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  • 1.
    Akram, Owasim
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Maitrot, M.
    Social and Policy Sciences, University of Bath, Bath, United Kingdom.
    Denk, Thomas
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Generational Bargain, Transfer of Disadvantages and Extreme Poverty: A Qualitative Enquiry from Bangladesh2020In: European Journal of Development Research, ISSN 0957-8811, E-ISSN 1743-9728, no 32, p. 1173-1194Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Why do the poor stay poor? And, crucially, why are their children likely to be poor and end up poor later in life? This is a familiar question in the fields of development, social policy and economics alike. Bangladesh has seen notable successes in reducing poverty, and yet, addressing the transfer of deprivations and disadvantages within and between generations still poses a major challenge for policy-makers. To date, literature on inter-generational poverty remains dominated by large quantitative panel data. By contrast, this study draws on a unique qualitative dataset of 72 extreme poor households across Bangladesh, examining how inter- and intra-generational bargains generate extreme poverty. It is argued that, while poverty is transferred inter-generationally, it is not transferred equally. Rather, transferred disadvantages are shaped by persistent forms of deprivation, discrimination and a household-level political economy that is highly gendered. The inter-generational transfer of poverty should be seen as a dynamic and negotiated process that is crucially shaped by intra-generational bargains.

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    Generational Bargain, Transfer of Disadvantages and Extreme Poverty: A Qualitative Enquiry from Bangladesh
  • 2.
    Anckar, Carsten
    et al.
    Åbo Akademi, Åbo, Finland.
    Bengtsson, Åsa
    Mittuniversitetet, Sundsvall, Sweden.
    Denk, Thomas
    Åbo Akademi, Åbo, Finland.
    Karvonen, Lauri
    Åbo Akademi, Åbo, Finland.
    Komparativ politik: Institutioner och beteende2013 (ed. 1)Book (Refereed)
  • 3.
    Anckar, Carsten
    et al.
    Åbo Akademi University, Department of political science, Turku, Finland.
    Denk, Thomas
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences. Department of political science.
    Diffusion and the Abolition of the Death Penalty: A Global Comparison2024In: Nordic Journal of Human Rights, ISSN 1891-8131, E-ISSN 1891-814XArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We identify four patterns of diffusion that are likely to explain how trends in death penalty usage spread among countries. The first is geographic proximity, which creates dependency relations between nations that in turn affect the spread of changes in death penalty regimes. The second is global diffusion, meaning processes that spread ideas globally. The third is cultural homogeneity, which can be expected to be conducive for diffusion; studies show that countries similar in terms of language and religion influence each other to a great extent. Finally, similar colonial heritage, which can establish cultural and institutional ties between countries. This study encompasses all independent countries of the world over the period 1800 to 2021. In addition to measures of diffusion, a number of control variables are introduced. Relationships are measured using statistical techniques complemented by qualitative analyses.

  • 4.
    Anckar, Carsten
    et al.
    Åbo Akademi, Åbo, Finland.
    Denk, Thomas
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Politiska system: Former, trender och utmaningar2018In: Komparativ politik: Tio politiska system / [ed] Thomas Denk & Carsten Anckar, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2018, 2, p. 347-356Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 5.
    Anckar, Carsten
    et al.
    Åbo Akademi University, Åbo, Finland.
    Denk, Thomas
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Karvonen, Lauri
    Åbo Akademi University, Åbo, Finland.
    Schoultz, Åsa von
    Helsingfors University, Helsingfors, Finland.
    Komparativ politik: Institutioner och beteende2019 (ed. 2)Book (Refereed)
  • 6.
    Denk, Thomas
    Department of Political Science, Åbo Akademi University, Finland.
    Att förstå secession: Förslag till komparativt analysschema om secessionsprocesser2003 (ed. 1)Book (Refereed)
  • 7.
    Denk, Thomas
    Department of Political Science, Åbo Akademi University, Åbo, Finland.
    Bibliometrisk analys av finsk statsvetenskap2011In: Politiikka, ISSN 0032-3365, Vol. 53, no 3, p. 238-245Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 8.
    Denk, Thomas
    Department of Political Science, Åbo Akademi University, Åbo, Finland.
    Comparative multilevel analysis: Proposal for a methodology2010In: International Journal of Social Research Methodology, ISSN 1364-5579, E-ISSN 1464-5300, Vol. 13, no 1, p. 29-39Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article presents a new methodology for multilevel analysis using a small number of cases, named Comparative Multilevel Analysis (CMA). A classic problem in comparative studies has been the presence of too many variables and too few cases. One traditional solution to this problem has been to study subsystems within a system. However, the approach has fundamental limitations: it cannot analyse subsystems from different contexts, nor can it determine how conditions on the system level influence subsystems. By proposing four additions to traditional methodology, this article offers a new method of comparing subsystems from different contexts in order to analyse the effect of context on subsystems. The author also illustrates how CMA can be combined with Qualitative Comparative Analysis and Fuzzy‐set, thereby enabling these methods to be used in the study of subsystem and context effects.

  • 9.
    Denk, Thomas
    Department of Political Science, Åbo Akademi University, Åbo, Finland.
    How to measure polyarchy with Freedom House: A proposal for revision2013In: Quality and quantity, ISSN 0033-5177, E-ISSN 1573-7845, Vol. 47, no 6, p. 3457-3471Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In studies on democracy and democratization, the Freedom House Index (FHI) isfrequently used to measure the concept of polyarchy. This approach creates an often noticeddiscrepancy between the conceptual and measurement levels. The concept of polyarchy isregarded as a minimalist definition of democracy, which mainly refers to the proceduralaspects of political systems, while FHI indicates a maximalist definition of democracy. Thisarticle presents a proposal to improve the conceptual validity when FHI is used to measurethe concept of polyarchy. The proposal suggests that the FHI is adjusted in two aspects. First,some sub-categories within the FHI are excluded based on their lack of relevance for theconcept of polyarchy. Second, the principle of aggregation is changed from simple arithme-tic addition to multiplication, which corresponds to the idea that all democratic institutions,according to the concept of polyarchy, are necessary for the democratic system. These twosuggestions create a revisited index that is based on the FHI. As illustrated with empiricalanalyses, the revisited index provides a quite different view of democratization at the globaland state levels.

  • 10.
    Denk, Thomas
    Department of Political Science, Åbo Akademi University, Finland.
    Komparativ metod: Förståelse genom jämförelse2002 (ed. 1)Book (Refereed)
  • 11.
    Denk, Thomas
    Department of Political Science, Åbo Akademi University, Åbo,Finland.
    Komparativa analysmetoder2012 (ed. 1)Book (Refereed)
  • 12.
    Denk, Thomas
    Department of Political Science, Åbo Akademi University, Finland.
    Kultur eller struktur?: Studie om den representativa demokratins regionala förutsättningar2008 (ed. 1)Book (Refereed)
  • 13.
    Denk, Thomas
    Department of Political Science, Åbo Akademi University, Åbo, Finland.
    Perspectives on state-building and democracy: A research anthology2010Collection (editor) (Refereed)
  • 14.
    Denk, Thomas
    Department of Political Science, Åbo Akademi University, Finland.
    Politisk kultur2009 (ed. 1)Book (Refereed)
  • 15.
    Denk, Thomas
    Department of Political Science, Åbo Akademi University, Åbo, Finland.
    Size and political support on the local level in Sweden2012In: Local Government Studies, ISSN 0300-3930, E-ISSN 1743-9388, Vol. 38, no 6, p. 777-793Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Does size of municipality have an impact on political support? This study investigates the connection between municipality size and political support in 55 Swedish municipalities. Three hypotheses about the connection between municipality size and political support are developed from previous research. These hypotheses claim negative, positive, and no connection between municipality size and political support. In the empirical analysis, two aspects of size (area and population) and eleven aspects of political support (five aspects of political trust, participation in parliamentary and municipal elections, political interests, party identification, and activity in associations) are included. The analysis also includes six aspects of municipality composition (age, education, ethnicity, income, labour market activity and urbanisation). When the three hypotheses are empirically tested, the analysis indicates that several aspects of political support have negative correlations with area size, while only one of the aspects has a negative correlation with population size. However, a major part of the investigated aspects has no connection with municipality size and the connections that are indicated by the analysis are only moderate in their strength.

  • 16.
    Denk, Thomas
    Department of Political Science, Åbo Akademi University, Finland.
    State-building and democratization2008In: Perspectives on state-building and democracy: A research anthology / [ed] Thomas Denk, Saarbrücken: VDM , 2008, p. 5-33Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 17.
    Denk, Thomas
    Department of Political Science, Åbo Akademi University, Finland.
    Storlek och politisk organisering2008In: Regioner i rörelse: Perspektiv på svenska regionaliseringsprocesser / [ed] Thomas Denk & Martin Åberg, Åbo: Åbo Akademi , 2008, p. 16-48Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 18.
    Denk, Thomas
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Travelling with Political Awareness: A Comparative Approach2022In: Perspectives on Political Awareness: Conceotual, Theoretical and Methodological Issues / [ed] Niels Nørgaard Kristensen; Thomas Denk; Maria Olson; Trond Solhaug, Cham: Springer, 2022, p. 115-132Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 19.
    Denk, Thomas
    Department of Political Science, Åbo Akademi University, Finland.
    Värmland och euron: En studie om de värmländska väljarnas ställningstagande i och inställning till EMU-folkomröstningen2004 (ed. 1)Book (Refereed)
  • 20.
    Denk, Thomas
    Karlstad university, Karlstad, Sweden.
    Värnpliktsutbildningen: en politisk socialisationsagent?1999Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
  • 21.
    Denk, Thomas
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Anckar, Carsten
    Åbo Akademi, Åbo, Finland.
    Introduktion2015In: Komparativ politik: Nio politiska system / [ed] Thomas Denk, Carsten Anckar, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2015, 1, p. 15-39Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 22.
    Denk, Thomas
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Anckar, Carsten
    Åbo Akademi, Åbo, Finland.
    Introduktion2018In: Komparativ politik: Tio politiska system / [ed] Thomas Denk & Carsten Anckar, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2018, 2, p. 1-40Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 23.
    Denk, Thomas
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Anckar, Carsten
    Åbo Akademi.
    Introduktion2022In: Komparativ politik: Elva politiska system / [ed] Thomas Denk; Carsten Anckar, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2022, 3, p. 13-37Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 24.
    Denk, Thomas
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Anckar, Carsten
    Åbo Akademi, Åbo, Finland.
    Komparativ metod2018In: Komparativ politik: Tio politiska system / [ed] Thomas Denk & Carsten Anckar, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2018, 2, p. 331-346Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 25.
    Denk, Thomas
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Anckar, CarstenÅbo Akademi.
    Komparativ politik: Elva politiska system2022Collection (editor) (Refereed)
  • 26.
    Denk, Thomas
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Anckar, CarstenÅbo Akademi, Åbo, Finland.
    Komparativ politik: Nio politiska system2015Collection (editor) (Refereed)
  • 27.
    Denk, Thomas
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Anckar, CarstenÅbo Akademi, Åbo, Finland.
    Komparativ politik: Tio politiska system2018Collection (editor) (Refereed)
  • 28.
    Denk, Thomas
    et al.
    Department of Political Science, Åbo Akademi University, Åbo, Finland.
    Anckar, Carsten
    Department of Political Science, Åbo Akademi University, Åbo, Finland.
    Length of independence and democratic failure2014In: Contemporary Politics, ISSN 1356-9775, E-ISSN 1469-3631, Vol. 20, no 4, p. 385-401Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article takes as a point of departure a well-known but rarely tested assumption in the literature on state-building and democratisation, namely that democratic regimes in newly established states are politically unstable. When states take their first steps as independent entities, the state-building process is often incomplete, the political institutions fragile and democratic routines yet to be established. However, with increasing years of independence, these democratic shortcomings are expected to be remedied. This makes it reasonable to assume that the likelihood of democratic failure decreases with increasing years as an independent state. Based on an extensive empirical data set, the conclusion was reached that there is indeed a negative relationship between the length of independence and democratic failure and that this association is insensitive to the period in time when the countries received their independence. Furthermore, the results suggest that the length of democratic rule has a positive impact on democratic stability. However, this pattern is detectable only in states created after 1946.

  • 29.
    Denk, Thomas
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Anckar, Carsten
    Åbo Akademi.
    Politiska system: Former, trender och utmaningar2022In: Komparativ politik: Elva politiska system / [ed] Thomas Denk; Carsten Anckar, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2022, 3, p. 377-387Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 30.
    Denk, Thomas
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Carsten, Anckar
    Åbo Akademi.
    Komparativ metod2022In: Komparativ politik: Elva politiska system / [ed] Thomas Denk; Carsten Anckar, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2022, 3, p. 361-376Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 31.
    Denk, Thomas
    et al.
    Åbo Akademi University, Åbo, Finland.
    Christensen, Henrik Serup
    Åbo Akademi University, Åbo, Finland.
    How to classify political cultures?: A comparison of three methods of classification2016In: Quality and quantity, ISSN 0033-5177, E-ISSN 1573-7845, Vol. 50, no 1, p. 177-191Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To study the composition of political cultures, it is necessary to classify citizens according to a theoretical typology of political subcultures. Different methods of classification have been used for confronting this challenge, but the choice of method is rarely discussed in any detail because most studies apply a method without considering implications or possible alternatives. This is unfortunate because the choice of method has important consequences for the ensuing results. With this article, we aim to determine the implications of different methods for classification and hereby call attention to the importance of this choice for comparative research on political culture. We compare three commonly used methods of classification: critical thresholds, factor analysis and cluster analysis. These methods are used for classifying respondents from the 2008 European Social Survey according to a typology of political subcultures. Based on empirical analyses, we conclude that: (a) the choice of method of classification affects the outcome of the analysis, (b) cluster analysis and factor analysis may result in classifications that do not adequately reflect the theoretical typology, and (c) cluster analysis and factor analysis provide classifications that differ depending on analytical level. While the results do not show that either method is inherently superior, they clearly demonstrate that the choice of method should be recognized as a critical part of the research process.

  • 32.
    Denk, Thomas
    et al.
    Department of Political Science, Åbo Akademi University, Åbo, Finland.
    Christensen, Henrik Serup
    Department of Political Science, Åbo Akademi University, Åbo, Finland.
    Bergh, Daniel
    Centre for Research on Child and Adolescent Mental Health, Karlstad University, Karlstad, Sweden.
    The Composition of Political Culture: A Study of 25 European Democracies2015In: Studies in comparative international development, ISSN 0039-3606, E-ISSN 1936-6167, Vol. 50, no 3, p. 358-377Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Civic Culture by Gabriel Almond and Sidney Verba is a path-breaking work within political science. Although The Civic Culture still provides inspiration for studies, new approaches to political culture have identified alternative citizen orientations that may be replacing the value orientations identified at the time. The more recent studies have examined specific attitudes such as political trust, party identification, and political efficacy or types of political subcultures such as critical citizens, stealth citizens or disenchanted citizens. These studies provide insights into the developments of specific attitudinal orientations, but do not discern the mix of political orientations among the population, which The Civic Culture suggests is central for democratic stability. The implications of these changes for the composition of political cultures are therefore still unknown. In this article, we, as suggested by The Civic Culture, examine the composition of political cultures to shed new light on the differences in political culture between old and new democracies. We use the fourth round of the European Social Survey to examine this question in 25 European democracies. The results suggest that there is a need to revise some of the main conclusions of The Civic Culture when it comes to the connection between political culture and democratic stability. Although civic citizens are widespread in old democracies, there is no single political culture sustaining a stable democracy. We also find considerable heterogeneity in the composition of the political cultures within old and new democracies alike, suggesting that there may be considerable variation in the cultural conditions for creating a stable democracy.

  • 33.
    Denk, Thomas
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Görtz, Carl
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Är verkligen allt politik?2021In: Ingen anledning till oro (?): SOM-undersökningen 2020 / [ed] Ulrika Andersson; Anders Carlander; Patrik Öhberg; Marie Grusell, Göteborg: SOM-institutet , 2021, p. 389-400Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Det här kapitlet undersöker i vilken utsträckning som individer uppfattar att olika frågor handlar om politik och om dessa uppfattningar har samband med individernas ideologiska vänster-höger positioner respektive partisympatier. Med detta fokuserar kapitlet på grundläggande frågor om vad som uppfattas vara politik. De flesta har uppfattningar om vad som utgör politik och av dessa finns det en betydande majoritet som uppfattar att svenskt medlemskap i NATO, konflikter i regeringen, utbyggnad av kärnkraften och arbetslöshet i hög utsträckning handlar om politik, medan för-delning av hushållsarbete i hemmet och matinköp i liten utsträckning handlar om politik. För barnomsorg och eutanasi finns det större variation, även om en majoritet anser att även dessa frågor i mycket hög eller hög utsträckning handlar om politik. Kapitlets analyser indikerar också att vänster-högerposition och partisympatier har samband med individernas uppfattningar.

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    Är verkligen allt politik?
  • 34.
    Denk, Thomas
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Hedström, Karin
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business. Department of Informatics.
    Karlsson, Fredrik
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business. Department of Informatics.
    Citizens' attitudes towards automated decision-making2022In: Information Polity, ISSN 1570-1255, E-ISSN 1875-8754, Vol. 27, no 3, p. 391-408Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Public organisations are starting to show an interest in automated decision-making (ADM). So far, existing research focuses on the governmental perspective on this phenomenon. Less attention is paid to citizens' views on ADM. The aim of this study is to provide empirical insights into citizen awareness of and beliefs about ADM in public-sector services. To this end, we participated in an annual national survey in Sweden carried out by the SOM Institute at Gothenburg University concluding that a minority of the citizens know about the use of ADM in public-sector services. Furthermore, when computers instead of civil servants make decisions in the public-sector, citizens expect decisions by computers to become less legally secure but more impartial. They also expect ADM to take personal circumstances into account to a lesser degree and become less transparent. Finally, we found that citizens with that awareness expect decisions by computers to become more reliable and impartial. Based on our empirical findings in relation to previous research, we suggest four hypotheses on citizen's awareness and beliefs about public-sector ADM.

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    Citizens' attitudes towards automated decision-making
  • 35.
    Denk, Thomas
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Hedström, Karin
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Karlsson, Fredrik
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Medborgarna och automatiserat beslutsfattande2019In: Storm och Stiltje: SOM-institutets 74:e forskarantologi / [ed] Ulrika Andersson, Björn Rönnerstrand, Patrik Öhberg och Annika Bergström, Göteborg: SOM-institutet , 2019, 1, p. 183-196Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    I allt större utsträckning införs automatiserat beslutsfattande i offentlig sektor. Det innebär att datorer ersätter handläggare som beslutsfattare. Flera av de ärenden som avgörs med automatiserat beslutsfattande berör medborgarna. Detta kapitel undersöker om medborgarna är medvetna om denna förändring och hur de tror att besluten förändras när datorer ersätter handläggare som beslutsfattare. Resultaten visar att det är en minoritet (20 procent) som har kännedom sedan tidigare om automatiserat beslutsfattande i offentlig sektor. En majoritet tror att besluten förvisso blir mer opartiska när datorer istället för handläggare fattar beslut, men inte att besluten blir mer tillförlitliga. De tror också att automatiska beslut kommer att ta mindre hänsyn till människornas situation och minska insynen i beslutsfattandet. De som har kännedom om automatiserat beslutsfattande är mer positiva när det gäller beslutens opartiskhet och tillförlitlighet, men anser i samma utsträckning som de utan kännedom att besluten medför mindre hänsynstagande till människors situation och minskad insyn i beslutsfattandet.

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    Medborgarna och automatiserat beslutsfattande
  • 36.
    Denk, Thomas
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Hedström, Karin
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Karlsson, Fredrik
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Whilborg, Elin
    Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Medborgarnas inställning till automatiserat beslutsfattande2020In: Digitala är vi allihopa?: Den västsvenska SOM-undersökningen 2019 / [ed] Anders Carlander & Ulrika Andersson, Göteborg: SOM-institutet, Göteborgs universitet , 2020, p. 78-89Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Alltfler myndigheter inför automatiserat beslutsfattande, vilket innebär att en dator fattar beslut istället för handläggare och utredare. Detta kapitel undersöker med- borgarnas inställning till att öka det automatiserade beslutsfattandet i myndigheter. Kapitlets analyser visar att en majoritet (64 procent) anser att det är ett mycket dåligt eller ganska dåligt förslag att datorer ska få ta över fler beslut i myndigheter. Analyserna indikerar också att inställningen har samband med socio-demografisk bakgrund, politiska förhållningssätt och framtidsoro för AI, automatisering och robotisering. Den negativa inställningen återfinns i samtliga grupper. Det är dessutom så att det snarare är graden av negativ inställning som varierar mellan grupper än inställningen som sådan. Med dessa resultat framträder en möjlig spänning mellan utvecklingen inom myndigheter och medborgarnas inställning till automatiserat beslutsfattande.

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    Medborgarnas inställning till automatiserat beslutsfattande
  • 37.
    Denk, Thomas
    et al.
    Department of Political Science, Åbo Akademi University, Åbo, Finland.
    Lehtinen, Sarah
    Department of Political Science, Åbo Akademi University, Åbo, Finland.
    Contextual analyses with QCA-methods2014In: Quality and quantity, ISSN 0033-5177, E-ISSN 1573-7845, Vol. 48, no 6, p. 3475-3487Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Contextual analyses are essential in comparative research, as they investigate the importance of contextual conditions for causal relationships. During the last decades, an increasing number of comparative studies have also focused on how contextual conditions affect causal relationships. At the same time, new comparative methods have been developed based on set-theoretical logics. Two of the most prominent methods are csQCA and fsQCA, which are used in comparative studies with increasing frequency. However, the conventional design for contextual analysis is still based on quantitative methods and the use of interaction-factors. This article discusses why the use of interaction-factors is not suitable together with QCA-methods. Instead of the conventional design, the article presents an alternative design for contextual analyses with QCA-methods grounded on subgroup-design. Based on one recently-developed methodology comparative multilevel analysis (CMA), some guidelines for performing contextual analyses with two set-theoretical methods (csQCA and fsQCA) are presented. As illustrated with examples, the combination of CMA and QCA provides opportunities to use QCA for contextual analysis.

  • 38.
    Denk, Thomas
    et al.
    Department of Political Science, Åbo Akademi University, Åbo, Finland.
    Lehtinen, Sarah
    Department of Political Science, Åbo Akademi University, Åbo, Finland.
    Hur identifieras stater?: Jämförelse av alternativa tillvägagångssätt2014In: Politiikka, ISSN 0032-3365, Vol. 56, no 4, p. 312-319Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 39.
    Denk, Thomas
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Lehtinen, Sarah
    The Swedish National Council for Crime Prevention, Stockholm, Sweden.
    State-Formation and Democratization: A New Classification2019 (ed. 1)Book (Refereed)
  • 40.
    Denk, Thomas
    et al.
    Department of Political Science, Åbo Akademi University, Turku, Finland.
    Lehtinen, Sarah
    Department of Political Science, Åbo Akademi University, Turku, Finland.
    Two modes of democratisation: transition and state-formation2016In: Quality & Quantity: International Journal of Methodology, ISSN 0033-5177, Vol. 50, no 6, p. 2331-2346Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous studies about democracies on a global level have assumed that democratisation occurs when an autocratic regime moves toward becoming a democratic regime. This article recognises an alternative mode to democratic transition: democratisation by state-formation, which occurs when democratic regimes are established in new states as an outcome of state-formation. The article describes how cases of democratisation can be classified according the two modes of democratisation. Furthermore, the classification is applied in illustrative analyses of democratisation on the global level during 1800-2007. The analyses describe how transition and state-formation have affected the global number of democracies. These analyses indicate that both modes of democratisation have empirical relevance and that the classification provides a more complete description of the global development of democracies than previous studies. The main conclusion of this article is therefore a proposal for future studies to include both modes to understand and explain democratisation on the global level.

  • 41.
    Denk, Thomas
    et al.
    Department of Political Science, Åbo Akademi University, Finland.
    Silander, Daniel
    Linnéuniversitetet, Växjö, Sweden.
    Att studera demokratisering: fenomen, förlopp, förutsättningar & framtid2007 (ed. 1)Book (Refereed)
  • 42.
    Denk, Thomas
    et al.
    Department of Political Science, Åbo Akademi University, Finland.
    Silander, Daniel
    Växjö University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Social Sciences.
    Demokratins utmaningar?: En analys av 60 delvis fria länder2009In: Politiikka, ISSN 0032-3365, Vol. 51, no 3, p. 174-186Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article explores the nature of democratic challenges in 60 partly free countries in the world. The number of partly free countries has increased since the 1970s. These partly free countries share the commonality of democratic and antidemocratic institutions. However, few studies have explored what challenges these countries face and what similarities and differences in challenges that exist. This study explores these questions and develops a typology of four alternative democratization processes to set out the intensity and scope of challenges among the partly free countries. The result shows that the partly free countries are a heterogeneous group of countries with complex sets of challenges. However, most partly free countries are in need of substantial democratic reforms. It is also identified that the two most severe challenges to democratization are found in functioning of government and rule of law

  • 43.
    Denk, Thomas
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences. Department of Political Science, Åbo Akademi University, Åbo, Finland.
    Silander, Daniel
    Linnéuniversitetet, Växjö, Sweden.
    Demokratiska utmaningar hos de nordiska länderna 2002-20102013In: Politiikka, ISSN 0032-3365, Vol. 55, no 3, p. 139-150Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 44.
    Denk, Thomas
    et al.
    Department of Political Science, Åbo Akademi University, Åbo, Finland.
    Silander, Daniel
    Linnéuniversitetet, Växjö, Sweden.
    Problems in Paradise?: Challenges to future democratization in democratic states2012In: International Political Science Review, ISSN 0192-5121, E-ISSN 1460-373X, Vol. 33, no 1, p. 25-40Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    What are the challenges to future democratization in states regarded as democratic? This study shows that some states that are traditionally regarded as democratic consist of political institutions in need of further democratization. On average, states that are classified as democratic have one or two institutional dimensions in need of further democratization. The main institutional dimensions in need of democratization are functions of government, rule of law, personal autonomy and individual rights. In order to investigate challenges to future democratization, the study presents a methodology that uses Freedom House Index and Polity Index in a new innovative way.

  • 45.
    Denk, Thomas
    et al.
    Department of Political Science, Åbo Akademi University, Åbo, Finland.
    Silander, Daniel
    Linnéuniversitetet, Växjö, Sweden.
    Regime Heterogeneity: A Comparative Study on Institutional Variation in Political Regimes2011 (ed. 1)Book (Refereed)
  • 46.
    Denk, Thomas
    et al.
    Department of Political Science, Åbo Akademi University, Finland.
    Åberg, Martin
    Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Politics and History, Karlstad University, Karlstad, Sweden.
    Inledning2008In: Regioner i rörelse: Perspektiv på svenska regionaliseringsprocesser / [ed] Thomas Denk & Martin Åberg, Åbo: Åbo Akademi , 2008, p. 1-15Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 47.
    Denk, Thomas
    et al.
    Department of Political Science, Åbo Akademi University, Finland.
    Åberg, MartinFaculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Politics and History, Karlstad University, Karlstad, Sweden.
    Regioner i rörelse: Perspektiv på svenska regionaliseringsprocesser2008Collection (editor) (Refereed)
  • 48.
    Denk, Thomas
    et al.
    Department of Political Science, Åbo Akademi University, Finland.
    Åberg, Martin
    Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Politics and History, Karlstad University, Karlstad, Sweden.
    Storlek och demokrati: fragmentering och konsolidering2008In: Regioner i rörelse: Perspektiv på svenska regionaliseringsprocesser / [ed] Thomas Denk & Martin Åberg, Åbo: Åbo Akademi , 2008, p. 142-163Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 49.
    Hustinx, Lesley
    et al.
    Postdoctoral Fellow of the Research Foundation—Flanders, Centre for Sociological Research, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Belgium.
    Denk, Thomas
    Department of Political Science, Åbo Akademi University, Finland.
    The "black box" problem in the study of participation2009In: Journal of Civil Society, ISSN 1744-8689, E-ISSN 1744-8697, Vol. 5, no 3, p. 209-226Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research on citizen participation has been guided by two core issues: first, the observation of a widening repertory of modes of participation, and second, the argument that participation is not an undifferentiated phenomenon, but must be conceived as an inherently multidimensional reality. In this article, we argue that conventional participation research has focused too one-sidedly on quantitatively expanding the range of types of activities, while the complex dimensionality is not reflected in the measures used. We formulate a methodological critique by using the metaphor of the ‘black box’, which refers to the implicit and unquestioned assumption that distinct types of activities and associations represent homogeneous and consistent realities that do not warrant further analytical decomposition. Surveys of participation allocate individuals to different ‘participation boxes’ by means of a binary logic, leaving a void of what is actually happening inside the boxes. To conclude, we reflect upon the fundamental dilemmas the black box of participation raises for theory and research, and offer conceptual and methodological keys to unlock the participation box.

  • 50.
    Johansson, Anna
    et al.
    Division of Public Health Sciences, Department of Health and Environmental Sciences, Karlstad University, Karlstad, Sweden.
    Denk, Thomas
    Department of Political Science, Åbo Akademi University, Åbo, Finland.
    Svedung, Inge
    Division of Public Health Sciences, Department of Health and Environmental Sciences, Karlstad University, Karlstad, Sweden.
    Institutionalization of risk and safety management at the local governmental level in Sweden2009In: Journal of Risk Research, ISSN 1366-9877, E-ISSN 1466-4461, Vol. 12, no 5, p. 687-708Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The starting point for this article is the need for empirical knowledge about organizational configuration for societal risk and safety management activities in a modern welfare society. In this paper, we use Sweden as an empirical frame to analyze the administrative management structure at the local governmental level. The analysis is based on statistical analysis of information from a web‐survey with administrative chief/head officials (n = 1283) with responsibilities for different municipal functions and sectors. The sample represented 25% of the Swedish municipalities (n = 290) and the response rate was approximately 60% (n = 766). The responses to two sets of questions (25 and 45 questions) are used for statistical analyses of management structures and task distribution within the municipal organizations. Principal component factor analyses with Varimax and Kaiser's Normalization was applied as a structure detection method. The results indicate a clear and uniform way to institutionalize societal risk and safety management at the local level. Furthermore, the management course of action is found to have different types of value characters. The implications that arise from the patterns identified in this study are considered to be of general relevance and topicality for research and practice in this area.

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