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  • 1.
    Bruhn, Anders
    Örebro universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Occupational unity or diversity in a changing work context?: The case of Swedish labour inspectors2009Ingår i: Policy and Practice in Health and Safety, ISSN 1477-3996, E-ISSN 1477-4003, Vol. 7, nr 2, s. 31-50Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper discusses the development of occupational culture, identity and practice among Swedish inspectors, focusing on their collective occupational knowledge - their 'professional representations'. Working conditions and state policy and regulation for occupational safety and health have gone through several important changes in recent decades. These changes have forced the Swedish inspection authority to develop its organisation and adapt its aims, strategies and methods of inspection work to the new situation. As a consequence of several far-reaching organisational changes in a rather short time, a cultural gap has developed among inspectors: between a male-dominated group of experienced technicians and a female-dominated group of newly recruited academics (often with qualifications in the behavioural sciences). On the basis of a re-reading of data from three research and evaluation projects about inspection and the inspectorate, I describe important differences in representations between these two groups and discuss how, and under what circumstances, they may be able to develop towards occupational unity and uniformity in inspection practice.

  • 2.
    Bruhn, Anders
    Örebro universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga institutionen.
    The inspector's dilemma under regulated self-regulation2006Ingår i: Policy and Practice in Health and Safety, ISSN 1477-3996, E-ISSN 1477-4003, Vol. 4, nr 2, s. 3-23Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Regulated self-regulation (RSR) as the main strategy for regulation in the occupational health and security (OHS) field, and the expansion of the work environment concept to include work organisation and psychosocial health, requires that the inspection authority revaluate old methods of inspection work and develop new ones. Of vital importance here is the question of the so called inspector’s dilemma between control and educative methods in inspections. This dilemma is “classic” in state regulation. It rests upon two different principles for state activity: the legality and the service principles. Reflecting on it is necessary when developing tactics in a given situation. In this article I elaborate on the general logical and practical consequences that, first and foremost, the RSR-strategy has, or rather should have, on inspectors’ work and the alternative roles that comprise the dilemma. My main conclusions are that the dilemma in state inspection is permanent and can only be handled on a situational basis. However, because of the growing complexity and differentiation in working life, and because of the change of strategy and new tasks for the inspectorate, both the content of, and the balance between, the roles of the dilemma have to change. All in all this change calls for a stronger emphasis on the role of educator. At the same time the role-content has to change from traditional methods of direct control and advice/persuasion to negotiation, guiding and tutoring. However, to work with inspections in the OHS field today is to work with mixed strategies. Even if RSR is stated as the main strategy, the traditional command and control strategy still lives side-by-side with it in legislation. Methods based on this rationale sometimes have to be given priority. All in all, the fulfilment of the new tasks demands the development of professional competence and a higher degree of discretion for individual inspectors. To an even greater extent than before they have to be flexible in unique situations and develop proper tactics adjusted to local conditions.

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