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  • 1.
    Ericsson, P.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Winton, Patrik
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för humaniora, utbildnings- och samhällsvetenskap.
    Surge, retraction and prices: The performance of fiat coins in Sweden, c. 1715-17202020Ingår i: Financial History Review, ISSN 0968-5650, E-ISSN 1474-0052, Vol. 27, nr 2, s. 256-282Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    From 1716 to 1718, Sweden experienced a shock of liquidity when the absolutist regime of Charles XII issued large amounts of fiat coins (mynttecken) in order to finance the Great Northern War. After the death of the king in November 1718, the new parliamentary regime decided to partially default on the coins. In international literature, this episode is largely unknown, and in Swedish historiography, scholars have often claimed that the country's currency collapsed in hyperinflation. We assess the performance of the new coins by studying how prices of commodities in various geographic locations developed. We also study bookkeeping practices in order to see how accountants treated the new coins. Our results show that there was a complex relationship between prices and liquidity. Prices of products in high demand by the military increased more than other prices. Accountants did not treat mynttecken and other currencies differently in 1718. It was only after the death of the king that accountants started to differentiate between different types of coins. The value of the fiat coins was linked to the actions and the legitimacy of the royal regime, which is in line with the State theory of money.

  • 2.
    Ericsson, Peter
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Winton, Patrik
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för humaniora, utbildnings- och samhällsvetenskap.
    Les politiques de crédit et de défaut: Les finances publiques et les révolutions suédoises de 1719 et de 18092019Ingår i: Les crises de la dette publique XVIIIe-XXIe siècle / [ed] Gérard Béaur & Laure Quennouëlle-Corre, Paris, France: Institut de la gestion publique et du développement économique (IGPDE). Comité pour l’histoire économique et financière de la France , 2019, s. 141-161Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 3.
    Ericsson, Peter
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden; Swedish Defense University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Winton, Patrik
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för humaniora, utbildnings- och samhällsvetenskap.
    Liquidating government debt and creating a secondary asset market: Trading patterns, market behavior and prices on government liabilities in Sweden, c. 1719–17652023Ingår i: Financial History Review, ISSN 0968-5650, E-ISSN 1474-0052, Vol. 30, nr 3, s. 355-379Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This article studies a previously unknown asset market in eighteenth-century Sweden. It emerged as a result of a partial default in 1719, when large amounts of recently released fiat coins were converted into government liabilities. These could only be redeemed as a customs duty on international trade, the licent. As merchants had to acquire such assets to conduct their trade, tens of thousands of transactions were carried out on a secondary market over a period for over 45 years. Networks of local merchants bought assets from initial holders and sold them on to intermediaries or merchants, who deposited the liabilities with a newly established government agency, the Debt Office. Here, hundreds of account holders could transfer the value of their deposits between them. When a licent payment was due, the amount was deducted from the merchant's account. Prices on the liabilities were low and sometimes volatile, bu the long-term trend was rising. We have distinguished three types of market participants: a small group of very active users, most of them professional dealers or brokers; merchants who traded on a regular basis as they needed to pay the licent, or when a favorable opportunity appeared; and finally, those who traded sporadically. The emergence of this market was part of a financial expansion that occurred in many European countries at the same time, the closest equivalent being the segmented default in France after the abolition of John Law's system. This study aims to broaden our understanding of eighteenth-century developments, which have rarely been studied in a semi-peripheral European economy.

  • 4.
    Malmström, Joakim
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Historiska institutionen.
    Winton, Patrik
    Uppsala universitet, Historiska institutionen.
    Eliter i historien: en inledning2003Ingår i: Med börd, svärd och pengar: Eliters manifestation, maktutövning och reproduktion 1650-1900 / [ed] Gudrun Andersson, Esbjörn Larsson och Patrik Winton, Uppsala: Historiska institutionen, Uppsala universitet , 2003, s. 5-16Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
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  • 5.
    Winton, Patrik
    Department of History, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Commercial Interests and Politics in Scandinavia, 1730-1815: Introduction2011Ingår i: Scandinavia in the Age of Revolution: Nordic Political Cultures, 1740-1820 / [ed] Pasi Ihalainen, Michael Bregnsbo, Karin Sennefelt, Patrik Winton, Farnham: Ashgate , 2011, s. 207-216Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
  • 6.
    Winton, Patrik
    Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Den globaliserande svenska staten: Lån, kursoperationer och internationella handelsnätverk runt 17702017Ingår i: Scandia, ISSN 0036-5483, Vol. 83, nr 2, s. 65-99Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 7.
    Winton, Patrik
    Uppsala universitet, Historiska institutionen.
    Den högsta maktens verkningskraft: statsskuld och politik i Sverige 1800-18152009Ingår i: Ett nödvändigt ont: Statsskuld och politik i Förenta Staterna och Sverige 1780-1870 / [ed] Max Edling & Patrik Winton, Uppsala: Historiska institutionen, Uppsala universitet , 2009, s. 71-127Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
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  • 8.
    Winton, Patrik
    Uppsala universitet, Historiska institutionen.
    Den politiserade predikstolen: debatten om krig mot Ryssland 1740-412007Ingår i: Gud, konung och undersåtar: Politisk predikan i Sverige under tidigmodern tid / [ed] Peter Ericsson, Uppsala: Historiska institutionen, Uppsala universitet , 2007, s. 195-230Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
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  • 9.
    Winton, Patrik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of History.
    Denmark and Sweden in the European Great Power System: 1720-17652012Ingår i: Revue d'histoire Nordique, ISSN 1778-9605, Vol. 14, s. 39-62Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This article compares the strategies the two Scandinavian states adopted in the European state system during the period 1720–65. Previous research has emphasized the difference in policies: Denmark sought neutrality and avoided war, while Sweden was involved in two wars. Inability of the Swedish political elite to adapt to a new position in the international state system has been presented as one major reason for the Swedish participation in wars. This article argues instead that the difference should be seen as a consequence of the assets the two states could offer the major powers. The Danish state’s resources were highly sought after, which meant that the government could gain advantages such as subsidies and territory without fighting wars, while the Swedish state had less to offer the major powers and was thus forced to commit to one major power and war in order to try and gain the same types of benefits as the Danish state.

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
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  • 10.
    Winton, Patrik
    Department of History, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Det kapitalrika rummet: Sverige och de tyska kreditmarknaderna 1799-18322014Ingår i: Politiska rum: Kontroll, konflikt och rörelse i det förmoderna Sverige 1300-1850 / [ed] Mats Hallenberg & Magnus Linnarsson, Lund: Nordic Academic Press , 2014, s. 79-97Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 11.
    Winton, Patrik
    Uppsala universitet, Historiska institutionen.
    Det sakrala nätverket: Biskop Andreas Rhyzelius väg till makten2003Ingår i: Med börd, svärd och pengar: Eliters manifestation, maktutövning och reproduktion 1650-1900 / [ed] Gudrun Andersson, Esbjörn Larsson och Patrik Winton, Uppsala: Historiska institutionen, Uppsala universitet , 2003, s. 83-104Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
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  • 12.
    Winton, Patrik
    Department of History, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Enighetens befrämjande och fäderneslandets förkovran: Religion och politik under frihetstiden2007Ingår i: Sjuttonhundratal, ISSN 1652-4772, E-ISSN 2001-9866, s. 5-24Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 13.
    Winton, Patrik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of History, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Frihetstidens politiska praktik: Nätverk och offentlighet 1746–17662006Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The dissertation deals with the organization of political practice in Sweden 1746–1766. It focuses on the clergy and how they mobilized political activities before and during the meetings of the Diet. Previous research has described the period as being dominated by a party system where two political organizations, hats and caps, struggled to control the parliamentary system. In this dissertation two different theoretical perspectives, commonly used in the study of British politics in the eighteenth century, are utilized: social exchange and public opinion.

    During the 1740s and 1750s, the bishops dominated the estate of the clergy. They used their social networks, which included kinship, friendship and patron-client ties, to influence both the diocese in which they served and national politics. Political activities were an integral part of the networks’ exchanges. Politics was a way to maintain social ties and to display personal loyalty. The norms of sociability guided political convocation.

    Politics changed in the latter part of the 1750s due to Sweden’s participation in the Seven Years’ War. The economic problems following the conflict led to political dissatisfaction. A number of vicars played an important role in articulating political critique against the existing order. They demanded equal political rights and major changes to the distribution of state resources. Mobilization was based on the content of important political issues rather than patronage and the perpetuation of existing social ties. Consequently, public opinion and the distribution of pamphlets and newspapers had great political importance. These results lead to a new understanding of how politics functioned and changed in Sweden during the eighteenth century.

  • 14.
    Winton, Patrik
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för humaniora, utbildnings- och samhällsvetenskap.
    From the Iberian Peninsula to the Baltic: Global Commodity Chains and Military Supplies during the Russo-Swedish War, 1741-17422023Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    In July 1741, Sweden declared war on Russia. The war required mobilization of resources from outside the Swedish realm since it was impossible to support a large army contingent in Finland with only local resources. Thus, the procurement commission that was set up to administer and to coordinate the mobilization efforts started to negotiate with merchants in Stockholm, but also in other parts of the Baltic region, about the availability of food stuffs and other required goods in different locations. The Swedish government's demand for resources created chain reactions throughout the European continent among existing networks of merchants. In this paper, I investigate how this mobilization of resources affected the commercial ties between the Iberian Peninsula and the Baltic, especially concerning the trade in salt and alcohol. By focusing on the activities of some of the main suppliers to the Swedish army and navy in 1741-42, it is possible to show the impact war and government demand for goods had on trade and global commodity chains in the eighteenth century.

  • 15.
    Winton, Patrik
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för humaniora, utbildnings- och samhällsvetenskap.
    Från krig till fred?: Den svenska statens utveckling under 1700-talet2021Övrigt (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 16.
    Winton, Patrik
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för humaniora, utbildnings- och samhällsvetenskap.
    Global Commodity Chains and Military Supplies during the Russo-Swedish War, 1741–17422023Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 17.
    Winton, Patrik
    Department of History, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Krig, skulder och välfärd i Sverige 1800-18102015Ingår i: Historisk Tidskrift, ISSN 0345-469X, E-ISSN 2002-4827, Vol. 135, nr 1, s. 5-34Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    During the eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries thousands of charitable foundations existed in Sweden which focused on helping the poor, the sick and the elderly. Although they were often administered by public officials such as clergymen, the foundations were frequently based on donations from wealthy individuals. The donated money had to be invested in order to create dividends that could be handed to the needy. Many of the foundations chose to purchase government bonds. Consequently, financial ties were created between the foundations and the National debt office which issued the bonds and administered the realm's government debt. These ties are analyzed in the article. What economic and social meaning did they have for the foundations and for the debt office? The period 1800-1810 is chosen because of the pressures that the political regime had to contend with: the Napoleonic Wars required the mobilization of more resources at the same time as the role of the monarchy was questioned by an increasingly dissatisfied elite.

    The analysis shows that many foundations in and around Stockholm as well as along the coast of the Baltic Sea purchased government bonds. The bonds played a significant role in the investment portfolios of the foundations  and thus the received interest payments were used to pay support for poor, sick and elderly individuals. The officials who administered the foundations argued that government bonds were the most trustworthy assets that were available on the credit market.

    Although the foundations constituted a relatively small group of creditors in the perspective of the debt office, they provided stability since they tended to hold on to their bonds. The foundations also provided valuable specie assets at a time when the debt office had to contend with the negative effects of the promissory notes that the debt office issued.

    In 1804, the debt office stopped further sales of bonds in order to cope with an increase in liquidity. This decision resulted in a weakening of the ties between the foundations and the debt office. Many foundations were forced to find other ways to invest their resources and they did not return when the bond sales restarted in 1808. The reduction in the size of the bond market had long-term consequences for the state's ability to mobilize resources within the country.

  • 18.
    Winton, Patrik
    Department of History, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Kvinnliga investerare i den svenska statsskulden 1800-18082013Ingår i: Allt på ett bräde: Stat, ekonomi och bondeoffer. En vänbok till Jan Lindegren / [ed] Peter Ericsson, Fredrik Thisner, Patrik Winton, Andreas Åkerlund, Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis , 2013, s. 117-128Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 19.
    Winton, Patrik
    Department of History, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    La hiérarchie contestée: La reconfiguration de l’équilibre de pouvoirs au sein et entre les orders du Riksdag suédois, 1750–17722010Ingår i: Revue d'histoire Nordique, ISSN 1778-9605, Vol. 10, s. 31-47Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 20.
    Winton, Patrik
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för humaniora, utbildnings- och samhällsvetenskap.
    Lägre ämbetsmäns arbete och sociala praktik i Stockholm under 1720-talet2022Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 21.
    Winton, Patrik
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för humaniora, utbildnings- och samhällsvetenskap.
    Lägre ämbetsmäns arbete och sociala praktik i Stockholm under 1720-talet2023Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 22.
    Winton, Patrik
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för humaniora, utbildnings- och samhällsvetenskap.
    Military Supplies, Global Commodity Chains and Merchants during the Russo-Swedish War, 1741-17422023Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 23.
    Winton, Patrik
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för humaniora, utbildnings- och samhällsvetenskap.
    Mobilizing transnational military supplies during the Swedish campaign against Russia, 1741-17432019Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    In my paper, I will examine how the Swedish military campaign against Russia in 1741–43 was organized. I will analyze what resources the military utilized for the campaign and how the state procured military goods and services. The campaign has attracted very little scholarly attention, probably because Swedish historians have viewed it as a disastrous operation which did not fit into the national military narratives of victories and success during the seventeenth century. However, also unsuccessful military endeavors can provide important insights into how procurement systems function and how the relationship between the mercantile community and the state is organized. Since the Swedish state was unable to organize the procurement of transportation capacity and large quantities of food on its own, it required the assistance of merchants in especially Stockholm to make these arrangements. Thus, the merchants utilized their knowledge, connections and credit in the Baltic region to supply the Swedish army and navy with the necessary supplies. Normally, an army used mostly local resources during the early modern period because of the difficulties in transporting large quantities of food over long distances. In Finland, such an arrangement did not work since there were limited supplies of grain and other foodstuffs where the army was operating. Therefore, it became necessary to ship supplies, such as dried peas from Swedish Pomerania and salted beef and pork from Courland and Schleswig to Finland. By investigating this transnational system of supplies, we will gain a better understanding of the Swedish contractor state, and how a middle-ranking power mobilized resources for war in the eighteenth century.

  • 24.
    Winton, Patrik
    Department of History, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Parliamentary Control, Public Discussions and Royal Autonomy: Sweden, 1750-17802015Ingår i: Histoire & Mesure, ISSN 0982-1783, Vol. 30, nr 2, s. 51-78Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Thisarticle explores developments of secrecy and transparency in relation to fiscal affairs in Sweden from around 1750 to 1780. During the 1750s the government mostly relied on subsidies and loans from the Bank of Sweden to finance deficits and major projects. This system supported the ruling oligarchy and the secrecy that surrounded its financial operations. The system was changed following the Seven Years’ War when the subsidies stopped arriving and thef alling value of the Swedish currency forced limitations on the issuance of bank liquidity. Instead external borrowing in Amsterdam and Genoa and internal borrowing through the use of lotteries and bonds expanded. This change went hand in hand with increasing openness concerning fiscal affairs and more critical public discussions about the use of resources and how the economic problems should be tackled. However, no permanent resolutions to the existing deficits could be presented. This inability to find compromises led to the royal coup in 1772, which in turn resulted in a strengthening of royal power and a stop to the open discussions about key fiscal affairs. The period ended with a return to greater economic stability, but it also entailed a return to the secrecy of the 1740s and 1750s.

  • 25.
    Winton, Patrik
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för humaniora, utbildnings- och samhällsvetenskap.
    Pengar och offentligheten: Hur pengars värde förhandlades i offentliga diskussioner 1745-18002023Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 26.
    Winton, Patrik
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för humaniora, utbildnings- och samhällsvetenskap.
    Politics of Credit: Government Borrowing and Political Regimes in Sweden2020Ingår i: A World of Public Debts: A Political History / [ed] Nicolas Barreyre & Nicolas Delalande, Palgrave Macmillan, 2020, s. 57-78Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
  • 27.
    Winton, Patrik
    Department of History, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Politics of Debt, War and Peace: Scandinavia 1800-18302013Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of History, ISSN 0346-8755, E-ISSN 1502-7716, Vol. 38, nr 4, s. 458-479Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This article explores the dynamic relationship between war finance and economic and political developments in Scandinavia during the period 1800–1830. By comparing the organization of government debt in Denmark-Norway and Sweden, it is shown that the Danish system relied on revenues from trade and consumption, while the Swedish system was heavily influenced by internal political factors such as a divided fiscal authority. The leadership in Copenhagen was committed to maintaining existing relationships with creditors even when faced with severe fiscal constraints, while the Swedish government chose partial defaults as the politically expedient option when faced with fiscal difficulties.

  • 28.
    Winton, Patrik
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för humaniora, utbildnings- och samhällsvetenskap.
    Politiska regimer, upplåningsregimer och patronage: Sverige ca 1720-17802019Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 29.
    Winton, Patrik
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för humaniora, utbildnings- och samhällsvetenskap.
    Recension av: Kampen om det allmänna bästa: Konflikter om privat och offentlig drift i Stockholms stad under 400 år2020Ingår i: Historisk Tidskrift, ISSN 0345-469X, E-ISSN 2002-4827, Vol. 140, nr 1, s. 169-171Artikel, recension (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 30.
    Winton, Patrik
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för humaniora, utbildnings- och samhällsvetenskap.
    Recension av: Lars Ericson Wolke, Svenskar i krig för Danmark: 1848–1864 (Lund: Historiska Media 2022). 356 s.2024Ingår i: Historisk Tidskrift, ISSN 0345-469X, E-ISSN 2002-4827, Vol. 144, nr 1, s. 136-138Artikel, recension (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 31.
    Winton, Patrik
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för humaniora, utbildnings- och samhällsvetenskap.
    Recension av: Mercenary Swedes: French Subsidies to Sweden 1631-17962020Ingår i: Scandia, ISSN 0036-5483, Vol. 86, nr 1, s. 121-123Artikel, recension (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 32.
    Winton, Patrik
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för humaniora, utbildnings- och samhällsvetenskap.
    Recension av: Revolutionen 1809: I huvudet på rebellen som förvandlade Sverige2021Ingår i: Historisk Tidskrift, ISSN 0345-469X, E-ISSN 2002-4827, Vol. 141, nr 2, s. 371-372Artikel, recension (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 33.
    Winton, Patrik
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för humaniora, utbildnings- och samhällsvetenskap.
    Review of: Civilians and Military Supply in Early Modern Finland2022Ingår i: Sjuttonhundratal, ISSN 1652-4772, E-ISSN 2001-9866, Vol. 19, s. 161-164Artikel, recension (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 34.
    Winton, Patrik
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för humaniora, utbildnings- och samhällsvetenskap.
    Samuel af Söderling2023Ingår i: Svenskt biografiskt lexikon, Vol. 173, s. 404-408Artikel, forskningsöversikt (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 35.
    Winton, Patrik
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för humaniora, utbildnings- och samhällsvetenskap.
    Servants of Liquidation: The Clerical Staff at the First Debt Office in Sweden, 1719-17232019Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 36.
    Winton, Patrik
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för humaniora, utbildnings- och samhällsvetenskap.
    Servants of Liquidation: The Clerical Staff at the First Debt Office in Sweden, 1719-17232021Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    Servants of Liquidation: the Clerical Staff at the First Debt Office in Sweden, 1719–1723
  • 37.
    Winton, Patrik
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för humaniora, utbildnings- och samhällsvetenskap.
    Servants of liquidation: the clerical staff at the First Debt Office in Sweden, c. 1719–17302022Ingår i: Business History, ISSN 0007-6791, E-ISSN 1743-7938Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The extensive use of white collar workers, such as bookkeepers and clerks, played a crucial role in the formation of modern states during the early modern period. This article focuses on the formation of a Debt Office in Sweden, which was opened in 1719 in order to administer the liquidation of the debt accrued during the previous royal regime. By utilizing the available expertise that been working on the debt market, it was relatively easy for the new parliamentary rule to found the office. The office became part of the credit system when it interacted with various creditors. The clerical staff helped the market to function by providing intermediation, but their role became increasingly contentious. By examining the clerical staff, we learn how the authorities tried to build a trustworthy institution. The case thereby offers another perspective on credible commitment than research which concentrates on formal political institutions. 

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    Servants of liquidation: The clerical staff at the First Debt Office in Sweden, c. 1719–1730
  • 38.
    Winton, Patrik
    Department of History, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Svenska utlandslån och den internationella kapitalmarknaden2010Ingår i: Global historia från periferin: Norden 1600-1850 / [ed] Leos Müller, Göran Rydén & Holger Weiss, Lund: Studentlitteratur , 2010, s. 165-187Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 39.
    Winton, Patrik
    Department of History, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Sveriges första vågmästare2012Ingår i: Tungan på vågen: Vågmästare och balanspartier / [ed] Jenny Björkman, Björn Fjæstad, Göteborg: Makadam Förlag, 2012, s. 223-241Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 40.
    Winton, Patrik
    Department of History, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Sweden and the Seven Years War, 1757-1762: War, Debt and Politics2012Ingår i: War in history, ISSN 0968-3445, E-ISSN 1477-0385, Vol. 19, nr 1, s. 5-31Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Sweden commenced military operations against Prussia in 1757, following Austria's and France's efforts to include Sweden in the anti-Prussian alliance. Swedish politicians hoped that the coalition would lead to a quick victory without having to get too involved in the fighting, but that Sweden still would be rewarded for its support. Swedish military action was thus primarily designed to show the allies that Sweden participated in the war. Despite the low intensity warfare that characterized the fighting, the war was still extremely expensive. The Swedish state used mostly internal borrowing to finance the war, which led to negative economic and political consequences such as inflation and popular discontent. By participating in the war, the Swedish state sought to strengthen its commercial situation worldwide while preserving its military position in the Baltic region.

  • 41.
    Winton, Patrik
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för humaniora, utbildnings- och samhällsvetenskap.
    The growth of political instability and the royal coup in Sweden, c. 1760-17802019Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 42.
    Winton, Patrik
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för humaniora, utbildnings- och samhällsvetenskap.
    The growth of political instability and the royal coup in Sweden, c. 1760-17802022Ingår i: Parliamentarism in Northern and East-Central Europe in the Long Eighteenth Century: Volume I: Representative Institutions and Political Motivation / [ed] István M. Szijártó; Wim Blockmans; László Kontler, London: Routledge, 2022, s. 261-290Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter discusses how leading noblemen in Sweden in the early 1770s no longer supported the parliamentary system that had been in place since 1719, and asks why they thought that strengthening the political role of the king could be a plausible solution to the challenges facing the Swedish realm. After all, during parliamentary rule, it was aristocrats, not royals, who were able to influence decisions on crucial issues such as government spending, the operations of the Bank of the Estates, foreign policy, and military affairs. By examining the role of credit and its function as a distributor of resources among politically important groups in society, and looking at how the credit crisis in the 1760s changed the way this distribution system worked, it is possible to shed new light on the changing ties between credit and politics in Sweden in the middle of the eighteenth century. The analysis shows that the financial problems after the Seven Years’ War, when the expansion of credit had to be halted, led to widespread criticism of the existing system of patronage and oligarchy. Financial difficulties thus decreased the effectiveness of political tools, such as the distribution of resources through the Bank of the Estates and the Debt Office, thereby making it more difficult for aristocrats to control events and to set the political agenda. Concurrently, lower-ranking groups within the estates demanded a greater say in political affairs, especially concerning fiscal issues. Tensions started to run deep between the estates, and it became increasingly difficult to find common ground. This lack of common ground made it very difficult to find compromises between the estates in order to solve financial difficulties. Privileged groups therefore looked to the king for solutions and for stability. For many aristocrats, parliamentary rule no longer brought any benefits, a situation that ultimately resulted in a lack of trust in the system and in the overthrow of the regime.

  • 43.
    Winton, Patrik
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för humaniora, utbildnings- och samhällsvetenskap.
    The Political Economy of Public Debt in Sweden, c. 1700-17702022Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    In the literature on the development of public debt in Europe during the early modern period, it is often emphasized that the Swedish state implemented various forms of paper money, such as fiat coins and bank notes, as a way to fund warfare or preparations for war. Some of these increases of liquidity were also seen as a method to support economic activity, such as helping landowners or merchants to promote their businesses. Thus, there were interactions between the public and private uses of the financial instruments. Besides relying on domestic organizations such as the Bank of the Estates (the Riksbank) to fund government activity, the Swedish state also started to borrow externally on the capital markets in Amsterdam and Genoa in the 1760s. Thus, Swedish government borrowing was organized in a different way than the often cited systems of the Dutch and English, which relied more on domestic long-term government bonds.

    In my presentation, I will explore the question why the Swedish system of public debt developed the way it did in the eighteenth century by paying particular attention to the interaction between the private and public markets, as well as the connections between the internal and external markets. Moreover, it is important to examine the people who got involved in the system of public debt. Such analyses will show that the outcome was partly driven by domestic political circumstances, and partly by the wayt he local and international financial markets were structured.

  • 44.
    Winton, Patrik
    Department of History, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    The political economy of strategic default: Sweden and the international capital markets, 1810-18302016Ingår i: European Review of Economic History, ISSN 1361-4916, E-ISSN 1474-0044, Vol. 20, nr 4, s. 410-428Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This article examines the commitment mechanisms which guided sovereign borrowing during the Napoleonic Wars by analyzing Sweden’s default on its external debt in 1812. The default was driven by internal political bargaining concerning the division of resources, and the availability of subsidies provided by the major European powers. Thus, the Swedish government and the Diet made strategic choices when deciding which debts to pay. The reputational mechanisms and the creditors’ attempts to force the Swedish state to honor its commitments did not work when the government had access to foreign subsidies.

  • 45.
    Winton, Patrik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of History.
    The political economy of Swedish absolutism: 1789–18092012Ingår i: European Review of Economic History, ISSN 1361-4916, E-ISSN 1474-0044, Vol. 16, nr 4, s. 430-448Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This article examines the connections between struggles over fiscal institutions and political change in Sweden during the period 17891809. The political situation was characterized by a divided fiscal authority: the absolute king controlled how resources were spent while the Diet controlled the operations of the Bank of Sweden and the National Debt Office. This division affected fiscal policies and how the country financed its wars. During the Napoleonic Wars, the king was unwilling to negotiate a deal with the Diet that relinquished his spending control in exchange for greater revenues to fight the war. As a consequence, he was unable to mobilize the necessary resources, which led to the loss of Finland and to his dethronement through a coup dtat organized by the elite in 1809.

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 46.
    Winton, Patrik
    Department of History, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    The Politics of Commerce in Sweden: 1730-17702011Ingår i: Scandinavia in the Age of Revolution: Nordic Political Cultures, 1740-1820 / [ed] Pasi Ihalainen, Michael Bregnsbo, Karin Sennefelt, Patrik Winton, Farnham: Ashgate , 2011, s. 217-228Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
  • 47.
    Winton, Patrik
    Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    War, Resources and Morality: Sweden 1740–17702018Ingår i: The war within: private interests and the fiscal state in early-modern Europe / [ed] Joël Félix; Anne Dubet, Cham, Switzerland: Palgrave Macmillan, 2018, 1, s. 229-256Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this chapter, the Swedish state’s war efforts in 1741–1743 are compared with Sweden’s participation during the Seven Years’ War (1757–1762). More specifically, it examines the political discussions before the wars, but also the actions of the procurement commissions set up to oversee the mobilization of resources before and during the wars. Moreover, the chapter explores how the members of the Diet assessed the actions of leading officers, as well as the activities of the political leadership and key administrators during and after the military campaigns. A key question in the analysis is how members of the procurement commissions and the politicians, who scrutinized the actions of the military and political leadership, handled issues of accountability. By examining these issues we gain a better understanding of how discourses about the relationships between private and public interests affected how resources were mobilized in a European middle ranking power.

  • 48.
    Winton, Patrik
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Historiska institutionen.
    Edling, Max
    Uppsala universitet, Historiska institutionen.
    Ett nödvändigt ont: statsskulden som historiskt fenomen2009Ingår i: Ett nödvändigt ont: Statsskuld och politik i Förenta Staterna och Sverige 1780-1870 / [ed] Max Edling & Patrik Winton, Uppsala: Historiska institutionen, Uppsala universitet , 2009, s. 9-28Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 49.
    Winton, Patrik
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för humaniora, utbildnings- och samhällsvetenskap.
    Ericsson, Peter
    Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Financial intermediation in Stockholm, 1720-602022Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    In the eighteenth century, growing trade and the Swedish state's need for resources to fund war, created an expanding credit market especially in the major towns. More money and credit circulated and more people were involved in transactions. In this paper, we analyze how the market in Stockholm functioned by focusing on financial intermediation between different actors. Since the market was so large, it was impossible for participants in the market only to rely on their existing social networks to receive information about prices and availability of credit. Many also needed help with transactions. This demand for financial services created opportunities for different actors, such as government civil servants, merchants and shipping agents, to provide assistance, but also to profit from information asymmetries. In the paper, we use ledgers created by the government's Debt Office (Riksens ständers kontor) to track how financial intermediation developed over time and to investigate the different strategies actors utilized in the market. This rich source material has not been used before by research. The detailed records provide a better view of the workings of the market than previously used material such as probate inventories, business correspondence and notary archives. We can therefore present a broader and a more dynamic picture of how financial intermediation in Stockholm functioned in the eighteenth century, and to question the existing narrative that focuses on the informal character of early modern credit. This in turn allow us to make more accurate comparisons between the Swedish capital and other European financial centers in the period. Furthermore, the findings about the financial market in Stockholm clearly manifest the inseparable connections that existed between mercantile activities and the workings of the Swedish fiscal-military state.

  • 50.
    Winton, Patrik
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för humaniora, utbildnings- och samhällsvetenskap.
    Ericsson, Peter
    Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    The resource nexus: State-merchant cooperation during the Swedish military campaigns in 1718 and 17412022Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
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