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  • 1.
    Hüllmann, Dino
    et al.
    Bundesanstalt für Materialforschung und -prüfung (BAM), Berlin, Germany.
    Kohlhoff, Harald
    Bundesanstalt für Materialforschung und -prüfung (BAM), Berlin, Germany.
    Erdmann, Jessica
    Bundesanstalt für Materialforschung und -prüfung (BAM), Berlin, Germany.
    Neumann, Patrick P.
    Bundesanstalt für Materialforschung und -prüfung (BAM), Berlin, Germany.
    Control of a spherical parallel manipulator2019In: Materials Today: Proceedings, E-ISSN 2214-7853, Vol. 12, no 2, p. 423-430Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In mobile robot applications, some sensors such as open-path gas detectors or laser rangefinders need to be aimed at specific targets in order to get the desired measurements. To do this in a fast and elegant manner, we present a spherical parallel manipulator with three degrees of freedom. Compared to typical serial manipulators, it offers superior dynamics and structural stiffness, which are important parameters for this type of task. We present the mechanical design and derive kinematic equations both to compute set-points for the desired orientation and to estimate the current state of the system. A PID controller is used to generate control signals.

  • 2.
    Hüllmann, Dino
    et al.
    Bundesanstalt für Materialforschung und -prüfung (BAM), Berlin, Germany.
    Kohlhoff, Harald
    Bundesanstalt für Materialforschung und -prüfung (BAM), Berlin, Germany.
    Erdmann, Jessica
    Bundesanstalt für Materialforschung und -prüfung (BAM), Berlin, Germany.
    Neumann, Patrick P.
    Bundesanstalt für Materialforschung und -prüfung (BAM), Berlin, Germany.
    Control of a spherical parallel manipulator with three degrees of freedom2018In: 35th Danubia-Adria Symposium on Advances in Experimental Mechanics: Extended abstracts / [ed] D. Ş. Pastramă, D. M. Constantinescu, Bukarest, Romania, 2018, p. 159-160Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In robotic applications, it is often necessary to orient a sensor quickly. Spherical parallel manipulators (SPM) are well suited for this purpose since they offer superior dynamics and structural stiffness as compared to serial manipulators. To control them, however, the kinematic equations have to be known. In this paper, a SPM with three degrees of freedom and the kinematic equations describing its mechanical properties are presented.

  • 3.
    Hüllmann, Dino
    et al.
    Bundesanstalt für Materialforschung und -prüfung (BAM), Berlin, Germany.
    Kohlhoff, Harald
    Bundesanstalt für Materialforschung und -prüfung (BAM), Berlin, Germany.
    Erdmann, Jessica
    Bundesanstalt für Materialforschung und -prüfung (BAM), Berlin, Germany.
    Neumann, Patrick P.
    Bundesanstalt für Materialforschung und -prüfung (BAM), Berlin, Germany.
    Current-independent torque control of permanent-magnet synchronous motors2017In: Materials Today: Proceedings, E-ISSN 2214-7853, Vol. 4, no 5, p. 5821-5826Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A current-independent torque equation for the permanent-magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) aiming at direct-drive servo applications is derived from a first principles model. Instead of measuring currents, all required control parameters are derived from optical incremental encoder measurements. The results are verified on a real system in test series showing the effect of static friction and proving the obtained torque model.

  • 4.
    Hüllmann, Dino
    et al.
    Bundesanstalt für Materialforschung und -prüfung (BAM), Berlin, Germany.
    Neumann, Patrick P.
    Bundesanstalt für Materialforschung und -prüfung (BAM), Berlin, Germany.
    Lilienthal, Achim J.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Gas Dispersion Fluid Mechanics Simulation for Large Outdoor Environments2019In: 36th Danubia Adria Symposium on Advances in Experimental Mechanics: Extended Abstracts, Pilsen, Czech Republic: Danubia-Adria Symposium on Advances in Experimental Mechanics , 2019, p. 49-50Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The development of algorithms for mapping gas distributions and localising gas sources is a challenging task, because gas dispersion is a highly dynamic process and it is impossible to capture ground truth data. Fluid-mechanical simulations are a suitable way to support the development of these algorithms. Several tools for gas dispersion simulation have been developed, but they are not suitable for simulations of large outdoor environments. In this paper, we present a concept of how an existing simulator can be extended to handle both indoor and large outdoor scenarios.

  • 5.
    Hüllmann, Dino
    et al.
    Bundesanstalt für Materialforschung und -prüfung (BAM), Berlin, Germany.
    Neumann, Patrick P.
    Bundesanstalt für Materialforschung und -prüfung (BAM), Berlin, Germany.
    Monroy, Javier
    Machine Perception and Intelligent Robotics group (MAPIR), Universidad de Malaga, Spain.
    Lilienthal, Achim J.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    A Realistic Remote Gas Sensor Model for Three-Dimensional Olfaction Simulations2019In: ISOCS/IEEE International Symposium on Olfaction and Electronic Nose (ISOEN), IEEE, 2019, article id 8823330Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Remote gas sensors like those based on the Tunable Diode Laser Absorption Spectroscopy (TDLAS) enable mobile robots to scan huge areas for gas concentrations in reasonable time and are therefore well suited for tasks such as gas emission surveillance and environmental monitoring. A further advantage of remote sensors is that the gas distribution is not disturbed by the sensing platform itself if the measurements are carried out from a sufficient distance, which is particularly interesting when a rotary-wing platform is used. Since there is no possibility to obtain ground truth measurements of gas distributions, simulations are used to develop and evaluate suitable olfaction algorithms. For this purpose several models of in-situ gas sensors have been developed, but models of remote gas sensors are missing. In this paper we present two novel 3D ray-tracer-based TDLAS sensor models. While the first model simplifies the laser beam as a line, the second model takes the conical shape of the beam into account. Using a simulated gas plume, we compare the line model with the cone model in terms of accuracy and computational cost and show that the results generated by the cone model can differ significantly from those of the line model.

  • 6.
    Hüllmann, Dino
    et al.
    Bundesanstalt für Materialforschung und -prüfung (BAM) Berlin, Germany.
    Neumann, Patrick
    Bundesanstalt für Materialforschung und -prüfung (BAM) Berlin, Germany.
    Scheuschner, Nils
    Bundesanstalt für Materialforschung und -prüfung (BAM) Berlin, Germany.
    Bartholmai, Matthias
    Bundesanstalt für Materialforschung und -prüfung (BAM) Berlin, Germany.
    Lilienthal, Achim J.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Experimental Validation of the Cone-Shaped Remote Gas Sensor Model2019In: 2019 IEEE SENSORS, 2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Remote gas sensors mounted on mobile robotsenable the mapping of gas distributions in large or hardlyaccessible areas. A challenging task, however, is the generation ofthree-dimensional distribution maps from the gas measurements.Suitable reconstruction algorithms can be adapted, for instance,from the field of computed tomography (CT), but both theirperformance and strategies for selecting optimal measuring posesmust be evaluated. For this purpose simulations are used, since, incontrast to field tests, they allow repeatable conditions. Althoughseveral simulation tools exist, they lack realistic models of remotegas sensors. Recently, we introduced a model for a Tunable DiodeLaser Absorption Spectroscopy (TDLAS) gas sensor taking intoaccount the conical shape of its laser beam. However, the novelmodel has not yet been validated with experiments. In this paperwe compare our model with a real sensor device and show thatthe assumptions made hold.

    Download full text (pdf)
    Experimental Validation of the Cone-Shaped Remote Gas Sensor Model
  • 7.
    Hüllmann, Dino
    et al.
    Bundesanstalt für Materialforschung und -prüfung (BAM), Berlin, Germany.
    Paul, Niels
    Bundesanstalt für Materialforschung und -prüfung (BAM), Berlin, Germany.
    Kohlhoff, Harald
    Bundesanstalt für Materialforschung und -prüfung (BAM), Berlin, Germany.
    Neumann, Patrick P.
    Bundesanstalt für Materialforschung und -prüfung (BAM), Berlin, Germany.
    Lilienthal, Achim
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Measuring rotor speed for wind vector estimation on multirotor aircraft2018In: Materials Today: Proceedings, E-ISSN 2214-7853, Vol. 5, no 13, p. 26703-26708Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    For several applications involving multirotor aircraft, it is crucial to know both the direction and speed of the ambient wind. In this paper, an approach to wind vector estimation based on an equilibrium of the principal forces acting on the aircraft is shown. As the thrust force generated by the rotors depends on their rotational speed, a sensor to measure this quantity is required. Two concepts for such a sensor are presented: One is based on tapping the signal carrying the speed setpoint for the motor controllers, the other one uses phototransistors placed underneath the rotor blades. While some complications were encountered with the first approach, the second yields accurate measurement data. This is shown by an experiment comparing the proposed speed sensor to a commercial non-contact tachometer.

  • 8.
    Hüllmann, Dino
    et al.
    Bundesanstalt für Materialforschung und -prüfung (BAM), Berlin, Germany.
    Paul, Niels
    Bundesanstalt für Materialforschung und -prüfung (BAM), Berlin, Germany.
    Neumann, Patrick P.
    Bundesanstalt für Materialforschung und -prüfung (BAM), Berlin, Germany.
    Lilienthal, Achim
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Motor Speed Transfer Function for Wind Vector Estimation on Multirotor Aircraft2017In: 34th Danubia-Adria Symposium on Advances in Experimental Mechanics: Book of proceedings / [ed] F. Cosmi, Trieste, Italy: EUT Edizioni Università di Trieste , 2017, p. 75-77Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A set of equations is derived to estimate the 3D wind vector with a multirotor aircraft using the aircraft itself as a flying anemometer. Since the thrust component is required to compute the wind vector, the PWM signal controlling the motors of the aircraft is measured and a transfer function describing the relation between the PWM signal and the rotational speed of the motors is derived.

  • 9.
    Neumann, Patrick P.
    et al.
    Bundesanstalt für Materialforschung und -prüfung (BAM), Berlin, Germany.
    Hirschberger, Paul
    Bundesanstalt für Materialforschung und -prüfung (BAM), Berlin, Germany.
    Baurzhan, Zhandos
    Bundesanstalt für Materialforschung und -prüfung (BAM), Berlin, Germany.
    Tiebe, Carlo
    Bundesanstalt für Materialforschung und -prüfung (BAM), Berlin, Germany.
    Hofmann, Michael
    Bundesanstalt für Materialforschung und -prüfung (BAM), Berlin, Germany.
    Hüllmann, Dino
    Bundesanstalt für Materialforschung und -prüfung (BAM), Berlin, Germany.
    Bartholmai, Matthias
    Bundesanstalt für Materialforschung und -prüfung (BAM), Berlin, Germany.
    Indoor Air Quality Monitoring using flying Nanobots: Design and Experimental Study2019In: ISOCS/IEEE International Symposium on Olfaction and Electronic Nose (ISOEN), IEEE, 2019, p. 1-3Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we introduce a nano aerial robot swarm for Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) monitoring applications such as occupational health and safety of (industrial) workplaces. The robotic swarm is composed of nano Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs), based on the Crazyflie 2.0 quadrocopter, and small lightweight Metal Oxide (MOX) gas sensors for measuring the Total Volatile Organic Compound (TVOC), which is a measure for IAQ. An indoor localization and positioning system is used to estimate the absolute 3D position of the swarm similar to GPS. A test scenario was built up to validate and optimize the swarm for the intended applications. Besides calibration of the IAQ sensors, we performed experiments to investigate the influence of the rotor downwash on the gas measurements at different altitudes and compared them with stationary measurements. Moreover, we did a first evaluation of the gas distribution mapping performance. Based on this novel IAQ monitoring concept, new algorithms in the field of Mobile Robot Olfaction (MRO) are planned to be developed exploiting the abilities of an aerial robotic swarm.

  • 10.
    Neumann, Patrick P.
    et al.
    Bundesanstalt für Materialforschung und -prüfung (BAM), Berlin, Germany.
    Hüllmann, Dino
    Bundesanstalt für Materialforschung und -prüfung (BAM), Berlin, Germany.
    Bartholmai, Matthias
    Bundesanstalt für Materialforschung und -prüfung (BAM), Berlin, Germany.
    Concept of a gas-sensitive nano aerial robot swarm for indoor air quality monitoring2018In: 35th Danubia-Adria Symposium on Advances in Experimental Mechanics: Extended abstracts / [ed] D. Ş Pastramă, D. M. Constantinescu, Bukarest, Romania, 2018, p. 139-140Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In industrial environments, airborne by-products such as dust and (toxic) gases, constitute a major risk for the worker’s health. Major changes in automated processes in the industry lead to an increasing demand for solutions in air quality management. Thus, occupational health experts are highly interested in precise dust and gas distribution models for working environments. For practical and economic reasons, high-quality, costly measurements are often available for short time-intervals only. Therefore, current monitoring procedures are carried out sparsely, both in time and space, i.e., measurement data are collected in single day campaigns at selected locations only. Real-time knowledge of contaminant distributions inside the working environment would also provide means for better and more economic control of air impurities. For example, the possibility to regulate the workspace’s ventilation exhaust locations can reduce the concentration of airborne contaminants by 50%. To improve the occupational health and safety of (industrial) workplaces, this work aims for developing a swarm of gas-sensitive aerial nano robots for monitoring indoor air quality and for localizing potential emission sources.

  • 11.
    Neumann, Patrick P.
    et al.
    Bundesanstalt für Materialforschung und -prüfung (BAM), Berlin, Germany.
    Hüllmann, Dino
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology. Bundesanstalt für Materialforschung und -prüfung (BAM), Berlin, Germany.
    Bartholmai, Matthias
    Bundesanstalt für Materialforschung und -prüfung (BAM), Berlin, Germany.
    Concept of a gas-sensitive nano aerial robot swarm for indoor air quality monitoring2019In: Materials Today: Proceedings, E-ISSN 2214-7853, Vol. 12, no 2, p. 470-473Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we introduce a nano aerial robot swarm for indoor air quality monitoring applications such as occupational health and safety of (industrial) workplaces. The concept combines a robotic swarm composing of nano Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (nano UAVs), based on the Crazyflie 2.0 quadrocopter, and small lightweight metal oxide gas sensors for measuring the Total Volatile Organic Compound (TVOC) in ppb and estimating the eCO2 (equivalent calculated carbon-dioxide) concentration in ppm. TVOC is a measure for the indoor air quality. An indoor localization and positioning system will be used to estimate the absolute 3D position of the swarm like GPS. Based on this novel indoor air quality monitoring concept, the development and validation of new algorithms in the field of Mobile Robot Olfaction (MRO) are planned, namely gas source localization and gas distribution mapping. A test scenario will be built up to validate and optimize the gas-sensitive nano aerial robot swarm for the intended applications.

  • 12.
    Neumann, Patrick P.
    et al.
    Department 8 Non-destructive testing, Bundesanstalt für Materialforschung und -prüfung (BAM), Berlin, Germany.
    Hüllmann, Dino
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology. Department 8 Non-destructive testing, Bundesanstalt für Materialforschung und -prüfung (BAM), Berlin, Germany.
    Krentel, Daniel
    Department 8 Non-destructive testing, Bundesanstalt für Materialforschung und -prüfung (BAM), Berlin, Germany.
    Kluge, Martin
    Department 8 Non-destructive testing, Bundesanstalt für Materialforschung und -prüfung (BAM), Berlin, Germany.
    Dzierliński, Marcin
    Dział Urządzeń Ciśnieniowych, Urząd Dozoru Technicznego (UDT), Poland.
    Lilienthal, Achim J.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Bartholmai, Matthias
    Department 8 Non-destructive testing, Bundesanstalt für Materialforschung und -prüfung (BAM), Berlin, Germany.
    Aerial-based gas tomography: from single beams to complex gas distributions2019In: European Journal of Remote Sensing, ISSN 2279-7254, Vol. 52, no Sup. 3, p. 2-16Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we present and validate the concept of an autonomous aerial robot to reconstruct tomographic 2D slices of gas plumes in outdoor environments. Our platform, the so-called Unmanned Aerial Vehicle for Remote Gas Sensing (UAV-REGAS), combines a lightweight Tunable Diode Laser Absorption Spectroscopy (TDLAS) gas sensor with a 3-axis aerial stabilization gimbal for aiming at a versatile octocopter. While the TDLAS sensor provides integral gas concentration measurements, it does not measure the distance traveled by the laser diode?s beam nor the distribution of gas along the optical path. Thus, we complement the set-up with a laser rangefinder and apply principles of Computed Tomography (CT) to create a model of the spatial gas distribution from a set of integral concentration measurements. To allow for a fundamental ground truth evaluation of the applied gas tomography algorithm, we set up a unique outdoor test environment based on two 3D ultrasonic anemometers and a distributed array of 10 infrared gas transmitters. We present results showing its performance characteristics and 2D plume reconstruction capabilities under realistic conditions. The proposed system can be deployed in scenarios that cannot be addressed by currently available robots and thus constitutes a significant step forward for the field of Mobile Robot Olfaction (MRO).

  • 13.
    Neumann, Patrick P.
    et al.
    Bundesanstalt für Materialforschung und -prüfung (BAM), Berlin, Germany.
    Hüllmann, Dino
    Bundesanstalt für Materialforschung und -prüfung (BAM), Berlin, Germany.
    Krentel, Daniel
    Bundesanstalt für Materialforschung und -prüfung (BAM), Berlin, Germany.
    Kluge, Martin
    Bundesanstalt für Materialforschung und -prüfung (BAM), Berlin, Germany.
    Kohlhoff, Harald
    Bundesanstalt für Materialforschung und -prüfung (BAM), Berlin, Germany.
    Lilienthal, Achim
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Gas Tomography Up In The Air!2018In: Proceedings of the IEEE Sensors 2018, IEEE, 2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we present an autonomous aerial robot to reconstruct tomographic 2D slices of gas plumes in outdoor environments. Our platform, the so-called Unmanned Aerial Vehicle for Remote Gas Sensing (UAV-REGAS) combines a lightweight Tunable Diode Laser Absorption Spectroscopy (TDLAS) sensor with a 3-axis aerial stabilization gimbal for aiming on a versatile octocopter. The TDLAS sensor provides integral gas concentration measurements but no information regarding the distance traveled by the laser diode's beam or the distribution of the gas along the optical path. We complemented the set-up with a laser rangefinder and apply principles of Computed Tomography (CT) to create a model of the spatial gas distribution from these integral concentration measurements. To allow for a rudimentary ground truth evaluation of the applied gas tomography algorithm, we set up a unique outdoor test environment based on two 3D ultrasonic anemometers and a distributed array of 10 infrared gas transmitters. We present first results showing the 2D plume reconstruction capabilities of the system under realistic conditions.

  • 14.
    Neumann, Patrick P.
    et al.
    Bundesanstalt für Materialforschung und -prüfung (BAM), Berlin, Germany.
    Kohlhoff, Harald
    Bundesanstalt für Materialforschung und -prüfung (BAM), Berlin, Germany.
    Hüllmann, Dino
    Bundesanstalt für Materialforschung und -prüfung (BAM), Berlin, Germany.
    Lilienthal, Achim
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Kluge, Martin
    Bundesanstalt für Materialforschung und -prüfung (BAM), Berlin, Germany.
    Bringing Mobile Robot Olfaction to the Next Dimension - UAV-based Remote Sensing of Gas Clouds and Source Localization2017In: 2017 IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation (ICRA), Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2017, p. 3910-3916Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper introduces a novel robotic platform for aerial remote gas sensing. Spectroscopic measurement methods for remote sensing of selected gases lend themselves for use on mini-copters, which offer a number of advantages for inspection and surveillance. No direct contact with the target gas is needed and thus the influence of the aerial platform on the measured gas plume can be kept to a minimum. This allows to overcome one of the major issues with gas-sensitive mini-copters. On the other hand, remote gas sensors, most prominently Tunable Diode Laser Absorption Spectroscopy (TDLAS) sensors have been too bulky given the payload and energy restrictions of mini-copters. Here, we introduce and present the Unmanned Aerial Vehicle for Remote Gas Sensing (UAV-REGAS), which combines a novel lightweight TDLAS sensor with a 3-axis aerial stabilization gimbal for aiming on a versatile hexacopter. The proposed system can be deployed in scenarios that cannot be addressed by currently available robots and thus constitutes a significant step forward for the field of Mobile Robot Olfaction (MRO). It enables tomographic reconstruction of gas plumes and a localization of gas sources. We also present first results showing the gas sensing and aiming capabilities under realistic conditions.

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