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  • 101.
    Bhatt, Mehul
    et al.
    SFB/TR 8 Spatial Cognition, University of Bremen, Bremen, Germany.
    Guesgen, Hans
    Computer Science and IT, Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand.
    Wölfl, Stefan
    Department of Computer Science, University of Freiburg, Freiburg im Breisgau, Germany.
    Hazarika, Shyamanta
    School of Engineering, Tezpur University, Tezpur, India.
    Qualitative Spatial and Temporal Reasoning: Emerging Applications, Trends, and Directions2011In: Spatial Cognition and Computation, ISSN 1387-5868, E-ISSN 1573-9252, Vol. 11, no 1, p. 1-14Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 102.
    Bhatt, Mehul
    et al.
    Spatial Cognition Research Center (SFB/TR 8), University of Bremen, Bremen, Germany.
    Hois, Joana
    Spatial Cognition Research Center (SFB/TR 8), University of Bremen, Bremen, Germany.
    Kutz, Oliver
    Spatial Cognition Research Center (SFB/TR 8), University of Bremen, Bremen, Germany.
    Ontological modelling of form and function for architectural design2012In: Applied Ontology, ISSN 1570-5838, E-ISSN 1875-8533, Vol. 7, no 3, p. 233-267Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Form, function and the relationship between the two serve a crucial role in design. Within architectural design, key aspects of the anticipated function of buildings, or of spatial environments in general, are supposed to be supported by their structural form, i.e., their shape, layout, or connectivity. Whereas the philosophy of form and function is a well-researched topic, the practical relations and dependencies between form and function are only known implicitly by designers and architects. Specifically, the formal modelling of structural forms and resulting artefactual functions within design and design assistance systems remains elusive.

    In our work, we aim at making these definitions explicit by ontologically modelling respective domain entities, their properties and related constraints. We interpret "(structural) form" and "(artefactual) function" by specifying modular ontologies and their interplay for the architectural design domain. A key aspect in our modelling approach is the use of formal conceptual requirements and qualitative spatial calculi as a link between the structural form of a design and the differing functional capabilities that it affords or leads to. We demonstrate how our ontological modelling reflects types of architectural form and function, and how it facilitates the conceptual modelling of requirement constraints in architectural design.

  • 103.
    Bhatt, Mehul
    et al.
    SFB/TR 8 Spatial Cognition, University of Bremen, Bremen, Germany.
    Hois, Joana
    SFB/TR 8 Spatial Cognition, University of Bremen, Bremen, Germany.
    Kutz, Oliver
    SFB/TR 8 Spatial Cognition, University of Bremen, Bremen, Germany.
    Dylla, Frank
    SFB/TR 8 Spatial Cognition, University of Bremen, Bremen, Germany.
    Modelling Functional Requirements in Spatial Design2010In: Conceptual Modeling - ER 2010: 29th International Conference on Conceptual Modeling, Vancouver, BC, Canada, November 1-4, 2010. Proceedings / [ed] Jeffrey Parsons, Motoshi Saeki, Peretz Shoval, Carson Woo, Yair Wand, Springer , 2010, Vol. 6412, p. 464-470Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We demonstrate the manner in which high-level design requirements, e.g., as they correspond to the commonsensical conceptualisation of expert designers, may be formally specified within practical information systems, wherein heterogeneous perspectives and conceptual commitments are needed. Focussing on semantics, modularity and consistency, we argue that our formalisation serves as a synergistic interface that mediates between the two disconnected domains of human abstracted qualitative/conceptual knowledge and its quantitative/precision-oriented counterpart within systems for spatial design (assistance). Our demonstration utilises simple, yet real world examples.

  • 104.
    Bhatt, Mehul
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology. Human-Centred Cognitive Assistance Lab. (HCC), University of Bremen, Bremen, Germany.
    Kersting, Kristian
    Technical University of Dortmund (DE), Dortmund, Germany.
    Semantic Interpretation of Multi-Modal Human-Behaviour Data: Making Sense of Events, Activities, Processes2017In: Künstliche Intelligenz, ISSN 0933-1875, E-ISSN 1610-1987, Vol. 31, no 4, p. 317-320Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This special issue presents interdisciplinary research—at the interface of artificial intelligence, cogni-tive science, and human-computer interaction—focussing on the semantic interpretation of human behaviour. The special issue constitutes an attempt to highlight and steer founda-tional methods research in artificial intelligence, in particular knowledge representation and reasoning, for the develop-ment of human-centred cognitive assistive technologies. Of specific interest and focus have been application outlets for basic research in knowledge representation and reason-ing and computer vision for the cognitive, behavioural, and social sciences.

  • 105.
    Bhatt, Mehul
    et al.
    Spatial Cognition Research Center (SFB/TR 8), University of Bremen, Bremen, Germany.
    Lee, Jae Hee
    Spatial Cognition Research Center (SFB/TR 8), University of Bremen, Bremen, Germany.
    Schultz, Carl
    Spatial Cognition Research Center (SFB/TR 8), University of Bremen, Bremen, Germany.
    CLP(QS): A Declarative Spatial Reasoning Framework2011In: Spatial Information Theory: 10th International Conference, COSIT 2011, Belfast, ME, USA, September 12-16, 2011. Proceedings / [ed] Max Egenhofer, Nicholas Giudice, Reinhard Moratz, Michael Worboys, Springer , 2011, Vol. 6899, p. 210-230Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We propose CLP(QS), a declarative spatial reasoning framework capable of representing and reasoning about high-level, qualitative spatial knowledge about the world. We systematically formalize and implement the semantics of a range of qualitative spatial calculi using a system of non-linear polynomial equations in the context of a classical constraint logic programming framework. Whereas CLP(QS) is a general framework, we demonstrate its applicability for the domain of Computer Aided Architecture Design. With CLP(QS) serving as a prototype, we position declarative spatial reasoning as a general paradigm open to other formalizations, reinterpretations, and extensions. We argue that the accessibility of qualitative spatial representation and reasoning mechanisms via the medium of high-level, logic-based formalizations is crucial for their utility toward solving real-world problems.

  • 106.
    Bhatt, Mehul
    et al.
    Department of Computer Science, La Trobe University, Germany.
    Loke, Seng
    Department of Computer Science, La Trobe University, Germany.
    Modelling Dynamic Spatial Systems in the Situation Calculus2008In: Spatial Cognition and Computation, ISSN 1387-5868, E-ISSN 1573-9252, Vol. 8, no 1-2, p. 86-130Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We propose and systematically formalise a dynamical spatial systems approach for the modelling of changing spatial environments. The formalisation adheres to the semantics of the situation calculus and includes a systematic account of key aspects that are necessary to realize a domain-independent qualitative spatial theory that may be utilised across diverse application domains. The spatial theory is primarily derivable from the all-pervasive generic notion of "qualitative spatial calculi" that are representative of differing aspects of space. In addition, the theory also includes aspects, both ontological and phenomenal in nature, that are considered inherent in dynamic spatial systems. Foundational to the formalisation is a causal theory that adheres to the representational and computational semantics of the situation calculus. This foundational theory provides the necessary (general) mechanism required to represent and reason about changing spatial environments and also includes an account of the key fundamental epistemological issues concerning the frame and the ramification problems that arise whilst modelling change within such domains. The main advantage of the proposed approach is that based on the structure and semantics of the proposed framework, fundamental reasoning tasks such as projection and explanation directly follow. Within the specialised spatial reasoning domain, these translate to spatial planning/re-configuration, causal explanation and spatial simulation. Our approach is based on the hypothesis that alternate formalisations of existing qualitative spatial calculi using high-level tools such as the situation calculus are essential for their utilisation in diverse application domains such as intelligent systems, cognitive robotics and event-based GIS.

  • 107.
    Bhatt, Mehul
    et al.
    Cognitive Systems, Universität Bremen, Bremen, Germany.
    Rahayu, Wenny
    Data Engineering and Knowledge Management Group, Department of Computer Science and Computer Engineering, La Trobe University, Australia.
    Soni, Sury Prakash
    Data Engineering and Knowledge Management Group, Department of Computer Science and Computer Engineering, La Trobe University, Australia.
    Wouters, Carlo
    Data Engineering and Knowledge Management Group, Department of Computer Science and Computer Engineering, La Trobe University, Australia.
    Ontology driven semantic profiling and retrieval in medical information systems2009In: Journal of Web Semantics, ISSN 1570-8268, E-ISSN 1873-7749, Vol. 7, no 4, p. 317-331Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We propose the application of a novel sub-ontology extraction methodology for achieving interoperability and improving the semantic validity of information retrieval in the medical information systems (MIS) domain. The system offers advanced pro. ling of a user's field of specialization by exploiting the concept of sub-ontology extraction, i.e., each sub-ontology may subsequently represent a particular user pro. le. Semantic pro. ling of a user's field of specialization or interest is necessary functionality in any medical domain information retrieval system; this is because the (structural and semantic) extent of information sources is massive and individual users are only likely to be interested in specific parts of the overall knowledge documents on the basis of their area of specialization. The prototypical system, OntoMOVE, has been specifically designed for application in the medical information systems domain. OntoMOVE utilizes semantic web standards like RDF(S) and OWL in addition to medical domain standards and vocabularies encompassed by the UMLS knowledge sources.

  • 108.
    Bhatt, Mehul
    et al.
    Data Engineering and Knowledge Management Group, Department of Computer Science, La Trobe University, Melbourne, Australia.
    Rahayu, Wenny
    Data Engineering and Knowledge Management Group, Department of Computer Science, La Trobe University, Melbourne, Australia.
    Soni, Sury Prakash
    Data Engineering and Knowledge Management Group, Department of Computer Science, La Trobe University, Melbourne, Australia.
    Wouters, Carlo
    Data Engineering and Knowledge Management Group, Department of Computer Science, La Trobe University, Melbourne, Australia.
    OntoMove: A Knowledge Based Framework for Semantic Requirement Profiling and Resource Acquisition2007In: Proceedings of the 2007 Australian Software Engineering Conference (ASWEC'07), IEEE Computer Society , 2007, p. 137-146Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of formal knowledge representation structures, or ontologies, has found immense applicability for the interoperability of software systems, e.g., alignment of software and business process models. Toward the management of such knowledge structures, an important foundational problem is that of ontology reuse - it is uncommon for new applications or for different components within one application to use an already available ontology in its entirety. Depending on component specific requirements, typical re-usages are restricted to refined versions of an existing ontology, with the refinement taking the form of a contraction of the knowledge contained therein. Furthermore, when the ontology is used to ascribe meaning to independently existing 'resources' (e.g., documents collections, source code, software manuals, process template repositories) by way of meta-data, there exists a direct mapping between different views/re-uses of an ontology and their respective semantic scopes within an annotated resource repository thereby leading to the concept of view/reuse dependent resource retrieval. We implement a framework that supports ontology reuse by way of a requirement driven sub-ontology extraction methodology. Additionally, based on this concept of a sub-ontology, we implement the idea of a user/component 'requirement profile' consisting of semantic descriptions of the user's interest within a 'resource repository' that has been annotated with semantic types from the ontology under consideration. A generic framework that implements these ideas and its application in the domains of Medical Information Retrieval systems and Business Process Management Systems (BPMS) is presented.

  • 109.
    Bhatt, Mehul
    et al.
    Department of Computer Science, La Trobe University Melbourne, Australia.
    Rahayu, Wenny
    Department of Computer Science, La Trobe University Melbourne, Australia.
    Sterling, Gerald
    Air-Operations Division, Defence Science Technology Organisation, Melbourne, Australia.
    A Causal Perspective to Qualitative Spatial Reasoning in the Situation Calculus2006In: Advances in Artificial Intelligence - IBERAMIA-SBIA 2006: 2nd International Joint Conference, 10th Ibero-American Conference on AI, 18th Brazilian AI Symposium, Ribeirão Preto, Brazil, October 23-27, 2006, Proceedings / [ed] Jaime Simão Sichman, Helder Coelho, Solange Oliveira Rezende, Springer , 2006, Vol. 4140, p. 430-440Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We propose the utilisation of a general formalism to reason about action & change for reasoning about the dynamic purpose-directed aspects of spatial change. Such an approach is necessary toward the general integration of qualitative spatial reasoning with reasoning about the teleological aspects of spatial change. With this as the overall context, the main contribution of this paper is to illustrate first ideas relevant to providing a causal perspective to qualitative spatial reasoning using the situation calculus. With minimal notions about space & spatial dynamics, we perform a naive characterisation of objects based on their physical properties and investigate the key representational aspects of a topological theory of space, namely the region connection calculus, in the situation calculus. Further, ontological distinctions are made between various occurrents, i.e., actions and internal & external events, and a domain level characterisation of spatial occurrents in terms of their spatial pre-conditions & effects is performed so as to provide a causal perspective to spatial reasoning.

  • 110.
    Bhatt, Mehul
    et al.
    Department of Computer Science, La Trobe University, Melbourne, Australia.
    Rahayu, Wenny
    Department of Computer Science, La Trobe University, Melbourne, Australia.
    Sterling, Gerald
    Air-Operations Division, DSTO, Melbourne, Australia.
    A General Framework Based on Dynamic Constraints for the Enrichment of a Topological Theory of Spatial Simulation2005In: Knowledge-Based Intelligent Information and Engineering Systems: 9th International Conference, KES 2005, Melbourne, Australia, September 14-16, 2005, Proceedings, Part IV / [ed] Rajiv Khosla, Robert J. Howlett, Lakhmi C. Jain, Springer , 2005, Vol. 3684, p. 366-373Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Qualitative spatial representation and reasoning has emerged as a major sub-field of AI in the past decade. An important research problem within the field is that of integrated reasoning about various spatial aspects such as distance, size, topology etc - an important application here being the qualitative simulation of physical processes. Approaches based on topology alone fail to provide an explicit account of other important aspects of spatial change thereby also not utilizing dynamically available information pertaining to them. Our work in this paper is based on the idea that a general theory of spatial simulation based on topological changes alone can be enriched by the inclusion of sub-theories relevant to other aspects of spatial change. We propose a general framework consisting of dynamic constraints for the enrichment of a topological theory of spatial changes. We propose the utilisation of such dynamic constraints for the incorporation of dynamically available information relevant to various aspects of space thereby making that aspect explicit in the theory. As an example of the proposed approach, we integrate dynamically available information pertaining to motion and size with the topological theory of RCC-8 using our framework of dynamic constraints.

  • 111.
    Bhatt, Mehul
    et al.
    Department of Computer Science, La Trobe University, Melbourne, Australia.
    Rahayu, Wenny
    Department of Computer Science, La Trobe University, Melbourne, Australia.
    Sterling, Gerald
    Air-Operations Division, DSTO, Melbourne, Australia.
    Qualitative Spatial Reasoning with Topological Relations in the Situation Calculus2006In: Proceedings of the Nineteenth International Florida Artificial Intelligence Research Society Conference, Melbourne Beach, Florida, USA, May 11-13, 2006, AAAI Press , 2006, p. 713-718Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We use a qualitative theory of spatial change and illustrate some of the key representational aspects of specifying such a theory using a formalism to reason about action & change; an effort that we regard to be essential toward a general integration of qualitative spatial reasoning with reasoning about the dynamic, causal aspects of spatial change. A topological theory of space, namely the region connection calculus, is used as the spatial metaphor in this work; the reason here primarily being that topological distinctions are inherently qualitative in nature and also because a relational approach as general as the RCC is representative of a similar class of relational techniques in the QSR domain. As such, our results can be easily generalised over a wide range of calculi, encompassing other aspects of space, that are based on similar semantics. The main aim of this paper is to illustrate first ideas on how a causal perspective to qualitative spatial reasoning may be provided using the situation calculus, which is a formalism to reason about dynamically changing domains, The minimalist notions of space and/or spatial dynamics in this paper are based on the hypothesis that it is imperative to approach the problem of the said integration at a elementary level before a higher-level abstraction involving complex actions & events is developed.

  • 112.
    Bhatt, Mehul
    et al.
    Department of Computer Science, La Trobe University, Melbourne, Australia.
    Rahayu, Wenny
    Department of Computer Science, La Trobe University, Melbourne, Australia.
    Sterling, Gerald
    Air-Operations Division, Defence Science Technology Organisation, Melbourne, Australia.
    Situation Awareness in Synthetic Environments: Towards a Computational Model2005In: Proceedings of the 2nd Indian International Conference on Artificial Intelligence, Pune, India, December 20-22, 2005 / [ed] Bhanu Prasad, IICAI , 2005, p. 3556-3575Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The simulation of the behaviour of autonomous entities in space is an interesting research method to advance our understanding of the interaction of human beings with the environment. Although rather complex cognitive models of human-level Situation Awareness (SA) in dynamic environments exist, computational approaches to represent the same remain at best ad-hoc - cognitively inadequate or bearing little or no resemblance to the qualitative manner in which humans seemingly represent & reason about knowledge. The aim of our research is to investigate the computational aspects of situation awareness of autonomous entities in large-scale simulated spaces, called Synthetic Environments (SE). This is done within the scope of an understanding of situation awareness that encompasses common-sense conceptual reasoning and integrated qualitative reasoning about space, time & causality As a product of our research, we envisage to develop a logic based computational framework based on a unified representational semantics for space, time & causality - the essence of which is a process model involving abstract ontological commitments involving spatial, temporal and action event oriented concepts, alongwith a capability to handle concurrent and continuous phenomena. The framework, which is representative of our model of situation awareness, will be most beneficial for systems involving the representation of physical and/or intelligent autonomous processes. However, as an exemplar of our approach, we are interested in applying the framework for the representation of autonomous behaviour in defence Modelling & Simulation (M&S) applications.

  • 113.
    Bhatt, Mehul
    et al.
    Department of Computer Science, La Trobe University, Melbourne, Australia.
    Rahayu, Wenny
    Department of Computer Science, La Trobe University, Melbourne, Australia.
    Sterling, Gerald
    Air-Operations Division, DSTO, Melbourne, Australia.
    Synthetic Environment Representational Semantics Using the Web Ontology Language2005In: Intelligent Data Engineering and Automated Learning - IDEAL 2005: 6th International Conference, Brisbane, Australia, July 6-8, 2005, Proceedings / [ed] Marcus Gallagher, James P. Hogan, Frederic Maire, Springer , 2005, Vol. 3578, p. 9-16Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The application of Ontologies for the definition and interoperability of complementary taxonomies has been well-recognised within the Modelling & Simulation (M&S) community. Our research pertaining to the specification of Synthetic Environment (SE) representational semantics has proposed the use of an Synthetic Environment Data Representation Ontology (sedOnto), which is modeled using W3C ' s Web Ontology Language(OWL), The vocabulary specified in sedOnto is based the SEDRIS Data Representation Model (DRM), which is a technological framework for SE data interchange and interoperability. In this paper, we present STOWL - SEDRIS To OWL Transform that automates the transformation of a SEDRIS based SE to a Web-Ontology based representation scheme in the OWL language. The target representation scheme, which shall be based on sedOnto, is in actuality an instantiation of the SE data representation terminology as specified by sedOnto. Such a transformation has many perceived advantages: It enhances SE interoperability by utilizing a Web-Ontology based approach for the specification of SE representation data, is consistent with existing industry based SE representation standards, namely SEDRIS, and that the representation scheme facilitates ontological reasoning over SE objects; a facility that is not directly supported by the SEDRIS DRM.

  • 114.
    Bhatt, Mehul
    et al.
    The DesignSpace Group, Faculty of Mathematics and Informatics, University of Bremen, Bremen, Germany.
    Schultz, Carl
    The DesignSpace Group, Faculty of Mathematics and Informatics, University of Bremen, Bremen, Germany.
    People-Centered Visuospatial Cognition: Next-Generation Architectural Design Systems and Their Role in Design Conception, Computing, and Communication2017In: The Active Image: Architecture and Engineering in the Age of Modeling / [ed] Ammon, Sabine; Capdevila-Werning, Remei, Springer International Publishing , 2017, p. 207-232Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    When undertaking the task of design, architects imagine and anticipate the visuospatial and navigational experience of building users during the initial design conception phase. The ultimate goal is to ensure that the final physical built-up structure inherently performs with respect to people-centered design criteria encompassing function, behavior, and affordance. We argue that next-generation people-centered design systems, frameworks, assistive tools, educational discourse, and design policies and practices need to be explicitly founded on the cognitive modalities of human perception, attention, action, dynamics, environmental affordance and user experience, and design conception and semantics. We posit that this requires a holistic approach to architectural design cognition, encompassing the application of principles, practices, and methods from the fields of architecture and engineering, cognitive science, spatial cognition and computation, and evidence-based empirical methods in environmental and social psychology.

  • 115.
    Bhatt, Mehul
    et al.
    Spatial Cognition Research Center (SFB / TR 8), University of Bremen, Bremen, Germany.
    Schultz, Carl
    Spatial Cognition Research Center (SFB / TR 8), University of Bremen, Bremen, Germany.
    The Shape of Empty Space: Human-centred cognitive foundations in computing for spatial design2013In: The Shape of Things: Proceedings of the Second Interdisciplinary Workshop The Shape of Things, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, April 3-4, 2013 / [ed] Oliver Kutz, Mehul Bhatt, Stefano Borgo, Paulo Santos, CEUR Workshop Proceedings , 2013, Vol. 1007, p. 59-59Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We propose a human-centred model for abstraction, modelling and computing in function-driven spatial design for architecture. The primitive entities oour design conception ontology and computing framework are driven by classic notions of structure, function, and a↵ordance in design, and are directly based on the fundamental human perceptual and analytical modalities of visual and locomotive exploration of space. With an emphasis on design semantics, our model for spatial design marks a fundamental shift from contemporary modelling and computational foundations underlying engineering- centred computer aided design systems. We demonstrate the application of our model within a system for human-centred compu- tational design analysis and simulation. We also illustrate the manner in which our design modelling and computing framework seamlessly builds on contemporary industry data modelling standards within the architecture and construction informatics communities.

  • 116.
    Bhatt, Mehul
    et al.
    University of Bremen, Bremen, Germany.
    Schultz, Carl
    Freksa, Christian
    The ‘Space’ in Spatial Assistance Systems: Conception, Formalisation and Computation2014In: Representing space in cognition: Interrelations of behavior, language, and formal models / [ed] Tenbrink, Thora; Wiener, Jan; Claramunt, Christophe, Oxford: Oxford University Press , 2014Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter is about ‘space’: empty space, spatial structures, and the process of structuring. We organize empty space by building-up structures and artefacts of our everyday existence. This structuring transforms empty space into something of a desired form (e.g. a balanced room, a visually pleasing scene), function (e.g. easily navigable), and semantic connotation (e.g. of a ‘place’). The chapter is written from the perspective of spatial informatics and addresses space at the scale of everyday human perception and thinking. The core of this chapter is to present the informatics of spatial structure; this is done at three levels: (1) the conception of structural form, as it accrues in the minds of people, and its expression, using spatio-linguistic modalities; (2) the formalization of space, using representational means for spatial abstraction; and (3) the computation of structural forms in a manner that constructively assures, assists, and empowers those who conceive of those forms. The chapter is grounded to reality with respect to a particular class of spatial assistance systems, e.g. for spatial design, where our interpretations of creative and constructive assistance are applicable. We also present case studies in domains such as design creativity for media pre-production, and real-time emergency assistance, though architectural design remains an area of special emphasis throughout the chapter.

  • 117.
    Bhatt, Mehul
    et al.
    Cognitive Systems Group, University of Bremen, Bremen, Germany.
    Schultz, Carl
    Cognitive Systems Group, University of Bremen, Bremen, Germany.
    Huang, Minqian
    Digital Media, University of Bremen, Bremen, Germany.
    The Shape of Empty Space: Human-centred cognitive foundations in computing for spatial design2012In: 2012 IEEE Symposium on Visual Languages and Human-Centric Computing, VL/HCC 2012, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2012, p. 33-40Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We propose a human-centred model for abstraction, modelling and computing in function-driven spatial design for architecture. The primitive entities of our design conception ontology and computing framework are driven by classic notions of structure, function, and affordance in design, and are directly based on the fundamental human perceptual and analytical modalities of visual and locomotive exploration of space.

    With an emphasis on design semantics, our model for spatial design marks a fundamental shift from contemporary modelling and computational foundations underlying engineering-centred computer aided design systems. We demonstrate the application of our model within a system for human-centred computational design analysis and simulation. We also illustrate the manner in which our design modelling and computing framework seamlessly builds on contemporary industry data modelling standards within the architecture and construction informatics communities.

  • 118.
    Bhatt, Mehul
    et al.
    Cognitive Systems, and Spatial Cognition Research Center (SFB/TR 8), University of Bremen, Bremen, Germany.
    Schultz, Carl
    Cognitive Systems, and Spatial Cognition Research Center (SFB/TR 8), University of Bremen, Bremen, Germany.
    Thosar, Madhura
    Cognitive Systems, and Spatial Cognition Research Center (SFB/TR 8), University of Bremen, Bremen, Germany.
    Computing Narratives of Cognitive User Experience for Building Design Analysis: KR for Industry Scale Computer-Aided Architecture Design2014In: Proceedings of the 14th international conference on principles of knowledge representation and reasoning / [ed] Chitta Baral, Giuseppe De Giacomo, Thomas Eiter, AAAI Press , 2014, p. 508-517Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a cognitive design assistance system equipped with analytical capabilities aimed at anticipating architectural building design performance with respect to peoplecentred functional design goals. The paper focuses on the system capability to generate narratives of visuo-locomotive user experience from digital computer-aided architecture design (CAAD) models. The system is based on an underlying declarative narrative representation and computation framework pertaining to conceptual, geometric, and qualitative spatial knowledge. The semantics of the declarative narrative model, i.e., the overall representation and computation model, is founded on: (a) conceptual knowledge formalised in an OWL ontology; (b) a general spatial representation and reasoning engine implemented in constraint logic programming; and (c) a declaratively encoded (narrative) construction process (based on search over graph structures) implemented in answer-set programming.

    We emphasise and demonstrate: complete system implementation, scalability, and robust performance & integration with industry-scale architecture industry tools (e.g., Revit, Archi-CAD) & standards (BIM, IFC).

  • 119.
    Bhatt, Mehul
    et al.
    Spatial Cognition Research Center (SFB/TR 8), University of Bremen, Bremen, Germany.
    Suchan, Jakob
    Spatial Cognition Research Center (SFB/TR 8), University of Bremen, Bremen, Germany.
    Freksa, Christian
    Spatial Cognition Research Center (SFB/TR 8), University of Bremen, Bremen, Germany.
    Rotunde - A Smart Meeting Cinematography Initiative: Tools, Datasets, and Benchmarks for Cognitive Interpretation and Control2013In: Space, Time, and Ambient Intelligence, Papers from the 2013 AAAI Workshop, Bellevue, Washington, USA, July 14, 2013, AI Access Foundation , 2013, Vol. WS-13-14, p. 9-12Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 120.
    Bhatt, Mehul
    et al.
    The DesignSpace Group, Bremen, Germany.
    Suchan, Jakob
    The DesignSpace Group, Bremen, Germany.
    Kondyli, Vasiliki
    The DesignSpace Group, Bremen, Germany.
    Schultz, Carl
    The DesignSpace Group, Bremen, Germany.
    Embodied visuo-locomotive experience analysis: immersive reality based summarisation of experiments in environment-behaviour studies2016In: Proceedings of the ACM Symposium on Applied Perception (SAP 2016), USA: ACM Digital Library , 2016, p. 133-133Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Evidence-based design (EBD) for architecture involves the study of post-occupancy behaviour of building users with the aim to provide an empirical basis for improving building performance [Hamilton and Watkins 2009]. Within EBD, the high-level, qualitative analysis of the embodied visuo-locomotive experience of representative groups of building users (e.g., children, senior citizens, individuals facing physical challenges) constitutes a foundational approach for understanding the impact of architectural design decisions, and functional building performance from the viewpoint of areas such as environmental psychology, wayfinding research, human visual perception studies, spatial cognition, and the built environment [Bhatt and Schultz 2016].

  • 121.
    Bhatt, Mehul
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology. Cognitive Systems, University of Bremen, Bremen, Germany; Sonderforschungsbereich Transregional Collaborative Research Center 8, Spatial Cognition, University of Bremen, Bremen, Germany.
    Suchan, Jakob
    Cognitive Systems, University of Bremen, Bremen, Germany; Sonderforschungsbereich Transregional Collaborative Research Center 8, Spatial Cognition, University of Bremen, Bremen, Germany.
    Schultz, Carl
    Cognitive Systems, University of Bremen, Bremen, Germany; Sonderforschungsbereich Transregional Collaborative Research Center 8, Spatial Cognition, University of Bremen, Bremen, Germany.
    Cognitive Interpretation of Everyday Activities - Toward Perceptual Narrative Based Visuo-Spatial Scene Interpretation2013In: 2013 Workshop on Computational Models of Narrative / [ed] Mark A. Finlayson; Bernhard Fisseni; Benedikt Löwe; Jan Christoph Meister, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik , 2013, Vol. 32, p. 24-29Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We position a narrative-centred computational model for high-level knowledge representation and reasoning in the context of a range of assistive technologies concerned with visuo-spatial perception and cognition tasks. Our proposed narrative model encompasses aspects such as space, events, actions, change, and interaction from the viewpoint of commonsense reasoning and learning in large-scale cognitive systems. The broad focus of this paper is on the domain of human-activity interpretation in smart environments, ambient intelligence etc. In the backdrop of a smart meeting cinematography domain, we position the proposed narrative model, preliminary work on perceptual narrativisation, and the immediate outlook on constructing general-purpose open-source tools for perceptual narrativisation.

  • 122.
    Bhatt, Mehul
    et al.
    DesignSpace Group, University of Bremen, Bremen, Germany.
    Suchan, Jakob
    DesignSpace Group, University of Bremen, Bremen, Germany.
    Schultz, Carl
    DesignSpace Group, University of Bremen, Bremen, Germany.
    Kondyli, Vasiliki
    DesignSpace Group, University of Bremen, Bremen, Germany.
    Goyal, Saurabh
    DesignSpace Group, University of Bremen, Bremen, Germany.
    Artificial Intelligence for Predictive and Evidence Based Architecture Design2016In: Proceedings of the Thirtieth AAAI Conference on Artificial Intelligence (AAAI-16), AAAI press , 2016, p. 4349-4350Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The evidence-based analysis of people's navigation and wayfinding behaviour in large-scale built-up environments (e.g., hospitals, airports) encompasses the measurement and qualitative analysis of a range of aspects including people's visual perception in new and familiar surroundings, their decision-making procedures and intentions, the affordances of the environment itself, etc. In our research on large-scale evidence-based qualitative analysis of wayfinding behaviour, we construe visual perception and navigation in built-up environments as a dynamic narrative construction process of movement and exploration driven by situation-dependent goals, guided by visual aids such as signage and landmarks, and influenced by environmental (e.g., presence of other people, time of day, lighting) and personal (e.g., age, physical attributes) factors. We employ a range of sensors for measuring the embodied visuo-locomotive experience of building users: eye-tracking, egocentric gaze analysis, external camera based visual analysis to interpret fine-grained behaviour (e.g., stopping, looking around, interacting with other people), and also manual observations made by human experimenters. Observations are processed, analysed, and integrated in a holistic model of the visuo-locomotive narrative experience at the individual and group level. Our model also combines embodied visual perception analysis with analysis of the structure and layout of the environment (e.g., topology, routes, isovists) computed from available 3D models of the building. In this framework, abstract regions like the visibility space, regions of attention, eye movement clusters, are treated as first class visuo-spatial and iconic objects that can be used for interpreting the visual experience of subjects in a high-level qualitative manner. The final integrated analysis of the wayfinding experience is such that it can even be presented in a virtual reality environment thereby providing an immersive experience (e.g., using tools such as the Oculus Rift) of the qualitative analysis for single participants, as well as for a combined analysis of large group. This capability is especially important for experiments in post-occupancy analysis of building performance. Our construction of indoor wayfinding experience as a form of moving image analysis centralizes the role and influence of perceptual visuo-spatial characteristics and morphological features of the built environment into the discourse on wayfinding research. We will demonstrate the impact of this work with several case-studies, particularly focussing on a large-scale experiment conducted at the New Parkland Hospital in Dallas Texas, USA.

  • 123.
    Bhatt, Mehul
    et al.
    Cognitive Systems, Spatial Cognition Research Center (SFB/TR 8), University of Bremen, Bremen, Germany.
    Wallgrün, Jan Oliver
    Department of Geography, GeoVISTA Center, Pennsylvania State University, University Park PA, United States.
    Geospatial Narratives and Their Spatio-Temporal Dynamics: Commonsense Reasoning for High-Level Analyses in Geographic Information Systems2014In: ISPRS International Journal of Geo-Information, ISSN 2220-9964, Vol. 3, no 1, p. 166-205Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The modeling, analysis and visualization of dynamic geospatial phenomena has been identified as a key developmental challenge for next-generation Geographic Information Systems (GIS). In this context, the envisaged paradigmatic extensions to contemporary foundational GIS technology raises fundamental questions concerning the ontological, formal representational and (analytical) computational methods that would underlie their spatial information theoretic underpinnings. We present the conceptual overview and architecture for the development of high-level semantic and qualitative analytical capabilities for dynamic geospatial domains. Building on formal methods in the areas of commonsense reasoning, qualitative reasoning, spatial and temporal representation and reasoning, reasoning about actions and change and computational models of narrative, we identify concrete theoretical and practical challenges that accrue in the context of formal reasoning about space, events, actions and change. With this as a basis and within the backdrop of an illustrated scenario involving the spatio-temporal dynamics of urban narratives, we address specific problems and solution techniques chiefly involving qualitative abstraction, data integration and spatial consistency and practical geospatial abduction.

  • 124.
    Bhatt, Mehul
    et al.
    La Trobe University, Australia.
    Wouters, Carlo
    La Trobe University, Australia.
    Flahive, Andrew
    La Trobe University, Australia.
    Rahayu, Wenny
    La Trobe University, Australia.
    Taniar, David
    Monash University, Australia.
    Semantic Completeness in Sub-ontology Extraction Using Distributed Methods2004In: Computational Science and Its Applications - ICCSA 2004: International Conference, Assisi, Italy, May 14-17, 2004, Proceedings, Part III / [ed] Antonio Laganá, Marina L. Gavrilova, Vipin Kumar, Youngsong Mun, C. J. Kenneth Tan, Osvaldo Gervasi, Springer , 2004, Vol. 3045, p. 508-517Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of ontologies lies at the very heart of the newly emerging era of Semantic Web. They provide a shared conceptualization of some domain that may be communicated between people and application systems. A common problem with web ontologies is that they tend to grow large in scale and complexity as a result of ever increasing information requirements. The resulting ontologies are too large to be used in their entirety by one application. Our previous work, Materialized Ontology View Extractor (MOVE), has addressed this problem by proposing a distributed architecture for the extraction/optimization of a sub-ontology from a large scale base ontology. The extraction process consists of a number of independent optimization schemes that cover various aspects of the optimization process. In this paper, we extend MOVE with a Semantic Completeness Optimization Scheme (SCOS), which addresses the issue of the semantic correctness of the resulting sub-ontology. Moreover, we utilize distributed methods to implement SCOS in a cluster environment. Here, a distributed memory architecture serves two purposes: (a). Facilitates the utilization of a cluster environment typical in business organizations, which is in line with our envisaged application of the proposed system and (b). Enhances the performance of the computationally extensive extraction process when dealing with massively sized realistic ontologies.

  • 125.
    Bidot, Julien
    et al.
    Universität Ulm, Ulm, Germany.
    Biundo, Susanne
    Universität Ulm, Ulm, Germany.
    Artificial intelligence planning for ambient environments2011In: Next generation intelligent environments: ambient adaptive systems / [ed] Wolfgang Minker, Tobias Heinroth, Springer Science+Business Media B.V., 2011, 1, p. 195-225Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this chapter, we describe how Artificial Intelligence planning techniques are used in The Adapted and TRusted Ambient eCOlogies (ATRACO) in order to provide Sphere Adaptation. We introduce the Planning Agent (PA) which plays a central role in the realization and the structural adaptation of activity spheres. Based on particular information included in the ontology of the execution environment, the PA delivers workflows that consist of the basic activities to be executed in order to achieve a user's goals. The PA encapsulates a search engine for hybrid planning--the combination of hierarchical task network planning and partial-order causal-link planning. In this chapter, we describe a formal framework and a development platform for hybrid planning, PANDA. This platform allows for the implementation of many search strategies, and we explain how we realize the search engine of the PA by adapting and configuring PANDA specifically for addressing planning problems that are part of the ATRACO service composition. We describe how the PA interacts with the Sphere Manager and the Ontology Manager in order to create planning problems dynamically and generate workflows in the ATRACO-BPEL language. In addition, an excerpt of a planning domain for ATRACO is provided.

  • 126.
    Bidot, Julien
    et al.
    Universität Ulm, Ulm, Germany.
    Biundo, Susanne
    Universität Ulm, Ulm, Germany.
    Heinroth, Tobias
    Universität Ulm, Ulm, Germany.
    Minker, Wolfgang
    Universität Ulm, Ulm, Germany.
    Nothdurft, Florian
    Universität Ulm, Ulm, Germany.
    Schattenberg, Bernd
    Universität Ulm, Ulm, Germany.
    Verbal plan explanations for hybrid planning2010In: MKWI / [ed] Matthias Schumann, Lutz M. Kolbe, Michael H. Breitner, and Arne Frerichs, Universitätsverlag Göttingen, 2010, p. 2309-2320Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 127.
    Bidot, Julien
    et al.
    Universität Ulm, Ulm, Germany.
    Biundo, Susanne
    Universität Ulm, Ulm, Germany.
    Schattenberg, Bernd
    Universität Ulm, Ulm, Germany.
    Plan repair in hybrid planning2008In: KI 2008: Advances in Artificial Intelligence / [ed] Andreas R. Dengel, Karsten Berns, Thomas M. Breuel, Frank Bomarius, and Thomas R. Roth-Berghofer, Springer, 2008, p. 169-176Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a domain-independent approach to plan repair in a formal framework for hybrid planning. It exploits the generation process of the failed plan by retracting decisions that led to the failed plan fragments. They are selectively replaced by suitable alternatives, and the repaired plan is completed by following the previous generation process as close as possible. This way, a stable solution is obtained, i.e. a repair of the failed plan that causes minimal perturbation.

  • 128.
    Bidot, Julien
    et al.
    Universität Ulm, Ulm, Germany.
    Goumopoulos, Christos
    DAISy Research Unit, Patras, Greece.
    Calemis, Ioannis
    DAISy Research Unit, Patras, Greece.
    Using AI planning and late binding for managing service workflows in intelligent environments2011In: 2011 IEEE International conference on pervasive computing and communications (PerCom), IEEE conference proceedings, 2011, p. 156-163Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we present an approach to aggregating and using devices that support the everyday life of human users in ambient intelligence environments. These execution environments are complex and changing over time, since the devices of the environments are numerous and heterogeneous, and they may appear or disappear at any time. In order to appropriately adapt the ambient system to a user's needs, we adopt a service-oriented approach; i.e., devices provide services that reflect their capabilities. The orchestration of the devices is actually realized with the help of Artificial Intelligence planning techniques and dynamic service binding. At design time, (i) a planning problem is created that consists of the user's goal to be achieved and the services currently offered by the intelligent environment, (ii) the planning problem is then solved using Hierarchical Task Network and Partial-Order Causal-Link planning techniques, (iii) and from the planning decisions taken to find solution plans, abstract service workflows are automatically generated. At run time, the abstract services are dynamically bound to devices that are actually present in the environment. Adaptation of the workflow instantiation is possible due to the late binding mechanism employed. The paper depicts the architecture of our system. It also describes the modeling and the life cycle of the workflows. We discuss the advantages and the limit of our approach with respect to related work and give specific details about implementation. We present some experimental results that validate our system in a real-world application scenario.

  • 129. Bidot, Julien
    et al.
    Karlsson, Lars
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Lagriffoul, Fabien
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Saffiotti, Alessandro
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Geometric backtracking for combined task and motion planning in robotic systems2017In: Artificial Intelligence, ISSN 0004-3702, E-ISSN 1872-7921, Vol. 247, p. 229-265Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Planners for real robotic systems should not only reason about abstract actions, but also about aspects related to physical execution such as kinematics and geometry. We present an approach to hybrid task and motion planning, in which state-based forward-chaining task planning is tightly coupled with motion planning and other forms of geometric reasoning. Our approach is centered around the problem of geometric backtracking that arises in hybrid task and motion planning: in order to satisfy the geometric preconditions of the current action, a planner may need to reconsider geometric choices, such as grasps and poses, that were made for previous actions. Geometric backtracking is a necessary condition for completeness, but it may lead to a dramatic computational explosion due to the large size of the space of geometric states. We explore two avenues to deal with this issue: the use of heuristics based on different geometric conditions to guide the search, and the use of geometric constraints to prune the search space. We empirically evaluate these different approaches, and demonstrate that they improve the performance of hybrid task and motion planning. We demonstrate our hybrid planning approach in two domains: a real, humanoid robotic platform, the DLR Justin robot, performing object manipulation tasks; and a simulated autonomous forklift operating in a warehouse.

  • 130.
    Bidot, Julien
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Karlsson, Lars
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Lagriffoul, Fabien
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Saffiotti, Alessandro
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Geometric backtracking for combined task and path planning in robotic systemsManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Planners for real, possibly complex, robotic systems should not only reason about abstract actions, but also about aspects related to physical execution such as kinematics and geometry. We present an approach in which state-based forward-chaining task planning is tightly coupled with sampling-based motion planning and other forms of geometric reasoning. We focus on the problem of geometric backtracking which arises when a planner needs to reconsider geometric choices, like grasps and poses, that were made for previous actions, in order to satisfy geometric preconditions of the current action. Geometric backtracking is a necessary condition for completeness, but it may lead to a dramatic computational explosion due to the systematic exploration of the space of geometric states. In order to deal with that, we introduce heuristics based on the collisions between the robot and movable objects detected during geometric backtracking and on kinematic relations between actions. We also present a complementary approach based on propagating explicit constraints which are automatically generated from the symbolic actions to be evaluated and from the kinematic model of the robot. We empirically evaluate these dierent approaches. We demonstrate our planner on a real advanced robot, the DLR Justin robot, and on a simulated autonomous forklift. 

  • 131.
    Bidot, Julien
    et al.
    Ecole Nationale d'Ingénieurs de Tarbes, Tarbes, France.
    Laborie, Philippe
    ILOG S.A., Gentilly, France.
    Beck, J. Christopher
    University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada.
    Vidal, Thierry
    Ecole Nationale d'Ingénieurs de Tarbes, Tarbes, France.
    Using constraint programming and simulation for execution monitoring and progressive scheduling2006In: Information control problems in manufacturing 2006 / [ed] Alexandre Dolgui, Gérard Morel, Carlos E. Pereira, Elsevier, 2006, p. 615-620Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The problem we tackle is progressive scheduling with temporal and resource uncertainty. Operation durations are imprecise and alternative resources may break down. Operation end times and resource breakdowns are observed during execution. In this paper, we assume we have a representation of uncertainty in the form of probability distributions which are used in the simulation of schedule execution. We generate the schedule piece by piece during execution and use simulation to monitor the execution of the partial schedule. This paper describes the basis on which the decision to select and schedule a new subset of operations is made.

  • 132.
    Bidot, Julien
    et al.
    Ecole Nationale d'Ingénieurs de Tarbes, Tarbes, France.
    Laborie, Philippe
    ILOG S.A., Gentilly, France.
    Beck, J. Christopher
    University College Cork, Cork, Ireland.
    Vidal, Thierry
    Ecole Nationale d'Ingénieurs de Tarbes, Tarbes, France.
    Using simuation for execution monitoring and on-line rescheduling with uncertain durations2003Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The problem we tackle is on-line rescheduling with temporal uncertainty, activity durations are uncertain and activity end times must be observed during execution. In this paper, we will assume we have a representation of the uncertainty of each activity duration in the form of probability distributions which are used in the simulation of schedule execution. We use the simulations to monitor the execution of the schedule and in particular to estimate the quality of the schedule and the end times of the activities. Given an initial schedule, the schedule starts execution and we must decide when to reschedule. We propose and explore a non-monotonic technique where each time we reschedule we can completely change the existing schedule except for those activities that have already started (or finished) execution. This paper explicitly addresses the basis on which the decision to reschedule is made by investigating three simple measures of the data provided by simulation.

  • 133.
    Bidot, Julien
    et al.
    Universität Ulm, Ulm, Germany.
    Vidal, Thierry
    Ecole Nationale d'Ingénieurs de Tarbes, Tarbes, France.
    Laborie, Philippe
    ILOG S.A., Gentilly, France.
    Beck, J. Christopher
    University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada.
    A general framework for scheduling in a stochastic environment2007In: / [ed] Manuela M. Veloso, 2007, p. 56-61Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There are many systems and techniques that address stochastic scheduling problems, based on distinct and sometimes opposite approaches, especially in terms of how scheduling and schedule execution are combined, and if and when knowledge about the uncertainties are taken into account. In many real-life problems, it appears that all these approaches are needed and should be combined, which to our knowledge has never been done. Hence it it first desirable to define a thorough classification of the techniques and systems, exhibiting relevant features: in this paper, we propose a three-dimension typology that distinguishes between proactive, progressive, and revision techniques. Then a theoretical representation model integrating those three distinct approaches is defined. This model serves as a general template within which parameters can be tuned to implement a system that will fit specific application needs: we briefly introduce in this paper our first experimental prototypes which validate our model.

  • 134.
    Bidot, Julien
    et al.
    Universität Ulm, Ulm, Germany.
    Vidal, Thierry
    IRISA-INRIA, Rennes, France.
    Laborie, Philippe
    ILOG S.A., Gentilly, France.
    Beck, J. Christopher
    University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada.
    A theoretic and practical framework for scheduling in a stochastic environment2009In: Journal of Scheduling, ISSN 1094-6136, E-ISSN 1099-1425, Vol. 12, no 3, p. 315-344Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There are many systems and techniques that address stochastic planning and scheduling problems, based on distinct and sometimes opposite approaches, especially in terms of how generation and execution of the plan, or the schedule, are combined, and if and when knowledge about the uncertainties is taken into account. In many real-life problems, it appears that many of these approaches are needed and should be combined, which to our knowledge has never been done. In this paper, we propose a typology that distinguishes between proactive, progressive, and revision approaches. Then, focusing on scheduling and schedule execution, a theoretic model integrating those three approaches is defined. This model serves as a general template to implement a system that will fit specific application needs: we introduce and discuss our experimental prototypes which validate our model in part, and suggest how this framework could be extended to more general planning systems.

  • 135.
    Biel, Lena
    Örebro University, Department of Technology.
    Modeling of perceptual systems: a sensor fusion model with active perception2002Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    List of papers
    1. ECG analysis: a new approach in human identification
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>ECG analysis: a new approach in human identification
    2001 (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper a new approach in human identification is investigated, For this purpose, a standard 12-lead electrocardiogram (ECG) recorded during rest is used. Selected features extracted from the ECG are used to identify a person in a predetermined group. Multivariate analysis is used for the identification task. Experiments show that it is possible to identify a person by features extracted from one lead only. Hence, only three electrodes have to be attached on the person to be identified. This makes the method applicable without too much effort.

    Keywords
    data fusion, electrocardiogram (ECG), feature extraction, human identification, multivariate analysis
    National Category
    Computer Sciences
    Research subject
    Computer and Systems Science
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-16067 (URN)000169439600022 ()
    Available from: 2011-06-22 Created: 2011-06-22 Last updated: 2018-01-12Bibliographically approved
    2. Multivariate sensor fusion by a neural network model
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Multivariate sensor fusion by a neural network model
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    National Category
    Computer Sciences
    Research subject
    Computer and Systems Science
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-16070 (URN)
    Available from: 2011-06-22 Created: 2011-06-22 Last updated: 2018-01-12Bibliographically approved
    3. Active perception for autonomous sensor systems: an emerging paradigm?
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Active perception for autonomous sensor systems: an emerging paradigm?
    2000 (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    National Category
    Computer Sciences
    Research subject
    Computer and Systems Science
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-16068 (URN)000165444800008 ()
    Available from: 2011-06-22 Created: 2011-06-22 Last updated: 2018-01-12Bibliographically approved
    4. Active perception in a sensor fusion model
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Active perception in a sensor fusion model
    2002 (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    During the last decades the research in the sensor fusion area has mainly been focused on fusion methods and feature selection methods. A possible further development in this area is to incorporate a process referred to as active perception. This means that the system is able to manipulate the sensing mechanisms to create a focus on selected information in the surrounding environment. This process may also be able to handle the feature selection process with respect to which features to be used and/or the number of features to use. This paper presents a model that contains a decision system based on active perception integrated with previous sensor fusion algorithms. The human body has perhaps one of the most advanced perceptual processing systems. The human perception process can be divided into sensation (measurement collection) and perception (interpret the surroundings). During the sensation process a huge amount of data is collected from different sensors that reflect the environment. The information has to be interpreted in an effective way, i.e. in the fusion process. The interpretation together with a decision system to control the sensors to focus on important information will correspond to the (active) perception process. The model presented in this paper capitalizes on the properties presented by the biological counterpart to achieve more human-like processes for a sensor fusion. Finally, the paper presents the testing of the model in two examples. The applications used have a safety approach of fire indication, identification and decision-making. The goal is to enlarge a conventional fire alarm system to not only detect fire, but also to propose different actions for a human in a dangerous area for example.

    National Category
    Computer Sciences
    Research subject
    Computer and Systems Science
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-16066 (URN)000176995000017 ()
    Available from: 2011-06-22 Created: 2011-06-22 Last updated: 2018-01-12Bibliographically approved
  • 136.
    Biel, Lena
    et al.
    Örebro University, Department of Technology.
    Pettersson, Ola
    Örebro University, Department of Technology.
    Philipson, Lennart
    Örebro University, Department of Technology.
    Wide, Peter
    Örebro University, Department of Technology.
    ECG analysis: a new approach in human identification2001Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper a new approach in human identification is investigated, For this purpose, a standard 12-lead electrocardiogram (ECG) recorded during rest is used. Selected features extracted from the ECG are used to identify a person in a predetermined group. Multivariate analysis is used for the identification task. Experiments show that it is possible to identify a person by features extracted from one lead only. Hence, only three electrodes have to be attached on the person to be identified. This makes the method applicable without too much effort.

  • 137.
    Biel, Lena
    et al.
    Örebro University, Department of Technology.
    Wide, Peter
    Örebro University, Department of Technology.
    Active perception for autonomous sensor systems: an emerging paradigm?2000Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 138.
    Biel, Lena
    et al.
    Örebro University, Department of Technology.
    Wide, Peter
    Örebro University, Department of Technology.
    Active perception in a sensor fusion model2002Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    During the last decades the research in the sensor fusion area has mainly been focused on fusion methods and feature selection methods. A possible further development in this area is to incorporate a process referred to as active perception. This means that the system is able to manipulate the sensing mechanisms to create a focus on selected information in the surrounding environment. This process may also be able to handle the feature selection process with respect to which features to be used and/or the number of features to use. This paper presents a model that contains a decision system based on active perception integrated with previous sensor fusion algorithms. The human body has perhaps one of the most advanced perceptual processing systems. The human perception process can be divided into sensation (measurement collection) and perception (interpret the surroundings). During the sensation process a huge amount of data is collected from different sensors that reflect the environment. The information has to be interpreted in an effective way, i.e. in the fusion process. The interpretation together with a decision system to control the sensors to focus on important information will correspond to the (active) perception process. The model presented in this paper capitalizes on the properties presented by the biological counterpart to achieve more human-like processes for a sensor fusion. Finally, the paper presents the testing of the model in two examples. The applications used have a safety approach of fire indication, identification and decision-making. The goal is to enlarge a conventional fire alarm system to not only detect fire, but also to propose different actions for a human in a dangerous area for example.

  • 139.
    Biro, Alexander
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Combining adjustable autonomy and shared control as a new platform for controlling robotic systems with ROS on TurtleBot2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Fully autonomous robotic systems can fulfill their functionality, without human interaction, but their efficiency is way lower, than a robotic system, which is teleoperated by a specialist. The teleoperation of robotic systems requires  continuously high attention from the operator, if this attention is taken away or reduced, the efficiency drops heavily. The combination of Adjustable Autonomy and Shared Control represent a promising approach, of how great efficiency could be maintained in a robotic system, with a minimum of human interaction.

     

    The goal of this project is the re-implementation of the utilitarian voting scheme for navigation for usage with modern robotic platforms, as proposed in the publication "Experiments in Adjustable Autonomy" by Jacob W. Crandall and Michael A. Goodrich. This voting scheme combines a proposed direction, which is given by a human operator, with environmental sensor data to determine the best direction for a robots next movement.

     

    The implemented prototype in this project was developed with ROS on TurtleBot and is processing the sensor data and calculating the best direction for the robot's movement in the same way, as the original prototype. Since the original setup consists of a Nomad SuperScout robot with sixteen sonar range finders, adjustments needed to be made, to run the same algorithm on a different setup. The  correct processing of the input data and estimation of the best direction was verified by pen and paper calculations. Finally, further ideas for improving the implemented prototype and usage in other scenarios were presented.

  • 140.
    Biundo, Susanne
    et al.
    Universität Ulm, Ulm, Germany.
    Bidot, Julien
    Universität Ulm, Ulm, Germany.
    Schattenberg, Bernd
    Universität Ulm, Ulm, Germany.
    Planning in the real world2011In: Informatik-Spektrum, ISSN 0170-6012, E-ISSN 1432-122X, Vol. 34, no 5, p. 443-454Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article, we describe how real world planning problems can be solved by employing Artificial Intelligence planning techniques. We introduce the paradigm of hybrid planning, which is particularly suited for applications where plans are not intended to be automatically executed by systems, but are made for humans. Hybrid planning combines hierarchical planning – the stepwise refinement of complex tasks – with explicit reasoning about causal dependencies between actions, thereby reflecting exactly the kinds of reasoning humans perform when developing plans. We show how plans are generated and how failed plans are repaired in a way that guarantees stability. Our illustrating examples are taken from a domain model for disaster relief missions enforced upon extensive floods. Finally, we present a tool to support the challenging task of constructing planning domain models.

    The article ends with an overview of a wide varity of actual planning applications and outlines further such in the area of cognitive technical systems.

  • 141.
    Blanco, Jose Luis
    et al.
    University of Màlaga, Màlaga, Spain.
    Monroy, Javier G.
    University of Màlaga, Màlaga, Spain.
    Gonzalez-Jimenez, Javier
    University of Màlaga, Màlaga, Spain.
    Lilienthal, Achim J.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    A Kalman Filter Based Approach To Probabilistic Gas Distribution Mapping2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Building a model of gas concentrations has important indus-trial and environmental applications, and mobile robots ontheir own or in cooperation with stationary sensors play animportant role in this task. Since an exact analytical de-scription of turbulent flow remains an intractable problem,we propose an approximate approach which not only esti-mates the concentrations but also their variances for eachlocation. Our point of view is that of sequential Bayesianestimation given a lattice of 2D cells treated as hidden vari-ables. We first discuss how a simple Kalman filter pro-vides a solution to the estimation problem. To overcomethe quadratic computational complexity with the mappedarea exhibited by a straighforward application of Kalmanfiltering, we introduce a sparse implementation which runsin constant time. Experimental results for a real robot vali-date the proposed method.

  • 142. Bloch, I.
    et al.
    Saffiotti, Alessandro
    Örebro University, Department of Technology.
    On the representation of fuzzy spatial relations in robot maps2003In: Intelligent systems for information processing: from representation to applications / [ed] Bernadette Bouchon-Meunier, Laurent Foulloy, Ronald R. Yager, Amsterdam: Elsevier, 2003, p. 47-57Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Spatial directional relations, like "north of," play an important role in the modeling of the environment by an autonomous robot. We propose an approach to represent spatial relations grounded in fuzzy set theory and fuzzy mathematical morphology. We show how this approach can be applied to robot maps, and suggest that these relations can be used for self-localization and for reasoning about the environment. We illustrate our approach on real data collected by a mobile robot in an office environment

  • 143. Bloch, Isabelle
    et al.
    Saffiotti, Alessandro
    Örebro University, Department of Technology.
    Why robots should use fuzzy mathematical morphology2002Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mobile robots must represent and reason about spatial knowledge acquired from sensor data which are inherently approximate and uncertain. While techniques based on fuzzy sets are increasingly used in this domain, the use of these techniques often rests on intuitive grounds. In this paper, we show that fuzzy mathematical morphology, a theory often used in image processing but mostly ignored in the robotic tradition, can provide a well grounded approach to the treatment of imprecise spatial knowledge in robotics

  • 144.
    Boldrin, Luca
    et al.
    University of Pauda.
    Saffiotti, Alessandro
    Örebro University, Department of Technology.
    A modal logic for fusing partial belief of multiple reasoners1999In: Journal of logic and computation (Print), ISSN 0955-792X, E-ISSN 1465-363X, Vol. 9, no 1, p. 81-103Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present PLn, a multi-agent epistemic logic in which each agent can perform uncertain (possibilistic) reasoning. The original feature of this logic is the presence of a distributed belief operator, with the purpose of merging the belief of different agents. Unlike the corresponding operator in the categorical (non-uncertain) case, our distributed belief operator accumulates support for the same fact coming from different agents. This means that opinions shared by different agents can be combined into a stronger distributed belief. This feature is useful in problems like pooling expert opinions and combining information from multiple unreliable sources. We provide a possible worlds semantics and an axiomatic calculus for our logic, and prove soundness, completeness and decidability results. We hint at some possible applications of PLn in the conclusions

  • 145.
    Bonaccorsi, Manuele
    et al.
    The BioRobotics Institute, Scuola Superiore Sant’Anna, Pontedera, Italy.
    Fiorini, L
    The BioRobotics Institute, Scuola Superiore Sant’Anna, Pontedera, Italy.
    Sathyakeerthy, Subhash
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Saffiotti, Alessandro
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Cavallo, Filippo
    The BioRobotics Institute, Scuola Superiore Sant’Anna, Pontedera, Italy.
    Dario, Paolo
    The BioRobotics Institute, Scuola Superiore Sant’Anna, Pontedera, Italy.
    Design of cloud robotic services for senior citizens to improve independent living in multiple environments2015In: Intelligenza Artificiale, ISSN 1724-8035, Vol. 9, no 1, p. 63-72Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper proposed a cloud robotic solution for the healthcare management of senior citizens, to demonstrate the opportunity to remotely provide continuous assistive robotic services to a number of seniors regardless to their position in the monitored environment. In particular, a medication reminding, a remote home monitoring and an user indoor localization service were outsourced in the cloud and provided to the robots, users and caregivers on request. The proposed system was composed of a number of robotic agents distributed over two smart environments: a flat at the Domocasa Lab (Peccioli, IT) and a condominium at the Angen site of the Orebro science park (Orebro, SE). The cloud acquired data from remote smart environments and enabled the local robots to provide advanced assistive services to a number of users. The proposed smart environments were able to collect raw data for the environmental monitoring and the localization of the users by means of wireless sensors, and provide such data to the cloud. On the cloud, specific algorithms improved the local robots, by providing event scheduling to accomplish assistive services and situation awareness on the users position and environments’ status. The indoor user localization service, was provided by means of commercial and ad-hoc sensors distributed over the environments and a sensor fusion algorithm on the cloud. The entire cloud solution was evaluated in terms of Quality of Service (QoS) to estimate the effectiveness of the architecture.

  • 146.
    Bonaccorsi, Manuele
    et al.
    The BioRobotics Institute, Scuola Superiore Sant’Anna, Pisa, Italy.
    Fiorini, Laura
    The BioRobotics Institute, Scuola Superiore Sant’Anna, Pisa, Italy.
    Cavallo, Filippo
    The BioRobotics Institute, Scuola Superiore Sant’Anna, Pisa, Italy.
    Saffiotti, Alessandro
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Dario, Paolo
    The BioRobotics Institute, Scuola Superiore Sant’Anna, Pisa, Italy.
    A cloud robotics solution to improve social assistive robots for active and healthy aging2016In: International Journal of Social Robotics, ISSN 1875-4791, E-ISSN 1875-4805, Vol. 8, no 3, p. 393-408Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Technological innovation in robotics and ICT represents an effective solution to tackle the challenge of providing social sustainable care services for the ageing population. The recent introduction of cloud technologies is opening new opportunities for the provisioning of advanced robotic services based on the cooperation of a number of connected robots, smart environments and devices improved by the huge cloud computational and storage capability. In this context, this paper aims to investigate and assess the potentialities of a cloud robotic system for the provisioning of assistive services for the promotion of active and healthy ageing. The system comprised two different smart environments, located in Italy and Sweden, where a service robot is connected to a cloud platform for the provisioning of localization based services to the users. The cloud robotic services were tested in the two realistic environments to assess the general feasibility of the solution and demonstrate the ability to provide assistive location based services in a multiple environment framework. The results confirmed the validity of the solution but also suggested a deeper investigation on the dependability of the communication technologies adopted in such kind of systems.

  • 147.
    Bordignon, Mirko
    et al.
    Dept. of Information Engineering, University of Padova, Italy.
    Pagello, Enrico
    Dept. of Information Engineering, University of Padova, Italy.
    Saffiotti, Alessandro
    Örebro University, Department of Technology.
    An inexpensive, off-the-shelf platform for networked embedded robotics2007In: Proceedings of the 1st international conference on Robot communication and coordination, RoboComm '07, Piscataway: IEEE press , 2007, p. Art no: 45-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent years have witnessed the proliferation of a new class of devices, commonly referred to as Networked Embedded Devices. Their increasingly low cost and small size make them suited for large scale sensing applications. Likewise, they could be appealing as a means to embed intelligent actuation capabilities into the environment, turning simple artifacts into networked robotic appliances. The currently existing devices, however, are not suited for this development. In this paper, we present the PEIS-Mote: an open, general, small-size and inexpensive sensor-actuator node especially suited for networked robotics, and built from commonly available off-the-shelf components. This platform can run a popular operating system for sensor networks, TinyOS, which makes it interoperable with most commercially available sensor nodes.

  • 148.
    Borissov, Alexei
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Janecek, Jakob
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Pecora, Federico
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Saffiotti, Alessandro
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Towards a network robot system for object identification and localization in RoboCup@Home2008Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes a realization of a network robot system for autonomous object localization and identification. Developing a ``Lost \& Found'' capability, the use of which can be envisaged in a wide range of applicative domains including domestic assistive scenarios, is a challenging task for current AI and robotic technology. Indeed, this task is currently one of the core challenges within the RoboCup@Home competition. A number of approaches for implementing a robust and general Lost \& Found functionality are feasible. In this paper we present a solution which integrates state-of-the-art intelligent software, robotic and sensory components in a distributed network of cooperating modules. This article describes the design and implementation of the system, provides a preliminary experimental evaluation and discusses the applicability of our approach to the RoboCup@Home challenge.

  • 149.
    Bothe, Hans-H.
    et al.
    Örebro University, Department of Technology.
    Persson, Martin
    Örebro University, Department of Technology.
    Biel, Lena
    Örebro University, Department of Technology.
    Rosenholm, Magnus
    Örebro University, Department of Technology.
    Multivariate sensor fusion by a neural network modelManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 150.
    Bouguerra, Abdel
    et al.
    Örebro University, Department of Technology.
    Karlsson, Lars
    Örebro University, Department of Technology.
    PC-SHOP: a probabilstic-conditional hierarchical task planner2005In: Intelligenza Artificiale, ISSN 1724-8035, Vol. 2, no 4, p. 44-50Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we report on the extension of the classical HTN planner SHOP to plan in partially observable domains with uncertainty. Our algorithm PC-SHOP uses belief states to handle situations involving incomplete and uncertain information about the state of the world. Sensing and acting are integrated in the primitive actions through the use of a stochastic model. PC-SHOP is showed to scale up well compared to some of the state-of-the-art planners. We outline the main characteristics of the algorithm, and present performance results on some problems found in the literature.

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