 2011-05-30Bibliographically approved
    2. 'I can play!': Young children's perceptions of health
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>'I can play!': Young children's perceptions of health
    2006 (English)In: Pediatric Rehabilitation, ISSN 1363-8491, E-ISSN 1464-5270, Vol. 9, no 3, 275-284 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Health is today viewed as a multi-dimensional concept partly conceptualized independent from not being ill. The aim of this study was to gain knowledge of how young children perceive health. Interviews were conducted with 68 children (4–5 years), within their pre-school setting, with the help of a semi-structured interview guide. A multi-dimensional perspective represented by the health dimensions of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) was used in a manifest deductive content analysis. The children's statements were categorized and placed under one of the four health dimensions, body, activity, participation and environment. A latent content analysis was applied to identify underlying themes in the manifest categories. The results revealed that young children perceive health as a multi-dimensional construct, largely related to being engaged, i.e. to be able to perform wanted activities and participate in a supportive every-day context. This implies that improvements of child engagement should be emphasized in health promotion and to a greater extent be the central focus of health interventions for young children.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    London: Taylor & Francis, 2006
    National Category
    Social Sciences Social Work Psychology
    Research subject
    Psychology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-3104 (URN)10.1080/13638490500521303 (DOI)
    Available from: 2006-08-25 Created: 2006-08-25 Last updated: 2011-05-30Bibliographically approved
    3. Patterns of engagement in young children with and without developmental delay
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Patterns of engagement in young children with and without developmental delay
    2006 (English)In: Journal of Policy and Practice in Intellectual Disabilities, ISSN 1741-1122, E-ISSN 1741-1130, Vol. 3, no 1, 65-75 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to identify patterns of process characteristics capturing the essence of children's experiences in their natural environment and their possible association with health and well-being operationalized as engagement for young children with and without developmental delay. Data were gathered from 1035 children between 1 and 3 years in community-based preschools. Teachers and parents responded to questionnaires concerning interaction, activity, and engagement, as well as demographic and biopsychosocial information. A cluster analysis was conducted to find homogenous patterns related to engagement. Five distinct patterns were identified, all related to different levels of engagement. Several factors, within both the child and the environment, were associated with high levels of engagement. Interaction skills and availability of activities appear to be strong predictors of high-level engagement, regardless whether or not the child has been identified as developmentally delayed.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Malden, MA: Blackwel, 2006
    National Category
    Social Sciences Social Work Psychology
    Research subject
    Psychology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-3105 (URN)10.1111/j.1741-1130.2006.00054.x (DOI)
    Available from: 2006-08-25 Created: 2006-08-25 Last updated: 2011-05-30Bibliographically approved
    4. Pathways of engagement for young children with and without developmental delay
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Pathways of engagement for young children with and without developmental delay
    (English)Manuscript (Other academic)
    National Category
    Psychology
    Research subject
    Psychology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-3106 (URN)
    Available from: 2006-08-25 Created: 2006-08-25 Last updated: 2011-05-30Bibliographically approved
  • 4.
    Anderberg, Andreas
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work, Örebro University, Sweden.
    Straffbar oaktsamhet2015Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
  • 5.
    Andershed, Henrik
    Örebro University, Department of Behavioural, Social and Legal Sciences.
    Antisocial behavior in adolescence: the role of individual characteristics2002Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The main aim of this dissertation is to investigate whether traits on the level of the individual are important in understanding violent, frequent antisocial behavior among adolescents. The first of the four studies included in this dissertation asks whether individual-level explanations are going to be a fruitful approach at all. The other three studies speak to the question which particular individual characteristics are related to violent, frequent antisocial behavior.

    Two different large samples of 14 to 16-year-old male and female non-referred adolescents were assessed. The adolescents were mainly assessed with self-report questionnaires but information from parents and teachers was also incorporated in one of the samples.

    Results show that aggressive, antisocial behavior for a subgroup of adolescents cuts across social contexts, indicating that their aggressive behavior is largely dependent on individual characteristics, more than on situational factors. It is further shown that a constellation of personality traits involving a grandiose, manipulative interpersonal disposition, callous, unemotional affective traits, and an impulsive, irresponsible behavioral style, characterizes a subgroup of antisocial adolescents who have more violent, frequent antisocial behavior than antisocial adolescents without this personality constellation. This same subgroup also shows more pronounced problem behaviors of other kinds — early behavioral problems, problems with inhibiting aggressive behaviors, and problems with hyperactivity, impulsivity, and attention.

    Moreover, the results show that the affective facet of this particular personality constellation, involving callous, unemotional traits, plays an important role in violent, frequent antisocial behavior independently of other antisocial-related dimensions such as impulsivity, hyperactivity, and sensation seeking traits. Importantly, the main findings were similar for males and females.

    It is concluded that specific personality traits are important to consider when moving further toward an understanding of violent, frequent antisocial behavior and that research on non-referred, community samples of youths can be particularly helpful for this purpose. Implications for prevention and intervention and directions for future research are discussed.

    List of papers
    1. Bullying in school and violence on the streets: are the same people involved?
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Bullying in school and violence on the streets: are the same people involved?
    2001 (English)In: Journal of Scandinavian Studies in Criminology and Crime Prevention, ISSN 1404-3858, Vol. 2, no 1, 31-49 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Examined the relationship between bullying in school and street violence. 2,915 adolescents (aged 14-15 yrs) completed questionnaires concerning street violence, weapon carrying, violence victimization, loitering, bullying, and nights away from home. Results show that bullying others in school was strongly linked to violent behavior and weapon-carrying on the streets, both among males and females. Bullying others in school was also related to being violently victimized on the streets. Findings suggest that school bullying is in many cases a part of a more general violent and aggressive behavior pattern, and that preventive efforts targeting individuals with bullying behavior in school may decrease violence among adolescents in the community as well.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    London: Taylor & Francis, 2001
    Keyword
    Aggressive Behavior, Student Characteristics, Victimization, Violence, Bullying, Weapons
    National Category
    Psychology
    Research subject
    Psychology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-6554 (URN)10.1080/140438501317205538 (DOI)
    Available from: 2009-05-04 Created: 2009-05-04 Last updated: 2016-01-21Bibliographically approved
    2. The usefulness of self-reported psychopathy-like traits in the study of antisocial behaviour among non-referred adolescents
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>The usefulness of self-reported psychopathy-like traits in the study of antisocial behaviour among non-referred adolescents
    2002 (English)In: European Journal of Personality, ISSN 0890-2070, E-ISSN 1099-0984, Vol. 16, no 5, 383-402 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Addresses the question of whether it is possible to use a self-report measure of psychopathic traits on non-referred youth samples to identify a subgroup of problematic youths who are particularly problematic and different from other problem youths. A large sample of 1,279 eighth-grade, non-referred adolescents (mean age 14.42 yrs), and their parents were assessed. Students completed self-report measures that assessed personality, conduct problems, and family functioning. Parents responded by completing and mailing in a questionnaire. Results show that the adolescents exhibiting a low-socialized psychopathy-like personality constellation had a more frequent, violent, and versatile conduct-problem profile than other low-socialized and well socialized adolescents. The psychopathy-like adolescents also differed from other poorly socialized adolescents in ways that suggested that their etiological background was different from adolescents with non-psychopathy-like conduct problems. The authors conclude that self-report measures can indeed be useful for research purposes in subtyping youths with conduct problems.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    New York: John Wiley & Sons, 2002
    Keyword
    Antisocial Behavior, Antisocial Personality Disorder, Behavior Problems, Psychopathy, Self Report
    National Category
    Psychology
    Research subject
    Psychology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-6543 (URN)10.1002/per.455 (DOI)
    Available from: 2009-05-04 Created: 2009-05-04 Last updated: 2016-01-21Bibliographically approved
    3. Psychopathic traits in non-referred youths: a new assessment tool
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Psychopathic traits in non-referred youths: a new assessment tool
    2002 (English)In: Psychopaths: current international perspectives / [ed] Eric Blaauw, Lorraine Sheridan, Den Haag: Elsevier , 2002, 131-158 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Den Haag: Elsevier, 2002
    National Category
    Psychology
    Research subject
    Psychology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-6748 (URN)90-5749-962-2 (ISBN)978-90-5749-962-3 (ISBN)
    Available from: 2009-05-12 Created: 2009-05-12 Last updated: 2016-01-21Bibliographically approved
    4. Callous, unemotional traits in violent and frequent conduct-problem behavior among non-referred youths
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Callous, unemotional traits in violent and frequent conduct-problem behavior among non-referred youths
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    National Category
    Psychology
    Research subject
    Psychology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-15936 (URN)
    Available from: 2011-06-15 Created: 2011-06-15 Last updated: 2016-12-12Bibliographically approved
  • 6.
    Andersson, Kin
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work, Örebro University, Sweden.
    Proactivity at work2015Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Proactive behaviour implies taking initiative and mastering unexpected situations, and hence, is desirable in different situations. The present thesis includes three empirical studies intended to understand the consequences of proactive behaviour, as well as the factors that contribute to proactive behaviour at work and when facing unemployment. More specifically, whether job design, as measured by objective work task analysis, provides conditions conducive to proactivity in the workplace and when facing unemployment. The results of proactive behaviour during unemployment were also of interest. Study I focused on the influence of job design on individuals’ personal initiative and confidence in their ability when facing unemployment. Participants were employees at a downsizing Swedish assembly plant. Confidence in one’s ability mediated the relationship between job design and personal initiative, and personal initiative affected job search behaviour when advised to be dismissed. Study II, a longitudinal exploration, focused on the predictors of re-employment in the same group as in Study I. Men were more than nine times as likely as women to obtain jobs within 15 months. Individuals without children were more than seven times as likely as those with children to find work within 15 months. The desire to change occupation and willingness to relocate also increased the probability of being re-employed, whereas anonymous-passive job-search behaviour and work-related self-efficacy actually decreased the probability of re-employment. The number of job applications did not impact later re-employment. Study III analysed job design as a predictor of group initiative and self-organisational activities in semiautonomous industrial work groups. An input-process-output model showed that group processes such as reflexivity mediated the impact of job design on proactivity in work groups. Taken together, these studies suggest that work task analysis a useful tool, since it provides access to information that cannot be obtained with self-report measures. Job design indirectly affected proactivity both in the face of unemployment, and in industrial work groups. Further, it is worthwhile to continue identifying the antecedents and consequences of proactivity, as this seems to be an important factor regarding work and unemployment.

    List of papers
    1. Personal initiative at work and when facing unemployment
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Personal initiative at work and when facing unemployment
    2009 (English)In: Journal of Workplace Learning, ISSN 1366-5626, Vol. 21, no 2, 88-108 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: Learning at work generalises through socialisation into behaviours away from the workplace. The aim of this study is to give empirical evidence of a positive relationship between job design, self-efficacy, competence efficacy and personal initiative at work, and proactive job search while under notice of redundancy and in unemployment.

    Design/methodology/approach: The results are based on a detailed work task analysis and self-reported data by individuals who had been made redundant (n = 176).

    Findings: The paper finds that the theoretical model received substantial, but not full support. Job design has impact on personal initiative through self-efficacy and competence-efficacy as mediating variables between job design and personal initiative. Personal initiative at work affects proactive job search when facing unemployment.

    Research limitations/implications: A limitation is that the respondents in general had jobs that were low-skilled and routine. It is likely that a research group with larger differences in job design would show stronger relations between job design and personal initiative.

    Practical implications: Work task analysis identifies conditions at work that minimise and mitigate individual initiative and makes it possible to correct them in order both to enhance organisational effectiveness and the individuals’ long-term employability.

    Originality/value: The paper proposes that autonomy and complexity, which are the aspects most predominant in the study of how job design affects personal initiative and self-efficacy, are too limited. The sequential completeness provides a broader or narrower scope of work tasks and more or less feed back which is crucial for learning and mastery-experiences. Demand on cooperation, demand on responsibility, cognitive demand and learning opportunities affect initiative-taking as well.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Emerald Group Publishing Limited, 2009
    National Category
    Psychology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-45960 (URN)10.1108/13665620910934807 (DOI)2-s2.0-70349410747 (Scopus ID)
    Available from: 2015-09-30 Created: 2015-09-30 Last updated: 2015-09-30Bibliographically approved
    2. Predictors of re-employment: A question of attitude, behavior, or gender?
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Predictors of re-employment: A question of attitude, behavior, or gender?
    2015 (English)In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 56, no 4, 438-446 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    This longitudinal study examined the predictive value of attitudes, personal-related variables, job search behaviour, and demographic variables on re-employment among 142 assembly workers who had been made redundant. Participants completed a questionnaire within a week after leaving their jobs, and another 15 months later. Results of hierarchical logistic regression revealed that gender (being male), was the strongest predictor of re-employment. Willingness to relocate and desire to change occupation also increased the odds of re-employment 15 months after dismissal. On the other hand - having children at home and anonymous-passive job-search behaviour, which is more prevalent among women, decreased the odds for re-employment. The study is contributing to research by revealing gender differences in job search behaviour and the importance of focusing qualitative differences instead of merely quantitative measures in job-search behaviour. And even more important, despite attitude and job-search behaviour, there is still differences that seems to be related to gender and family responsibility.

    Keyword
    Attitudes, family responsibility, gender differences, job-search behaviour, re-employment, work-related self-efficacy
    National Category
    Psychology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-45959 (URN)10.1111/sjop.12218 (DOI)000358042800010 ()25959069 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-84929207124 (Scopus ID)
    Available from: 2015-09-30 Created: 2015-09-30 Last updated: 2015-09-30Bibliographically approved
    3. Group initiative and self-organizational activities in industrial work groups
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Group initiative and self-organizational activities in industrial work groups
    2009 (English)In: European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, ISSN 1359-432X, E-ISSN 1464-0643, Vol. 18, no 3, 347-377 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Autonomous work groups are involved in goal setting and planning and hence can define their jobs and the outcome idiosyncratically. Our interest lies in how job design restricts or creates possibilities for groups to redefine their work and thus go beyond formal requirements. The aim was to test a model of the relationships between dimensions of job design, group processes, group initiative, and self-organizational activities. The results are based on work task analyses and questionnaires administered to 31 work groups at four Swedish industrial companies. The theoretical input-process-output model received substantial support. Dimensions of job design affect whether a group, through collective reflexivity, can redefine work and proactively create conditions and organize work so that uncertainty can be handled and new tasks mastered. Group processes such as cooperation and social support enhance group initiative to achieve such meaningful change. In this study, reflexivity does not impact on group initiative, but does explain the major amount of variance in self-organizational activities. Work task analyses can be a useful tool for providing groups with the prerequisites for self-organizational activities. We believe these to be essential for the groups' capacity to be involved in the innovation process from idea to finished product.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Hove: Psychology Press, 2009
    National Category
    Social Sciences Psychology
    Research subject
    Psychology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-8675 (URN)10.1080/13594320801960482 (DOI)
    Available from: 2009-12-04 Created: 2009-12-04 Last updated: 2015-09-30Bibliographically approved
  • 7.
    Baianstovu, Rúna Í
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work, Örebro University, Sweden.
    Mångfald som demokratins utmaning: en studie av hur socialtjänsten som välfärdsbyråkrati och moralisk samhällsinstitutiion förstår och hanterar kulturell mångfald2012Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This dissertation deals with how Swedish society is confronting the democratic challenge of finding ways to integrate individuals and groups with a diversity of cultural and religious beliefs and social practices. The idea that democracy must include all members of society is central in contemporary welfare states. In Sweden this idea is closely related to a concept of social justice and equality. This means that this study deals with aspects of integration processes. Social services are one of the societal institutions that institutionalize the moral conceptions of how life should be lived. Therefore, its function in the integration processes mirrors the ethos of society as a whole. The chief characteristics of a democratic state are that it represents every member of society and that it is transparent, communicative, and reflexive. But this is not easily performed. The State may exercise oppression in the form of forced assimilation through the culturally detached design of law and policy, and with the politics of diversity, minority groups may exert internal oppression of vulnerable elements within the group. This tension expresses a tension that is called the Paradox of Democracy in this thesis. Social workers deal with the paradox while handling society’s moral panic regarding “others’” traditions that are perceived as difficult to comprehend. Therefore, their investigative work is of great importance in a society that aspires to treat all citizens as equals. But the framework for such investigations is narrow and tightly controlled. A qualitative change in the scope of social workers’ ability to work in the service of communicative action within the complex areas discussed in this study could be a step towards broadening and deepening democratic practices. When the public institutions take their clients’ diverse wishes and needs seriously, and treat them as indicators of the actual needs of members of society, the public institutions receive a foundation for reciprocal and communicatively anchored integration work.

  • 8.
    Bauducco, Serena
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Adolescents' sleep in a 24/7 society: Epidemiology and prevention2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Sleep undergoes important changes during adolescence and many teenagers experience problems sleeping. These in turn affect adolescents´ academic, physical and psychosocial functioning. Moreover, there are some indications that sleep problems in this age group may be increasing, possibly as a consequence of societal changes, e.g., internet availability. Research on adolescents´ sleep is growing, but more epidemiological studies are needed to clarify the prevalence of poor sleep, long and short-term outcomes associated with it, and potential risk and protective factors to target in preventive interventions. The aim of this dissertation was to contribute to each of these goals; Study I investigated the longitudinal association between sleep problems, defined as symptoms of insomnia, and school absenteeism; Study II explored the prevalence of poor sleep, defined as sleep deficit, in an adolescent population and psychosocial and contextual factors associated with it, including emotional and behavioral problems, stress, sleep hygiene and technology use; finally, Study III evaluated the short-term effects of a novel universal school-based intervention to improve adolescents´ sleep health.

    The findings show that poor sleep was strongly related to adolescents´ functioning, including emotional and behavioral problems and school attendance, and that sleep deficit was prevalent in adolescents. This supports the need for prevention. Moreover, sleep deficit was associated with stress, technology use and arousal at bedtime, which may represent important barriers to sleep. A preventive intervention targeting these barriers to promote adolescents´ sleep health was successful with the individuals most at risk. However, it remains to be seen whether these changes will be maintained after the intervention and whether incidence of sleep problems will be lower relative to a control group. Implications for theory and practice are discussed.

    List of papers
    1. Too tired for school?: the effects of insomnia on absenteeism in adolescence
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Too tired for school?: the effects of insomnia on absenteeism in adolescence
    Show others...
    2015 (English)In: Sleep Health, ISSN 2352-7218, E-ISSN 2352-7226, Vol. 1, no 3, 205-210 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: Sleep has important consequences for a person's daytime functioning. Numerous studies have shown that insomnia predicts work absenteeism and work disability in adults, but only a few studies have examined this association in adolescents. This study aims to explore whether symptoms of insomnia in adolescents predict school absenteeism 1 year later, over and above known psychological risk factors for absenteeism.

    Design: The study used a longitudinal design with 2 measurement points over 1 year.

    Setting: The students completed questionnaires during school hours at baseline and again at follow-up.

    Participants: Students in the 10th to 12th grades in a Swedish upper secondary school were followed prospectively for 1 year (age, 16-20 years; N = 353; 48.1% girls).

    Measurements and results: We used logistic regression analyses, controlling for the known effects of psychological factors, and arrived at a model elucidating the role of insomnia. That is, besides symptoms of insomnia, the model included previous absenteeism, alcohol intoxication, school-related social phobia, social anxiety, depressive symptoms, somatic symptoms, and bully victimization. Symptoms of insomnia predicted school absenteeism 1 year later, over and above known risk factors for absenteeism. Adolescents reporting severe symptoms of insomnia were almost 3 times more likely than adolescents reporting no or low symptoms to report problematic absenteeism 1 year later. We did not find any gender difference.

    Conclusions: Our findings underscore the importance of sleep problems on adolescents' daytime functioning as measured by school absenteeism. Therefore, sleep may be an important target for preventive interventions with adolescents.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Elsevier, 2015
    Keyword
    Sleep, Insomnia, School absenteeism, Adolescence, Longitudinal
    National Category
    Psychology (excluding Applied Psychology)
    Research subject
    Psychology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-46656 (URN)10.1016/j.sleh.2015.07.007 (DOI)2-s2.0-84940890895 (Scopus ID)
    Available from: 2015-11-27 Created: 2015-11-20 Last updated: 2017-08-23Bibliographically approved
    2. Sleep duration and patterns in adolescents: Correlates and the role of daily stressors
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Sleep duration and patterns in adolescents: Correlates and the role of daily stressors
    2016 (English)In: Sleep Health, ISSN 2352-7218, E-ISSN 2352-7226, Vol. 2, no 3, 211-218 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: The first aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of sleep deficit in a large sample of adolescents. Second, the study aimed to assess whether short sleep duration in the sample was associated with emotional and behavioral problems. Lastly, the study aimed to investigate the association between daily stressors-bedtime activities and sleep duration.

    Design: Cross-sectional survey.

    Setting: The questionnaires were completed during school hours in 17 municipal junior high schools in Sweden.

    Participants: A total of 2767 adolescents aged 12 to 16 years, 48% girls.

    Measurements and Results: Sleep measures included total sleep time (TST) for schooldays and weekends, obtained as combined measures of self-reported bed-time, wake-time, and sleep onset latency. We used the new National Sleep Foundation's guidelines to operationalize sleep duration. Overall 12% of younger adolescents (age 12-13 years) and 18% of older adolescents (14-16 years) slept less than recommended (TST < 7 hours). Adolescents reporting nonrecommended TST also reported more behavioral (ie, norm-breaking behaviors) and emotional problems (ie, depression, anxiety, and anger), with effects in the small-medium range. Finally, adolescents reporting bedtime arousal and use of information and communication technology in bed were more likely to report TST < 7 hours. Stress at home (for younger adolescents) and stress of school performance (for older adolescents) were also associated with TST less than 7 hours.

    Conclusions: The new National Sleep Foundation's recommendations were informative in this context. Future sleep interventions need to target barriers to good sleep practices, such as use of information and communication technology, stress, and worry that may contribute to arousal at bedtime.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Elsevier, 2016
    Keyword
    National Sleep Foundation (NSF); Sleep duration recommendations; Sleep deficit; Sleep patterns; Emotional and behavioral problems; Adolescent sleep; Daily stressors; Electronic media; Information and communication technology (ICT); Sleep hygiene; Bedtime arousal
    National Category
    Psychology
    Research subject
    Psychology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-51652 (URN)10.1016/j.sleh.2016.05.006 (DOI)2-s2.0-84977147448 (Scopus ID)
    Projects
    Tre Stads Studien
    Funder
    Swedish Research Council FormasSwedish Research CouncilVINNOVA
    Note

    Funding agency:

    Forskningsrådet för Arbetsliv och Socialvetenskap (FAS)

    Available from: 2016-08-11 Created: 2016-08-11 Last updated: 2017-08-23Bibliographically approved
    3. Making room for sleep: The evaluation of a preventive school-based program to improve adolescents´ sleep
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Making room for sleep: The evaluation of a preventive school-based program to improve adolescents´ sleep
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    National Category
    Psychology (excluding Applied Psychology)
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-59254 (URN)
    Available from: 2017-08-23 Created: 2017-08-23 Last updated: 2017-08-23Bibliographically approved
  • 9.
    Bergbom, Sofia
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work, Örebro University, Sweden.
    Matchmaking in pain practice: challenges and possibilities2014Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    All people experience pain and for some people, acute pain may over time develop into long-term disabling problems. Already at an early stage, it is possible to identify people at risk for long-term problems and psychologically oriented interventions have been shown to successfully prevent future disability. However, not all people are helped by treatment and there is room for improvement. Moreover, subgroups of people suffering from pain, with different profiles of psychological factors have been identified, indicating that people with pain problems differ. The first aim of this dissertation was to improve the understanding of how people differ. The second aim was to use these individual differences and to match people to psychological treatment based on their psychological profile. The third aim was to explore what happens during treatment that might be important for treatment outcome.

    The findings show that people who belonged to subgroups with elevated levels of psychological factors had less favorable outcomes over time, despite treatment, than people with no elevations. Moreover, people with elevations in several psychological factors had even less favorable outcomes. Psychological treatments aimed at preventing future disability performed well, but using profiles to match people to treatment did not improve outcomes further; people who were matched to a treatment and people who were unmatched had similar outcomes. However, the profiles used for matching were unstable over time and there is need to improve the identification of psychological variables used for treatment matching. Finally, a number of psychological factors were shown to be valuable targets for treatment; if the treatments successfully produced change in people’s thoughts and emotions related to pain the treatment outcomes were better. The findings were summarized in a flow chart showing the recommended clinical approach to people seekinghealth care for acute pain problems.

    List of papers
    1. Relationship Among Pain Catastrophizing, Depressed Mood, and Outcomes Across Physical Therapy Treatments
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Relationship Among Pain Catastrophizing, Depressed Mood, and Outcomes Across Physical Therapy Treatments
    2011 (English)In: Physical Therapy, ISSN 0031-9023, E-ISSN 1538-6724, Vol. 91, no 5, 754-764 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Pain catastrophizing and emotional distress can act as prognosticfactors for pain and disability. Research on how these variables interact withinindividuals and over time is in an early stage. Understanding various patterns ofprognostic factors and how these factors change during treatment is important fordeveloping treatments targeting important factors.

    Objective: The primary aim of this study was to investigate relationships betweenpain catastrophizing and depressed mood in people seeking primary care for mus-culoskeletal pain. An additional aim was to relate these patterns of prognostic factorsto outcomes during a 6-month period.

    Design: The design was prospective; data were obtained at baseline and atfollow-up.

    Methods: Forty-two physical therapists taking part in an educational programrecruited, from their clinical practices in primary care, consecutive patients whowere currently experiencing a pain problem. Patients received various physicaltherapy interventions between baseline and follow-up.

    Results: On the basis of patterns of scoring for pain catastrophizing and depressedmood, 4 subgroups of participants were found. Belonging to a subgroup withelevated levels of either pain catastrophizing or depressed mood at baseline wasrelated to the absence of improvement and elevated levels of disability after physicaltherapy interventions. Furthermore, elevated levels of both variables were related tothe highest levels of disability.

    Limitations: The analyses relied on self-report. Neither treatment content norpain-related fear was measured. The sample was a mixture of participants reportingacute pain and subacute pain.

    Conclusions: The results stress the importance of assessing and targeting prog-nostic factors. Moreover, the results suggest the need to tailor treatments to matchpatterns of prognostic factors and the need to target depressed mood and paincatastrophizing in physical therapy interventions.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Oxford University Press, 2011
    National Category
    Psychology Medical and Health Sciences
    Research subject
    Psychology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-34088 (URN)10.2522/ptj.20100136 (DOI)000289961000016 ()21451092 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-79960940349 (Scopus ID)
    Funder
    Forte, Swedish Research Council for Health, Working Life and Welfare
    Available from: 2014-03-06 Created: 2014-03-06 Last updated: 2017-02-09Bibliographically approved
    2. Early psychologically informed interventions for workers at risk for pain-related disability: does matching treatment to profile improve outcome?
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Early psychologically informed interventions for workers at risk for pain-related disability: does matching treatment to profile improve outcome?
    2014 (English)In: Journal of occupational rehabilitation, ISSN 1053-0487, E-ISSN 1573-3688, Vol. 24, no 3, 446-457 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: This randomized controlled trial had two main aims. The first aim was to investigate the effect of early preventive, psychologically informed, interventions for pain-related disability. The second aim was explore whether people who are matched to an intervention specifically targeting their psychological risk profile had better outcomes than people who were not matched to interventions.

    Methods: A total of 105 participants were recruited from their workplace, screened for psychological risk factors and classified as being at risk for long-term pain-related disability. They were subgrouped into one of three groups based on their psychological profile. Three behaviorally oriented psychological interventions were developed to target each of the three risk profiles. Half of the participants were assigned a matched intervention developed to target their specific profile, and half were assigned an unmatched intervention. After treatment, repeated measure ANOVAs and χ2 tests were used to determine if treatments had an effect on primary and secondary outcomes including perceived disability, sick leave, fear and avoidance, pain catastrophizing and distress, and if matched participants had better outcomes than did unmatched.

    Results: Treatments had effects on all outcome variables (effect sizes d ranging between 0.23 and 0.66), but matched participants did not have better outcomes than unmatched.

    Conclusions: Early, preventive interventions have an impact on a number of outcome variables but it is difficult to realize a matching procedure. More in-depth research of the process of matching is needed.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Springer, 2014
    Keyword
    Musculoskeletal pain, Occupational health services, Disability leave, Return-to-work, Pain management, Randomized controlled trial
    National Category
    Psychology Medical and Health Sciences
    Research subject
    Psychology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-34090 (URN)10.1007/s10926-013-9478-1 (DOI)000340487900008 ()2-s2.0-84905444201 (Scopus ID)
    Funder
    Forte, Swedish Research Council for Health, Working Life and Welfare
    Available from: 2014-03-06 Created: 2014-03-06 Last updated: 2017-02-01Bibliographically approved
    3. When matching fails: Understanding the process of matching pain-disability treatment to risk profile
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>When matching fails: Understanding the process of matching pain-disability treatment to risk profile
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose A previous study [1] showed that matching people at risk for pain-related disability to an intervention aimed at targeting their psychological problem profile did not, as hypothesized, improve the effect of the intervention. Methodological issues were suggested to explain the lack of differential effect. It was questioned whether the profiles used to allocate people to treatment were adequate. The aim of this study was to investigate if the risk profiles used to determine matching were sufficiently stable and valid by comparing the original profiles withprofiles constructed using other methods.

    Methods Ninety-five people suffering musculoskeletal problems were screened, profiled, and matched to workplace based early interventions according to profiles. We studied stability and validity of their psychological risk profiles by investigating their concordance at different time points. People were originally assigned to profiles at inclusion, using a brief screening questionnaire. Then, they were profiled just before treatment start,using the same items. Finally, they were profiled again at treatment start, using extensive questionnaires. Concordance among the three sets of profiles was investigated.

    Results Profiles at inclusion were unstable until treatment start. People moved from profiles with more severe elevations in psychological variables, to a profile with moderate elevations. Concordance between the two means of profiling at treatment start was better; the brief screening and the extensive questionnaires assigned people to similar profiles.

    Conclusions Risk level may be determined with brief instruments at an early stage of problem development. However, profiles and targets for interventions should be determined immediately prior to treatment start, preferably using full questionnaires.

    Keyword
    Musculoskeletal pain, Occupational Health Services, Disability leave, Risk Assessment, Process Assessment (Health Care)
    National Category
    Psychology
    Research subject
    Psychology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-35184 (URN)
    Note

    This research was supported by grants from the Swedish Council for Working Lifeand Social Research

    Available from: 2014-05-28 Created: 2014-05-28 Last updated: 2016-08-10Bibliographically approved
    4. Both early and late changes in psychological variables relate to treatment outcome for musculoskeletal pain patients at risk for disability
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Both early and late changes in psychological variables relate to treatment outcome for musculoskeletal pain patients at risk for disability
    2013 (English)In: Behaviour Research and Therapy, ISSN 0005-7967, E-ISSN 1873-622X, Vol. 50, no 11, 726-734 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    We know little about why some people get better after psychological treatments for pain disability, whereas other people do not. In order to understand differences in treatment response, we need to explore processes of change during treatment. It has been suggested that people with pain complaints who change early in treatment have better outcomes. Therefore, we aimed to investigate whether changes in psychological variables at different time points are related to outcome, and whether early or late changes are better predictors of outcome. We used the fear avoidance model as a theoretical framework. We followed 64 patients weekly over 6–7 weeks and then determined outcome. Our findings indicate that people who decrease in catastrophizing and function early in treatment as well as in depressive symptoms, worry, fear avoidance beliefs and function late in treatment have better outcomes. Early decreases in function, and late decreases in depressive symptoms and worry uniquely predict improvements in disability. While early and late changes covaried concurrently, there were no significant sequential relationships between early and late changes. Changes in the proposed process variables in the fear avoidance model, early as well as late in treatment, thus add valuable information to the explanation of outcome.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Elsevier, 2013
    Keyword
    Pain-related disability, Psychological treatment, CBT, Process of change, Treatment response
    National Category
    Psychology
    Research subject
    Psychology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-28927 (URN)10.1016/j.brat.2012.08.008 (DOI)000311178800010 ()23000845 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-84866305805 (Scopus ID)
    Available from: 2013-05-03 Created: 2013-05-03 Last updated: 2017-02-14Bibliographically approved
  • 10.
    Besic, Nejra
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    At first blush: the impact of shyness on early adolescents' social worlds2009Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Shyness as a behavioral characteristic has been in focus of research in psychology for a number of decades. Adolescent shyness has, however, been relatively overlooked compared with studies conducted on children and adults. This dissertation concentrated on adolescent shyness, aiming to attain a better comprehension about how shyness during this developmental phase might affect, and be affected by social relationships. The first aim of this dissertation was to study in which way shyness influences and is influenced by significant people in adolescents’ lives: peers, friends, and parents. Study III showed that shy youths socialized each other over time into becoming even more shy. Study VI demonstrated that youths’ shyness affected parenting behaviors, more so than parent’s behaviors affected youth shyness. The second aim of this dissertation was to investigate what shyness means for adolescents’ choices of relationships with friends, whereas the third aim focused on whether adolescents’ ways of dealing with peers would have consequences for their internal and external adjustment. As Study I showed, youths might take on off-putting, startling appearances in order to cope with their shyness. This strategy seemed, nonetheless, not particularly successful for the shy youths in terms of emotional adjustment. Study III showed that adolescents who were shy tended to choose others similar to themselves in shyness as friends. Study II showed that shyness might indeed have some positive implications for adolescent development, as it was found to serve a protective role in the link between advanced maturity and various types of problem behaviors. Overall, the findings point to some gender differences regarding all of the abovementioned processes. In sum then, the studies in this dissertation show that even though youths’ shy, socially fearful characteristics affect their emotional adjustment and those around them, shy youths are part of a larger social arena where they are active agents in shaping their own development. Although adolescent shyness might be linked with several negative outcomes, however, it might be other people’s reactions to socially fearful behaviors that help create and/or maintain these outcomes over time.

    List of papers
    1. Punks, Goths, and Other Eye-Catching Peer Crowds: Do They Fulfill a Function for Shy Youths?
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Punks, Goths, and Other Eye-Catching Peer Crowds: Do They Fulfill a Function for Shy Youths?
    2009 (English)In: Journal of research on adolescence, ISSN 1050-8392, E-ISSN 1532-7795, Vol. 19, no 1, 113-121 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Adolescent peer crowds such as Punks and Goths are mainly identified by their strikingly unusual or even shocking appearances. Although many studies find these crowds, few have tried to explain why some youths take on these startling or shocking appearances. We hypothesized that an off-putting appearance is a way to cope with behavioral inhibition by limiting social contacts. Using data from 1,200 7th - 11th graders, we compared peer crowds characterized by their startling appearance (“Radical” crowds) with three theoretically relevant comparison groups. Results showed that youths affiliating with Radical crowds were more inhibited than other youths, including those in crowds previously shown to be shy or socially anxious. Inhibited Radicals, however, had poorer emotional adjustment than inhibited youths in other crowds. If Radical styles are a way for inhibited youths to cope by limiting social contacts, the strategy does not seem to be beneficial for emotional adjustment.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Hillsdale, N.J.: Blackwell Publishing, 2009
    Keyword
    Behavioral inhibition, Appearance, Peer crowds, Depression, Adolescence
    National Category
    Psychology Social Sciences Social Sciences
    Research subject
    Psychology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-6573 (URN)10.1111/j.1532-7795.2009.00584.x (DOI)000263521200007 ()2-s2.0-60649098579 (Scopus ID)
    Note

    Part of thesis: http://urn.kb.se/resolve?urn=urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-6590

    Available from: 2009-05-04 Created: 2009-05-04 Last updated: 2017-03-15Bibliographically approved
    2. Shyness as protective factor in the link between advanced maturity and early adolescent problem behavior
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Shyness as protective factor in the link between advanced maturity and early adolescent problem behavior
    (English)Manuscript (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Advanced maturity in early adolescence has previously been linked with several problem behaviors. In this study, we examine whether shyness and gender might moderate this link. The participants were 787 early adolescents (Mage = 13.73; 401 girls and 386 boys), followed for one year. We conducted moderation analyses with shyness and gender as moderators of the links between advanced maturity and problem behaviors (drunkenness and intercourse) and between one problem behavior and another. Protective effects of shyness were found for both boys and girls. For high-risk behaviors (risky drinking behaviors and one-night stands) protective effects were found for boys. Controlling for romantic involvement did not alter the moderation effects, thus failing to support the idea that protection was due to shy youths not being drawn into advanced peer groups by romantic partners. Thus, shyness might serve as protective factor against problem behaviors in early adolescence.

    Keyword
    shyness, drunkenness, intercourse, high-risk behaviors, early adolescence
    National Category
    Psychology Social Sciences Social Sciences
    Research subject
    Psychology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-6574 (URN)
    Available from: 2009-05-05 Created: 2009-05-04 Last updated: 2016-12-12Bibliographically approved
    3. Shyness as basis for friendship selection and socialization in a youth social network
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Shyness as basis for friendship selection and socialization in a youth social network
    (English)Manuscript (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Shy children and adolescents have previously been found to have friends with similarly shy, withdrawn behavioral characteristics. How peers might socialize shyness over time has, however, not been thoroughly investigated before. Our network included 834 youths (339 girls, and 495 boys; M = 14.29), followed for three years. We used the social network analysis software, SIENA, to analyze the data. The results show that those youths who are shy are less popular and choose fewer friends in the network. They also tend to choose friends who are shy, and over time they will influence each other into becoming more shy – over and above other effects. Finally, girls’ shyness is more influenced than boys’ by their friends’ shyness levels. These results show the significance of looking at shy youths’ friendships over time, and embedded in social networks.

     

    Keyword
    shyness, friendships, selection, influence, socialization, social networks
    National Category
    Psychology Social Sciences Social Sciences
    Research subject
    Psychology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-6575 (URN)
    Available from: 2009-05-05 Created: 2009-05-04 Last updated: 2016-12-12Bibliographically approved
    4. Shy adolescents' perceptions of parental overcontrol and emotional coldness: examining bidirectional links
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Shy adolescents' perceptions of parental overcontrol and emotional coldness: examining bidirectional links
    (English)Manuscript (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Two kinds of parental behaviors—overcontrol and emotional coldness—have been linked with children’s shy behaviors. The questions we addressed are whether this applies to adolescent shyness, and whether shyness in itself might also affect parental behaviors. The participants were 916 7th-9th graders in a longitudinal project. We used a cross-lagged path model with three time points. Shyness predicted an increase in feeling overly controlled by parents at Time 2, which then predicted an increase in shyness at Time 3. Shyness also predicted an increase in perceived coldness-rejection by parents at Time 2. Finally, shyness predicted decreases in parental warmth at both timepoints. The effects did not differ for boys and girls. These results show that adolescent shyness predicts parental behaviors, though perhaps less strongly than in childhood. They also suggest some bidirectional effects in which parental responses to shy youths might serve to strengthen the shyness.

     

    Keyword
    shyness, parental behaviors, bidirectionality, adolescence
    National Category
    Psychology Social Sciences Social Sciences
    Research subject
    Psychology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-6576 (URN)
    Available from: 2009-05-05 Created: 2009-05-04 Last updated: 2016-12-12Bibliographically approved
  • 11.
    Boersma, Katja
    Örebro University, Department of Behavioural, Social and Legal Sciences.
    Fear and avoidance in the development of a persistent musculoskeletal pain problem: implications for secondary prevention2005Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This dissertation focused on the role of fear and avoidance in the development of a persistent back pain problem. The first aim of this dissertation was to study when and how cognitive, affective and behavioral factors influence one another in the development of persistent pain and disability. The moderating role of pain duration on the relationship between psychological risk factors and dysfunction was studied, as well as the interrelationships between psychological risk factors within individuals.

    The results suggest that pain duration may moderate the relationship between some of the psychological risk factors and function. In study two, depression and function were interrelated independent of stages of chronicity while the strength of the relationship between fear of movement and function increased across the stages. Further, the results suggest that there may be individual variability in the importance of psychological risk factors and in how these factors are interrelated within individuals. In study one and three profiles of psychological functioning emerged that were characterized by pain-related fear with and without depressed mood, by depressed mood only, and by low pain-related fear and no depressed mood. These profiles were meaningfully related to future disability.

    The second aim of this dissertation was to test a new treatment that is designed to match patients with high levels of fear and avoidance. The results of study four show that this exposure treatment can produce significant decreases in fear and increases in function.

    The results of the studies in this dissertation suggest that we need to assign a key role to psychological processes such as pain-related fear, depressed mood, and avoidance in our efforts to understand the development of persistent back pain disability. The results highlight that there may be several roads towards a persistent back pain problem and that the relationship between psychological factors and disability is not static but appears to change as a function of pain duration. This suggests that we need to know more about the process of development of persistent back pain disability and that future research should incorporate the role of time, as well as take into consideration that there may be individual variability in the importance of factors and their interactions. Lastly, the results suggest that secondary prevention of persistent back pain disability could be enhanced by addressing psychological processes at a much earlier time point than is currently practiced and by customizing interventions to the characteristics of the individual patient.

    List of papers
    1. Screening to identify patients at risk: profiles of psychological risk factors for early intervention
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Screening to identify patients at risk: profiles of psychological risk factors for early intervention
    2005 (English)In: The Clinical Journal of Pain, ISSN 0749-8047, E-ISSN 1536-5409, Vol. 21, no 1, 38-43 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    There is a serious need to provide effective early interventions that prevent the development of persistent pain and disability. Identifying patients at risk for this development is an important step. Our aim was to explore whether distinct subgroups of individuals with similar response patterns on a screening questionnaire exist. Moreover, the objective was to then relate these groups to future outcomes, for example, sick leave as an impetus for developing tailored interventions that might better prevent chronic problems. A total of 363 patients seeking primary care for acute or subacute spinal pain completed the Orebro Musculoskeletal Pain Screening Questionnaire and were then followed to determine outcome. Cluster analysis was used to identify subgroups. Validity was tested using 3 methods including the split-half technique. The subgroups were compared prospectively on outcome measures obtained 1 year later. Using pain intensity, fear-avoidance beliefs, function, and mood, we found 4 distinct profiles: Fear-Avoidant, Distressed Fear-Avoidant, Low Risk, and Low Risk-Depressed Mood. These 4 subgroups were also robust in all 3 of the validity procedures. The 4 subgroups were clearly related to outcome. Although the low risk profiles had virtually no one developing long-term sick leave, the Fear-Avoidant profile had 35% and the Distressed Fear-Avoidant profile 62% developing long-term sick leave. Our results suggest that fear-avoidance and distress are important factors in the development of pain-related disability and may serve as a key for early identification. Providing interventions specific to the factors isolated in the profiles should enhance the prevention of persistent pain and disability.

    National Category
    Social Sciences Psychology
    Research subject
    Psychology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-2814 (URN)15599130 (PubMedID)
    Note
    Discussion p. 69-72Available from: 2005-04-29 Created: 2005-04-29 Last updated: 2016-08-10Bibliographically approved
    2. How does persistent pain develop?: An analysis of the relationship between psychological variables, pain and function across stages of chronicity
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>How does persistent pain develop?: An analysis of the relationship between psychological variables, pain and function across stages of chronicity
    2005 (English)In: Behaviour Research and Therapy, ISSN 0005-7967, E-ISSN 1873-622X, Vol. 43, no 11, 1495-1507 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The fear-avoidance model is an attempt to underscore the importance of cognitive and behavioral factors, in a chain of events linking pain to disability. However, it is not clear at what time point the psychological variables within the model begin to be prominent. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of these psychological variables in the development of a chronic musculoskeletal pain problem. Three stages of chronicity, defined by duration of pain, provided a proxy for the developmental process: <1 year (N=48), 1–3 years (N=47) and >3 years (N=89). Subjects completed questionnaires on fear of movement, catastrophizing, depression, pain and function. The results indicate that the relationship between fear of movement and function is moderated by the stage of chronicity. Regression analyses showed that fear of movement did not explain any variance in the group with pain duration <1 year. Fear of movement did explain variance in the groups with pain duration of 1–3 years and >3 years. This suggests that the time point in the development of a musculoskeletal pain problem might be an essential aspect of the importance of the relationship between psychological components and function.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Oxford: Pergamon, 2005
    National Category
    Social Sciences Psychology
    Research subject
    Psychology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-2815 (URN)10.1016/j.brat.2004.11.006 (DOI)16159591 (PubMedID)
    Available from: 2005-04-29 Created: 2005-04-29 Last updated: 2016-08-10Bibliographically approved
    3. Psychological processes underlying the development of a chronic pain problem: a prospective study of the relationship between profiles of psychological variables in the fear-avoidance model and disability
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Psychological processes underlying the development of a chronic pain problem: a prospective study of the relationship between profiles of psychological variables in the fear-avoidance model and disability
    2006 (English)In: The Clinical Journal of Pain, ISSN 0749-8047, E-ISSN 1536-5409, Vol. 22, no 2, 160-166 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: Understanding the psychological processes that underlie the development of a chronic pain problem is important to improve prevention and treatment. The aim of this study was to test whether distinct profiles of variables within the fear-avoidance model could be identified and could be related to disability in a meaningful way.

    Methods: In 81 persons with a musculoskeletal pain problem, cluster analysis was used to identify subgroups with similar patterns on fear and avoidance beliefs, catastrophizing, and depression. The clusters were examined cross-sectionally and prospectively on function, pain, health care usage, and sick leave.

    Results: Five distinct profiles were found: pain-related fear, pain-related fear + depressed mood, medium pain-related fear, depressed mood, and low risk. These subgroups were clearly related to outcome. In contrast to the clusters medium pain-related fear and low risk, the majority of those classified in the clusters pain-related fear, pain-related fear + depressed mood, and depressed mood reported long-term sick leave during follow-up. The subjects in the clusters with high scores on the depression measure reported the highest percentage of health care usage during follow-up (70% in the pain-related fear + depressed mood group and 42% in the depressed mood group reported >10 health care visits).

    Conclusions: Distinct profiles of psychological functioning could be extracted and meaningfully related to future disability. These profiles give support to the fear-avoidance model and underscore the need to address the psychological aspects of the pain experience early on.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    New York, N.Y.: Raven Press, 2006
    National Category
    Social Sciences Psychology
    Research subject
    Psychology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-2816 (URN)16428950 (PubMedID)
    Available from: 2005-04-29 Created: 2005-04-29 Last updated: 2016-08-10Bibliographically approved
    4. Lowering fear-avoidance and enhancing function through exposure in vivo: a multiple baseline study across six patients with back pain
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Lowering fear-avoidance and enhancing function through exposure in vivo: a multiple baseline study across six patients with back pain
    Show others...
    2004 (English)In: Pain, ISSN 0304-3959, E-ISSN 1872-6623, Vol. 108, no 1-2, 8-16 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigated the effects of an exposure in vivo treatment for chronic pain patients with high levels of fear and avoidance. The fear-avoidance model offers an enticing explanation of why some back pain patients develop persistent disability, stressing the role of catastrophic interpretations; largely fueled by beliefs and expectations that activity will cause injury and will worsen the pain problem. Recently, an exposure in vivo treatment was developed that aims to enhance function by directly addressing these fears and expectations. The purpose of this study was to describe the short-term, consequent effect of an exposure in vivo treatment. The study employed a multiple baseline design with six patients who were selected based on their high levels of fear and avoidance. The results demonstrated clear decreases in rated fear and avoidance beliefs while function increased substantially. These improvements were observed even though rated pain intensity actually decreased somewhat. Thus, the results replicate and extend the findings of previous studies to a new setting, with other therapists and a new research design. These results, together with the initial studies, provide a basis for pursuing and further developing the exposure technique and to test it in group designs with larger samples.

    National Category
    Social Sciences Psychology
    Research subject
    Psychology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-2817 (URN)10.1016/j.pain.2003.03.001 (DOI)
    Available from: 2005-04-29 Created: 2005-04-29 Last updated: 2016-08-10Bibliographically approved
  • 12.
    Brav, Agneta
    Örebro University, Department of Behavioural, Social and Legal Sciences.
    Industrial work groups: the impact of job design, leader support and group processes on initiative and self-organization2008Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    From an organizational perspective the issue of which organizational solutions will benefit productivity, efficiency and the innovation process is central. Work groups can be an effective means. The general aim of the thesis from a psychological perspective is to examine work conditions and thereafter investigate how such conditions impact on whether or not work groups redefine stipulated tasks to incorporate initiative-taking and self-organization, thus enabling them to implement meaningful change.Based on action regulation theory, detailed work task analysis is assumed to be worthwhile as it provides data that cannot be captured with interviews or questionnaires exclusively. Data is based on work task analyses and questionnaires administered to work groups at four Swedish industrial organizations. In Study I a theoretical model of the relations of job design, work routines and social routines and reflexivity and learning processes was tested. Results showed that job design and work routines strongly impacted on reflexivity and learning processes. In Study II this model was extended into a theoretical inputprocess- output model to include group initiative and self-organizational activities as outcomes of job design, mediated by group processes. The model provided substantial, but not complete, support. Job design strongly impacts on reflexivity, and reflexivity directly impacts self organizational activities. To explore the importance of leadership support and potency longitudinally for group initiative, in Study III two data collections were included. The findings showed that potency, compared to perceived autonomy and support from leader, was the best predictor of group initiative. Together the studies show that the dimensions of job design, support from leader, reflexivity, and potency as well as cooperation and social support are important for the outcomes of work groups if the organization wants groups to take initiative and engage in self-organizational activities. It is also advocated that job design contains an inherent potential for learning and the possibility to make use of one’s resources. Main findings, strengths, limitations, practical and theoretical implications, directions for future research and when it will be worthwhile to invest in group work are included in the discussion.

    List of papers
    1. Job design for learning in work groups
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Job design for learning in work groups
    2007 (English)In: Journal of Workplace Learning, ISSN 1366-5626, Vol. 19, no 5, 269-285 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose--What is required of job design and production planning, if they are to result in a work group taking a self-starting approach and going beyond what is formally required of it? This paper aims to contribute to group research by testing a theoretical model of relations between job design on the one hand (captured as completeness, demand on responsibility, demand on cooperation, cognitive demand, and learning opportunities), and reflexivity and learning processes within natural work groups in industry on the other hand. Design/methodology/approach--The results are based on detailed task analyses and questionnaires from 40 work groups at the shop-floor level in manufacturing industry in Sweden. Findings--Job design and work routines show strong effects on reflexivity and learning processes. Four dimensions of job design--completeness, demand on cooperation, cognitive demand and learning opportunities--impact on reflexivity and learning processes. Job design correlates with social routines, and social routines with work routines. Practical implications--It is crucial to create a job design that puts challenging demands on the group if group processes are to be characterized by reflexivity and learning. Managers have a challenging task to provide both a space and a climate that supports reflexivity and learning. All functions affected by production planning need to be involved in job design to balance conflicts between productivity and innovation. Originality/value--Detailed task analysis is worthwhile as it captures aspects that are prerequisites for innovative groups not previously accounted for. (Contains 2 figures and 4 tables.)

    National Category
    Social Sciences Psychology
    Research subject
    Psychology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-8676 (URN)10.1108/13665620710757833 (DOI)
    Note
    Part of thesis: http://urn.kb.se/resolve?urn=urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-2453Available from: 2009-12-04 Created: 2009-12-04 Last updated: 2010-10-26Bibliographically approved
    2. Group initiative and self-organizational activities in industrial work groups
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Group initiative and self-organizational activities in industrial work groups
    2009 (English)In: European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, ISSN 1359-432X, E-ISSN 1464-0643, Vol. 18, no 3, 347-377 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Autonomous work groups are involved in goal setting and planning and hence can define their jobs and the outcome idiosyncratically. Our interest lies in how job design restricts or creates possibilities for groups to redefine their work and thus go beyond formal requirements. The aim was to test a model of the relationships between dimensions of job design, group processes, group initiative, and self-organizational activities. The results are based on work task analyses and questionnaires administered to 31 work groups at four Swedish industrial companies. The theoretical input-process-output model received substantial support. Dimensions of job design affect whether a group, through collective reflexivity, can redefine work and proactively create conditions and organize work so that uncertainty can be handled and new tasks mastered. Group processes such as cooperation and social support enhance group initiative to achieve such meaningful change. In this study, reflexivity does not impact on group initiative, but does explain the major amount of variance in self-organizational activities. Work task analyses can be a useful tool for providing groups with the prerequisites for self-organizational activities. We believe these to be essential for the groups' capacity to be involved in the innovation process from idea to finished product.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Hove: Psychology Press, 2009
    National Category
    Social Sciences Psychology
    Research subject
    Psychology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-8675 (URN)10.1080/13594320801960482 (DOI)
    Available from: 2009-12-04 Created: 2009-12-04 Last updated: 2015-09-30Bibliographically approved
    3. Group initiative: to go beyond what is required
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Group initiative: to go beyond what is required
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    National Category
    Social Sciences Psychology
    Research subject
    Psychology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-8677 (URN)
    Available from: 2009-12-04 Created: 2009-12-04 Last updated: 2011-05-05Bibliographically approved
  • 13.
    Brunnberg, Elinor
    Örebro University, Department of Behavioural, Social and Legal Sciences.
    I välfärdens skugga: socialt arbete med barn i Sverige och England2001Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Syftet med studien har varit att beskriva skillnader och likheter i socialtjänstens och Personal social services arbete med barn i Sverige och England. Vid insamlandet av det empiriska materialet har två lokala områden - Örebro och Leicestershire framförallt fokuserats. I Örebro har även jämförelser över tid gjorts mellan 1992 och 1998/1999. Studiens design har varit att socialarbetare i Sverige och England, fått ta bedöma samma fiktiva fallbeskrivning - en vinjett. Socialarbetarna har även kvalitativt intervjuats och besvarat ett frågeformulär. I studien har även en enkät om tillgången på barnomsorg besvarats av 38 mellansvenska kommuner. Jämförelser har gjorts med det engelska countiet dvs. två befolkningsmässigt lika stora områden.

    Resultat från studien visar att den offentliga barnomsorgen i det engelska countiet är begränsad. En ministödsmodell där familjestödet och den offentliga barnomsorgen ges i begränsad omfattning tycks gälla. England är en 'femalecarer' stat. Familjestödet och den offentliga barnomsorgen är däremot i Sverige mer omfattande och kan sägas utgå från en behovsmodell. Sverige kan beskrivas som en 'dualcarer' stat där den andra vårdande parten förutom kvinnorna är staten. I en vinjettstudie där socialarbetare i de båda länderna bedömt ett utsatt barns situation reagerar svenska och engelska socialarbetare olika. De svenska socialarbetarna vill engagera sig i en mindre problemfylld situation än de engelska. I en sannolik misshandelssituation vill socialarbetarna i den svenska kommunen oftare än de engelska socialarbetarna omhänderta barnet. Vad som är 'det bästa' för barnet bedöms olika. Ett skyddande barnperspektiv tycks ha förstärkts i den svenska kommunen under 1990-talet. De svenska socialarbetarna ville 1998/1999 oftare än 1992 omhänderta och placera barnet någon annanstans än i familjen. Trots de skilda attityder svenska och engelska socialarbetare visar i vinjettstudien omhändertas förhållandevis ungefär lika många barn i verkligheten i Sverige och England.

    Den svenska socialtjänsten tycks vara mer accepterad och paternalistisk än den engelska, som är mer ifrågasatt och där familjeautonomin prioriteras samtidigt som staten även i England skyddar och ger stöd till barn i utsatta situationer. Synen på fysisk bestraffning av barn är olika. Även barnens levnadsvillkor skiljer sig åt bl.a. genom att  betydligt fler engelska än svenska barn växer upp i fattigdom. Socialarbetarna i båda länderna bedömde sin professionella status på mellan eller låg nivå. De svenska socialarbetarna upplevde dock att de befann sig i medvind medan de engelska socialarbetarna befann sig i motvind.

    List of papers
    1. Vård och omsorg av förskolebarn i Sverige och England
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Vård och omsorg av förskolebarn i Sverige och England
    1994 (Swedish)In: Socialvetenskaplig tidskrift, ISSN 1104-1420, Vol. 1, no 2-3, 161-176 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [sv]

    Ett engelskt daghem i offentlig regi motsvaras av fyrtiosex svenska. Det är bara ett exempel på stora skillnader mellan Sveriges och Englands stöd till barnfamiljer. I England betraktas vård och omsorg om små barn som ett privat problem och en uppgift framförallt för kvinnorna medan det i Sverige också är ett offentligt ansvarsområde. Den svenska staten kan därför beskrivas som en tvåpartsvårdarstat medan den engelska snarare är en kvinnovårdarstat.

    Keyword
    förskola, barn, familj, Sverige, England
    National Category
    Social Work
    Research subject
    Social Work
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-5979 (URN)
    Available from: 2009-03-09 Created: 2009-03-09 Last updated: 2011-06-23Bibliographically approved
    2. Vinjettstudie av socialt arbete med barn i Sverige och England
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Vinjettstudie av socialt arbete med barn i Sverige och England
    2001 (Swedish)In: Socionomen, ISSN 0283-1929, no 3, forskningssupplement 13, 1-16 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [sv]

    FN:s barnkonvention är ett internationellt bindande avtal om barns rättigheter som fler stater accepterat än något annat fördrag, men socialt arbete sker varken i Sverige eller England utifrån ett barnperspektiv i överensstämmelse med konventionsbestämmelserna. Barn i kaotiska familjer i kontakt med socialtjänsten får i begränsad utsträckning yttra sig och arbetet tycks inte ske utifrån att barn i en misshandelsfamilj också befinner sig i en utsatt kommunikativ situation. Enligt konventionen skall barn skyddas från övergrepp inom familjen och ‘det bästa’ för barnet vara utgångspunkten för alla bedömningar. Familjens autonomi och synen på våld mot barn inom familjen är olika i den svenska och engelska välfärdsstaten och tycks vara centrala dimensioner som leder till skilda bedömningar av vad som är det bästa för barnet.

    Keyword
    vignette, child abuse, social work, child, UN CRC, vinjett, barnmisshandel, barn, socialt arbete, FNs barnkonvention
    National Category
    Social Work
    Research subject
    Social Work
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-5977 (URN)
    Available from: 2009-03-09 Created: 2009-03-09 Last updated: 2011-06-23Bibliographically approved
    3. Svenska och engelska socialarbetares professionella status, arbetsglädje och besvikelser
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Svenska och engelska socialarbetares professionella status, arbetsglädje och besvikelser
    2001 (Swedish)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    The joy is seeing people being able to change themselves. It's enabling people to change. That is joy; to see someone has understood and got something back out of it; to make their lives better. That is joy[1].

    Socialt arbete är ett kreativt arbete där den ena dagen inte är den andra lik. Att genom sina arbetsinsatser göra det möjligt för människor att förändras så att de kan leva ett bättre och mindre utsatt liv ger både svenska och engelska socialarbetare arbetsglädje. Det som gör socialarbetare besvikna är när det byråkratiska eller politiska systemet osynliggör eller försvårar det emotionellt omgestaltande arbetet tillsammans med klienterna. Svenska och engelska socialarbetare hade i början på 90-talet en samstämmig uppfattning om att de som professionella aktörer inte hade hög status. I den engelska välfärdsstaten blåste det motvind för socialarbetarna medan de svenska socialarbetarna under hela 90-talet befunnit sig i medvind.

    [1] Citat från intervju med engelsk socialarbetare.

    Keyword
    socialt arbete, profession, utsatthet, professionell aktör, arbetsglädje, status, social work, profession, occupation, exposure, status
    National Category
    Social Work
    Research subject
    Social Work
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-5980 (URN)
    Available from: 2009-03-19 Created: 2009-03-09 Last updated: 2011-06-23Bibliographically approved
  • 14.
    Brunnberg, Elinor
    Örebro University, Department of Behavioural, Social and Legal Sciences.
    Vi bytte våra hörande skolkamrater mot döva!: Förändring av hörselskadade barns identitet och självförtroende vid byte av språklig skolmiljö2003Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This study is a comparative study with the aim of finding out whether the identity and self-confidence of hearing-impaired children changes when they attend schools with a different language base. The focus of the study was the interaction of hearing-impaired children with other children of the same age. The number of hearing-impaired children in this study was 29. The children were aged between 7 and 14 when the study began.

    In autumn 1994 special classes for hearing-impaired children in Örebro moved from a mainstream school to a special school for Deaf children. In the classroom, the hearing- impaired children in both the mainstream and the special schools were educated in spoken Swedish with signs as support. However, the dominant language outside the classroom changed from spoken Swedish to Swedish sign language.

    Two semi-structured interviews were conducted with the hearing-impaired children in 1994, before the move, and in 1996, after the move. At the same time the children's self-confidence was examined. In both the mainstream and the special school the children's play in the playground was video recorded.

    This study shows that several of the hearing-impaired children were socially isolated. Some even felt little solidarity with their classmates and were solitary. Most of the children were longing to meet more children in their spare time. The playground seemed to be the social arena where children with impaired hearing mainly met other children. The hearing-impaired children as a group were socially excluded and marginalized in the mainstream school. Most of the hearing-impaired children did not describe the same feeling of being outsiders in the special school as in the mainstream school. Most of the hearing-impaired children's confidence improved after the change of school. However, the hearing-impaired children's social situation was not perfect in the special school either.

    The playground is a central arena for hearing-impaired children in trying out their identity. In forming their identity children seem to look for other similarities. The hearing-impaired children experienced affiliation, equality and fellowship with other hearing-impaired children. They also expressed the opinion that Deaf children were "almost similar" to hearing-impaired children. The school situation that strengthens the identity of hearing-impaired children seems to be the school where they feel most at home with their schoolmates. That happened in the special school. However, some of the hearing-impaired children with multi-disabilities had difficulties in both the mainstream school and the special school and failed to find a secure identity as a hearing-impaired child. Unless school arrangements address their social needs, hearing-impaired youngsters could experience an identity crisis.

  • 15.
    Claesson, Annika
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work, Örebro University, Sweden.
    Utvärdering som stödjande verktyg vid kompetensutveckling: överföring av lärande och kunskapsanvändning bland personal i äldreomsorg2015Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other academic)
  • 16.
    Dag, Munir
    Örebro University, Department of Behavioural, Social and Legal Sciences.
    Unga människor med rörelsehinder: förankring, marginalisering och social exkludering2006Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the thesis was to describe the specific barriers young people with disabilities experience in their ambition to get a job. The aim was also to investigate how these young people’s social and economic situation has been affected by their disability.

    The results are based on two reports: one qualitative, consisting of interviews with 12 individuals with physical disabilities, and one quantitative in the form of a questionnaire answered by 706 persons. In the case of the questionnaire, the response rate was 48 per cent. Both reports are based on the same criteria, namely, that the respondents should have a physical disability, be 20–35 years of age and be participating in some form of employment policy program.

    The results from both studies show that individuals with physical disabilities encounter different types of barriers on the labour market, which can be categorised as being either at the individual level or at the social level. The barriers at the individual level are low education, long-term unemployment, grave physical disability and lack of work experience. The barriers identified at the social level are primarily poorly adapted workplaces, a too high working pace, employers’ negative attitudes, insufficient knowledge of the competence of disabled persons and an overly generous social welfare system. All these factors constitute a direct obstacle to employing persons with a physical disability.

    The results from the interview study show that the respondents have few social relations. The majority of the respondents have social intercourse solely with family members or parents. Most of the respondents in the questionnaire study state that they have frequent social relations with friends and acquaintances. Both the interview study and the questionnaire study reveal that the respondents’ financial position has worsened as a result if their physical disability.

    Conclusions that can be drawn from this thesis are that young people with physical disabilities encounter different barriers in their attempts to get a job and to maintain social relations. Based on the results, some of the respondents can be regarded as being socio-economically marginalised.

    List of papers
    1. Unga människor med rörelsehinder utanför arbetsmarknaden: om barriärer, sociala relationer och livsvillkor
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Unga människor med rörelsehinder utanför arbetsmarknaden: om barriärer, sociala relationer och livsvillkor
    2003 (Swedish)Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med studien har varit att beskriva de specifika barriärer som individer med rörel-sehinder i åldrarna 20-35 år upplever att de möter i sin strävan att komma in på arbets-marknaden. Syftet har också varit att beskriva individernas livssituation under arbets-löshet och jämföra detta med livssituationen i någon form av sysselsättning. Metoden som har använts är kvalitativ, intervjuer med 12 individer med rörelsehinder.

    Resultaten från intervjuerna visar att individer med rörelsehinder möter barriärer inom olika områden. Barriärerna uppkommer via ett komplext samspel mellan den so-ciala och fysiska miljön, regelsystemen och individen. Studien tyder på olika orsaker till att individer med rörelsehinder möter barriärer i sina försök att få arbete. Exempel på sådana hinder är själva funktionshindret, graden av anpassning i den fysiska miljön, samhällets fördomar och rådande lagar. Utifrån detta har studien kunnat särskilja tre huvudkategorier av barriärer - individrelaterade, miljörelaterade och regelrelaterade.

    Resultatet visar att barriärer på individnivå är låg utbildning, avsaknad av yrkeserfa-renhet, lång period av arbetslöshet och dåliga kunskaper i regelsystemet. Ytterligare barriärer på individnivå är låg motivation att söka arbete.

    De miljörelaterade barriärer som identifieras är främst dåligt anpassade arbetslokaler, avsaknad av tekniska hjälpmedel och dåligt fungerade färdtjänst, bristande information samt rådande attityder om funktionshindrade i samhället. Dessa aspekter innebär di-rekta hinder för anställning av rörelsehindrade.

    Studien tyder också på att regelsystemen kan fungera som barriärer. Dels uppger un-dersökningsgruppen att de har bristande kunskaper i gällande regler, dels uppges att det inte är lönsamt att arbeta, eftersom inkomsten inte förbättras med ett arbete.

    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to describe the specific barriers which young individuals (20-35 years) with physical disabilities experience that they encounter in their ambition to become part of the labour market. Furthermore, the aim was to describe the everyday life of the individuals in unemployment and to compare this with the situation in some kind of employment. The method used is qualitative, consisting of interviews with 12 individuals with physical disabilities.

    The results from the interviews show that individuals with physical disabilities en-counter barriers in different areas. The barriers arise through a complex interaction be-tween the social and physical environment, legislation and the individual. The study implies that individuals with physical disablities encounter different barriers in their attempts to find work. Examples of such obstacles are the disability itself, the level of adaptation in the physical environment, prejudices in society and existing laws. From this perspective, three main categories of barriers are distinguished in the study – those related to the individual, the environment and legislation.

    The result shows that barriers on an individual level are low level of education, lack of work experience, long-term unemployment and poor knowledge of legislation. Another barrier on an individual level is low motivation to look for work.

    The identified barriers related to the environment were mainly poorly accomodated work places, lack of technical aids and unsatisfactory transportation services, lack of information as well as prevailing attitudes in society about people with disabilities. These aspects imply direct obstacles for people with physical disabilities to find em-ployment.

    Moreover, the study indicates that legislation can be considered a barrier. The group of informants points out that they have insufficient knowledge about existing rules, but also that it is not profitable to work since their income does not improve by working.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Örebro: Örebro universitetsbibliotek, 2003. 163 p.
    Series
    Örebro Studies in Social work, ISSN 1651-145X ; 4
    Keyword
    Disability, handicap, barriers, work, social support, social relations, Funktionshinder, handikapp, barriärer, arbete, socialt stöd, sociala relationer
    National Category
    Social Sciences Social Work Social Work
    Research subject
    Disability Research
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-16 (URN)91-7668-344-3 (ISBN)
    Presentation
    (English)
    Available from: 2009-02-24 Created: 2004-12-09 Last updated: 2011-05-27Bibliographically approved
    2. Unga människor med rörelsehinder utanför arbetsmarknaden: om individ- och samhällsrelaterade faktorers betydelse för individens ställning i samhället
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Unga människor med rörelsehinder utanför arbetsmarknaden: om individ- och samhällsrelaterade faktorers betydelse för individens ställning i samhället
    (Swedish)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    National Category
    Social Work
    Research subject
    Social Work
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-15743 (URN)
    Available from: 2011-05-30 Created: 2011-05-30 Last updated: 2011-05-30Bibliographically approved
  • 17.
    Danielsson, Nanette S.
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Disturbed sleep and emotion: a developmental perspective2013Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Sleep disturbances are not only defining features, but also diagnostic criteria for most psychiatric disorders. Recently, researchers have proposed a theoretic role for sleep disturbances in emotion dysregulation, subsequently linking neurobiological processes and psychopathology. Most prior research examining the potential role for sleep disturbance in emotion dysregulation is from a neurophysiological or clinical perspective, or primarily focused on maintaining processes. Less well understood are how sleep disturbances may be involved at the levels of predisposition, precipitation, and perpetuation of emotion dysregulation concurrently and over time.

    This dissertation presents findings from three studies that were designed to expand on what is known about sleep disturbance in the predisposition, precipitation, and perpetuation of emotion dysregulation. Study 1 examined the long-term relation between sleep-onset problems and neuroticism over twenty-years. Adolescent sleep-onset posed risk (predisposition) for neuroticism in midlife, not vice versa. Study 2 investigated the effects of 3-nights partial sleep deprivation (5-hours total time in bed) on the positive and negative affect and emotions of otherwise healthy adults. Following partial sleep deprivation, people reported significant reductions in positive affect and emotions compared to rested people (precipitation). The only impact on negative emotions was on the discrete level. Sleep deprived peo-ple reported significantly more irritability, loathing, hostility, and shakiness compared to controls. Study 3 measured adolescent sleep disturbances, depressive symptoms, and catastrophic worry. In addition to direct risk, sleep disturbances posed a non-gender specific risk for depressive symptoms one-year later through catastrophic worry (perpetuation). Overall, the results provide support for the role of sleep disturbances in the predis-position, precipitation, and perpetuation of emotion dysregulation. An implication is that sleep disturbances and catastrophic worry are two po-tentially modifiable markers of risk for emotion dysregulation.

    List of papers
    1. Neuroticism and sleep-onset: what is the long-term connection?
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Neuroticism and sleep-onset: what is the long-term connection?
    Show others...
    2010 (English)In: Personality and Individual Differences, ISSN 0191-8869, E-ISSN 1873-3549, Vol. 48, no 4, 463-468 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    People with sleep-onset problems often experience neuroticism. To what extent the one problem leads to the other is unknown. We used self-reported data from a Swedish longitudinal project to examine developmental links between neuroticism and sleep-onset problems. A sample of 212 people, followed from birth to midlife, was part of a cohort study spanning 37 years. Adolescent neuroticism was measured at age 16 with the High School Personality Questionnaire (HSPQ, Form A) and in midlife at age 37 with the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ). Sleep-onset problems were measured at ages 15 to 17, 25, and 37 with items developed for the Solna Project. Adolescent neuroticism failed to predict sleep-onset problems. Instead, sleep-onset problems in adolescence and young adulthood predicted midlife neuroticism. We found that sleep-onset problems during adolescence were a direct risk for midlife neuroticism, as well as, an indirect risk through continuance of sleep-onset problems into adulthood. This study provides longitudinal support for adolescent sleep-onset problems as a potent risk factor for heightened neuroticism in midlife.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Oxford, United Kingdom: Elsevier, 2010
    Keyword
    Neuroticism, sleep-onset problems, adolescence, epidemiological, longitudinal, prospective
    National Category
    Psychology
    Research subject
    Psychology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-11033 (URN)10.1016/j.paid.2009.11.023 (DOI)000275079900019 ()2-s2.0-73749083217 (Scopus ID)
    Available from: 2010-06-14 Created: 2010-06-14 Last updated: 2017-02-14Bibliographically approved
    2. Effects of partial sleep deprivation on subjectice emotion experience and implicit emotion regulation
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Effects of partial sleep deprivation on subjectice emotion experience and implicit emotion regulation
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Neurophysiological research implicates sleep deprivation in emotion dysregulation. Less is known about the effects of partial sleep deprivation on the emotions and on emotion regulation of otherwise healthy people. An experimental, randomized pretest-posttest study design was used to examine the differential effects of partial sleep deprivation on emotion experience and implicit emotion regulation following emotion elicitation.

    Methods: We randomized 81 healthy adults (44 females) into a sleep deprivation or rested condition. Sleep deprivation was defined as 3-nights with 5-hours total time in bed. Scores on positive and negative emotion markers measured emotions. Mixed between-within subjects analyses of variance were used to examine group differences in emotion following the sleep condition and after the emotion elicitation procedures and test.

    Results: Sleep deprived people reported significantly less positive emotions, and more fatigue, irritability, and hostility compared to people who were rested following the sleep condition. There were negligible differences between groups in implicit emotion regulation following emotion elicitation.

    Conclusions: These findings suggest that partial sleep deprivation is a potent stressor in emotion dysregulation through reductions in positive emotions. It also appears that implicit emotion regulation works equally well following strong negative emotional events, regardless of sleep condition. From a clinical perspective, sleep deprivation and ensuing reductions in positive affect and emotion may provide clinicians with viable targets in depression treatment. Keywords: Experimental, sleep deprivation, affect, emotions, emotion regulation, emotion elicitation.

    Keyword
    Experimental, sleep deprivation, affect, emotions, emotion regulation, emotion elicitation
    National Category
    Psychology
    Research subject
    Psychology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-29022 (URN)
    Available from: 2013-05-14 Created: 2013-05-14 Last updated: 2016-12-12Bibliographically approved
    3. Sleep disturbance and depressive symptoms in adolescence: the role of catastrophic worry
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Sleep disturbance and depressive symptoms in adolescence: the role of catastrophic worry
    Show others...
    2013 (English)In: Journal of Youth and Adolescence, ISSN 0047-2891, E-ISSN 1573-6601, Vol. 42, no 8, 1223-1233 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Depression is a common and debilitating disorder in adolescence. Sleep disturbances and depression often co-occur with sleep disturbances frequently preceding depression. The current study investigated whether catastrophic worry, a potential cognitive vulnerability, mediates the relationship between adolescent sleep disturbances and depressive symptoms, as well as whether there are gender differences in this relationship. High school students, ages 16–18, n = 1,760, 49 % girls, completed annual health surveys including reports of sleep disturbance, catastrophic worry, and depressive symptoms. Sleep disturbances predicted depressive symptoms 1-year later. Catastrophic worry partially mediated the relationship. Girls reported more sleep disturbances, depressive symptoms, and catastrophic worry relative to boys. The results, however, were similar regardless of gender. Sleep disturbances and catastrophic worry may provide school nurses, psychologists, teachers, and parents with non gender specific early indicators of risk for depression. Several potentially important practical implications, including suggestions for intervention and prevention programs, are highlighted. 

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Springer, 2013
    Keyword
    Adolescence; Sleep; Depression; Catastrophizing; Worry; Gender
    National Category
    Psychology
    Research subject
    Psychology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-29023 (URN)10.1007/s10964-012-9811-6 (DOI)000321973800009 ()22968332 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-84880514938 (Scopus ID)
    Available from: 2013-05-14 Created: 2013-05-14 Last updated: 2016-03-09Bibliographically approved
  • 18.
    Degner, Jürgen
    et al.
    Örebro University, Department of Behavioural, Social and Legal Sciences.
    Henriksen, Anna
    Örebro University, Department of Behavioural, Social and Legal Sciences.
    Placerad utanför sitt sammanhang: en uppföljningsstudie av 46 institutionsplacerade ungdomars privata och formella relationer2007Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    When young people are placed in residential treatment centres (RTCs), it is important that facility staff involve parents and other social network members (PSMs) (private relations) in the residential treatment program. This involvement process depends on both PSMs’ willingness and capability to take part in the youths’ treatment, as well as the residential staffs’ attitude towards promoting this process. The overall aim of the dissertation is to explore obstacles to and opportunities for involving PSMs in the youths’ treatment process. One key question is to investigate how the youths describe their parents’ emotional attitude, and support from other significant members of their network. At times of tension between youth and family, other formal relations with professional and non-professional support persons could serve as mediators between the youth and his or her family of origin. Accordingly, the aim is to investigate whether, and if so how, these support persons are included in the treatment process. Further, a positive treatment alliance between residential staff and the youth (resident) is important for the treatment outcome. Two further issues are to explore how the residents view the staffs’ personal involvement with the resident, and, from a gender perspective, to investigate the residents’ descriptions of the treatment received at the facility. Semi structured interviews, including a social network map and a Feeling word checklist, were conducted with 46 youths (23 girls/23 boys) placed at 10 different state RTCs run by the Swedish National Board of Institutional Care (SiS). The residents were interviewed three times, at approximately one-year intervals. This thesis is based on material from the first and second interview with the residents. Interviews were also conducted on one occasion with 23 support persons. Paper I deals with the PSMs’ involvement in the residents’ treatment process. Paper II explores obstacles to and opportunities for establishing a therapeutic alliance between key staff members and residents in a one year perspective. Papers III and IV investigate the residents’ (paper III) and support persons’ (paper IV) views of possibilities for the support persons to take part in the treatment program. Finally, Paper V aims, from a gender perspective, to study the residents’ descriptions of their psychosocial problems, their need for help, and their experiences of the help received from the staff at the facility. The main results show that the majority of the youths describe their parents as having a negative emotional attitude, with a desolate or family-oriented social network system. At the first interview the residents described the key staff members as mainly having little personal involvement, but this staff involvement had increased, according to the residents, by the one-year follow-up. Obstacles to and possibilities for involving PSMs as well as support persons is mainly related to staffs’ encouraging, or not encouraging attitude, attitudes of social welfare agency personnel (regarding support persons), and PSMs’ capability and willingness to participate in the program. With regard to gender, data indicate that there is reason to nuance the proposition of girls being more relationship oriented, and boys autonomous – at least in treatment settings – since, for example, the boys in the study to the same extent as the girls desired more trustful conversations with the staff. The importance of making an inventory of the youths’ social network and focusing on support persons’ involvement in the treatment program is discussed.

    List of papers
    1. Youths in coercive residential care: Perception of parents and social network involvement in treatment programs
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Youths in coercive residential care: Perception of parents and social network involvement in treatment programs
    2007 (English)In: Therapeutic Communities, ISSN 0964-1866, Vol. 28, no 4, 416-432 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Involvement by parents and other significant social work members (PSMs) in the treatment program is important for positive treatment effects when youths are placed in residential treatment centres (RTC). The staffs of the RTCs  play a key role by either supporting or not supporting such involvement. By interviewing 23 boys and 23 girls in ten different RTCs using a milieu-therapeutic method, the present study explores obstacles to, and opportunities for the involvement of PSMs in the treatment program. The majority of the youths report non-involvement strategies from staff, a negative emotional attitude from parents, and desolate, non-supportive social networks. A small group of youths report encouraging staff and PSMs. Explanations such as staff turnover, facility rules, staff attitudes, and deficiencies in significant individuals' involvement are discussed.

    Keyword
    parents emotional attitudes, family involvement, residential care, social network
    National Category
    Social Work
    Research subject
    Social Work
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-5875 (URN)2-s2.0-38849173170 (Scopus ID)
    Available from: 2009-02-27 Created: 2009-02-27 Last updated: 2014-12-17Bibliographically approved
    2. Youths in coercive residential care: attitudes towards key staff members' personal involvement, from a therapeutic alliance perspective
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Youths in coercive residential care: attitudes towards key staff members' personal involvement, from a therapeutic alliance perspective
    2008 (English)In: European Journal of Social Work, ISSN 1369-1457, E-ISSN 1468-2664, European Journal of Social Work, Vol. 11, no 2, 145-159 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    A strong therapeutic alliance between staff and juveniles (residents) in institutional settings is considered to be important for a positive treatment outcome. The article focuses on residents placed in coercive care in Swedish residential treatment centres (RTCs), and the aim is to explore obstacles and opportunities for establishing a therapeutic alliance between key staff members (KSMs) and residents in a one-year perspective. The key question is how residents view their KSMs' personal involvement and active participation in their treatment process. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with twenty-thre girls and twenty-three boys placed in ten different RTCs, and follow-up interviews were conducted after one year. In accordance with the theoretical approach, it is hypothesized that the residents' view of KSM involvement will be more positive in the one-year follow-up. Results from the first data collection show that more than half of the adolescents perceived their KSMs' personal involvement as mainly negative. Between the two interviews, several had developed a more positive view of the KSMs' personal involvement, while a large group did not display any change in attitude. Positive and negative institutional conditions and processes affecting the prospects for the development of a therapeutic alliance between residents and KSMs are discussed.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    London: Routledge, 2008
    Keyword
    key staff; residential care; treatment alliance; youths
    National Category
    Social Work Social Work Social Sciences Social Sciences
    Research subject
    Social Work
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-5849 (URN)10.1080/13691450701531976 (DOI)
    Available from: 2009-02-27 Created: 2009-02-26 Last updated: 2011-05-19Bibliographically approved
    3. Youths in residential care: their view of support persons' involvment in the program, a 1-year follow-up study
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Youths in residential care: their view of support persons' involvment in the program, a 1-year follow-up study
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    National Category
    Social Work
    Research subject
    Social Work
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-15617 (URN)
    Available from: 2011-05-19 Created: 2011-05-19 Last updated: 2014-12-17Bibliographically approved
    4. Investing in a formal relationship: support persons' view of treatment involvment regarding young persons in residential care
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Investing in a formal relationship: support persons' view of treatment involvment regarding young persons in residential care
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    National Category
    Social Work
    Research subject
    Social Work
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-15619 (URN)
    Available from: 2011-05-19 Created: 2011-05-19 Last updated: 2016-12-12Bibliographically approved
  • 19.
    Edlund, Sara
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Calm down: strategies for emotion regulation in clinical practice2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
  • 20.
    Edvardsson, Bo
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Miljöproblemens psykologi: Fyra empiriska rapporter med sammanfattning1974Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    En avhandling om miljöproblemens psykologi med enkätdata från 1972 inriktade på attityder, kommunikation, subjektiva besvär, handlingsbenägenheter och aktiviteter.

    List of papers
    1. Miljöproblemens psykologi I: attitydstruktur
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Miljöproblemens psykologi I: attitydstruktur
    1974 (Swedish)Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Attityder till miljöproblem studeras genom statistisk bearbetning av enkätdata.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Uppsala: Uppsala universitet, 1974. 44 p.
    Keyword
    attityd, miljöproblem, miljöpsykologi
    National Category
    Psychology (excluding Applied Psychology)
    Research subject
    Psychology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-10453 (URN)
    Note

    Delrapport 1 i doktorsavhandlingen "Miljöproblemens psykologi"

    Available from: 2010-04-22 Created: 2010-04-22 Last updated: 2012-12-17Bibliographically approved
    2. Miljöproblemens psykologi II: kommunikation
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Miljöproblemens psykologi II: kommunikation
    1974 (Swedish)Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Kommunikation kring miljöproblem studeras genom statistisk bearbetning av enkätdata.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Uppsala: Uppsala universitet, 1974. 54 p.
    Keyword
    kommunikation, miljöproblem, miljöpsykologi
    National Category
    Psychology (excluding Applied Psychology)
    Research subject
    Psychology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-10455 (URN)
    Note

    Delrapport II i doktorsavhandlingen "Miljöproblemens psykologi"

    Available from: 2010-04-22 Created: 2010-04-22 Last updated: 2012-12-17Bibliographically approved
    3. Miljöproblemens psykologi III: subjektiva besvär
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Miljöproblemens psykologi III: subjektiva besvär
    1974 (Swedish)Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Subjektiva besvär studeras genom bearbetning av enkätdata.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Uppsala: Uppsala universitet, 1974. 88 p.
    Keyword
    miljöproblem, miljöpsykologi, subjektiva besvär, oro, informationskälla, handlingsbenägenhet
    National Category
    Psychology (excluding Applied Psychology)
    Research subject
    Psychology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-10456 (URN)
    Note

    Delrapport III i doktorsavhandlingen "Miljöproblemens psykologi"

    Available from: 2010-04-22 Created: 2010-04-22 Last updated: 2012-12-17Bibliographically approved
    4. Miljöproblemens psykologi IV: prediktion av attityder, handlingsbenägenheter och aktiviteter
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Miljöproblemens psykologi IV: prediktion av attityder, handlingsbenägenheter och aktiviteter
    1974 (Swedish)Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Prediktion av attityder, handlingsbenägenheter och aktiviteter studeras genom statistisk bearbetning av enkätdata.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Uppsala: Uppsala universitet, 1974. 37 p.
    Keyword
    miljöproblem, miljöpsykologi, prediktion, attityd, handlingsbenägenhet, aktivitet
    National Category
    Psychology (excluding Applied Psychology)
    Research subject
    Psychology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-10457 (URN)
    Note

    Delrapport IV i doktorsavhandlingen "Miljöproblemens psykologi"

    Available from: 2010-04-22 Created: 2010-04-22 Last updated: 2012-12-17Bibliographically approved
  • 21.
    Eriksson, Maria
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Defining rape: emerging obligations for states under international law?2010Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The prevalence of rape and its widespread impunity, whether committed during armed conflict or peacetime, has been firmly condemned by the UN and its prohibition has been consistently recognised in international law. This development, however, is a rather novel endeavour. The belated response is in part a consequence of rape being characterised by such myths as sexual violence representing an inevitable by-product of war or as being committed by sexual deviants. Its systematic nature has thus been ignored as has the gravity of the offence, often leading to a culture of impunity. This was evident, for example, through the failure to prosecute crimes of rape during the Nuremberg trials, in qualifying it as a harm against a woman’s honour in the 1949 Geneva Convention (IV), or in considering it a violation located in the “private sphere”, thereby beyond regulation by international law.

    However, substantial efforts have been made in international law to recognise obligations for states to prevent rape. A prohibition of the offence has developed both through treaty law and customary international law, requiring the prevention of rape whether committed by state agents or by a private actor. One measure to prevent such violence has been identified as the duty to enact domestic criminal laws on the matter. The flexibility for states in determining the substance of such criminal laws is increasingly circumscribed, leading to the question of whether a particular definition of rape or certain elements of the crime must be adopted in this process.

    Elaborations on the elements of the crime of rape have been a late concern of international law, the first efforts made by the ad hoc tribunals (the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda and the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia), followed by the regional human rights systems as well as the International Criminal Court. The principal purpose of the thesis is consequently the systematisation and analysis of provisions and emerging norms obliging states to adopt a particular definition of rape in domestic penal codes. The prohibition of rape and, subsequently, the process of defining the crime has been made in three areas of international law – international human rights law, international humanitarian law and international criminal law. Emerging norms in all three regimes are consequently examined in this thesis, bringing to the fore overarching questions on the possible harmonisation of defining rape in these distinct branches of international law. The study will thus provide a contextual approach, aiming to evince whether the definition can be harmonised or if prevailing circumstances, such as armed conflict or peace, should necessarily inform its definition. Ultimately, the advances in international law are evaluated in order to identify possible areas for further development.