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  • 1.
    Järvinen, Pia
    et al.
    Department of Biology, University of Joensuu, Joensuu, Finland.
    Palmé, Anna
    Department of Conservation Biology and Genetics, Evolutionary Biology Centre, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Morales, Luis Orlando
    Department of Biology, University of Joensuu, Joensuu, Finland.
    Lännenpää, Mika
    Department of Biology, University of Joensuu, Joensuu, Finland.
    Keinänen, Markku
    Department of Biology, University of Joensuu, Joensuu, Finland.
    Sopanen, Tuomas
    Department of Biology, University of Joensuu, Joensuu, Finland.
    Lascoux, Martin
    Department of Conservation Biology and Genetics, Evolutionary Biology Centre, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Phylogenetic relationships of Betula species (Betulaceae) based on nuclear Adh and chloroplast matK sequences2004Ingår i: American Journal of Botany, ISSN 0002-9122, E-ISSN 1537-2197, Vol. 91, nr 11, s. 1834-1845Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The phylogenetic relationships within the genus Betula (Betulaceae) were investigated using a part of the nuclear ADH gene and DNA sequences of the chloroplast matK gene with parts of its flanking regions. Two well‐supported phylogenetic groups could be identified in the chloroplast DNA sequence: one containing the three American species B. lenta, B. alleghaniensis, and B. papyrifera and the other including all the other species studied. The ADH gene displayed more variation, and three main groups could be identified. In disagreement with the classical division of the genus Betula, B. schmidtii and B. nana grouped with the species in subgenus Betula, and B. ermanii grouped with species in subgenus Chamaebetula, including B. humilis and B. fruticosa. The ADH phylogeny suggests that several independent polyploidizations within the genus Betula could have taken place. The ADH and chloroplast phylogenies were in part incongruent due to the placement of B. papyrifera. The most likely reason for this seems to be cytoplasmic introgression.

  • 2.
    Mageroy, Melissa H.
    et al.
    Department of Molecular Plant Biology,Norwegian Institute of Bioeconomy Research, Ås, Norway.
    Christiansen, Erik
    Department of Molecular Plant Biology,Norwegian Institute of Bioeconomy Research, Ås, Norway.
    Långström, Bo
    Department of Ecology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Borg-Karlson, Anna-Karin
    Ecological Chemistry Group, Department of Chemistry, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Solheim, Halvor
    Department of Molecular Plant Biology,Norwegian Institute of Bioeconomy Research, Ås, Norway.
    Björklund, Niklas
    Department of Ecology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Zhao, Tao
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Schmidt, Axel
    Department of Biochemistry, Max Planck Institute for Chemical Ecology, Jena, Germany.
    Fossdal, Carl Gunnar
    Department of Molecular Plant Biology,Norwegian Institute of Bioeconomy Research, Ås, Norway.
    Krokene, Paal
    Department of Molecular Plant Biology,Norwegian Institute of Bioeconomy Research, Ås, Norway.
    Priming of inducible defenses protects Norway spruce against tree‐killing bark beetles2020Ingår i: Plant, Cell and Environment, ISSN 0140-7791, E-ISSN 1365-3040, Vol. 43, nr 2, s. 420-430Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Plants can form an immunological memory known as defense priming, whereby exposure to a priming stimulus enables quicker or stronger response to subsequent attack by pests and pathogens. Such priming of inducible defenses provides increased protection and reduces allocation costs of defense. Defense priming has been widely studied for short–lived model plants such as Arabidopsis, but little is known about this phenomenon in long‐lived plants like spruce. We compared the effects of pre‐treatment with sub‐lethal fungal inoculations or application of the phytohormone methyl jasmonate (MeJA) on the resistance of 48‐year‐old Norway spruce (Picea abies) trees to mass attack by a tree‐killing bark beetle beginning 35 days later. Bark beetles heavily infested and killed untreated trees, but largely avoided fungus‐inoculated trees and MeJA‐treated trees. Quantification of defensive terpenes at the time of bark beetle attack showed fungal inoculation induced 91‐fold higher terpene concentrations compared to untreated trees, while application of MeJA did not significantly increase terpenes. These results indicate that resistance in fungus‐inoculated trees is a result of direct induction of defenses while resistance in MeJA‐treated trees is due to defense priming. This work extends our knowledge of defense priming from model plants to an ecologically important tree species.

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