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  • 1.
    Green Landell, Malin
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet.
    Björklind, Andreas
    Linköpings universitet.
    Tillfors, Maria
    Örebro universitet, Akademin för juridik, psykologi och socialt arbete.
    Furmark, Tomas
    Uppsala universitet.
    Svedin, Carl-Göran
    Linköpings universitet.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Linköpings universitet.
    Evaluation of the psychometric properties of a modified version of the Social Phobia Screening Questionnaire for use in adolescents2009Inngår i: Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Mental Health, ISSN 1753-2000, E-ISSN 1753-2000, Vol. 3, s. 36-Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Social phobia (social anxiety disorder - SAD) is a rather common but often undetected and undertreated psychiatric condition in youths. Screening of SAD in young individuals in community samples is thus important in preventing negative outcomes. The present study is the first report on the psychometric properties of the Social Phobia Screening Questionnaire for Children and adolescents (SPSQ-C).

    METHODS: The SPSQ-C was administered to a community sample of high-school students. Test-retest reliability over three weeks was evaluated (n = 127) and internal consistency was calculated for items measuring level of fear in eight social situations. To measure concurrent validity, subjects who reported SAD on at least one occasion and randomly selected non-cases were blindly interviewed with the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis-I disorders (SCID-I), as gold standard (n = 51).

    RESULTS: A moderate test-retest reliability, r = .60 (P < .01), and a satisfactory alpha coefficient of .78 was found. Values of sensitivity and specificity were 71% and 86% respectively, and area under the curve (AUC) was .79. Positive likelihood ratio (LR+) showed that a positive screening result was five times more likely to be correct than to reflect a non-case. Negative likelihood ratio (LR -) was .34. In addition, positive predictive value was 45% and negative predictive value was 95%. The prevalence of self-reported SAD was found to be 7.2% at the first assessment.

    CONCLUSION: The SPSQ-C is a short and psychometrically sound questionnaire for screening of SAD in adolescents, with the advantage of being based on the DSM-IV criteria.

  • 2.
    Pelto-Piri, Veikko
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap och medicin. Psychiatric Research Centre, Örebro County Council, Örebro, Sweden.
    Engström, Karin
    Barn- och ungdomsvetenskapliga institutionen, Stockholms universitet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Engström, Ingemar
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap och medicin. Psychiatric Research Centre, Örebro County Council, Örebro, Sweden.
    The ethical landscape of professional care in everyday practice as perceived by staff: a qualitative content analysis of ethical diaries written by staff in child and adolescent psychiatric in-patient care2012Inngår i: Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Mental Health, ISSN 1753-2000, E-ISSN 1753-2000, Vol. 6, nr 1, s. 18-Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Although there has been some empirical research on ethics concerning the attitudes and approaches of staff in relation to adult patients, there is very little to be found on child and adolescent psychiatric care. In most cases researchers have defined which issues are important, for instance, coercive care. The aim of this study was to provide a qualitative description of situations and experiences that gave rise to ethical problems and considerations as reported by staff members on child and adolescent psychiatric wards, although they were not provided with a definition of the concept.

    METHODS: The study took place in six child and adolescent psychiatric wards in Sweden. All staff members involved with patients on these wards were invited to participate. The staff members were asked to keep an ethical diary over the course of one week, and data collection comprised the diaries handed in by 68 persons. Qualitative content analysis was used in order to analyse the diaries.

    RESULTS: In the analysis three themes emerged; 1) good care 2) loyalty and 3) powerlessness. The theme 'good care' contains statements about the ideal of commitment but also about problems living up to the ideal. Staff members emphasized the importance of involving patients and parents in the care, but also of the need for professional distance. Participants seldom perceived decisions about coercive measures as problematic, in contrast to those about pressure and restrictions, especially in the case of patients admitted for voluntary care. The theme 'loyalty' contains statements in which staff members perceived contradictory expectations from different interested parties, mainly parents but also their supervisor, doctors, colleagues and the social services. The theme 'powerlessness' contains statements about situations that create frustration, in which freedom of action is perceived as limited and can concern inadequacy in relation to patients and violations in the workplace.

    CONCLUSIONS: The ethical considerations described by child and adolescent psychiatric care staff are multifaceted and remarkably often concern problems of loyalty and organization. These problems frequently had a considerable influence on the care provided. It seems that staff members lack a language of ethics and require both an ethical education and a forum for discussion of ethical issues.

  • 3.
    Van Zalk, Nejra
    et al.
    Department of Psychology, Social Work and Counselling, University of Greenwich, London, United Kingdom.
    Tillfors, Maria
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för juridik, psykologi och socialt arbete.
    Co-rumination buffers the link between social anxiety and depressive symptoms in early adolescence2017Inngår i: Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Mental Health, ISSN 1753-2000, E-ISSN 1753-2000, Vol. 11, nr 1, artikkel-id 41Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: We examined whether co-rumination with online friends buffered the link between social anxiety and depressive symptoms over time in a community sample.

    Methods: In a sample of 526 participants (358 girls; M-age = 14.05) followed at three time points, we conducted a latent cross-lagged model with social anxiety, depressive symptoms, and co-rumination, controlling for friendship stability and friendship quality, and adding a latent interaction between social anxiety and co-rumination predicting depressive symptoms.

    Results: Social anxiety predicted depressive symptoms, but no direct links between social anxiety and co-rumination emerged. Instead, co-rumination buffered the link between social anxiety and depressive symptoms for adolescents with higher but not lower levels of social anxiety.

    Conclusions: These findings indicate that co-rumination exerted a positive influence on interpersonal relationships by diminishing the influence from social anxiety on depressive symptoms over time.

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