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  • 1.
    Besic, Nejra
    Örebro universitet, Akademin för juridik, psykologi och socialt arbete.
    At first blush: the impact of shyness on early adolescents' social worlds2009Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Shyness as a behavioral characteristic has been in focus of research in psychology for a number of decades. Adolescent shyness has, however, been relatively overlooked compared with studies conducted on children and adults. This dissertation concentrated on adolescent shyness, aiming to attain a better comprehension about how shyness during this developmental phase might affect, and be affected by social relationships. The first aim of this dissertation was to study in which way shyness influences and is influenced by significant people in adolescents’ lives: peers, friends, and parents. Study III showed that shy youths socialized each other over time into becoming even more shy. Study VI demonstrated that youths’ shyness affected parenting behaviors, more so than parent’s behaviors affected youth shyness. The second aim of this dissertation was to investigate what shyness means for adolescents’ choices of relationships with friends, whereas the third aim focused on whether adolescents’ ways of dealing with peers would have consequences for their internal and external adjustment. As Study I showed, youths might take on off-putting, startling appearances in order to cope with their shyness. This strategy seemed, nonetheless, not particularly successful for the shy youths in terms of emotional adjustment. Study III showed that adolescents who were shy tended to choose others similar to themselves in shyness as friends. Study II showed that shyness might indeed have some positive implications for adolescent development, as it was found to serve a protective role in the link between advanced maturity and various types of problem behaviors. Overall, the findings point to some gender differences regarding all of the abovementioned processes. In sum then, the studies in this dissertation show that even though youths’ shy, socially fearful characteristics affect their emotional adjustment and those around them, shy youths are part of a larger social arena where they are active agents in shaping their own development. Although adolescent shyness might be linked with several negative outcomes, however, it might be other people’s reactions to socially fearful behaviors that help create and/or maintain these outcomes over time.

    Delarbeten
    1. Punks, Goths, and Other Eye-Catching Peer Crowds: Do They Fulfill a Function for Shy Youths?
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Punks, Goths, and Other Eye-Catching Peer Crowds: Do They Fulfill a Function for Shy Youths?
    2009 (Engelska)Ingår i: Journal of research on adolescence, ISSN 1050-8392, E-ISSN 1532-7795, Vol. 19, nr 1, s. 113-121Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Adolescent peer crowds such as Punks and Goths are mainly identified by their strikingly unusual or even shocking appearances. Although many studies find these crowds, few have tried to explain why some youths take on these startling or shocking appearances. We hypothesized that an off-putting appearance is a way to cope with behavioral inhibition by limiting social contacts. Using data from 1,200 7th - 11th graders, we compared peer crowds characterized by their startling appearance (“Radical” crowds) with three theoretically relevant comparison groups. Results showed that youths affiliating with Radical crowds were more inhibited than other youths, including those in crowds previously shown to be shy or socially anxious. Inhibited Radicals, however, had poorer emotional adjustment than inhibited youths in other crowds. If Radical styles are a way for inhibited youths to cope by limiting social contacts, the strategy does not seem to be beneficial for emotional adjustment.

    Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
    Hillsdale, N.J.: Blackwell Publishing, 2009
    Nyckelord
    Behavioral inhibition, Appearance, Peer crowds, Depression, Adolescence
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Psykologi Samhällsvetenskap Samhällsvetenskap
    Forskningsämne
    Psykologi
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-6573 (URN)10.1111/j.1532-7795.2009.00584.x (DOI)000263521200007 ()2-s2.0-60649098579 (Scopus ID)
    Anmärkning

    Part of thesis: http://urn.kb.se/resolve?urn=urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-6590

    Tillgänglig från: 2009-05-04 Skapad: 2009-05-04 Senast uppdaterad: 2017-12-13Bibliografiskt granskad
    2. Shyness as protective factor in the link between advanced maturity and early adolescent problem behavior
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Shyness as protective factor in the link between advanced maturity and early adolescent problem behavior
    (Engelska)Manuskript (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Advanced maturity in early adolescence has previously been linked with several problem behaviors. In this study, we examine whether shyness and gender might moderate this link. The participants were 787 early adolescents (Mage = 13.73; 401 girls and 386 boys), followed for one year. We conducted moderation analyses with shyness and gender as moderators of the links between advanced maturity and problem behaviors (drunkenness and intercourse) and between one problem behavior and another. Protective effects of shyness were found for both boys and girls. For high-risk behaviors (risky drinking behaviors and one-night stands) protective effects were found for boys. Controlling for romantic involvement did not alter the moderation effects, thus failing to support the idea that protection was due to shy youths not being drawn into advanced peer groups by romantic partners. Thus, shyness might serve as protective factor against problem behaviors in early adolescence.

    Nyckelord
    shyness, drunkenness, intercourse, high-risk behaviors, early adolescence
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Psykologi Samhällsvetenskap Samhällsvetenskap
    Forskningsämne
    Psykologi
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-6574 (URN)
    Tillgänglig från: 2009-05-05 Skapad: 2009-05-04 Senast uppdaterad: 2017-10-18Bibliografiskt granskad
    3. Shyness as basis for friendship selection and socialization in a youth social network
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Shyness as basis for friendship selection and socialization in a youth social network
    (Engelska)Manuskript (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Shy children and adolescents have previously been found to have friends with similarly shy, withdrawn behavioral characteristics. How peers might socialize shyness over time has, however, not been thoroughly investigated before. Our network included 834 youths (339 girls, and 495 boys; M = 14.29), followed for three years. We used the social network analysis software, SIENA, to analyze the data. The results show that those youths who are shy are less popular and choose fewer friends in the network. They also tend to choose friends who are shy, and over time they will influence each other into becoming more shy – over and above other effects. Finally, girls’ shyness is more influenced than boys’ by their friends’ shyness levels. These results show the significance of looking at shy youths’ friendships over time, and embedded in social networks.

     

    Nyckelord
    shyness, friendships, selection, influence, socialization, social networks
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Psykologi Samhällsvetenskap Samhällsvetenskap
    Forskningsämne
    Psykologi
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-6575 (URN)
    Tillgänglig från: 2009-05-05 Skapad: 2009-05-04 Senast uppdaterad: 2017-10-18Bibliografiskt granskad
    4. Shy adolescents' perceptions of parental overcontrol and emotional coldness: examining bidirectional links
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Shy adolescents' perceptions of parental overcontrol and emotional coldness: examining bidirectional links
    (Engelska)Manuskript (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Two kinds of parental behaviors—overcontrol and emotional coldness—have been linked with children’s shy behaviors. The questions we addressed are whether this applies to adolescent shyness, and whether shyness in itself might also affect parental behaviors. The participants were 916 7th-9th graders in a longitudinal project. We used a cross-lagged path model with three time points. Shyness predicted an increase in feeling overly controlled by parents at Time 2, which then predicted an increase in shyness at Time 3. Shyness also predicted an increase in perceived coldness-rejection by parents at Time 2. Finally, shyness predicted decreases in parental warmth at both timepoints. The effects did not differ for boys and girls. These results show that adolescent shyness predicts parental behaviors, though perhaps less strongly than in childhood. They also suggest some bidirectional effects in which parental responses to shy youths might serve to strengthen the shyness.

     

    Nyckelord
    shyness, parental behaviors, bidirectionality, adolescence
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Psykologi Samhällsvetenskap Samhällsvetenskap
    Forskningsämne
    Psykologi
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-6576 (URN)
    Tillgänglig från: 2009-05-05 Skapad: 2009-05-04 Senast uppdaterad: 2017-10-18Bibliografiskt granskad
    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    At first blush: the impact of shyness on early adolescents' social worlds
    Ladda ner (pdf)
    COVER01
  • 2.
    Besic, Nejra
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Akademin för juridik, psykologi och socialt arbete.
    Kerr, Margaret
    Örebro universitet, Akademin för juridik, psykologi och socialt arbete.
    Punks, Goths, and Other Eye-Catching Peer Crowds: Do They Fulfill a Function for Shy Youths?2009Ingår i: Journal of research on adolescence, ISSN 1050-8392, E-ISSN 1532-7795, Vol. 19, nr 1, s. 113-121Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Adolescent peer crowds such as Punks and Goths are mainly identified by their strikingly unusual or even shocking appearances. Although many studies find these crowds, few have tried to explain why some youths take on these startling or shocking appearances. We hypothesized that an off-putting appearance is a way to cope with behavioral inhibition by limiting social contacts. Using data from 1,200 7th - 11th graders, we compared peer crowds characterized by their startling appearance (“Radical” crowds) with three theoretically relevant comparison groups. Results showed that youths affiliating with Radical crowds were more inhibited than other youths, including those in crowds previously shown to be shy or socially anxious. Inhibited Radicals, however, had poorer emotional adjustment than inhibited youths in other crowds. If Radical styles are a way for inhibited youths to cope by limiting social contacts, the strategy does not seem to be beneficial for emotional adjustment.

  • 3.
    Besic, Nejra
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Akademin för juridik, psykologi och socialt arbete.
    Kerr, Margaret
    Örebro universitet, Akademin för juridik, psykologi och socialt arbete.
    Shy adolescents' perceptions of parental overcontrol and emotional coldness: examining bidirectional linksManuskript (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Two kinds of parental behaviors—overcontrol and emotional coldness—have been linked with children’s shy behaviors. The questions we addressed are whether this applies to adolescent shyness, and whether shyness in itself might also affect parental behaviors. The participants were 916 7th-9th graders in a longitudinal project. We used a cross-lagged path model with three time points. Shyness predicted an increase in feeling overly controlled by parents at Time 2, which then predicted an increase in shyness at Time 3. Shyness also predicted an increase in perceived coldness-rejection by parents at Time 2. Finally, shyness predicted decreases in parental warmth at both timepoints. The effects did not differ for boys and girls. These results show that adolescent shyness predicts parental behaviors, though perhaps less strongly than in childhood. They also suggest some bidirectional effects in which parental responses to shy youths might serve to strengthen the shyness.

     

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 4.
    Besic, Nejra
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Akademin för juridik, psykologi och socialt arbete.
    Kerr, Margaret
    Örebro universitet, Akademin för juridik, psykologi och socialt arbete.
    Tilton-Weaver, Lauree
    Örebro universitet, Akademin för juridik, psykologi och socialt arbete.
    Shyness as protective factor in the link between advanced maturity and early adolescent problem behaviorManuskript (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Advanced maturity in early adolescence has previously been linked with several problem behaviors. In this study, we examine whether shyness and gender might moderate this link. The participants were 787 early adolescents (Mage = 13.73; 401 girls and 386 boys), followed for one year. We conducted moderation analyses with shyness and gender as moderators of the links between advanced maturity and problem behaviors (drunkenness and intercourse) and between one problem behavior and another. Protective effects of shyness were found for both boys and girls. For high-risk behaviors (risky drinking behaviors and one-night stands) protective effects were found for boys. Controlling for romantic involvement did not alter the moderation effects, thus failing to support the idea that protection was due to shy youths not being drawn into advanced peer groups by romantic partners. Thus, shyness might serve as protective factor against problem behaviors in early adolescence.

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 5.
    Besic, Nejra
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Akademin för juridik, psykologi och socialt arbete.
    Selfhout, Maarten
    University Utrecht, Nederländerna.
    Kerr, Margaret
    Örebro universitet, Akademin för juridik, psykologi och socialt arbete.
    Stattin, Håkan
    Örebro universitet, Akademin för juridik, psykologi och socialt arbete.
    Shyness as basis for friendship selection and socialization in a youth social networkManuskript (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Shy children and adolescents have previously been found to have friends with similarly shy, withdrawn behavioral characteristics. How peers might socialize shyness over time has, however, not been thoroughly investigated before. Our network included 834 youths (339 girls, and 495 boys; M = 14.29), followed for three years. We used the social network analysis software, SIENA, to analyze the data. The results show that those youths who are shy are less popular and choose fewer friends in the network. They also tend to choose friends who are shy, and over time they will influence each other into becoming more shy – over and above other effects. Finally, girls’ shyness is more influenced than boys’ by their friends’ shyness levels. These results show the significance of looking at shy youths’ friendships over time, and embedded in social networks.

     

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 6.
    Muñoz, Luna C.
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Akademin för juridik, psykologi och socialt arbete.
    Kerr, Margaret
    Örebro universitet, Akademin för juridik, psykologi och socialt arbete.
    Bešić, Nejra
    Örebro universitet, Akademin för juridik, psykologi och socialt arbete.
    The peer relationships of youths with psychopathic personality traits: A matter of perspective2008Ingår i: Criminal justice and behavior, ISSN 0093-8548, E-ISSN 1552-3594, Vol. 35, nr 2, s. 212-227Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Because a callous use of others in many short-term relationships is one criterion for diagnosing psychopathy in adults, one would expect adolescents who are high on psychopathic personality traits to have unstable, conflict-ridden peer relationships. Little is known about this, however, or about the peer activities of youths who are high in psychopathic traits. The authors examined relationship quality and delinquency with peers in a community sample of 12- to 15-year-old adolescents who were stably high or stably low on psychopathic traits during 4 years. Peers also provided data on relationship quality. Youths high on psychopathic traits often engaged in antisocial activities with their peers. Although they reported conflict in their peer relationships, their peers did not report low support or high conflict in those relationships. The authors conclude that youths with psychopathic traits have biased perspectives on interactions with close peers, and this might underlie future problems.

  • 7.
    Mörtberg, Ewa
    et al.
    Department of Psychology, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden; Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Centre for Psychiatry Research, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Tillfors, Maria
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för juridik, psykologi och socialt arbete.
    Van Zalk, Nejra
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för juridik, psykologi och socialt arbete.
    Kerr, Margaret
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för juridik, psykologi och socialt arbete.
    An atypical anxious-impulsive pattern of social anxiety disorder in an adult clinical population2014Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 55, nr 4, s. 350-356Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    An atypical subgroup of Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD) with impulsive rather than inhibited traits has recently been reported. The current study examined whether such an atypical subgroup could be identified in a clinical population of 84 adults with SAD. The temperament dimensions harm avoidance and novelty seeking of the Temperament and Character Inventory, and the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale were used in cluster analyses. The identified clusters were compared on depressive symptoms, the character dimension self-directedness, and treatment outcome. Among the six identified clusters, 24% of the sample had atypical characteristics, demonstrating mainly generalized SAD in combination with coexisting traits of inhibition and impulsivity. As additional signs of severity, this group showed low self-directedness and high levels of depressive symptoms. We also identified a typically inhibited subgroup comprising generalized SAD with high levels of harm avoidance and low levels of novelty seeking, with a similar clinical severity as the atypical subgroup. Thus, higher levels of harm avoidance and social anxiety in combination with higher or lower levels of novelty seeking and low self-directedness seem to contribute to a more severe clinical picture. Post hoc examination of the treatment outcome in these subgroups showed that only 20 to 30% achieved clinically significant change.

  • 8.
    Tillfors, Maria
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Akademin för juridik, psykologi och socialt arbete.
    Ewa, Mörtberg
    Institutionen för psykologi, Stockholms universitet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Van Zalk, Nejra
    Örebro universitet, Akademin för juridik, psykologi och socialt arbete.
    Kerr, Margaret
    Örebro universitet, Akademin för juridik, psykologi och socialt arbete.
    Investigating a socially anxious-impulsive subgroup of young adults in relation to depressive symptoms and life satisfaction2011Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 9.
    Tillfors, Maria
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för juridik, psykologi och socialt arbete.
    Mörtberg, Eva
    Institutionen för psykologi, Stockholms universitet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Van Zalk, Nejra
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för juridik, psykologi och socialt arbete.
    Kerr, Margaret
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för juridik, psykologi och socialt arbete.
    Inhibited and impulsive subgroups of socially anxious young adults: their depressive symptoms and life satisfaction2013Ingår i: Open Journal of Psychiatry, ISSN 2161-7325, E-ISSN 2161-7333, Vol. 3, nr 1A, s. 195-201Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: Socially anxious people are typically thought of as being behaviorally inhibited; however, an atypical subgroup, which is impulsive rather than inhibited, has recently been identified [1]. Theoretically, inhibition and impulsivity could be viewed as different strategies for coping with anxiety that have the same goal—escape from negative emotions—but they seem to have different implications. Previous studies have found that the socially anxious-impulsive subgroup was higher on risk-prone behavior, as for example drug use, compared with a socially anxious-inhibited subgroup [1]. In this study, we aimed to identify these subgroups in a general population, and asked whether they also experience various levels of depressive symptoms and life satisfaction, as well as moderating effects of gender.

    Methods: Cluster analysis was used to identify subgroups of young adults (20 - 24 years old; N = 772) characterized by different profiles of social anxiety and impulsivity. These subgroups were compared on levels of internal adjustment, and the moderating effects of gender were also tested.

    Results: We identified five clusters, including an Anxious-Inhibited and an Anxious-Impulsive cluster. In the interaction between gender and cluster membership, gender showed evidence of moderation regarding both depressive symptoms and life satisfaction, with the young women in the Anxious-Inhibited and the Anxious-Impulsive clusters faring worst.

    Conclusions: We replicated previous findings demonstrating the existence of a socially anxious-impulsive subgroup, thus solidifying current knowledge that may be important when it comes to diagnostics and treatment. This may prove particularly important for young women regarding internalizing symptoms.

  • 10.
    Tillfors, Maria
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för juridik, psykologi och socialt arbete.
    Van Zalk, Nejra
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för juridik, psykologi och socialt arbete.
    Easier to accelerate than to slow down: contributions of developmental neurobiology for the understanding of adolescent social anxiety2015Ingår i: Social anxiety and phobia in adolescents: development, manifestation and intervention strategies / [ed] Ranta, K., La Greca, A.M., Garcia-Lopez, L.-J., Marttunen, M., Springer, 2015Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
  • 11.
    Tillfors, Maria
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Akademin för juridik, psykologi och socialt arbete.
    van Zalk, Nejra
    Örebro universitet, Akademin för juridik, psykologi och socialt arbete.
    Kerr, Margaret
    Örebro universitet, Akademin för juridik, psykologi och socialt arbete.
    Investigating a socially anxious-impulsive subgroup of adolescents: a prospective community study2010Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 12.
    Tillfors, Maria
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för juridik, psykologi och socialt arbete.
    Van Zalk, Nejra
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för juridik, psykologi och socialt arbete.
    Kerr, Margaret
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för juridik, psykologi och socialt arbete.
    Investigating a socially anxious-impulsive subgroup of adolescents: a prospective community study2013Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 54, nr 3, s. 267-273Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research has identified a subgroup of socially anxious adults who are both anxious and impulsive. To date, however, this subgroup has not been identified in adolescence. Therefore, in this study we aimed to identify this subgroup in a sample of adolescents. In addition, we hypothesized that this subgroup would be higher on problem behaviors, and that these processes would be moderated by gender. We used longitudinal data from 714 adolescents who were in the 7th and 8th grades at Time 1. They were followed annually for three years. Cluster analyses identified an anxious-inhibited subgroup as well as an anxious-impulsive subgroup in early adolescence (Time 1). The socially anxious-impulsive adolescent boys were generally higher on both intoxication frequency and delinquency compared with all other adolescents in all clusters at each time point. Findings suggest that social anxiety subgroups may differ on problem behavior, and that early detection of an anxious-impulsive subgroup may be important to prevent maladjustment, especially for adolescent boys.

  • 13.
    Van Zalk, Maarten Herman Walter
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för juridik, psykologi och socialt arbete.
    Van Zalk, Nejra
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för juridik, psykologi och socialt arbete.
    Kerr, Margaret
    Res Dev Ctr, Univ Örebro, Örebro, Sweden.
    Stattin, Håkan
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för juridik, psykologi och socialt arbete.
    Influences Between Online-Exclusive, Conjoint and Offline-Exclusive Friendship Networks: The Moderating Role of Shyness2014Ingår i: European Journal of Personality, ISSN 0890-2070, E-ISSN 1099-0984, Vol. 28, nr 2, s. 134-146Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Prior research has indicated that shy adolescents are more motivated to form friendships online than to form friendships offline. Little is known about whether having friendships found exclusively online may impact self-esteem and forming offline friendships for these adolescents. This study therefore aimed to provide insight into the moderating role of shyness in the longitudinal interplay between friendships in online and offline contexts in early adolescence. Adolescents and their friends (193 girls, 196 boys; M-age = 13.29) were followed with three consecutive measurements with intervals of eight months. Results showed that particularly for shy adolescents, having friends exclusively online predicted increases in self-esteem. Self-esteem, in turn, was found to predict forming more friendships found both offline and online and forming more friendships found exclusively offline. Thus, findings supported the social compensation perspective that shy adolescents may benefit from having friends exclusively online, as these friendships may increase self-esteem, thereby facilitating the formation of friendships found partially and completely offline. Copyright (c) 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  • 14.
    van Zalk, Maarten
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för juridik, psykologi och socialt arbete.
    Kerr, Margaret
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för juridik, psykologi och socialt arbete.
    van Zalk, Nejra
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för juridik, psykologi och socialt arbete.
    Stattin, Håkan
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för juridik, psykologi och socialt arbete.
    Xenophobia and tolerance toward immigrants in adolescence: cross-influence processes within friendships2013Ingår i: Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, ISSN 0091-0627, E-ISSN 1573-2835, Vol. 41, nr 4, s. 627-639Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    To what extent do adolescents and their friends socialize each others' attitudes toward immigrants? Can friends' positive attitudes toward immigrants counter adolescents' negative attitudes toward immigrants, and do friends' negative attitudes decrease adolescents' positive attitudes? These questions were examined by following a large (N = 1,472) friendship network of adolescents (49.2 % girls; M (age) = 13.31 at first measurement) across three annual measurements. Selection and influence processes regarding tolerance and xenophobia were distinguished with longitudinal social network analyses, controlling for effects of age, gender, and immigrant background. Findings showed that friends' tolerance predicted increases in adolescents' tolerance and friends' xenophobia predicted increases in adolescents' xenophobia. Moreover, friends' tolerance predicted a lower likelihood of adolescents' xenophobia increasing. The current results suggest that interventions should distinguish between tolerance and xenophobia, as these appear to represent two separate dimensions that are each influenced in specific ways by friends' tolerance and xenophobia.

  • 15.
    Van Zalk, Nejra
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för juridik, psykologi och socialt arbete.
    Social anxiety moderates the links between excessive chatting and compulsive Internet use2016Ingår i: Cyberpsychology : Journal of Psychosocial Research on Cyberspace, ISSN 1802-7962, E-ISSN 1802-7962, Vol. 10, nr 3, artikel-id UNSP 3Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Excessive online chatting can lead to unwanted consequences such as compulsive Internet use over time. Not all adolescents use chatting for the same purpose, however, and these links may not be as pronounced for socially anxious adolescents as they likely communicate with others online in order to compensate for offline social inadequacies. The current study investigated whether social anxiety moderated the links between excessive chatting and compulsive Internet use over time. Using a sample of 523 early adolescents (269 girls; M-age = 14.00) from a 3-wave longitudinal study, the links between excessive chatting and compulsive Internet use were investigated via manifest autoregressive models, and moderating effects of social anxiety were tested via multiple group comparison procedures. The results showed bidirectional links between excessive chatting and compulsive Internet use from Time 2-Time 3, as excessive chatting predicted more symptoms of compulsive Internet use, whereas compulsive Internet use predicted more excessive chatting-over and above the effects of gender. These links were present for adolescents low on social anxiety, but they were largely missing for highly socially anxious adolescents. Thus, social anxiety may have protective effects for early adolescents who spend too much time chatting online, as it may help reduce the risk of developing symptoms of compulsive Internet use.

  • 16.
    van Zalk, Nejra
    Örebro universitet, Akademin för juridik, psykologi och socialt arbete.
    The role of parents, peers, and personality on the impact of media use on youths' emotional adjustment2010Övrigt (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 17.
    van Zalk, Nejra
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Akademin för juridik, psykologi och socialt arbete.
    Kerr, Margaret
    Örebro universitet, Akademin för juridik, psykologi och socialt arbete.
    Shy adolescents' perceptions of parents' psychological control and emotional warmth: examining bidirectional links2011Ingår i: Merrill-Palmer quarterly, ISSN 0272-930X, E-ISSN 1535-0266, Vol. 57, nr 4, s. 375-401Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Two kinds of parental behaviors—psychological control and emotional warmth—have been linked with children's shy behaviors. The questions we addressed are whether this applies to adolescent shyness, and whether shyness in itself might also affect perceptions of parental behaviors. The participants were 916 seventh to ninth graders in a longitudinal project. We used a cross-lagged panel model with three time points in MPlus with adolescents' self-reports of shyness and perceptions of parents' psychological control (intrusive control and rejection) and warmth. Shyness predicted an increase in perceptions of intrusive control by parents at Time 2, which then predicted an increase in shyness at Time 3. Shyness also predicted an increase in perceived rejection by parents at Time 2. Finally, shyness predicted decreases in parental warmth at both time points. The effects did not differ for boys and girls. These results show that adolescent shyness predicts parental behaviors, though perhaps less strongly than in childhood. They also suggest some bidirectional effects in which perceived parental responses to shy youths might serve to strengthen the shyness.

  • 18.
    van Zalk, Nejra
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Akademin för juridik, psykologi och socialt arbete.
    Kerr, Margaret
    Örebro universitet, Akademin för juridik, psykologi och socialt arbete.
    Shy punks, goths, and other eye-catching peer crowds: are they more prone to problem behavior than other shy youths?2010Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 19.
    van Zalk, Nejra
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Akademin för juridik, psykologi och socialt arbete.
    Kerr, Margaret
    Örebro universitet, Akademin för juridik, psykologi och socialt arbete.
    Tilton-Weaver, Lauree
    Örebro universitet, Akademin för juridik, psykologi och socialt arbete.
    Shyness as a moderator of the link between advanced maturity and early adolescent risk behavior2011Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 52, nr 4, s. 341-353Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Advanced maturity in early adolescence has previously been linked with several risk behaviors. In this study, we examine whether shyness and gender might moderate this link. The participants were 750 early adolescents (Mage = 13.73; 390 girls and 360 boys), followed for one year. We conducted analyses with shyness and gender as moderators of the links between advanced maturity and different types of risk behavior, and between one risk behavior and another. Despite differential patterns for boys and girls, the results suggest that being shy or not being shy modifies the links between advanced maturity and risk behavior primarily for boys. For boys, shyness reduces relationships between advanced maturity and risk behavior, whereas not being shy exacerbates the relationships between advanced maturity and high-risk behavior. Controlling for romantic involvement and peer victimization did not alter the moderating effects, thus failing to support the idea that the weaker links for shy youths were due to shy youths not being drawn into advanced peer groups by romantic partners or peers. Thus, shyness might serve as a buffer against risk behavior in early adolescence.

  • 20.
    van Zalk, Nejra
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Akademin för juridik, psykologi och socialt arbete.
    Kerr, Margaret
    Örebro universitet, Akademin för juridik, psykologi och socialt arbete.
    Tilton-Weaver, Lauree
    Örebro universitet, Akademin för juridik, psykologi och socialt arbete.
    Subjective maturity and risky behavior: is shyness a protective factor?2010Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 21.
    Van Zalk, Nejra
    et al.
    Department of Psychology, Social Work and Counselling, University of Greenwich, London, United Kingdom.
    Tillfors, Maria
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för juridik, psykologi och socialt arbete.
    Co-rumination buffers the link between social anxiety and depressive symptoms in early adolescence2017Ingår i: Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Mental Health, ISSN 1753-2000, E-ISSN 1753-2000, Vol. 11, nr 1, artikel-id 41Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: We examined whether co-rumination with online friends buffered the link between social anxiety and depressive symptoms over time in a community sample.

    Methods: In a sample of 526 participants (358 girls; M-age = 14.05) followed at three time points, we conducted a latent cross-lagged model with social anxiety, depressive symptoms, and co-rumination, controlling for friendship stability and friendship quality, and adding a latent interaction between social anxiety and co-rumination predicting depressive symptoms.

    Results: Social anxiety predicted depressive symptoms, but no direct links between social anxiety and co-rumination emerged. Instead, co-rumination buffered the link between social anxiety and depressive symptoms for adolescents with higher but not lower levels of social anxiety.

    Conclusions: These findings indicate that co-rumination exerted a positive influence on interpersonal relationships by diminishing the influence from social anxiety on depressive symptoms over time.

  • 22.
    Van Zalk, Nejra
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för juridik, psykologi och socialt arbete.
    Van Zalk, Maarten
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för juridik, psykologi och socialt arbete.
    The importance of perceived care and connectedness with friends and parents for adolescent social anxiety2015Ingår i: Journal of personality, ISSN 0022-3506, E-ISSN 1467-6494, Vol. 83, nr 3, s. 346-360Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Nonclinical social anxiety in adolescence can be highly problematic, as it likely affects current and especially new social interactions. Relationships with significant others, such as close friends, mothers, and fathers, could aid socially anxious adolescents' participation in social situations, thereby helping reduce feelings of social anxiety. We examined whether making friends as well as high friendship quality help reduce social anxiety over time, and whether friends', mothers', and fathers' care interact in reducing social anxiety. Using longitudinal data from 2,194 participants in a social network (48% girls; Mage  = 13.58) followed for 3 years, we estimated friendship selection and influence processes via a continuous time-modeling approach using SIENA. We controlled for the effects of depressive symptoms, self-esteem, gender, age, and family structure. Our findings suggest that perceived care by friends mediated the effect of making friends on social anxiety. Perceptions of mother and father, as well as friend care and connectedness, respectively, did not interact in decreasing social anxiety. Nonetheless, care and connectedness with mothers, fathers, and friends jointly predicted decreases in social anxiety. Caring relationships with friends and parents each play a role in mutually protecting early adolescents against increasing in social anxiety over time.

  • 23.
    Van Zalk, Nejra
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Akademin för juridik, psykologi och socialt arbete.
    Van Zalk, Maarten Herman Walter
    Örebro universitet, Akademin för juridik, psykologi och socialt arbete.
    Kerr, Margaret
    Örebro universitet, Akademin för juridik, psykologi och socialt arbete.
    Socialization of social anxiety in adolescent crowds2011Ingår i: Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, ISSN 0091-0627, E-ISSN 1573-2835, Vol. 39, nr 8, s. 1239-1249Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, we looked at whether social anxiety is socialized, or influenced by peers' social anxiety, more in some peer crowds than others. Adolescents in crowds with eye-catching appearances such as Goths and Punks (here termed Radical), were compared with three comparison groups. Using data from 796 adolescents (353 girls and 443 boys; M-age=13.36) at three timepoints, the results show that adolescents affiliating with the Radical crowd tended to select peers from the same crowd group. Being a member of a crowd in itself did not predict socialization of social anxiety, but adolescents in the Radical crowd were more influenced by their peers' social anxiety than adolescents who did not affiliate with the Radical crowd group. The results suggest that through a bidirectional process, adolescents affiliating with Radical crowds may narrow their peer relationship ties in time, and in turn socialize each other's social anxiety.

  • 24.
    van Zalk, Nejra
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Akademin för juridik, psykologi och socialt arbete.
    Van Zalk, Maarten
    Örebro universitet, Akademin för juridik, psykologi och socialt arbete.
    Kerr, Margaret
    Örebro universitet, Akademin för juridik, psykologi och socialt arbete.
    Shy youths chatting with friends versus strangers: implications for emotional adjustment2010Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 25.
    van Zalk, Nejra
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Akademin för juridik, psykologi och socialt arbete.
    van Zalk [Zalk-Selfhout], Maarten
    Örebro universitet, Akademin för juridik, psykologi och socialt arbete.
    Kerr, Margaret
    Örebro universitet, Akademin för juridik, psykologi och socialt arbete.
    Stattin, Håkan
    Örebro universitet, Akademin för juridik, psykologi och socialt arbete.
    Social anxiety as a basis for friendship selection and socialization in asolescents' social networks2011Ingår i: Journal of personality, ISSN 0022-3506, E-ISSN 1467-6494, Vol. 79, nr 3, s. 499-526Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Socially anxious children and adolescents have previously been found to have friends with similarly socially anxious, withdrawn behavioral characteristics. How peers might socialize social anxiety over time has, however, not been thoroughly investigated before. We examined this in a sample of 834 youths (339 girls, and 495 boys; M=14.29), followed for three years. We used the social network analysis software, SIENA, to analyze the data. The results showed that youths who were socially anxious were less popular and chose fewer friends in the network. They also tended to choose friends who were socially anxious, and over time they influenced each other into becoming more socially anxious – over and above other effects. Finally, girls' social anxiety was more influenced than boys' by their friends' social anxiety levels. The results showed the significance of looking at socially anxious youths' friendships over time, and embedded in social networks.

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