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  • 1.
    Kvarnhall, Victor
    Örebro universitet, Musikhögskolan.
    Pojkars musik, reproduktionens tystnad: en explanatorisk studie av pojkars reproducerande förhållningssätt till populärmusik och populärmusicerande2015Doktoravhandling, monografi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Popular music life is permeated by both male dominance and gender segregation – the latter most notably concerns musical instrument choice. The pervasiveness of these phenomena is suggested by both music research on gender and statistics. In this study, the overarching ambition is to explain boys' reproductive approaches to popular music/making. In order to successfully carry out a study with such an explanatory ambition, a theory of causality in social life is necessary. In this thesis the notion of causality is taken from a critical realist tradition.

    However, explanation and causal analysis is most often rejected among music researchers who deal with questions of gender. Nonetheless, I would argue that explanatory ambitions are tacit starting points in this kind of research, and the field would stand to gain from making them explicit. Therefore I have formulated two aims, which my study addresses. The first one is to explain boys' reproductive approaches to popular music/making, in regard to male dominance and gender segregation. The second one is more theoretically oriented: to apply critical realism within music research on gender.

    The aims has been fulfilled by, first, identifying the boys' adoption of and distancing from different approaches to popular music/musicians and musical instruments. Second, the boys' approaches are explained by reconstructing the social, cultural and psychological conditions that has enabled them. Altogether, this demonstrates why and how the boys' reproductive approaches arise, which (potentially) lead to a reproduction of the male dominance and gender segregation within the popular music field.

  • 2.
    Tägil, Ingela
    Örebro universitet, Musikhögskolan.
    Jenny Lind: röstens betydelse för hennes mediala identitet, en studie av hennes konstnärsskap 1838-492013Doktoravhandling, monografi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Jenny Lind was an opera singer in the years 1838–49. During this time she was given the status f an icon mainly due to her image. She was almost sanctified by the press. Her “private personality” was assigned a saintly purity, and she became a stereotype symbol of femininity. This dissertation investigates what factors interacted that made this possible, and highlight the importance of Lind’s voice for her image. Jenny Lind’s voice was a high soprano, but not very powerful. By positioning herself in a singing tradition that corresponded to her voice’s advantages, she managed to develop an equilibrium, which she used well. Lind’s voice was often perceived as unusual; she had a particular voice timbre. She also had a vocal defect. Her tones from f’–a’ are described as “husky”, and sometimes hoarse. This means that her voice let through more air than her vocal cords could use. My argument is that it was the voice damage that created unique timbre that the contemporary critics perceived as particularly “feminine”. Lind’s weak and damaged voice corresponds to the nineteenth century’s female ideal: fragile and weak. Moreover, Lind needed to adept her roles to her damage voice and the consequence was that also her interpretations were perceived “feminine”. In other words, Lind exerted a gender performative voice processing. All of Jenny Lind’s roles became representatives of femininity, regardless of whether it was the role’s purpose or not. Lind adapted all her interpretations to her weak voce, it's strength being high notes, pianissimo dynamics and equilibrism, and gave all her roles a genderstereotyped voice.

  • 3.
    Ullsten, Alexandra
    Örebro universitet, Musikhögskolan.
    Singing, sharing, soothing: Family-centred music therapy during painful procedures in neonatal care2019Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    To sing is to communicate. The soothing, comforting and emotional regulating properties of a lullaby are well-known cross-culturally and historically. This doctoral thesis addresses neonatal pain management from a novel and groundbreaking perspective, studying the efficacy of live music therapy on infants’ pain responses during venepuncture. New research is needed to advance the non-pharmacological interventions in neonatal pain care, and neonatal music therapy (NICU MT) offers active methods to involve the parents in pain management. The doctoral thesis includes two empirical and two theoretical articles. In paper I, preterm and term infants (n=38) were subjected to venepuncture with and without live lullaby singing, in a randomised order with a crossover design. Parent-preferred lullabies were performed live by a music therapy student and standard care was provided for all infants. The results did not show any significant pain-alleviating effects, however, the live singing was not stressful for the infants.

    In paper II, the microanalysis disclosed that live lullaby singing is a communicative reciprocal intervention that also applies to premature infants during painful procedures. Live lullaby singing is a tool suitable as a means to optimise the homeostatic mechanisms. The results from the theoretical papers III and IV are further developed and synthesised in the thesis into a theoretical strategy; The Nordic NICU MT pain management strategy, featuring the parents and their singing voices as mediators for pain relief. The role of the music therapist in neonatal pain management is as a facilitator and an educator for the parents. Coaching parents to better meet their infant’s attachment needs during a painful procedure may lead to more efficacious interventions. The biopsychosocial parental infant-directed singing is presumably an applicable parent-driven non-pharmacological intervention, which promotes pain relief and attachment formation during painful procedures. Neonatal music therapy is still in its infancy in the Nordic countries, but the societal and healthcare contexts afford important prerequisites to further develop NICU MT as a truly family-centred approach. This doctoral thesis will hopefully contribute to the important interdisciplinary endeavour worldwide of involving and integrating parents in neonatal pain management.

    Delarbeid
    1. Efficacy of Live Lullaby Singing During Procedural Pain in Preterm and Term Neonates
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Efficacy of Live Lullaby Singing During Procedural Pain in Preterm and Term Neonates
    Vise andre…
    2017 (engelsk)Inngår i: Music and Medicine, ISSN 1943-8621, Vol. 9, nr 2, s. 73-85Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
    Abstract [en]

    This clinical trial tested the pain relieving effect of live lullaby singing on behavioral and physiological pain responses during venepuncture in 38 preterm and full term neonates. Acute and repeated pain, as well as the use of analgesic drugs, may have long-term negative impact on infants’ development and future behaviour. This emphasizes the need for complementary approaches to pain management such as music therapy.

    Parent-preferred lullabies were performed live and standard care was provided for all neonates. Behavioral responses with regard to pain were assessed with Premature Infant Pain Profile-Revised (PIPP-R) and Behavioral Indicators of Infant Pain (BIIP). Heart rate, respiratory rate and oxygen saturation were measured each tenth second.

    Although the live lullaby singing did not show a statistically significant effect on the infants’ pain score, there was a significantly calmer breathing pattern in the lullaby intervention versus the control condition in the pre-needle stage, showing a non-significant trend towards higher oxygen saturation levels and calmer heart rate in the lullaby intervention versus the control condition in the pre-needle stage. There were non-significant indications of fewer and shorter skin punctures with lullaby singing. More research is needed to explore such positive trends in the data.

    sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
    PKP Publishing Services, 2017
    Emneord
    newborn infant, preterm infant, pain, music therapy, lullaby
    HSV kategori
    Forskningsprogram
    Musikvetenskap
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-68308 (URN)
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2018-07-31 Laget: 2018-07-31 Sist oppdatert: 2019-11-19bibliografisk kontrollert
    2. Live music therapy with lullaby singing as affective support during painful procedures: a case study with microanalysis
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Live music therapy with lullaby singing as affective support during painful procedures: a case study with microanalysis
    2017 (engelsk)Inngår i: Nordic Journal of Music Therapy, ISSN 0809-8131, Vol. 26, nr 2, s. 142-166Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
    Abstract [en]

    During the most vulnerable period in a child’s life, preterm and sick infants are exposed to a high number of painful procedures, sometimes without the comfort and affection of their parents. Since repeated pain and frequent use of analgesic drugs may have consequences for the neurological and behaviour-oriented development of the infant, it is vital to identify effective non-pharmacological interventions with regard to procedural pain. This paper reviews the use of live lullaby singing as an adjuvant to the control of premature infant pain. The objectives of this case study were to analyse the live lullaby singing for two premature infants during venipuncture in comparison to standard care only, and the infants’ physiological and affective responses emerging before, during and after this procedure. The empirical data stem from a quantitative clinical study. From this larger study, two premature infants were selected. Through microanalysis, with in-depth analysis of video footage, and pain assessment with Behavioral Indicators of Infant Pain (BIIP), painful standard care procedures with and without live lullaby singing, were analysed. The results show that live lullaby singing with premature infants is a communicative interaction which may optimize the homeostatic mechanisms of the infant during painful procedures. This case study shows the importance of predictability of the affective support, right from the start of the live singing intervention. It is important in a painful context that vocal interactions provide regular and comforting intensity, shape and temporal structures.

    sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
    Oxon, United Kingdom: Routledge, 2017
    Emneord
    Pain management, premature infants, music therapy, infant directed singing, lullaby
    HSV kategori
    Forskningsprogram
    Hälso- och sjukvårdsforskning
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-49326 (URN)10.1080/08098131.2015.1131187 (DOI)000394440800004 ()2-s2.0-84988566335 (Scopus ID)
    Merknad

    Funding Agencies:

    Värmland County Council, Sweden

    Queen Silvia's Jubilee Fund, Sweden

    Karin and Erik Gerdens Foundation, Sweden

    Berit and Carl-Johan Wettergrens Foundation, Sweden

    Tilgjengelig fra: 2016-03-13 Laget: 2016-03-13 Sist oppdatert: 2020-03-11bibliografisk kontrollert
    3. Singing, sharing, soothing: Biopsychosocial rationales for parental infant directed singing in neonatal pain management: A theoretical approach
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Singing, sharing, soothing: Biopsychosocial rationales for parental infant directed singing in neonatal pain management: A theoretical approach
    2018 (engelsk)Inngår i: Music & Science, ISSN 2059-2043, Vol. 1, s. 1-13Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Infant-directed singing is a medium for parents and infants to communicate in a mutual relationship. Parental infant-directed singing is a multisensory, biopsychosocial communication that applies to ill and vulnerable hospitalised infants. The primary musical features of infant-directed singing are ideal for emotional coordination and sharing between parent and infant without the risk of over-stimulation. In this article, we suggest that parental infant-directed singing is regarded as a nonpharmacological emotion regulation intervention, which may modify the painful experience for both the infant and the parent before, during and after painful procedures in the neonatal intensive care context. Parents have the biopsychosocial resources to alleviate their infant’s pain through infant-directed singing, if they are empowered to do so and coached in this process. A music therapist specialised in neonatal music therapy methods can mentor parents in how to use entrained and attuned live lullaby singing in connection to painful procedures. Pain and the vast amount of painful procedures early in infancy, combined with early parent–infant separation and lack of parental participation in the care of the infant during neonatal intensive care, place arduous strain on the new family’s attachment process and on the infant’s and parents’ mental health, both from a short and long-term perspective. Therefore, we argue with biopsychosocial rationales, that live parental infant-directed singing should be promoted in neonatal pain care worldwide. Consequently, parents should be welcomed round the clock and invited as prescribed pain management for their infant.

    sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
    Sage Publications, 2018
    Emneord
    Affect attunement, biopsychosocial, infant, infant-directed singing, music therapy, pain management, parent, vitality affects
    HSV kategori
    Forskningsprogram
    Hälso- och sjukvårdsforskning
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-67535 (URN)10.1177/2059204318780841 (DOI)
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2018-06-27 Laget: 2018-06-27 Sist oppdatert: 2019-11-19bibliografisk kontrollert
    4. Development of family-centred care informing Nordic neonatal music therapy
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Development of family-centred care informing Nordic neonatal music therapy
    2019 (engelsk)Inngår i: Music in paediatric hospitals – Nordic perspectives / [ed] Lars Ole Bonde, Kjersti Johansson, Oslo: CREMAH, Norwegian Academy of Music , 2019, s. 1-25Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Since the 1990s, the concept of family-centred care, where the family and healthcare staff share responsibility for the infant’s hospital care, has been part of an ongoing paradigm shift in neonatal care globally. The public health care system with family-friendly parental leave policies might be one of the reasons that the Nordic countries today are at the forefront of welcoming and including parents and partners in the care of their infant round the clock. When implementing neonatal music therapy (NICU MT) in the context of Nordic health care, music therapy models of practice as well as research ought to be defined and shaped by the family-centred care model, which today is considered best practice. The Nordic context also offers favourable conditions for further developing NICU MT approaches in line with family-centred care. NICU MT was first developed in the USA in the 1980s and the interventions were infantfocused, emphasising the infant’s physical and medical needs, which was the existing care focus in neonatal care at that time. Neonatal music therapy and research in the Nordic countries is still in its infancy. Systematic implementation work was first initiated in Karlstad, Sweden in 2010 and in Akershus and Oslo, Norway in 2017. 

    This essay provides the international music therapy field as well as other professionals in paediatric and neonatal health care an insight into the evolving Nordic approach of NICU MT. The conclusion of this essay is that the familycentred care approach in the Nordic NICUs, combined with the progressive family politics in the Nordic countries with generous parental leave schemes and gender equality in childcare, afford important prerequisites to further develop NICU MT as a truly family-centred approach.

    sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
    Oslo: CREMAH, Norwegian Academy of Music, 2019
    Serie
    CREMAH Anthology ; 11
    Emneord
    neonatal music therapy, Nordic perspective, family-centred care, infants, pain management
    HSV kategori
    Forskningsprogram
    Musikvetenskap
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-77701 (URN)
    Merknad

    Funding Agency:

    Centre for Clinical Research, Region Värmland, Karlstad, Sweden

    Tilgjengelig fra: 2019-11-03 Laget: 2019-11-03 Sist oppdatert: 2019-11-19bibliografisk kontrollert
  • 4.
    Österling Brunström, Johanna
    Örebro universitet, Musikhögskolan.
    Kropp, görande och varande i musik: en fenomenologisk studie2015Doktoravhandling, monografi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis aims to explore bodily anchored dimensions of meaning in relation to four different musical contexts. How does the body take hold of the music? How does the music take hold of the body? These questions intersect each other through providing different entry points, which aims to illuminate this phenomenon from different perspectives. Given the fact that these issues are intertwined, they cannot be separated, nor should they be. Instead, they should be understood in light of each other. The questions intersect each other, yet are not identical. This thesis uses a theoretical foundation inspired by Maurice Merleau-Ponty’s phenomenology of the body, along with Frede V Nielsen’s view of music as a universe of meaning, which provides a spectrum of experience possibilities.

    Four musical contexts are represented; a professional musician (Astrid, in her 60’s), a concertgoer and also a professional composer (Björn, in his 40’s), a professional DJ (Celia, in her 30’s), and a professional dancer (David, in his 20’s).

    The participants in this study have been observed in their contexts through participatory observations and video observations. The observations took place at an orchestra rehearsal (Astrid), a concert (Björn), a nightclub gig (Celia) and a dance rehearsal (David). The observations were proceeded by stimulated recall interviews as well as semi-structured interviews (two interviews per person). The collection of empirical data was concluded by a focus group where all four participants took part.

    The voices of the participants are heard through life stories that are built on the conducted interviews. Themes (essences) that describe the bodily anchored dimensions of meaning among the participants have emerged through phenomenologicalhermeneutical readings and analysis of their life stories and interviews.

    The study indicates that all four musical contexts share the bodily anchored dimensions of meaning, emanating from musical learning and knowledge. The four contexts also share experiences of aesthetic, emotional and existential relations to musicking. In addition, the room plays a significant role, together with body and communication.

    The musician and the DJ express the dual aspect of the body, e.g. to have and to be in a body, and also the distinction between a professional and a private body. The concertgoer/composer and the musician both highlight how the body can expose the person through stress, nervousness and habitus. The concertgoer/ composer also illustrates how language emanates from bodily gestures.

    When the body takes hold of the music, it occurs through an intentional act, through a reaching out in the world – an act of doing. When the music takes hold of the body, it involves becoming shaken, touched and, without notice, being struck by music – an act of being. Between doing and being, there is a gap – the flesh – that can be understood as our existence.

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