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  • 101.
    Chen, Baowei
    et al.
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center of Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Zhou, Qunfang
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center of Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Liu, Jiyan
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center of Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Cao, Dandan
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center of Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Wang, Thanh
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center of Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Jiang, Guibin
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center of Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Methylation mechanism of tin(II) by methylcobalamin in aquatic systems2007In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 68, no 3, p. 414-419Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The methylation reaction of tin(II) with methylcobalamin (CH(3)B(12)) in aquatic systems was modeled in the laboratory. The products were detected by a sensitive gas chromatography-flame photometric detector (GC-FPD), and further identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Both monomethyltin (MMT) and dimethyltin (DMT) were found as methylation products. Three important effecting factors during the methylation reaction, salinity, pH and aerobic or anaerobic, were studied. The results showed that methyl group can be transferred from CH(3)B(12) to tin in aquatic solutions as a radical or carbonium, as well as a carbanion. Two explanations for the pH-dependency of the methylation reaction between tin(II) and CH(3)B(12) were proposed: pH-dependency of the equilibrium states of CH(3)B(12), and pH-dependency of inorganic tin(II) species whose reactivity vary with the redox potential in the solution. Salinity can influence the activity of the methyl donor, which cause changes in the methylation efficiency. Kinetic experiments showed that the methylation reaction was pseudo-first-order for CH(3)B(12).

  • 102.
    Chen, Ping
    et al.
    School of Environment, Beijing Key Laboratory for Emerging Organic Contaminants Control, State Key Joint Laboratory of Environment Simulation and Pollution Control (SKLESPC), Tsinghua University, Beijing, China.
    Gong, Wenwen
    School of Environment, Beijing Key Laboratory for Emerging Organic Contaminants Control, State Key Joint Laboratory of Environment Simulation and Pollution Control (SKLESPC), Tsinghua University, Beijing, China; Beijing Research Center for Agricultural Standards and Testing, Beijing Academy of Agriculture and Forestry Science, Beijing, China.
    Yu, Gang
    School of Environment, Beijing Key Laboratory for Emerging Organic Contaminants Control, State Key Joint Laboratory of Environment Simulation and Pollution Control (SKLESPC), Tsinghua University, Beijing, China.
    Fiedler, Heidelore
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology. School of Environment, Beijing Key Laboratory for Emerging Organic Contaminants Control, State Key Joint Laboratory of Environment Simulation and Pollution Control (SKLESPC), Tsinghua University, Beijing, China.
    Preliminary release inventories of unintentionally generated dl-PCB and HCB from sources in China: Base year 20152019In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 219, p. 875-881Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This research presents release inventories of unintentionally generated dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCB) and hexachlorobenzene (HCB), which so far have not been developed or assessed. For the inventory development, the amended Toolkit methodology as developed for reporting under the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants, has been applied. Based on the activity rate (AR) obtained from various statistical yearbooks, reports, or scientific literature, and the emission factors (EFs) suited to each technology level, we estimated the preliminary release inventories of unintentionally produced dl-PCB and HCB from 36 source categories in China for the reference year 2015. The result showed that in 2015, 656 g TEQ of unintentionally produced dl-PCB and 2,145,504 g (or 2146 kg) of unintentionally generated HCB were released in China from these 36 source categories. Most of dl-PCB and HCB was released to air, 71% or 60%, respectively. For comparison and for the sources which could be estimated for all three unintentional POPs the total releases of PCDD/PCDF were 5695 g TEQ per year. Of these, 78% were released to air. For dl-PCB and HCB, the vast majority of the releases from the source group 7 Production and use of consumer goods - is found in the products and not in air. With respect to source attribution and releases to air, the source groups SG3 - Heat and power generation and SG2 - Ferrous and non-ferrous metal production dominate the air emission inventory. Due to the lack of EFs, the calculated releases to the water and land were not well covered, which overall results in an underestimation of the total releases for all unintentional POPs.

    For comparison, the release inventories from Japan and from several other countries that were developed using methodologies other than the UNEP Toolkit are presented as well.

  • 103.
    Choi, Nicola M. C.
    et al.
    Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong SAR, Hong Kong.
    Yeung, Leo W. Y.
    Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong SAR, Hong Kong.
    Siu, William H. L.
    Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong SAR, Hong Kong.
    So, Iris M. K.
    Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong SAR, Hong Kong.
    Jack, Ralph W.
    Department of Microbiology, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand.
    Hsieh, Dennis P. H.
    Department of Biology, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon, Hong Kong, Hong Kong.
    Wu, Rudolf S. S.
    Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong SAR, Hong Kong.
    Lam, Paul K. S.
    Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong SAR, Hong Kong.
    Relationships between tissue concentrations of paralytic shellfish toxins and antioxidative responses of clams, Ruditapes philippinarum2006In: Marine Pollution Bulletin, ISSN 0025-326X, E-ISSN 1879-3363, Vol. 52, no 5, p. 572-578Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 104.
    Christia, Christina
    et al.
    Toxicological Center, University of Antwerp, Antwerp, Belgium.
    Poma, Giulia
    Toxicological Center, University of Antwerp, Antwerp, Belgium.
    Harrad, Stuart
    School of Geography, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, West Midlands, United Kingdom.
    de Wit, Cynthia A.
    Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry (ACES), Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Sjöström, Ylva
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology. Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Faculty of Medicine and Health, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Leonards, Pim
    Institute for Environmental Sciences (IVM), VU University Amsterdam, Amsterdam, Netherlands.
    Lamoree, Marja
    Institute for Environmental Sciences (IVM), VU University Amsterdam, Amsterdam, Netherlands.
    Covaci, Adrian
    Toxicological Center, University of Antwerp, Antwerp, Belgium.
    Occurrence of legacy and alternative plasticizers in indoor dust from various EU countries and implications for human exposure via dust ingestion and dermal absorption2019In: Environmental Research, ISSN 0013-9351, E-ISSN 1096-0953, Vol. 171, p. 204-212Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Plasticizers are a category of chemicals extensively used in consumer products and, consequently, their presence is ubiquitous in the indoor environment. In the present study, an analytical method has been developed for the quantification of plasticizers (7 legacy phthalate esters (LPEs) and 14 alternative plasticizers (APs)) in indoor floor dust based on ultrasonic and vortex extraction, Florisil fractionation and GC-(EI)-MS analysis. Dust samples (n = 54) were collected from homes, offices, and daycare centers from different EU countries (Belgium, the Netherlands, Ireland and Sweden). Method LOQs ranged from 0.2 to 5 mu g/g. Tri-n-hexyl trimellitate (THTM) was not detected in any sample, whereas dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diphenyl phthalate and acetyl triethyl citrate (ATEC) were detected only in 6, 2 and 1 out of 54 samples, respectively. The highest concentrations of plasticizers were measured in Swedish offices, at a mean concentration of total plasticizers of 1800 mu g/g, followed by Swedish daycare centers at 1200 and 670 mu g/g for winter and spring sampling, respectively. Generally, the contribution of APs was slightly higher than for LPEs for all indoor environments (mean contribution 60% and 40%, respectively based on contributions per indoor environment). For the APs, main contributors were DINP in Belgian homes (28%), Swedish offices (60%), Swedish daycare centers (48%), and Dutch offices (31%) and DEHT in Belgian (28%), Irish (40%) and Dutch homes (37%) of total APs. The predominant LPE was bis-2-ethylhexyl-phthalate (DEHP) with a mean contribution varying from 60% to 85% of total LPEs. Human exposure was evaluated for dust ingestion and dermal absorption using hazard quotients (HQs) of plasticizers (ratio between average daily doses and the reference dose). None of the HQs of plasticizers exceeded 1, meaning that the risk for adverse human health effects from these plasticizers via dust ingestion and dermal absorption is unlikely.

  • 105.
    Claesson, Anna
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Fytoremediering av jordbruksmark med annuell solros (Helianthus annuus peredovic)2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Inledning: Metaller är ämnen som förkommer naturligt i vår miljö men kan också spridas via t. ex. industrier. Många metaller kan vara skadliga för djur och natur. Metallföroreningar ökar idag i vår omgivning samt i åkermarken. Den ökande halten metaller i jordbruksmark ställer till problem då grödor ackumulerar de hälsofarliga ämnena i sin biomassa vilket riskerar konsumentens hälsa. Exponeringen av metaller har visat sig vara kopplade till flera sjukdomar. Det finns flera olika metoder för sanering av metallförorenade områden, en miljövänlig saneringsmetod är fytoremediering. Att fytoremediera mark innebär sanering, återställning eller stabilisering av ett område med hjälp av vegetation. Ett exempel på en beprövad gröda som visat en effektiv metallackumulation är Helianthus annuus (solros). Syfte: Att mäta och analysera metallinnehåll i åkermark samt undersöka den annuella solrosen Helianthus annuus peredovic förmåga att ackumulera metaller från mark. Metod och material: Odlingsförsök av H. annuus p. i jord från åkermark samt metallanalys på jord innan sådd och efter skörd. Plantor skördades vid två tillfällen för metallanalys. Resultat: H. annuus p. visade effektiv ackumulation av 16 metaller i grönmassa. Slutsats: H.annuus p. är en effektiv ackumulerade av många metaller och således en möjlig gröda att använda vid fytoremediering av åkermark.

  • 106.
    Comstedt, Daniel
    et al.
    Örebro University, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Boström, Björn
    Marshall, John
    Holm, Anders
    Slaney, Michelle
    Linder, Sune
    Ekblad, Alf
    Effects of elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide and temperature on soil respiration in a boreal forest using δ13C as a labeling tool2006In: Ecosystems (New York. Print), ISSN 1432-9840, E-ISSN 1435-0629, Vol. 9, no 8, p. 1266-1277Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 107.
    Cormier, Bettie
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology. University of Bordeaux, EPOC UMR CNRS 5805, Pessac, France.
    Batel, Annika
    Aquatic Ecology and Toxicology Group, Center for Organismal Studies, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany.
    Cachot, Jerome
    University of Bordeaux, EPOC UMR CNRS 5805, Pessac, France.
    Begout, Marie-Laure
    Laboratoire Ressources Halieutiques, IFREMER, L’Houmeau, France.
    Braunbeck, Thomas
    Aquatic Ecology and Toxicology Group, Center for Organismal Studies, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany.
    Cousin, Xavier
    IFREMER, L3AS, UMR MARBEC, Palavas-les-Flots, France; UMR GABI INRA, AgroParisTech, University Paris-Saclay, Jouy-en-Josas, France.
    Keiter, Steffen
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Multi-Laboratory Hazard Assessment of Contaminated Microplastic Particles by Means of Enhanced Fish Embryo Test With the Zebrafish (Danio rerio)2019In: Frontiers in Environmental Science, E-ISSN 2296-665X, Vol. 7, article id 135Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As wide-spread pollutants in the marine environment, microplastics (MPs) have raised public concern about potential toxic effects in aquatic organisms, and, among others, MPs were suspected to act as a vector for organic pollutants to biota. The purpose of the present study was to investigate effects by three model pollutants, oxybenzone (BP3), benzo[a] pyrene (BaP), and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) adsorbed to polyethylene MPs on the basis of a standard assay, the acute fish embryo toxicity test (FET; OECD TG 236) with zebrafish (Danio rerio) supplemented by additional endpoints such as induction of ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity, modification of cyp1a gene transcription and changes in larval swimming behavior. FET assays were performed in three laboratories using slightly different husbandry and exposure conditions, which, however, were all fully compatible with the limits defined by OECD TG 236. This allowed for testing of potential changes in the FET assay due to protocol variations. The standard endpoints of the FET (acute embryotoxicity) did not reveal any acute toxicity for both virgin MPs and MPs spiked with BP3, BaP, and PFOS. With respect to sublethal endpoints, EROD activity was increased after exposure to MPs spiked with BP3 (3 h pulse) and MPs spiked with BaP (96 h continuous exposure). Cyp1a transcription was increased upon exposure to MPs spiked with BP3 or BaP. For the selected combination of MPs particles and contaminants, the basic FET proved not sensitive enough to reveal effects of (virgin and spiked) MPs. However, given that the FET can easily be supplemented by a broad variety of more subtle and sensitive endpoints, an enhanced FET protocol may provide a relevant approach with developmental stages of a vertebrate animal model, which is not protected by current EU animal welfare legislation (Directive EU 2010/63).

  • 108.
    Danielsson, Marie
    et al.
    Department of Chemistry, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry Biotechnology and Health, KTH, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Zhao, Tao
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology. Department of Chemistry, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry Biotechnology and Health, KTH, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Borg-Karlson, Anna-Karin
    Department of Chemistry, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry Biotechnology and Health, KTH, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Arthropod infestation sites and induced defence can be traced by emission from single spruce needle2019In: Arthropod-Plant Interactions, ISSN 1872-8855, E-ISSN 1872-8847, Vol. 13, no 2, p. 253-259Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Emissions of defence chemicals from Norway spruce seedlings can be induced by feeding arthropods or by exogenous hormonal application. Some defence chemicals may attract or repel associated arthropods. The aim of this study was to show that it is possible to detect and collect stress-induced volatiles from micro sites, such as at the scale of a single needle, in vivo by using SPME. Methyl jasmonate application on the stem of Norway spruce seedlings induced emission of (E)-beta-farnesene only from the needles closest to the application site. Emissions of (E)-beta-farnesene, (E,E)-alpha-farnesene and (E)-alpha-bisabolene were only detected from needles infested by the spider mite Oligonychus ununguis. The total volatile amount detected by SPME-GC-MS reached a considerable mass of 14 ng/needle/24 h, suggesting that emission from damaged and stressed conifers might have a larger impact on the macro climate than previously estimated.

  • 109.
    Dario, Mårten
    et al.
    Örebro University, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Molera, Mireia
    Allard, Bert
    Effects of cement additives on radionuclide mobility2004In: Scientific basis for radioactive waste management XXVII: symposium held June 15-19, 2003, Kalmar, Sweden / [ed] Virginia M. Oversby, Lars O. Werme, Warrendale, Pa: Materials Research Society , 2004, p. 639-644Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 110.
    Dario, Mårten
    et al.
    Örebro University, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Molera, Mireia
    Allard, Bert
    Effects of technical adsorbents and cleaning agents in a cement matrix: a case study2004In: Scientific basis for nuclear waste management XXVII: symposium held June 15-19, 2003, Kalmar, Sweden / [ed] Virginia M. Oversby, Lars O. Werme, Warrendale, Pa: Materials Research Society , 2004, p. 371-376Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 111. de Boer, J.
    et al.
    Leslie, H.
    van Leeuwen, S. P. J.
    Wegener, J.-W.
    van Bavel, Bert
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Lindström, Gunilla
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Lahoutifard, N.
    Fiedler, Heidelore
    UNEP Chemicals, CH-1219 Châtelaine (GE), Switzerland.
    United Nations Environment Programme Capacity Building Pilot Project: training and interlaboratory study on persistent organic pollutant analysis under the Stockholm Convention2008In: Analytica Chimica Acta, ISSN 0003-2670, E-ISSN 1873-4324, Vol. 617, no 1-2, p. 208-215Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Within the framework of a United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) Capacity Building Project for training of laboratory staff in developing countries on persistent organic pollutant (POP) analysis, an interlaboratory study was organised following an initial evaluation of the performance of laboratories (reality check) and a series of training sessions. The target compounds were polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) and organochlorine pesticides (OCP). Seven laboratories from five countries (Ecuador, Uruguay, Kenya, Moldova, and Fiji) participated. Most of the laboratories had no experience in determining PCBs. Although chromatograms improved considerably after the training and installation of new gas chromatographic (GC) columns at participating laboratories, the level of performance in the interlaboratory study was essentially on par with the moderate performance level achieved by European POP laboratories in the 1980s. Only some individual results were within +/-20% of the target values. The relative standard deviations (R.S.D.s) in POP concentrations determined by laboratories in a sediment sample were >200% in a number of cases. The results for a certified herring sample were better with at least some R.S.D. values below 50% and most below 100%. Clean up was as one of the main sources of error. After inspection it was ascertained that training of laboratory staff and investments in simple consumables such as glassware and GC columns would help to improve the quality of the analysis more than major investments in expensive instrumentation. Creating an effective network of POP laboratories at different continents together with a series of interlaboratory studies and workshops is suggested to improve the measurements of POPs in these countries.

  • 112.
    Degrendele, C.
    et al.
    RECETOX (Research Centre for Toxic Compounds in the Environment), Faculty of Science, Masaryk University, Brno, Czech Republic; Multiphase Chemistry Department, Max Planck Institute for Chemistry, Mainz, Germany.
    Okonski, K.
    RECETOX (Research Centre for Toxic Compounds in the Environment), Faculty of Science, Masaryk University, Brno, Czech Republic.
    Melymuk, L.
    RECETOX (Research Centre for Toxic Compounds in the Environment), Faculty of Science, Masaryk University, Brno, Czech Republic.
    Landlová, L.
    RECETOX (Research Centre for Toxic Compounds in the Environment), Faculty of Science, Masaryk University, Brno, Czech Republic.
    Kukucka, Petr
    RECETOX (Research Centre for Toxic Compounds in the Environment), Faculty of Science, Masaryk University, Brno, Czech Republic.
    Audy, O.
    RECETOX (Research Centre for Toxic Compounds in the Environment), Faculty of Science, Masaryk University, Brno, Czech Republic.
    Kohoutek, J.
    RECETOX (Research Centre for Toxic Compounds in the Environment), Faculty of Science, Masaryk University, Brno, Czech Republic.
    Cupr, P.
    RECETOX (Research Centre for Toxic Compounds in the Environment), Faculty of Science, Masaryk University, Brno, Czech Republic.
    Klánová, J.
    RECETOX (Research Centre for Toxic Compounds in the Environment), Faculty of Science, Masaryk University, Brno, Czech Republic.
    Pesticides in the atmosphere: a comparison of gas-particle partitioning and particle size distribution of legacy and current-use pesticides2016In: Atmospheric Chemistry And Physics, ISSN 1680-7316, E-ISSN 1680-7324, Vol. 16, no 3, p. 1531-1544Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study presents a comparison of seasonal variation, gas-particle partitioning, and particle-phase size distribution of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and current-use pesticides (CUPs) in air. Two years (2012/2013) of weekly air samples were collected at a background site in the Czech Republic using a high-volume air sampler. To study the particle-phase size distribution, air samples were also collected at an urban and rural site in the area of Brno, Czech Republic, using a cascade impactor separating atmospheric particulates according to six size fractions. Major differences were found in the atmospheric distribution of OCPs and CUPs. The atmospheric concentrations of CUPs were driven by agricultural activities while secondary sources such as volatilization from surfaces governed the atmospheric concentrations of OCPs. Moreover, clear differences were observed in gas-particle partitioning; CUP partitioning was influenced by adsorption onto mineral surfaces while OCPs were mainly partitioning to aerosols through absorption. A predictive method for estimating the gas-particle partitioning has been derived and is proposed for polar and non-polar pesticides. Finally, while OCPs and the majority of CUPs were largely found on fine particles, four CUPs (carbendazim, isoproturon, prochloraz, and terbuthylazine) had higher concentrations on coarse particles (> 3.0 mu m), which may be related to the pesticide application technique. This finding is particularly important and should be further investigated given that large particles result in lower risks from inhalation (re-gardless the toxicity of the pesticide) and lower potential for long-range atmospheric transport.

  • 113.
    Degrendele, Céline
    et al.
    RECETOX (Research Centre for Toxic Compounds in the Environment), Faculty of Science, Masaryk University, Brno, Czech Republic.
    Okonski, Krzysztof
    RECETOX (Research Centre for Toxic Compounds in the Environment), Faculty of Science, Masaryk University, Brno, Czech Republic.
    Melymuk, Lisa
    RECETOX (Research Centre for Toxic Compounds in the Environment), Faculty of Science, Masaryk University, Brno, Czech Republic.
    Landlová, Linda
    RECETOX (Research Centre for Toxic Compounds in the Environment), Faculty of Science, Masaryk University, Brno, Czech Republic.
    Kukucka, Petr
    RECETOX (Research Centre for Toxic Compounds in the Environment), Faculty of Science, Masaryk University, Brno, Czech Republic.
    Cupr, Pavel
    RECETOX (Research Centre for Toxic Compounds in the Environment), Faculty of Science, Masaryk University, Brno, Czech Republic.
    Klánová, Jana
    RECETOX (Research Centre for Toxic Compounds in the Environment), Faculty of Science, Masaryk University, Brno, Czech Republic.
    Size specific distribution of the atmospheric particulate PCDD/Fs, dl-PCBs and PAHs on a seasonal scale: Implications for cancer risks from inhalation2014In: Atmospheric Environment, ISSN 1352-2310, E-ISSN 1873-2844, Vol. 98, p. 410-416Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study presents the seasonal size distribution of particulate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs) in the atmosphere. Particles were sampled from October 2009 to October 2010 on a seasonal basis using a cascade impactor collecting six size fractions at a rural and urban site in the Brno area, Czech Republic. Higher concentrations of PAHs, PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs were observed in cold seasons at both sites, attributed to the seasonality of the gas-particle partitioning, the increase of emissions and the lower boundary mixing layer in winter. All of the compounds showed a strong accumulation in the fine fraction, with, on average, 71% of Sigma PAHs, 73% of Sigma PCDD/Fs and 60% of Sigma dl-PCBs associated with particles <0.95 mu m. The human risk assessment via inhalation was addressed and followed the same pattern as for concentrations, with 41 and 7 times higher risk in winter compared to summer at the rural and urban sites, respectively. More than 70% of cancer risks of PAHs, PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs was associated with particles <0.95 mu m. Moreover, an overestimation of the cancer risk via inhalation of up to 50% occurred when the size distribution of related compounds was not considered.

  • 114.
    Deng, Jun
    et al.
    State Key Laboratory of Freshwater Ecology and Biotechnology, Institute of Hydrobiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan, China; Graduate School, the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Yu, Liqin
    State Key Laboratory of Freshwater Ecology and Biotechnology, Institute of Hydrobiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan, China; Graduate School, the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Liu, Chunsheng
    State Key Laboratory of Freshwater Ecology and Biotechnology, Institute of Hydrobiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan, China.
    Yu, Ke
    State Key Laboratory of Freshwater Ecology and Biotechnology, Institute of Hydrobiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan, China.
    Shi, Xiongjie
    State Key Laboratory of Freshwater Ecology and Biotechnology, Institute of Hydrobiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan, China.
    Yeung, Leo W. Y.
    Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, HK SAR, China.
    Lam, Paul K. S.
    Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, HK SAR, China.
    Wu, Rudolf S. S.
    Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, HK SAR, China.
    Zhou, Bingsheng
    State Key Laboratory of Freshwater Ecology and Biotechnology, Institute of Hydrobiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan, China.
    Hexabromocyclododecane-induced developmental toxicity and apoptosis in zebrafish embryos2009In: Aquatic Toxicology, ISSN 0166-445X, E-ISSN 1879-1514, Vol. 93, no 1, p. 29-36Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) is widely used as a brominated flame retardant, and has been detected in the aquatic environment, wild animals, and humans. However, details of the environmental health risk of HBCD are not well known. In this study, zebrafish embryos were used to assess the developmental toxicity of the chemical. Four-hour post-fertilization (hpf) zebrafish embryos were exposed to various concentrations of HBCD (0, 0.05, 0.1, 0.5, and 1.0 mg L-1) until 96 h. Exposure to 0.1, 0.5, and 1.0 mg L-1 HBCD significantly increased the malformation rate and reduced survival in the 0.5 and 1.0 mg L-1 HBCD exposure groups. Acridine orange (AO) staining showed that HBCD exposure resulted in cell apoptosis. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) was significantly induced at exposures of 0.1, 0.5, and 1.0 mg L-1 HBCD. To test the apoptotic pathway, several genes related to cell apoptosis, such as p53, Puma, Apaf-1, caspase-9, and caspase-3, were examined using real-time PCR. The expression patterns of these genes were up-regulated to some extent. Two anti-apoptotic genes, Mdm2 (antagonist of p53) and Bcl-2 (inhibitor of Bax), were down-regulated, and the activity of capspase-9 and caspase-3 was significantly increased. The overall results demonstrate that waterborne HBCD is able to produce oxidative stress and induce apoptosis through the involvement of caspases in zebrafish embryos. The results also indicate that zebrafish embryos can serve as a reliable model for the developmental toxicity of HBCD.

  • 115. Devia, L.
    et al.
    Capra, A.
    Mendoza, M.
    van Bavel, Bert
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Fiedler, Heidelore
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Analysis of PCB in the Mining Sector within the Latin American Region2015In: Organohalogen Compounds, ISSN 1026-4892, Vol. 77, p. 789-792Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 116.
    Di Paolo, Carolina
    et al.
    Department of Ecosystem Analysis, Institute for Environmental Research, ABBt - Aachen Biology and Biotechnology, RWTH Aachen University, Aachen, Germany.
    Seiler, Thomas B.
    Department of Ecosystem Analysis, Institute for Environmental Research, ABBt - Aachen Biology and Biotechnology, RWTH Aachen University, Aachen, Germany.
    Keiter, Steffen
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology. Department of Ecosystem Analysis, Institute for Environmental Research, ABBt - Aachen Biology and Biotechnology, RWTH Aachen University, Aachen, Germany.
    Hu, Meng
    Helmholtz-Zentrum für Umweltforschung (UFZ), Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research, Leipzig, Germany.
    Muz, Melis
    Helmholtz-Zentrum für Umweltforschung (UFZ), Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research, Leipzig, Germany.
    Brack, Werner
    Helmholtz-Zentrum für Umweltforschung (UFZ), Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research, Leipzig, Germany.
    Hollert, Henner
    Department of Ecosystem Analysis, Institute for Environmental Research, ABBt - Aachen Biology and Biotechnology, RWTH Aachen University, Aachen, Germany; College of Resources and Environmental Science, Chongqing University Beibei, Chongqing, China; College of Environmental Science and Engineering and State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, Tongji University, Shanghai, China; State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of the Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing, China.
    The value of zebrafish as an integrative model in effect-directed analysis: a review2015In: Environmental Sciences Europe, ISSN 2190-4707, E-ISSN 2190-4715, Vol. 27, no 8, p. 1-11Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Bioassays play a central role in effect-directed analysis (EDA), and their selection and application have to consider rather specific aspects of this approach. Meanwhile, bioassays with zebrafish, an established model organism in different research areas, are increasingly being utilized in EDA. Aiming to contribute for the optimal application of zebrafish bioassays in EDA, this review provides a critical overview of previous EDA investigations that applied zebrafish bioassays, discusses the potential contribution of such methods for EDA and proposes strategies to improve future studies. Over the last 10 years, zebrafish bioassays have guided EDA of natural products and environmental samples. The great majority of studies performed bioassays with embryos and early larvae, which allowed small-scale and low-volume experimental setups, minimized sample use and reduced workload. Biotesting strategies applied zebrafish bioassays as either the only method guiding EDA or instead integrated into multiple bioassay approaches. Furthermore, tiered biotesting applied zebrafish methods in both screening phase as well as for further investigations. For dosing, most of the studies performed solvent exchange of extracts and fractions to dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) as carrier. However, high DMSO concentrations were required for the testing of complex matrix extracts, indicating that future studies might benefit from the evaluation of alternative carrier solvents or passive dosing. Surprisingly, only a few studies reported the evaluation of process blanks, indicating a need to improve and standardize methods for blank preparation and biotesting. Regarding evaluated endpoints, while acute toxicity brought limited information, the assessment of specific endpoints was of strong value for bioactivity identification. Therefore, the bioassay specificity and sensitivity to identify the investigated bioactivity are important criteria in EDA. Additionally, it might be necessary to characterize the most adequate exposure windows and assessment setups for bioactivity identification. Finally, a great advantage of zebrafish bioassays in EDA of environmental samples is the availability of mechanism- and endpoint-specific methods for the identification of important classes of contaminants. The evaluation of mechanism-specific endpoints in EDA is considered to be a promising strategy to facilitate the integration of EDA into weight-of-evidence approaches, ultimately contributing for the identification of environmental contaminants causing bioassay and ecological effects.

  • 117.
    Ding, Ling
    et al.
    State Key Laboratory of Freshwater Ecology and Biotechnology, Institute of Hydrobiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan, China.
    Murphy, Margaret B.
    Center for Coastal Pollution and Conservation, Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong.
    He, Yuhe
    Center for Coastal Pollution and Conservation, Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong.
    Xu, Yan
    Center for Coastal Pollution and Conservation, Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong.
    Yeung, Leo W. Y.
    Center for Coastal Pollution and Conservation, Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong.
    Wang, Jingxian
    State Key Laboratory of Freshwater Ecology and Biotechnology, Institute of Hydrobiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan, China.
    Zhou, Bingsheng
    State Key Laboratory of Freshwater Ecology and Biotechnology, Institute of Hydrobiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan, China.
    Lam, Paul K. S.
    Center for Coastal Pollution and Conservation, Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong.
    Wu, Rudolf S. S.
    Center for Coastal Pollution and Conservation, Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong.
    Giesy, John P.
    Department of Zoology, Institute for Environmental Toxicology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI, United States.
    Effects of brominated flame retardants and brominated dioxins on steroidogenesis in H295R human adrenocortical carcinoma cell line2007In: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, ISSN 0730-7268, E-ISSN 1552-8618, Vol. 26, no 4, p. 764-772Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Brominated flame retardants (BFRs) and brominated dioxins are emerging persistent organic pollutants that are ubiquitous in the environment and can be accumulated by wildlife and humans. These chemicals can disturb endocrine function. Recent studies have demonstrated that one of the mechanisms of endocrine disruption by chemicals is modulation of steroidogenic gene expression or enzyme activities. In this study, an in vitro assay based on the H295R human adrenocortical carcinoma cell line, which possesses most key genes or enzymes involved in steroidogenesis, was used to examine the effects of five bromophenols, two polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs 77 and 169), 2,3,7,8-tetrabromodibenzo-p-dioxin, and 2,3,7,8-tetrabromodibenzofuran on the expression of 10 key steroidogenic genes. The H295R cells were exposed to various BFR concentrations for 48 h, and the expression of specific genes - cytochrome P450 (CYP11A, CYP11B2, CYP17, CYP19, and CYP21), 3β- hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3βHSD2), 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (17βHSD1 and 17βHSD4), steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR), and 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HMGR) - was quantitatively measured using real-time polymerase chain reaction. Cell viability was not affected at the doses tested. Most of the genes were either up- or down-regulated, to some extent, by BFR exposure. Among the genes tested, 3βHSD2 was the most markedly up-regulated, with a range of magnitude from 1.6- to 20-fold. The results demonstrate that bromophenol, bromobiphenyls, and bromodibenzo-p-dioxin/furan are able to modulate steroidogenic gene expression, which may lead to endocrine disruption.

  • 118.
    Drakvik, Elina
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Nobels väg 13, SE-171 77 Stockholm, Sweden; Stockholm University, ACES, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Altenburger, Rolf
    Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research UFZ, Leipzig, Germany.
    Aoki, Yasunobu
    National Institute for Environmental Studies, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan.
    Backhaus, Thomas
    University of Gothenburg, Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Bahadori, Tina
    US Environmental Protection Agency, 1200 Pennsylvania Ave, NW, MC 8201R, Washington, DC, USA.
    Barouki, Robert
    Université de Paris, Inserm Unit 1124, Paris, France.
    Brack, Werner
    Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research UFZ, Leipzig, Germany; RWTH Aachen University Institute for Environmental Research, ABBt-aachen Biology, Aachen, Germany.
    Cronin, Mark T. D.
    Liverpool John Moores University, School of Pharmacy and Biomolecular Sciences, Byrom Street, Liverpool, UK.
    Demeneix, Barbara
    Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle (MNHN) UMR 7221 (CNRS/MNHN), Paris, France.
    Hougaard Bennekou, Susanne
    Danish Technical University, FOOD, Kemitorvet 201. Lyngby, Denmark.
    van Klaveren, Jacob
    National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), Bilthoven, the Netherlands.
    Kneuer, Carsten
    German Federal Institute for Risk Assessment, Pesticide Safety, German Federal Institute for Risk Assessment, Berlin, Germany.
    Kolossa-Gehring, Marike
    German Environment Agency (UBA), Berlin, Germany.
    Lebret, Erik
    National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), Bilthoven, the Netherlands; Institute of Risk Assessment Sciences - IRAS, Utrecht University, Utrecht, the Netherlands.
    Posthuma, Leo
    National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), Bilthoven, the Netherlands; Radboud University, Department of Environmental Science, Institute for Water and Wetland Research, Nijmegen, the Netherlands.
    Reiber, Lena
    German Environment Agency (UBA), Berlin, Germany.
    Rider, Cynthia
    National Toxicology Program, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, 111 TW Alexander Drive, PO Box 12233, MD:K2-12, Research Triangle Park, NC, USA.
    Rüegg, Joëlle
    Karolinska Institutet, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Stockholm, Sweden; Uppsala University, Department of Organismal Biology, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Testa, Giuseppe
    University of Milan, Department of Oncology, Via S. Sofia, 9/1, 20122 Milan, Italy; IEO European Institute of Oncology, Milan, Italy.
    van der Burg, Bart
    BioDetection Systems, Amsterdam, the Netherlands.
    van der Voet, Hilko
    Wageningen University & Research, Wageningen, the Netherlands.
    Warhurst, A. Michael
    CHEM Trust, London, UK.
    van de Water, Bob
    Leiden Academic Centre for Drug Research, Leiden University, Leiden, the Netherlands.
    Yamazaki, Kunihiko
    Ministry of the Environment, Japan, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo, Japan.
    Öberg, Mattias
    Karolinska Institutet, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Bergman, Åke
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology. Stockholm University, ACES, Stockholm, Sweden; State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai, China.
    Statement on advancing the assessment of chemical mixtures and their risks for human health and the environment2019In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 134, article id 105267Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The number of anthropogenic chemicals, manufactured, by-products, metabolites and abiotically formed transformation products, counts to hundreds of thousands, at present. Thus, humans and wildlife are exposed to complex mixtures, never one chemical at a time and rarely with only one dominating effect. Hence there is an urgent need to develop strategies on how exposure to multiple hazardous chemicals and the combination of their effects can be assessed. A workshop, "Advancing the Assessment of Chemical Mixtures and their Risks for Human Health and the Environment" was organized in May 2018 together with Joint Research Center in Ispra, EU-funded research projects and Commission Services and relevant EU agencies. This forum for researchers and policy-makers was created to discuss and identify gaps in risk assessment and governance of chemical mixtures as well as to discuss state of the art science and future research needs. Based on the presentations and discussions at this workshop we want to bring forward the following Key Messages.

  • 119.
    Dreyer, Marion
    et al.
    DIALOGIK Non-Profit Institute for Communication and Cooperation Research, Stuttgart, Germany.
    Boström, Magnus
    School of Life Sciences, Södertörn University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Jönsson, Anna Maria
    School of Culture and Communication, Södertörn University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Participatory Deliberation, Risk Governance and Management of the Marine Region in the European Union2014In: Journal of Environmental Policy and Planning, ISSN 1523-908X, E-ISSN 1522-7200, Vol. 16, no 4, p. 497-515Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In Europe, marine environmental risks are governed in a complex multi-level system. The role that the marine region could or should play as a level of risk governance has attracted growing attention of late. In this context, reference has been made to the regional sea as one level at which participatory processes in the future governing of European Union’s (EU) marine environment and resources are required. The paper unfolds the particular challenges that one faces when trying to implement stakeholder and citizen participatory deliberation at marine region level. The EU Marine Strategy Framework Directive is highlighted as a key European environmental policy initiative and participatory deliberation at regional sea level is underlined as a requirement for the Directive’s successful implementation. The paper’s account of participatory deliberation is informed by perspectives of inclusive risk governance and reflexive governance. The discussion of the challenges draws on the distinction between horizontal and vertical risk governance. The paper’s main argument is that frequently encountered problems of participatory deliberation are exacerbated when deliberation is to be carried out at the regional sea level, i.e. at a large trans-boundary scale. These problems include the ‘inclusivity-effectiveness dilemma’, a fragmentation of participation efforts and a loose connection to actual decision-making.

  • 120. Dreyer, Marion
    et al.
    Sellke, Piet
    Boström, Magnus
    Södertörn University College, Huddinge, Sweden.
    Jönsson, Anna-Maria
    Medie- och kommunikationsvetenskap, Södertörn University College, Huddinge, Sweden.
    Structures and processes of stakeholder and public communication on Baltic Seaenvironmental risks: RISKGOV Deliverable 102011Report (Other academic)
  • 121.
    Duro, Lara
    et al.
    Amphos 21 Consulting S.L., Barcelona, Spain.
    Grivé, Mireia
    Amphos 21 Consulting S.L., Barcelona, Spain.
    Gaona, Xavier
    Amphos 21 Consulting S.L., Barcelona, Spain.
    Bruno, Jordi
    Amphos 21 Consulting S.L., Barcelona, Spain.
    Anderson, Thomas
    Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Borén, Hans
    Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Dario, Mårten
    Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Allard, Bert
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Hagberg, Jessika
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Källström, Klas
    Svensk Kärnbränslehantering AB, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Study of the effect of the fibre mass UP2 degradation products on radionuclide mobilisation2012Report (Refereed)
  • 122.
    Dyke, P. H.
    et al.
    PD Consulting, Magdalen, Brobury, Herefordshire, UK.
    Foan, C.
    The Environment Agency, National Centre for Risk Analysis and Options Appraisal, Kings Meadow House, Kings Meadow Road, Reading, Berkshire, UK.
    Fiedler, Heidelore
    United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) Chemicals, Châtelaine (GE), Switzerland.
    PCB and PAH releases from power stations and waste incineration processes in the UK2003In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 50, no 4, p. 469-480, article id PII S0045-6535(02)00627-6Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study focused on emissions of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) from incineration and power generation processes. Increased concern over human exposure to both classes of compounds has meant that environmental regulators need to assess the contribution made by emissions from regulated processes to human exposure. In the first part of an assessment in the UK we reviewed literature data on emissions of PCB, focusing on the dioxin-like PCB assigned toxic equivalency factors by the World Health Organization, and PAR The literature study was supplemented by a series of plant tests to gather initial real plant data. Literature data were limited and the lack of standard protocols for measurement and reporting of both PCB and PAH meant that few data sets were comparable. Levels of dioxin-like PCB reported in the literature and measured in UK plant tests showed that well-controlled modern combustion plants with comprehensive pollution controls gave low emissions, typically about 5-10% of the toxic equivalent of the emissions of polychlorinated dibenzodioxins and dibenzofurans at the same plants and below the widely used standard of 0.1 ng TEQ/N m(3).

  • 123.
    Eichbaum, Kathrin
    et al.
    Dept Ecosystem Anal, Inst Environm Res, Rheinisch-Westfälische Technische Hochschule (RWTH), Aachen, Germany.
    Brinkmann, Markus
    Dept Ecosystem Anal, Inst Environm Res, Rheinisch-Westfälische Technische Hochschule (RWTH), Aachen, Germany.
    Buchinger, Sebastian
    Dept Biochem G3, Fed Inst Hydrol BFG, Koblenz, Germany.
    Reifferscheid, Georg
    Dept Biochem G3, Fed Inst Hydrol BFG, Koblenz, Germany.
    Hecker, Markus
    Sch Environm & Sustainabil, Univ Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Canada; Toxicol Ctr, Univ Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Canada.
    Giesy, John P.
    School of the Environment and Sustainability and Toxicology Centre, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Canada; Department of Veterinary Biomedical Sciences and Toxicology Centre, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Canada; Department of Zoology and Center for Integrative Toxicology, Michigan State University, East Lansing MI, United States; Department of Biology and Chemistry, State Key Laboratory in Marine Pollution, City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China; School of Biological Sciences, University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China.
    Engwall, Magnus
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    van Bavel, Bert
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Hollert, Henner
    Institute for Environmental Research, Department of Ecosystem Analysis, Rheinisch-Westfälische Technische Hochschule (RWTH), Aachen University, Aachen, Germany; Key Laboratory of Yangtze River Environment of Education Ministry of China, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai, China; College of Resources and Environmental Science, Chongqing University, Chongqing, China; School of Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing, China.
    In vitro bioassays for detecting dioxin-like activity: Application potentials and limits of detection, a review2014In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 487, p. 37-48Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Use of in vitro assays as screening tool to characterize contamination of a variety of environmental matrices has become an increasingly popular and powerful toolbox in the field of environmental toxicology.

    While bioassays cannot entirely substitute analytical methods such as gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), the increasing improvement of cell lines and standardization of bioassay procedures enhance their utility as bioanalytical pre-screening tests prior to more targeted chemical analytical investigations. Dioxin-receptor-based assays provide a holistic characterization of exposure to dioxin-like compounds (DLCs) by integrating their overall toxic potential, including potentials of unknown DLCs not detectable via e.g. GC-MS. Hence, they provide important additional information with respect to environmental risk assessment of DLCs.

    This review summarizes different in vitro bioassay applications for detection of DLCs and considers the comparability of bioassay and chemical analytically derived toxicity equivalents (TEQs) of different approaches and various matrices. These range from complex samples such as sediments through single reference to compound mixtures. A summary of bioassay derived detection limits (LODs) showed a number of current bioassays to be equally sensitive as chemical methodologies, but moreover revealed that most of the bioanalytical studies conducted to date did not report their LODs, which represents a limitation with regard to low potency samples.

    (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 124.
    Ekblad, Alf
    et al.
    Örebro University, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Boström, Björn
    Örebro University, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Holm, Anders
    Örebro University, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Comstedt, Daniel
    Örebro University, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Forest soil respiration rate and d13C is regulated by recent above ground weather conditions2005In: Oecologia, ISSN 0029-8549, E-ISSN 1432-1939, Vol. 143, no 1, p. 136-142Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Soil respiration, a key component of the global carbon cycle, is a major source of uncertainty when estimating terrestrial carbon budgets at ecosystem and higher levels. Rates of soil and root respiration are assumed to be dependent on soil temperature and soil moisture yet these factors often barely explain half the seasonal variation in soil respiration. We here found that soil moisture (range 16.5-27.6% of dry weight) and soil temperature (range 8-17.5 degrees C) together explained 55% of the variance (cross-validated explained variance; Q2) in soil respiration rate (range 1.0-3.4 micromol C m(-2) s(-1)) in a Norway spruce (Picea abies) forest. We hypothesised that this was due to that the two components of soil respiration, root respiration and decomposition, are governed by different factors. We therefore applied PLS (partial least squares regression) multivariate modelling in which we, together with below ground temperature and soil moisture, used the recent above ground air temperature and air humidity (vapour pressure deficit, VPD) conditions as x-variables. We found that air temperature and VPD data collected 1-4 days before respiration measurements explained 86% of the seasonal variation in the rate of soil respiration. The addition of soil moisture and soil temperature to the PLS-models increased the Q2 to 93%. delta13C analysis of soil respiration supported the hypotheses that there was a fast flux of photosynthates to root respiration and a dependence on recent above ground weather conditions. Taken together, our results suggest that shoot activities the preceding 1-6 days influence, to a large degree, the rate of root and soil respiration. We propose this above ground influence on soil respiration to be proportionally largest in the middle of the growing season and in situations when there is large day-to-day shifts in the above ground weather conditions. During such conditions soil temperature may not exert the major control on root respiration.

  • 125.
    Eklöf, Karin
    et al.
    Department of Aquatic Sciences and Assessment, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Lidskog, Rolf
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Bishop, Kevin
    Department of Aquatic Sciences and Assessment, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden; Department of Earth Science, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Managing Swedish forestry's impact on mercury in fish: Defining the impact and mitigation measures2016In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 45, p. S163-S174Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Inputs of anthropogenic mercury (Hg) to the environment have led to accumulation of Hg in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, contributing to fish Hg concentrations well above the European Union standards in large parts of Fennoscandia. Forestry operations have been reported to increase the concentrations and loads of Hg to surface waters by mobilizing Hg from the soil. This summary of available forestry effect studies reveals considerable variation in treatment effects on total Hg (THg) and methylmercury (MeHg) at different sites, varying from no effect up to manifold concentration increases, especially for the bioavailable MeHg fraction. Since Hg biomagnification depends on trophic structures, forestry impacts on nutrient flows will also influence the Hg in fish. From this, we conclude that recommendations for best management practices in Swedish forestry operations are appropriate from the perspective of mercury contamination. However, the complexity of defining effective policies needs to be recognized.

  • 126.
    Elgh-Dalgren, Kristin
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Remediation of materials with mixed contaminants: treatability, technology and final disposal2009Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Contaminated soils are a large issue worldwide and much effort has been made to find efficient remediation methods. At many contaminated sites, mixtures of dif­ferent contaminants with different properties are present, which may lead to addi­tional problems, and thus additional costs, during the remediation process. This thesis presents the results from soil remedia­tion of two mixed contaminated soils, containing explosives and heavy metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and arsenic, respectively. The re­sults demonstrate that bioremediation may be an efficient method for moderate explosives concentration, but that too high contaminant concentrations may prevent the biodegradation, measured by both chemical and ecotoxicological analyses. If the contaminant concentration is very high, soil washing with alkaline pH (~12, NaOH) may be a good alterna­tive, which was observed to remove both explosives and heavy metals.

    For a PAH and arsenic contaminated soil, little degradation of organics was ob­served during the bioremediation. However, the arsenic present was re-distributed in the soil, which could poten­tially lead to increased availability and thus in­creased risk for contaminant spreading. Soil washing at alkaline pH (~12-13; Ca(OH)2) with a combination of a biodegradable non-ionic sur­factant and a biodegradable chelating agent, executed at high temperature (50°C), reached treatment goals for both arsenic and PAH after 10 min treatment. Measurement of ecotoxicity using Microtox® demonstrated that remaining surfactant in the soil may lead to increased toxicity despite lower con­taminant concentrations.

    Soil is a basically non-renewable resource and thus re-cycling of remediated soil ought to be commonly occurring. Yet, the re-cycling of remediated masses has so far been limited in Sweden, mainly because of the risk of spreading of pollu­tant remains. However, a recent proposition from the Swedish EPA opens for re-cycl­ing, even though the thresholds are very con­servative. Risk assessment of the re­mediated soil includes the utilization of leach­ing tests to estimate the risk of spreading of remaining pollutants. A comparison of the leaching from four reme­diated soils using three different leaching solutions reveals that leaching of both heavy metals and PAH occurs. In addition, differ­ences between different legisla­tions were observed, which could imply that the same soil could be re-cycled in one country (the Netherlands) but not another (Sweden).

    List of papers
    1. Anaerobic bioremediation of a soil with mixed contaminants: Explosives degradation and influence on heavy metal distribution, monitored as changes in concentration and toxicity
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Anaerobic bioremediation of a soil with mixed contaminants: Explosives degradation and influence on heavy metal distribution, monitored as changes in concentration and toxicity
    Show others...
    2009 (English)In: Water, Air and Soil Pollution, ISSN 0049-6979, E-ISSN 1573-2932, Vol. 202, no 1-4, p. 301-313Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Two soils with explosives and metals were evaluated for the degradation efficiency of explosives by native microorganisms under anaerobic conditions. The commercially available method Daramend®, amended with zero-valent iron (ZVI), was compared with a horse-manure amended compost and a treatment with ZVI alone. In a moderately contaminated soil, Daramend® and ZVI treatment gave significantly higher removal rates compared  to compost and control treatments (Tukey’s test, P<0.05). The largest overall decrease in ecotoxicity, measured with bioluminescent bacteria (Vibrio fischeri), was achieved with ZVI-treatment. In a more contaminated soil no degradation of contaminants and no decline in soil toxicity could be distinguished after the same time period. Problems with establishment of anaerobic conditions during parts of the remediation process and low microbial activity due to acute toxicity of contaminants are plausible explanations. Redistribution that could potentially lead to mobilization of the co-contaminant Pb was not observed in either of the soils during the biological treatments.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Springer Netherlands, 2009
    Keywords
    Bioremediation, explosives, Pb, Microtox®, mixed contaminants
    National Category
    Natural Sciences Environmental Sciences Inorganic Chemistry
    Research subject
    Environmental Chemistry
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-5969 (URN)10.1007/s11270-009-9977-z (DOI)000269007400026 ()2-s2.0-69049092648 (Scopus ID)
    Available from: 2009-03-09 Created: 2009-03-09 Last updated: 2017-12-13Bibliographically approved
    2. Simultaneous re­mediation of explosives and lead from contaminated soil by pH-adjust­ment
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Simultaneous re­mediation of explosives and lead from contaminated soil by pH-adjust­ment
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Soil washing with pH-adjusted water was evaluated in two soils containing dif­ferent concentrations of heavy metals and explosives. Overall, the most efficient treatment was with water adjusted to pH 12 by NaOH. For explosives, pH 12 removed significantly higher amounts (P<0.05) of RDX and TNT compared to pH 4 (adjusted with HNO3) and distilled water in a moderately contaminated soil (230 mg HMX/kg, 1340 mg RDX/kg, 450 mg TNT/kg). In a more highly contaminated soil (6080 mg HMX/kg, 28740 mg RDX/kg, 3120 mg TNT/kg), the pH 12-treatment was the most efficient for removal of TNT and 2,4-DNT. Explosives removal increased with treatment time, probably due to the kineti­cally slow processes underlying the explosives degradation. Mobilization of heavy metals was strongly dependent on pH, with pH 12 mobilizing more than pH 3. In addition, the change in distribution coefficient (Kd) was more pro­nounced for local contaminants Pb and Cd in comparison with Cu and Zn, which were present in background concentrations.

    National Category
    Environmental Sciences
    Research subject
    Enviromental Science
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-7990 (URN)
    Available from: 2009-09-23 Created: 2009-09-23 Last updated: 2017-10-18Bibliographically approved
    3. Bioremediation of a soil industrially contaminated by wood preservatives: degradation of polycyclic aromatic hydro­carbons and monitoring of coupled arsenic distribution
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Bioremediation of a soil industrially contaminated by wood preservatives: degradation of polycyclic aromatic hydro­carbons and monitoring of coupled arsenic distribution
    Show others...
    2011 (English)In: Water, Air and Soil Pollution, ISSN 0049-6979, E-ISSN 1573-2932, Vol. 214, no 1-4, p. 275-285Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Two commercially available aerobic bioremediation methods (Daramend® and BioSan) were utilized to study the aerobic biodegradation of polycyclic aro­matic hydrocarbons (PAH) and the effect of the simultaneously present arsenic. The soil was collected at an old wood preservation site and the initial PAH16-concentration was 46 mg/kg, with mainly high molecular weight congeners. The As-concentration was105 mg/kg with low availability as assessed with se­quential extraction. To enahce the availability of PAH, the effect of a non-ionic surfactant was evaluated. Degradation of both low and high molecular weight PAH was observed, however after 30 weeks, the degradation was generally low and no treatment was significantly better than the others. The treatments had, on the other hand, an effect on As-distribution, with increased As-concentra­tion in the available fraction after treatment. This may be due to both the mi­crobial activity and the presence of anoxic micro sites in the soil. The overall efficiency of the biological treatment was further evaluated using the standar­dized ecotoxicity test utilizing Vibrio fischeri (Microtox®). The toxicity test demonstrated that the bioremediation led to an increase in toxicity, especially in treatments receiving surfactant. The surfactant implied an increase in conta­minant availability but also a decrease in surface tension, which might have contributed to the overall toxicity increase.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Springer Netherlands, 2011
    Keywords
    Arsenic, Bioremediation, Microtox®, PAH, Surfactant
    National Category
    Environmental Sciences
    Research subject
    Enviromental Science
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-7991 (URN)10.1007/s11270-010-0422-0 (DOI)000285468800023 ()2-s2.0-78650592420 (Scopus ID)
    Available from: 2009-09-23 Created: 2009-09-23 Last updated: 2018-04-18Bibliographically approved
    4. Laboratory and pilot scale soil washing of PAH and arsenic from a wood preservation site: Changes in concentration and toxicity
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Laboratory and pilot scale soil washing of PAH and arsenic from a wood preservation site: Changes in concentration and toxicity
    Show others...
    2009 (English)In: Journal of Hazardous Materials, ISSN 0304-3894, E-ISSN 1873-3336, Vol. 172, no 2-3, p. 1033-1040Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Soil washing of a soil with a mixture of both polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and As was evaluated in laboratory and pilot scale, utilizing both single and mixtures of different additives. The highest level of decontamination was achieved with a combination of 0.213 M of the chelating agent MGDA and 3.2xCMC* of a nonionic, alkyl glucoside surfactant at pH 12 (Ca(OH)2). This combination managed to reach Swedish threshold values within 10 min of treat­ment when performed at elevated temperature (50°C), with initial conta­minant concentrations of As = 105±4 mg/kg and US-EPA PAH16 = 46.0±2.3 mg/kg. The main mechanisms behind the removal were the pH-effect for As and a combina­tion of SOM-ionization as a result of high pH and micellar solu­bilization for PAHs. Implementation of the laboratory results utilizing a pilot scale equipment did not improve the performance, which may be due to the shorter contact time between the washing solution and the particles, or changes in physical characte­ristics of the leaching solution due to the elevated pressure utilized. The ecotox­icological evaluation, Microtox®, demonstrated that all soil washing treatments increased the toxicity of soil leachates, possibly due to in­creased availability of contaminants and toxicity of soil washing solutions to the test organism.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Amsterdam: Elsevier, 2009
    Keywords
    Arsenic, Microtox®, PAH, Soil washing, Surfactant
    National Category
    Environmental Sciences
    Research subject
    Enviromental Science
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-7988 (URN)10.1016/j.jhazmat.2009.07.092 (DOI)000271980800068 ()19699582 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-71049155866 (Scopus ID)
    Available from: 2009-09-23 Created: 2009-09-23 Last updated: 2017-12-13Bibliographically approved
    5. Re-cycling of Remediated Soil in Sweden: An Environmental Advantage?
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Re-cycling of Remediated Soil in Sweden: An Environmental Advantage?
    2008 (English)In: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, Vol. 52, no 12, p. 1349-1361Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The disposal of soil material after ex-situ treatment of contaminated soil is an issue of growing concern. The handling and use of this material are surrounded by numerous regulatory, economic, technical and societal aspects that complicate or hinder recycling. As a consequence, the lack of means of recovery can in the long term bias the whole remedial process. In addition, it can affect the competition between various treatment options such as ex-situ, and in-situ techniques and landfilling. At the same time the materials must not have any negative environmental impacts, and their usage must be compatible with existing risk assessment and management frameworks regarding contaminated land. Other concerns such as a possible distinction against “lightly” contaminated materials, waste status and public acceptance add to the complexity. This paper focuses on Swedish conditions, but does also provide an outlook concerning EU regulation. A summary of leaching and batch tests employed for re-use of soil and waste is presented as well as an overview of the eco-toxicological aspects of treated materials. The main conclusion is that re-cycling of treated soil is desirable from numerous aspects, but has to go along an adequate risk assessment.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Amsterdam: Elsevier, 2008
    Keywords
    Environmental impact; Re-cycling; Remediation; Soil; Waste
    National Category
    Natural Sciences Environmental Sciences
    Research subject
    Environmental Chemistry
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-7989 (URN)10.1016/j.resconrec.2008.07.016 (DOI)
    Available from: 2009-09-23 Created: 2009-09-23 Last updated: 2017-12-13Bibliographically approved
    6. Re-cycling of remediated soil: evaluation of leaching tests as tools for characterization
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Re-cycling of remediated soil: evaluation of leaching tests as tools for characterization
    Show others...
    2011 (English)In: Waste Management, ISSN 0956-053X, E-ISSN 1879-2456, Vol. 31, no 2, p. 215-224Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden, leaching tests with deionized water (D.W.) are frequently utilized in risk assessment, but implementation of these results to evaluate the risk of spreading in the environment is difficult. One problem is that most leaching procedures only consider heavy metals release, whereas organic pollutants are left out. The aim of the present study was to assess the possible pollutant miti­gation in four remediated soils, three with heavy metals and one with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), utilizing three different leaching solutions: D.W., a weak ionic solution (0.001 M CaCl2) and an artificially made soil wa­ter (ASW). In general, batch leaching implied larger contaminant removal than column leaching, possibly due to the more rough treatment of the soil particles, and guidelines would at times be exceeded by batch leaching but not column leaching. Utilization of CaCl2 was found to release much less heavy metal than D.W., whereas the metals mobilized by ASW were removed from solution by the filtration of soil leachates. Low molecular weight PAH was most efficiently mobilized by CaCl2, while D.W. worked better for high molecular weight PAH. Despite very low initial PAH-concentrations, tap- and groundwater criteria were exceeded by all leaching solutions.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Pergamon Press, 2011
    Keywords
    Heavy metals, Leaching test, PAH, Re-cycling
    National Category
    Environmental Sciences
    Research subject
    Enviromental Science
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-7992 (URN)10.1016/j.wasman.2009.12.021 (DOI)000286411400003 ()20117924 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-78649838340 (Scopus ID)
    Available from: 2009-09-23 Created: 2009-09-23 Last updated: 2017-12-13Bibliographically approved
  • 127.
    Elgh-Dalgren, Kristin
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Arwidsson, Zandra
    Sakab AB.
    Camdzija, Aida
    Sjöberg, Ragnar
    Ribé, Veronica
    Mälardalen University.
    Waara, Sylvia
    Mälardalen University.
    Allard, Bert
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    von Kronhelm, Thomas
    van Hees, Patrick A. W.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Laboratory and pilot scale soil washing of PAH and arsenic from a wood preservation site: Changes in concentration and toxicity2009In: Journal of Hazardous Materials, ISSN 0304-3894, E-ISSN 1873-3336, Vol. 172, no 2-3, p. 1033-1040Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Soil washing of a soil with a mixture of both polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and As was evaluated in laboratory and pilot scale, utilizing both single and mixtures of different additives. The highest level of decontamination was achieved with a combination of 0.213 M of the chelating agent MGDA and 3.2xCMC* of a nonionic, alkyl glucoside surfactant at pH 12 (Ca(OH)2). This combination managed to reach Swedish threshold values within 10 min of treat­ment when performed at elevated temperature (50°C), with initial conta­minant concentrations of As = 105±4 mg/kg and US-EPA PAH16 = 46.0±2.3 mg/kg. The main mechanisms behind the removal were the pH-effect for As and a combina­tion of SOM-ionization as a result of high pH and micellar solu­bilization for PAHs. Implementation of the laboratory results utilizing a pilot scale equipment did not improve the performance, which may be due to the shorter contact time between the washing solution and the particles, or changes in physical characte­ristics of the leaching solution due to the elevated pressure utilized. The ecotox­icological evaluation, Microtox®, demonstrated that all soil washing treatments increased the toxicity of soil leachates, possibly due to in­creased availability of contaminants and toxicity of soil washing solutions to the test organism.

  • 128.
    Elgh-Dalgren, Kristin
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Arwidsson, Zandra
    Ribé, Veronica
    Mälardalen University, Västerås, Sweden.
    Waara, Sylvia
    Mälardalen University, Västerås, Sweden.
    von Kronhelm, Thomas
    van Hees, Patrick A. W.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Bioremediation of a soil industrially contaminated by wood preservatives: degradation of polycyclic aromatic hydro­carbons and monitoring of coupled arsenic distribution2011In: Water, Air and Soil Pollution, ISSN 0049-6979, E-ISSN 1573-2932, Vol. 214, no 1-4, p. 275-285Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Two commercially available aerobic bioremediation methods (Daramend® and BioSan) were utilized to study the aerobic biodegradation of polycyclic aro­matic hydrocarbons (PAH) and the effect of the simultaneously present arsenic. The soil was collected at an old wood preservation site and the initial PAH16-concentration was 46 mg/kg, with mainly high molecular weight congeners. The As-concentration was105 mg/kg with low availability as assessed with se­quential extraction. To enahce the availability of PAH, the effect of a non-ionic surfactant was evaluated. Degradation of both low and high molecular weight PAH was observed, however after 30 weeks, the degradation was generally low and no treatment was significantly better than the others. The treatments had, on the other hand, an effect on As-distribution, with increased As-concentra­tion in the available fraction after treatment. This may be due to both the mi­crobial activity and the presence of anoxic micro sites in the soil. The overall efficiency of the biological treatment was further evaluated using the standar­dized ecotoxicity test utilizing Vibrio fischeri (Microtox®). The toxicity test demonstrated that the bioremediation led to an increase in toxicity, especially in treatments receiving surfactant. The surfactant implied an increase in conta­minant availability but also a decrease in surface tension, which might have contributed to the overall toxicity increase.

  • 129.
    Elgh-Dalgren, Kristin
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Arwidsson, Zandra
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Sjöberg, Ragnar
    Allard, Bert
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    von Kronhelm, Tomas
    van Hees, Patrick
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Effect of chemical amendments on the distribution of arsenic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in a contaminated soil2009Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 130.
    Elgh-Dalgren, Kristin
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Düker, Anders
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Allard, Bert
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    van Hees, Patrick
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Simultaneous re­mediation of explosives and lead from contaminated soil by pH-adjust­mentManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Soil washing with pH-adjusted water was evaluated in two soils containing dif­ferent concentrations of heavy metals and explosives. Overall, the most efficient treatment was with water adjusted to pH 12 by NaOH. For explosives, pH 12 removed significantly higher amounts (P<0.05) of RDX and TNT compared to pH 4 (adjusted with HNO3) and distilled water in a moderately contaminated soil (230 mg HMX/kg, 1340 mg RDX/kg, 450 mg TNT/kg). In a more highly contaminated soil (6080 mg HMX/kg, 28740 mg RDX/kg, 3120 mg TNT/kg), the pH 12-treatment was the most efficient for removal of TNT and 2,4-DNT. Explosives removal increased with treatment time, probably due to the kineti­cally slow processes underlying the explosives degradation. Mobilization of heavy metals was strongly dependent on pH, with pH 12 mobilizing more than pH 3. In addition, the change in distribution coefficient (Kd) was more pro­nounced for local contaminants Pb and Cd in comparison with Cu and Zn, which were present in background concentrations.

  • 131.
    Elgh-Dalgren, Kristin
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Düker, Anders
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Arwidsson, Zandra
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    von Kronhelm, Thomas
    van Hees, Patrick A. W.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Re-cycling of remediated soil: evaluation of leaching tests as tools for characterization2011In: Waste Management, ISSN 0956-053X, E-ISSN 1879-2456, Vol. 31, no 2, p. 215-224Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden, leaching tests with deionized water (D.W.) are frequently utilized in risk assessment, but implementation of these results to evaluate the risk of spreading in the environment is difficult. One problem is that most leaching procedures only consider heavy metals release, whereas organic pollutants are left out. The aim of the present study was to assess the possible pollutant miti­gation in four remediated soils, three with heavy metals and one with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), utilizing three different leaching solutions: D.W., a weak ionic solution (0.001 M CaCl2) and an artificially made soil wa­ter (ASW). In general, batch leaching implied larger contaminant removal than column leaching, possibly due to the more rough treatment of the soil particles, and guidelines would at times be exceeded by batch leaching but not column leaching. Utilization of CaCl2 was found to release much less heavy metal than D.W., whereas the metals mobilized by ASW were removed from solution by the filtration of soil leachates. Low molecular weight PAH was most efficiently mobilized by CaCl2, while D.W. worked better for high molecular weight PAH. Despite very low initial PAH-concentrations, tap- and groundwater criteria were exceeded by all leaching solutions.

  • 132.
    Elgh-Dalgren, Kristin
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Waara, Sylvia
    Mälardalen University.
    Düker, Anders
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    von Kronhelm, Thomas
    SAKAB AB.
    van Hees, Patrick A. W.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Anaerobic bioremediation of a soil with mixed contaminants: Explosives degradation and influence on heavy metal distribution, monitored as changes in concentration and toxicity2009In: Water, Air and Soil Pollution, ISSN 0049-6979, E-ISSN 1573-2932, Vol. 202, no 1-4, p. 301-313Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Two soils with explosives and metals were evaluated for the degradation efficiency of explosives by native microorganisms under anaerobic conditions. The commercially available method Daramend®, amended with zero-valent iron (ZVI), was compared with a horse-manure amended compost and a treatment with ZVI alone. In a moderately contaminated soil, Daramend® and ZVI treatment gave significantly higher removal rates compared  to compost and control treatments (Tukey’s test, P<0.05). The largest overall decrease in ecotoxicity, measured with bioluminescent bacteria (Vibrio fischeri), was achieved with ZVI-treatment. In a more contaminated soil no degradation of contaminants and no decline in soil toxicity could be distinguished after the same time period. Problems with establishment of anaerobic conditions during parts of the remediation process and low microbial activity due to acute toxicity of contaminants are plausible explanations. Redistribution that could potentially lead to mobilization of the co-contaminant Pb was not observed in either of the soils during the biological treatments.

  • 133.
    Eliasson, Gunnar
    et al.
    Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan, Stockholm, Sverige.
    Finnveden, Göran
    Miljöstrategisk analys (fms), Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan, Stockholm, Sverige.
    Heshmati, Almas
    Internationella handelshögskolan i Jönköping, Jönköping, Sverige.
    Hultkrantz, Lars
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Lööf, Hans
    Entreprenörskap och Innovation, Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan, Stockholm, Sverige.
    Stephan, Andreas
    Internationella handelshögskolan i Jönköping, Jönköping, Sverige.
    Westlund, Hans
    Urbana och regionala studier, Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan, Stockholm, Sverige.
    Ojnare kan bli ett svenskt exempel i FN2015In: Dagens OpinionArticle in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 134.
    Elmarghani, Ahmed
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Pradhan, Ajay
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Seyoum, Asmerom
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Khalaf, Hazem
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Ros, Torbjön
    Pelagia Miljokonsult AB, Umeå, Sweden.
    Forsberg, Lars-Håkan
    Mälarenergi AB, Vasterås, Sweden.
    Nermark, Tomas
    Karlskoga Energi MO AB, Karlskoga, Sweden.
    Osterman, Lisa
    Skebäcks Reningsverk, Örebro, Sweden.
    Wiklund, Ulf
    Tyrens AB, Umeå, Sweden.
    Ivarsson, Per
    ALS Scandinavia AB, Täby, Sweden.
    Jass, Jana
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Olsson, Per-Erik
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Contribution of pharmaceuticals, fecal bacteria and endotoxin to the inflammatory responses to inland waters2014In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 488-489, p. 228-235Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The increasing contamination of freshwater with pharmaceuticals, surfactants, pesticides and other organic compounds are of major concern. As these contaminants are detected at trace levels in the environment it is important to determine if they elicit biological responses at the observed levels. In addition to chemical pollutants, there is also a concern for increasing levels of bacteria and other microorganisms in freshwater systems. In an earlier study, we observed the activation of inflammatory systems downstream of a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) in southern Sweden. We also observed that the water contained unidentified components that were pro-inflammatory and potentiated the immune response in human urinary bladder epithelial cells. In order to determine if these effects were unique for the studied site or represent a common response in Swedish water, we have now performed a study on three WWTPs and their recipient waters in central Sweden. Analysis of immune responses in urinary bladder epithelial cells, monocyte-like cells and blood mononuclear cells confirm that these waters activate the immune system as well as induce pro-inflammatory responses. The results indicate that the cytokine profiles correlate to the endotoxin load of the waters rather than to the levels of pharmaceuticals or culturable bacteria load, suggesting that measurements of endotoxin levels and immune responses would be a valuable addition to the analysis of inland waters.

  • 135.
    Engwall, Magnus
    et al.
    Dept. of Environmental Toxicology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden .
    Broman, Dag
    Aquatic Chemical Ecotoxicology, Department of Zoology, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden; Inst. of Appl. Environ. Research, Laboratory for Aquatic Ecotoxicology, Stockholm University, Nyköping, Sweden .
    Dencker, Lennart
    Department of Toxicology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Näf, Carina
    Aquatic Chemical Ecotoxicology, Department of Zoology, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Zebuhr, Yngve
    Aquatic Chemical Ecotoxicology, Department of Zoology, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Brunström, Björn
    Dept. of Environmental Toxicology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden .
    Toxic potencies of extracts of sediment and settling particulate matter collected in the recipient of a bleached pulp mill effluent before and after abandoning chlorine bleaching1997In: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, ISSN 0730-7268, E-ISSN 1552-8618, Vol. 16, no 6, p. 1187-1194Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Extracts of bottom sediment and settling particulate matter (SPM) samples collected in the recipient water body of a bleached pulp mill effluent were separated into three fractions: monoaromatic/aliphatic compounds, diaromatic compounds (e.g., polychlorinated biphenyls, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, and polychlorinated dibenzofurans), and polyaromatic compounds assessment of dioxinlike potency were an in vitro assay, based on the induction of 7-ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) in chicken embryo livers, a test for EROD induction in ovo using chicken embryos, and an immunotoxicity test measuring inhibition of lymphoid cell development in cultured fetal mouse thymuses. The samples collected closest to the mill were the most potent. There was a time-dependent decrease in dioxinlike potency in the SPM samples collected near the mill, which coincided with the cessation of chlorine gas bleaching at the mill. The bioassays in general, and the in vitro chicken embryo liver bioassay in particular, proved useful in the assessment of dioxinlike compounds in the sediment and SPM samples. The polyaromatic fractions of the samples were generally more potent than the diaromatic fractions. Only a small part of the effects caused by the polyaromatic fractions could be explained by 15 analyzed PAHs, indicating the presence of unquantified polyaromatic compounds with dioxinlike effects. This investigation indicates that the cessation of chlorine bleaching in the pulp mill resulted in a reduced load of diaromatic dioxinlike compounds in the recipient water body.

  • 136.
    Engwall, Magnus
    et al.
    Dept. of Environmental Toxicology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden .
    Broman, Dag
    Aquatic Chemical Ecotoxicology, Department of Zoology, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden; Inst. of Appl. Environ. Research, Laboratory for Aquatic Ecotoxicology, Stockholm University, Nyköping, Sweden .
    Ishaq, Rasha
    Aquatic Chemical Ecotoxicology, Department of Zoology, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Näf, Carina
    Aquatic Chemical Ecotoxicology, Department of Zoology, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Zebuhr, Yngve
    Aquatic Chemical Ecotoxicology, Department of Zoology, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Brunström, Björn
    Dept. of Environmental Toxicology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden .
    Toxic potencies of lipophilic extracts from sediments and settling particulate matter (SPM) collected in a PCB-contaminated river system1996In: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, ISSN 0730-7268, E-ISSN 1552-8618, Vol. 15, no 2, p. 213-222Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sediments and settling particulate matter (SPM) were sampled in a polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-contaminated lake, Lake Jarnsjon, and in lakes located up-/and downstream from Lake Jarnsjon. The 7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD)-inducing potencies of lipophilic extracts from sediment and SPM were investigated in organ cultures of chicken embryo livers (denoted in vitro chicken embryo liver bioassay). The extract from sediments collected in Lake Jarnsjon had the greatest EROD-inducing potency of the extracts studied, and it also contained the highest concentrations of PCBs, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and polychlorinated dibenzodioxins/furans (PCDDs/Fs). The non-ortho-chlorinated PCBs in the extracts were probably major contributors to the EROD induction noted. The EROD-inducing potency of sediment extract from the lake downstream Lake Jarnsjon was higher than that of extract from the upstream lake. This indicates that EROD-inducing substances were transported from Lake Jarnsjon sediment to the lake downstream. The extracts from Lake Jarnsjon sediment and SPM were separated into three fractions containing aliphatic/monoaromatic, diaromatic, and polyaromatic compounds, respectively, which were tested in the in vitro chicken embryo Liver bioassay. In all extracts, the aliphatic/monoaromatic fractions were low in EROD-inducing potency, while the polyaromatic fractions from SPM were more potent than their corresponding diaromatic fractions, indicating that they contained high concentrations of aromatic hydrocarbon (Ah) receptor ligands. Only a small part of the EROD induction caused by the polyaromatic fractions could be attributed to the 15 analyzed PAHs in the samples. The EROD-inducing potencies of the diaromatic fractions correlated quite well with their concentrations of PCDDs/Fs and PCBs. The in vitro chicken embryo liver bioassay detected low concentrations of EROD inducers in the extracts and therefore proved useful for estimating the contents of Ah receptor ligands in environmental samples.

  • 137.
    Engwall, Magnus
    et al.
    Dept. of Environmental Toxicology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden .
    Broman, Dag
    Aquatic Chemical Ecotoxicology, Department of Zoology, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden; Inst. of Appl. Environ. Research, Laboratory for Aquatic Ecotoxicology, Stockholm University, Nyköping, Sweden .
    Näf, Carina
    Aquatic Chemical Ecotoxicology, Department of Zoology, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Zebuhr, Yngve
    Aquatic Chemical Ecotoxicology, Department of Zoology, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Brunström, Björn
    Dept. of Environmental Toxicology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden .
    Dioxin-like compounds in HPLC-fractionated extracts of marine samples from the east and west coast of Sweden: bioassay- and instrumentally-derived TCDD equivalents1997In: Marine Pollution Bulletin, ISSN 0025-326X, E-ISSN 1879-3363, Vol. 34, no 12, p. 1032-1040Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Lipophilic extracts of sediment, settling particulate matter (SPM) and blue mussel (Mytilus edulis) samples, collected at coastal locations on the east and west coast of Sweden, were HPLC-separated into three fractions containing 1. monoaromatic/aliphatic, 2. diaromatic (e,g, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated dibenzodioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofuraus (PCDDs/Fs)), and 3, polyaromatic compounds (e,g, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)), The fractions were tested for dioxin-like effects using a sensitive bioassay, based on EROD-induction in cultured chicken embryo livers, The concentrations of PCDDs/Fs, PCBs and 15 PAHs in the samples were also determined, The polyaromatic fractions of the sediment samples were more potent as EROD-inducers than the diaromatic fractions, Only a small part of the EROD-induction caused by the polyaromatic fractions could be explained by the analysed PAHs in the samples, indicating presence of non-quantified polyaromatic EROD-inducing compounds in the samples, A greater pollution by EROD-inducing diaromatic and polyaromatic compounds on the east coast site than on the west coast site was seen, The filtration activities and faeces production of the mussels on the east coast experimental site increased the sedimentation of PCDDs/Fs, PCBs and PAHs, The described bioassay proved very useful in the assessment of dioxin-like compounds in both abiotic and biotic samples from the marine environment,

  • 138.
    Engwall, Magnus
    et al.
    Department of Environmental Toxicology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Brunström, Björn
    Department of Environmental Toxicology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Brewer, Andrea
    Department of Environmental Toxicology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Norrgren, Leif
    Department of Pathology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Cytochrome P450IA induction by a coplanar PCB, a PAH mixture, and PCB-contaminated sediment extracts following microinjection of rainbow trout sac-fry1994In: Aquatic Toxicology, ISSN 0166-445X, E-ISSN 1879-1514, Vol. 30, no 4, p. 311-324Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The 7-ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD)-inducing potencies of a coplanar polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) (3,3',4,3',5-pentachlorobiphenyl, IUPAC No. 126), a mixture of five polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (benzo(k)fluoranthene, benz(a)anthracene, benzo(a)pyrene, indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene and chrysene), and lipophilic compounds extracted from the sediments in a PCB-contaminated lake and from sediments in lakes up- and downstream, were studied in rainbow trout sac-fry in a 43-day study. The compounds/extracts were injected into the yolk sacs of newly hatched sac-fry and hepatic EROD activities and mortality rates were measured at various times after the injections. Five livers from each group were also examined by transmission electron microscopy. All the compounds/extracts induced hepatic EROD activities in the sac-fry. Ten days after injection the EROD activity caused by PCB No. 126 (1.3 ng per embryo) was 40-fold compared to the control activity. This was the highest induction rate observed in the experiment. For the sediment extracts, the highest induction rates were observed at the first sampling occasion, which for these groups was on day 24. The extract from the Lake Jarnsjon sediment was more potent as an EROD inducer than the extracts of sediments from the lakes up- and downstream from Lake Jarnsjon. None of the sediment extracts caused any significant mortality. In sac-fry injected with the PAH mixture, EROD was only slightly induced. The highest dose of PAHs (10 mu g per embryo) caused about 90% mortality by 24 days after injection. When the livers were examined by transmission electron microscopy, morphological alterations (e.g. hepatocyte degeneration and hypertrophy) were seen in the groups injected with Lake Jarnsjon sediment extract, PCB No. 126 and the highest dose of the PAH mixture (10 mu g per embryo).

  • 139.
    Engwall, Magnus
    et al.
    Section of Environmental Toxicology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Brunström, Björn
    Section of Environmental Toxicology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Jakobsson, Eva
    Environmental Chemistry, Wallenberg Laboratory, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) and aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase (AHH)-inducing potency and lethality of chlorinated naphthalenes in chicken (Gallus domesticus) and eider duck (Somateria mollissima) embryos1994In: Archives of Toxicology, ISSN 0340-5761, E-ISSN 1432-0738, Vol. 68, no 1, p. 37-42Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The 7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD)- and aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase (AHH)-inducing potencies and lethalities of a technical preparation of polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) (Halowax 1014, approx imate congener ratio: 20% tetrachloronaphthalenes, 40% pentachloronaphthalenes, 40% hexachloronaphthalenes), a mixture of 50% 1,2,3,5,6,7-hexachloronaphthalene and 50% 1,2,3,4,6,7-hexachloronaphthalene (HxCN-mix), and 1,2,3,4,5,6,7-heptachloronaphthalene (HpCN) were studied in chicken (Gallus domesticus) and elder duck (Somateria mollissima) embryos. Mortality and hepatic EROD activity were determined on day 10 of incubation in chicken embryos exposed to various doses of the PCNs via the air-sacs of the eggs on day 7. The HxCN-mix and Halowax 1014 proved to have both embryolethal and EROD-inducing properties, while the HpCN had low EROD-inducing potency and embryolethality. ED(50) values for EROD induction by the HxCN-mix and Halowax 1014 were estimated to be 0.06 mg/kg egg and 0.2 mg/kg egg, respectively. Fifty percent of the chicken embryos died (6/12) when given 3.0 mg/kg of the HxCN-mix while a similar dose of Halowax 1014 caused mortality in 4 out of 12 chicken embryos. The dose-response curve for EROD induction by Halowax 1014 exhibited a decline after the maximal level was reached. When Halowax 1014 (1.0 mg/kg, egg) was coinjected with 3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB IUPAC #126) (0.1 mu g/kg egg) no additive effects on EROD activity were found, but when the same dose of Halowax 1014 was coinjected with a dose of PCB #126, known to cause maximal induction (1.0 mu g/kg egg), the resulting EROD activity was lower than that caused solely by 1.0 mu g PCB #126/kg egg. These findings indicate that Halowax 1014 has both EROD-inducing and EROD-inhibiting properties. Mortality and EROD and AHH activities were determined on day 18 (chicken) or day 24 (elder) of incubation in embryos exposed to 1.0 mg/kg egg via the yolk-sac on day 4 (chicken) or day 5 (elder). The HxCN-mix and Halowax 1014 induced AHH and EROD in both chicken and elder, but the induction rates were higher in the elder embryos. The HxCN-mix and Halowax 1014 caused degenerative hepatic lesions and pericardial oedema in the chicken embryos but not in the elder embryos. The most toxic PCNs tested (the HxCN-mix and Halowax 1014) were approximately of the same EROD-inducing potency as previously found for the most toxic mono-ortho-chlorinated biphenyls (Brunstrom 1990), and 1000 times less toxic and potent as EROD inducers compared with PCB #126 (Brunstrom and Andersson 1988). HpCN was considerably less toxic and exhibited a low EROD-inducing potency. The chicken embryos were more sensitive to the hepatotoxic effects produced by Halowax 1014 and the HxCN-mix than the elder duck embryos, while the elder embryos were more responsive in terms of EROD and AHH induction. The two HxCNs studied usually make up approximately 1% of the total quantity of PCNs present in Halowax 1014 [when determined with gas chromatography (flame ionization detection)]. Therefore, the relatively high toxic potency of Halowax 1014 cannot be explained by its content of the two HxCNs.

  • 140.
    Engwall, Magnus
    et al.
    Dept. of Environmental Toxicology, Uppsala university, Uppsala, Sweden .
    Brunström, Björn
    Dept. of Environmental Toxicology, Uppsala university, Uppsala, Sweden .
    Näf, Carina
    Inst. of Appl. Environ. Res. - ITM, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Hjelm, Katarina
    Dept. of Environmental Toxicology, Uppsala university, Uppsala, Sweden .
    Levels of dioxin-like compounds in sewage sludge determined with a bioassay based on EROD induction in chicken embryo liver cultures1999In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 38, no 10, p. 2327-2343Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A bioassay for the detection of dioxin-like compounds was used to estimate levels in sewage sludge from Swedish sewage treatment plants (STPs). The sludge extracts were HPLC-separated into three fractions containing a) monoaromatic/aliphatic, b) diaromatic (e.g. polychlorinated biphenyls [PCBs], polychlorinated dibenzodioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans [PCDDs/Fs]), and c) polyaromatic compounds (e.g. polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons [PAHs]). The bioassay, which is based on EROD (7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase) induction in cultured chicken embryo livers detected dioxin-like activity in all unfractionated extracts and in the di- and polyaromatic fractions of all sludge extracts, but not in the monoatomatic/aliphatic fractions. The levels ranged between 6 and 109 pg bio-TEQ/g sludge (d.w.). In sediment samples from rural lakes in Sweden, levels of about 5 pg bio-TEQ/g (d.w.) have been found. The polyaromatic fractions of the sludge samples were potent in the bioassay, probably due to various PAHs and other polyaromatics in the sludge. The levels of six PAHs that are screened for in the sludge at Swedish STPs accounted for only 3-10% of the observed EROD-induction by the polyaromatic fractions. Consequently, many other polyaromatic EROD-inducing compounds were present in the sludge. Inclusion of a biological test like the chicken embryo liver bioassay in the screening of sludge would improve the ability to detect the presence of bioactive dioxin-like compounds. A theoretical estimation of bio-TEQ concentrations in farm-soil following long-term application of sludge with bio-TEQ concentrations similar to those observed in this investigation indicated that the bio-TEQ levels in soil would increase very slowly over time. The chicken embryo liver bioassay proved useful in assessing levels of dioxin-like compounds in sewage sludge and it gives valuable complementary information to chemical analysis data.

  • 141.
    Engwall, Magnus
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology. Department of Environmental Toxicology, Evolutionary Biology Center, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden; .
    Hjelm, Katarina
    Department of Environmental Toxicology, Evolutionary Biology Center, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden .
    Uptake of dioxin-like compounds from sewage sludge into various plant species: assessment of levels using a sensitive bioassay2000In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 40, no 9-11, p. 1189-1195Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A bioassay for the detection of dioxin-like compounds was used to estimate uptake of dioxin-like compounds in carrots, oil seed rape seeds, zucchinis and cucumbers grown in soil amended with sewage sludge from Swedish sewage treatment plants (STP), This sensitive bioassay is based on 7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD)-induction in cultured chicken embryo livers and reflects the combined biological effect of all dioxin-like compounds in a sample, including ones that seldom are analyzed. The bioassay detected low concentrations of dioxin-like compounds in all carrot, zucchini and cucumber samples, but did not detect any dioxin-like compounds in the rape seeds. In carrots the concentrations were increased up to seven times when grown in soil amended with high applications of some of the sludge samples, while others did not increase the concentrations compared to control. More realistic sludge applications only increased the concentrations slightly. The sludge-fertilized carrots contained the highest concentrations of the investigated plants (up to 14 pg bioassay-derived TCDD equivalents (bio-TEQs)/g d.w.). In the carrots, differences in uptake of dioxin-like compounds depended on the sludge origin, which may be due to more easily bioaccumulated dioxin-like compounds in some sludge samples, or other components that facilitated uptake into the carrots. In the cucumbers, a more than two-fold increase (from 0.2 to 0.5 pg bio-TEQs/g d.w.) was observed in specimens grown in sludge-amended soil when compared to controls, suggesting a small uptake from the roots to the shoots. No sludge-dependent increase in uptake was seen in the zucchini fruits. The bio-TEQ levels were generally low in the consumable above ground plant parts of the investigated species. However, the question if repeated sludge application results in a soil accumulation of dioxin-like compounds, thereby increasing the risk of plant uptake, remains to be investigated.

  • 142.
    Engwall, Magnus
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Larsson, Maria
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Bioanalys av organiska föroreningars biotillgänglighet: tillämpning i sanerade massor2009Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Polycykliska aromatiska kolväten (PAHer) är relativt vanliga i förorenadeområden, särskilt på gamla gasverktomter, bensinstationer och tidigare impregneringsanläggningar.På grund av deras toxicitet så är sanering av PAH-förorenadeområden av hög prioritet. För att minska riskerna med PAH-förorenade jordar,både före och efter sanering, är det viktigt att åstadkomma en heltäckande riskbedömningoch säker klassning av dessa jordmassor. De generella riktvärden förPAH-förorenad mark som används idag är i regel baserade på kemisk analys av 16standard PAHer (PAH16), trots att det ofta förekommer 100-tals PAHer och PAHmetaboliteri jordarna.I detta projekt har vi genom att jämföra kemisk och biologisk analys (H4IIEluc)av ett flertal sanerade PAH-förorenade jordprover studerat om toxicitetenverkligen minskar i proportion till minskningen av PAHer i jordarna. H4IIE-luc ären mekanismspecifik bioanalys som detekterar alla ämnen som aktiverar Ahreceptorn,en av de två viktigaste mekanismerna bakom PAHers toxicitet. Jämförelsenav resultaten visade att den totala toxiciteten i de sanerade jordprovernainte gick att förklara med kemisk analys av PAH16 och att man därmed med dagensanalysmetodik riskerar att missa toxikologiskt relevanta PAHer och andra liknandeämnen. Vidare kemiska identifieringsstudier samt bioanalytiska studier krävs föratt ta reda på om dessa okända ämnen utgör en risk för människa eller miljö.Våra resultat visar på svagheten med kemisk analys av ett mindre antal ämnensom grundval för klassning av renade massor. Det är därför är rimligt att inkluderamekanismspecifika tester i riskbedömning och vid klassning av renade PAHförorenadejordar. Dels för att minimera riskerna som dessa jordar kan utgöra förmänniskor och miljö, dels för att man med en större säkerhet och i större utsträckningskall kunna återanvända sanerade jordmassor.

  • 143.
    Engwall, Magnus
    et al.
    Department of Environmental Toxicology, Evolutionary Biology Center, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden;.
    Näf, C.
    Aquatic Chemical Ecotoxiocology, Department of Zoology, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Broman, D.
    Department of Zoology, Inst. of Appl. Environ. Research, Stockholm University, Sweden .
    Brunström, Björn
    Department of Environmental Toxicology, Evolutionary Biology Center, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden;.
    Biological and chemical determination of contaminant levels in settling particulate matter and sediments: a Swedish river system before, during, and after dredging of PCB-contaminated lake sediments1998In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 27, no 5, p. 403-410Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A sensitive bioassay, based on EROD induction in cultured chicken embryo livers, was used together with chemical analysis to determine levels of dioxin-like contaminants in particulate matter in Eman. Extracts of sediment and settling particulate matter (SPM) collected in the river system before, during, and after dredging of a PCB contaminated lake, Lake Jarnsjon, were separated into three fractions containing a) monoaromatic/aliphatic; b) diaromatic (e.g., PCBs and polychlorinated dibenzodioxins and dibenzofurans); and c) polyaromatic compounds (e.g., polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons). The samples from Lake Jarnsjon contained the highest PCB concentrations and the diaromatic extracts from Lake Jarnsjon samples showed the highest activities of EROD-inducing diaromatic compounds. The dioxin-like activity of the diaromatic fraction in sediment collected after the dredging of Jarnsjon had only around 1% of the activity of the pre-dredging sediment, showing that the remediation was successful in terms of removal of the PCB-contaminated sediment from the lake. In SPM collected immediately downstream from Jarnsjon, levels of diaromatic dioxin-like compounds were elevated during the dredging, and decreased after that. The post-dredging concentrations were however higher than in SPM from lakes upstream of Jarnsjon, showing that elevated levels of dioxin-like diaromatic compounds were still present in the water System downstream of Jarnsjon a couple of years after the dredging.

  • 144.
    Engwall, Magnus
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Schnürer, A.
    Department of Microbiology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden .
    Fate of Ah-receptor agonists in organic household waste during anaerobic degradation: estimation of levels using EROD induction in organ cultures of chick embryo livers2002In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 297, no 1-3, p. 105-108Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The fate of 7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD)-inducing compounds in source-separated organic household waste subject to anaerobic degradation (i.e. mesophilic/thermophilic anaerobic treatment) was investigated using organ cultures of embryonic chicken livers from fertilised hen eggs. This bioassay reflects the combined effect of all EROD-inducing, possibly dioxin-like compounds in a sample, including chemicals that are seldom or never analysed. All samples tested induced EROD in the bioassay, indicating the presence of dioxin-like compounds. In the anaerobic processes, the amounts of acid-resistant EROD-inducing compounds coming out of the reactors were considerably higher than the incoming amounts, especially for the low-temperature (mesophilic) process. This apparent production of EROD-inducing compounds may be due to de novo synthesis or to an increase in the EROD-inducing potency of the compounds in the material.

  • 145.
    Ericson Jogsten, Ingrid
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Assessment of human exposure to per- and polyfluorinated compounds (PFCs): exposure through food, drinking water, house dust and indoor air2011Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Per- and polyfluorinated compounds (PFCs) are detected in humans worldwide but all sources of human exposure have not been fully characterized. The aim of this thesis was to evaluate the contributions from food, water, air and dust as sources for human PFC exposure in the general population.

    Per- and polyfluorinated compounds (PFCs) are detected in humans worldwide but all sources of Up to 27 PFCs were determined at trace levels in blood (ng/mL), water (ng/L), foods (ng/g), dust (ng/g) and air (pg/m3) in a selected Catalan population and PFC intake was estimated from the measured PFC concentrations of the different sources of exposure.

    The major compounds detected in human blood of the studied population were perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS; 7.6 ng/mL), perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS; 3.6 ng/mL) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA; 1.8 ng/mL). In general, PFOS was also the major compound detected in most sources of exposure.

    Food was found to be the dominant pathway for human PFC exposure accounting for more than 70 % of the total intake of both PFOS and PFOA. In the most populated area (the Barcelona Province) where the highest levels were measured, tap water can contribute to the total exposure substantially with more than 50 % for adults. Indoor sources were negligible in the selected area for most PFCs when compared to food and water intake, except for toddlers under a worst case scenario where contribution from dust and food intake were equal (19 %).

    Pharmacokinetic (PK) modelling resulted in exposure of 103 ng PFOS/day and 33 ng PFOA/day of adults from the internal PFC blood concentrations. This agrees well with the intake estimated from external exposure through food, drinking water, house dust and indoor air of 80 ng PFOS/day and 32 ng PFOA/day and evidently all major exposure sources for the general population were included (in this study).

    List of papers
    1. Perfluorinated chemicals in blood of residents in Catalonia (Spain) in relation to age and gender: a pilot study
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Perfluorinated chemicals in blood of residents in Catalonia (Spain) in relation to age and gender: a pilot study
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    2007 (English)In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 33, no 5, p. 616-623Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Fluorinated organic compounds (FOCs) are a group of chemicals widely used as surfactants, lubricants, polymers, and fire-fighting foams. Recent studies have shown the ubiquitous distribution of FOCs in the environment, wildlife, and humans. We here report the results of a pilot study conducted to provide preliminary data on the levels of 13 FOCs in the blood of 48 residents in Catalonia, Spain, in relation to gender and age (25+/-5 and 55+/-5 years). The highest mean concentration was obtained for perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS, 7.64 ng/ml), followed by perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS, 3.56 ng/ml) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA, 1.80 ng/ml). Four other FOCs showed mean levels between 0.30 and 0.44 ng/ml, whereas those of the remaining 6 compounds were below the detection limit. Regarding gender, the blood levels of PFHxS and PFOA were significantly higher (p<0.05) in men than in women, while differences according to age were only noted for PFHxS (p<0.05) and perfluorooctane sulfonamide (PFOSA) (p<0.001), for which the levels were higher in the younger (25+/-5 years) group of subjects. A significant correlation between PFOS levels and those of the remaining detected FOCs (except PFDA) was found. In general terms, the current FOC concentrations were lower than those found in recent studies concerning levels of these chemicals in human blood and serum of subjects from different countries.

    National Category
    Natural Sciences Chemical Sciences Environmental Sciences
    Research subject
    Chemistry; Environmental Chemistry
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-5307 (URN)10.1016/j.envint.2007.01.003 (DOI)17289145 (PubMedID)
    Available from: 2009-02-03 Created: 2009-02-03 Last updated: 2017-12-14Bibliographically approved
    2. Analysis of POPs in human samples reveal a contribution of brominated dioxin of up to 15% of the total dioxin TEQ
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Analysis of POPs in human samples reveal a contribution of brominated dioxin of up to 15% of the total dioxin TEQ
    2010 (English)In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 78, no 2, p. 113-120Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PBDD/Fs) were analyzed in both human adipose tissue and plasma from nine individuals, from the Swedish general population, using high resolution gas chromatography/high resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC/HRMS). In addition, several other persistent organic pollutants (POPs) were determined in the same samples, including polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and perfluorinated chemicals (PFCs). Polybrominated dibenzofurans were detected in all of the human adipose tissue samples confirming their presence in the Swedish population. The highest concentration was found for 2,3,7,8-TeBDF, ranging from 0.27 to 2.4 pg g(-1) lipid. followed by 1,2,3,7,8-PeBDF, 0.23-0.89 pg g(-1) lipid, 2,3,4,7,8-PeBDF, 0.44-0.54 pg g(-1) lipid, and 2,7/2,8-DiBDF, 0.19-0.30 pg g(-1) lipid. No PBDDs could be detected above the limit of detection (<0.02-<0.21 pg g(-1) lipid) in any of the samples. The levels of PCDD/Fs were in the range 1.79-31.5 pg toxic equivalents (TEQ) g(-1) lipid, and PBDEs were found in the 1.16-7.46 ng g(-1) lipid range. The measured chlorinated dioxins indicate decreasing human concentrations in Sweden. The toxicity equivalents (TEQ) for PBDD/Fs (0.2-0.8 pg TEQ g(-1) lipid) were found to contribute 1-15% of the total dioxin TEQ of the chlorinated dioxins and furans (5-18 pg TEQ g(-1) lipid) depending on the individual. Also PBDEs concentrations are decreasing compared to 1997-2000, but most noteworthy a shift in BDE pattern where BDE#47 is surpassed by BDE#153. The levels of PFCs are in the same range as the highest levels of the traditional POPs (sum of 60 PCBs) based on volume. These findings illustrate the importance of continuous monitoring of brominated compounds in both human and the environment. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

    Keywords
    PBDD, PBDF, TEQ, Human samples, PBDE, PFC
    National Category
    Environmental Sciences
    Research subject
    Environmental Chemistry
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-13048 (URN)10.1016/j.chemosphere.2009.10.012 (DOI)000272888200006 ()
    Available from: 2011-01-03 Created: 2011-01-03 Last updated: 2017-12-11Bibliographically approved
    3. Human exposure to perfluorinated chemicals through the diet: intake of perfluorinated compounds in foods from the Catalan (Spain) market
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Human exposure to perfluorinated chemicals through the diet: intake of perfluorinated compounds in foods from the Catalan (Spain) market
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    2008 (English)In: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, ISSN 0021-8561, E-ISSN 1520-5118, Vol. 56, no 5, p. 1787-1794Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to determine the dietary intake of perfluorinated chemicals (PFCs) by the population of Tarragona County (Catalonia, Spain). PFC levels were determined in 36 composite samples of foodstuffs randomly purchased in various locations. Exposure to PFCs through the diet was estimated for various age/gender groups. Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), perfluorocarboxylate perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), and perfluoroheptanoic acid (PFHpA) were the only detected PFCs in foodstuffs. On average, for a standard adult man (70 kg of body weight), the dietary intake of PFOS was estimated to be 62.5 or 74.2 ng/day (assuming ND=0 or ND=1/2 LOD, respectively). Fish, followed by dairy products and meats, were the main contributors to PFOS intake. For an adult man, the intake of PFOS (1.07 ng/kg/day) and those of PFOA and PFHpA were lower than that recently reported for Canada (4.0 ng/kg/day), and considerably lower than that previously found in the United Kingdom, the only two countries where, to date, results concerning this issue have been reported. A correlation between dietary intake and blood levels of PFOS is suggested. However, the current results do not justify dietary intake as the main route of exposure governing blood concentrations of other PFCs.

    National Category
    Natural Sciences Chemical Sciences Environmental Sciences
    Research subject
    Chemistry; Environmental Chemistry
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-5299 (URN)10.1021/jf0732408 (DOI)18251500 (PubMedID)
    Available from: 2009-02-03 Created: 2009-02-03 Last updated: 2017-12-14Bibliographically approved
    4. Exposure to perfluorinated compounds in Catalonia, Spain, through consumption of various raw and cooked foodstuffs, including packaged food
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Exposure to perfluorinated compounds in Catalonia, Spain, through consumption of various raw and cooked foodstuffs, including packaged food
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    2009 (English)In: Food and Chemical Toxicology, ISSN 0278-6915, E-ISSN 1873-6351, Vol. 47, no 7, p. 1577-1583Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, the role that some food processing and packaging might play as a source of perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) through the diet was assessed. The levels of PFCs were determined in composite samples of veal steak (raw, grilled, and fried), pork loin (raw, grilled, and fried), chicken breast (raw, grilled, and fried), black pudding (uncooked), liver lamb (raw), marinated salmon (home-made and packaged), lettuce (fresh and packaged), pate of pork liver, foie gras of duck, frankfurt, sausages, chicken nuggets (fried), and common salt. Among the 11 PFCs analyzed, only PFHxS, PFOS, PFHxA, and PFOA were detected in at least one composite sample, while the levels of the remaining PFCs (PFBuS, PFHpA, PFNA, PFDA, PFUnDA, and PFDoDA) were under their respective detection limits. PFOS was the compound most frequently detected, being found in 8 of the 20 food items analyzed, while PFHxA was detected in samples of raw veal, chicken nuggets, frankfurt, sausages, and packaged lettuce. According to the results of the present study, it is not sufficiently clear if cooking with non-stick cookware, or packaging some foods, could contribute to a higher human exposure to PFCs.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Amsterdam: Elsevier, 2009
    Keywords
    Perfluorinated chemicals, Food, Cooking, Packaging, Dietary intake
    National Category
    Natural Sciences Chemical Sciences Environmental Sciences Environmental Sciences
    Research subject
    Environmental Chemistry
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-17166 (URN)10.1016/j.fct.2009.04.004 (DOI)000267739300027 ()2-s2.0-67349118177 (Scopus ID)
    Available from: 2011-09-02 Created: 2011-09-02 Last updated: 2017-10-02Bibliographically approved
    5. Levels of perfluorochemicals in water samples from Catalonia, Spain: is drinking water a significant contribution to human exposure?
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Levels of perfluorochemicals in water samples from Catalonia, Spain: is drinking water a significant contribution to human exposure?
    Show others...
    2008 (English)In: Environmental science and pollution research international, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 15, no 7, p. 614-619Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND, AIM, AND SCOPE: In recent years, due to a high persistence, biomagnification in food webs, presence in remote regions, and potential toxicity, perfluorochemicals (PFCs) have generated a considerable interest. The present study was aimed to determine the levels of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), and other PFCs in drinking water (tap and bottled) and river water samples from Tarragona Province (Catalonia, Spain). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Municipal drinking (tap) water samples were collected from the four most populated towns in the Tarragona Province, whereas samples of bottled waters were purchased from supermarkets. River water samples were collected from the Ebro (two samples), Cortiella, and Francolí Rivers. After pretreatment, PFC analyses were performed by HPLC-MS. Quantification was done using the internal standard method, with recoveries between 68% and 118%. RESULTS: In tap water, PFOS and PFOA levels ranged between 0.39 and 0.87 ng/L (0.78 and 1.74 pmol/L) and between 0.32 and 6.28 ng/L (0.77 and 15.2 pmol/L), respectively. PFHpA, PFHxS, and PFNA were also other detected PFCs. PFC levels were notably lower in bottled water, where PFOS could not be detected in any sample. Moreover, PFHpA, PFHxS, PFOA, PFNA, PFOS, PFOSA, and PFDA could be detected in the river water samples. PFOS and PFOA concentrations were between <0.24 and 5.88 ng/L (<0.48 and 11.8 pmol/L) and between <0.22 and 24.9 ng/L (<0.53 and 60.1 pmol/L), respectively. DISCUSSION: Assuming a human water consumption of 2 L per day, the daily intake of PFOS and PFOA by the population of the area under evaluation was calculated (0.78-1.74 and 12.6 ng, respectively). It was found that drinking water might be a source of exposure to PFCs as important as the dietary intake of these pollutants. CONCLUSIONS: The contribution of drinking water (tap and bottled) to the human daily intake of various PFCs has been compared for the first time with data from dietary intake of these PFCs. It was noted that in certain cases, drinking water can be a source of exposure to PFCs as important as the dietary intake of these pollutants although the current concentrations were similar or lower than those reported in the literature for surface water samples from a number of regions and countries. RECOMMENDATIONS AND PERSPECTIVES: Further studies should be carried out in order to increase the knowledge of the role of drinking water in human exposure to PFCs.

    National Category
    Natural Sciences Chemical Sciences Environmental Sciences
    Research subject
    Chemistry; Environmental Chemistry
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-5294 (URN)10.1007/s11356-008-0040-1 (DOI)18763004 (PubMedID)
    Available from: 2009-02-03 Created: 2009-02-03 Last updated: 2017-12-14Bibliographically approved
    6. Levels of perfluorinated chemicals in municipal drinking water from Catalonia, Spain: public health implications
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Levels of perfluorinated chemicals in municipal drinking water from Catalonia, Spain: public health implications
    Show others...
    2009 (English)In: Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, ISSN 0090-4341, E-ISSN 1432-0703, Vol. 57, no 4, p. 631-638Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, the concentrations of 13 perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) (PFBuS, PFHxS, PFOS, THPFOS, PFHxA, PFHpA, PFOA, PFNA, PFDA, PFUnDA, PFDoDA, PFTDA, and PFOSA) were analyzed in municipal drinking water samples collected at 40 different locations from 5 different zones of Catalonia, Spain. Detection limits ranged between 0.02 (PFHxS) and 0.85 ng/L (PFOA). The most frequent compounds were PFOS and PFHxS, which were detected in 35 and 31 samples, with maximum concentrations of 58.1 and 5.30 ng/L, respectively. PFBuS, PFHxA, and PFOA were also frequently detected (29, 27, and 26 samples, respectively), with maximum levels of 69.4, 8.55, and 57.4 ng/L. In contrast, PFDoDA and PFTDA could not be detected in any sample. The most contaminated water samples were found in the Barcelona Province, whereas none of the analyzed PFCs could be detected in two samples (Banyoles and Lleida), and only one PFC could be detected in four of the samples. Assuming a human water consumption of 2 L/day, the maximum daily intake of PFOS and PFOA from municipal drinking water would be, for a subject of 70 kg of body weight, 1.7 and 1.6 ng/kg/day. This is clearly lower than the respective Tolerable Daily Intake set by the European Food Safety Authority. In all samples, PFOS and PFOA also showed lower levels than the short-term provisional health advisory limit for drinking water (200 ng PFOS/L and 400 ng PFOA/L) set by the US Environmental Protection Agency. Although PFOS and PFOA concentrations found in drinking water in Catalonia are not expected to pose human health risks, safety limits for exposure to the remaining PFCs are clearly necessary, as health-based drinking water concentration protective for lifetime exposure is set to 40 ng/L for PFOA.

    National Category
    Chemical Sciences
    Research subject
    Chemistry
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-13202 (URN)10.1007/s00244-009-9375-y (DOI)000270983600001 ()
    Available from: 2011-01-17 Created: 2011-01-11 Last updated: 2017-12-11Bibliographically approved
    7. Per- and polyfluorinated compounds (PFCs) in house dust and indoor air in Catalonia, Spain: implications for human exposure
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Per- and polyfluorinated compounds (PFCs) in house dust and indoor air in Catalonia, Spain: implications for human exposure
    Show others...
    2012 (English)In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 39, no 1, p. 172-180Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    A total of 27 per- and polyfluorinated compounds (PFCs) were determined in both house dust (n=10) and indoor air (n=10) from selected homes in Catalonia, Spain. Concentrations were found to be similar or lower than those previously reported for household microenvironments in other countries. Ten PFCs were detected in all house dust samples. The highest mean concentrations corresponded to perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA) and perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), 10.7 ng/g (median: 1.5 ng/g) and 10.4 ng/g (median: 5.4 ng/g), respectively, while the 8:2 fluorotelomer alcohol (FTOH) was the dominating neutral PFC at a concentration of 0.41 ng/g (median: 0.35 ng/g). The indoor air was dominated by the FTOHs, especially the 8:2 FTOH at a mean (median) concentration of 51 pg/m(3) (median: 42 pg/m(3)). A limited number of ionic PFCs were also detected in the indoor air samples. Daily intakes of PFCs were estimated for average and worst case scenarios of human exposure from indoor sources. For toddlers, this resulted in average intakes of ∑ionic PFCs of 4.9ng/day (0.33 ng/kg(bw)/day for a 15 kg toddlers) and ∑neutral PFCs of 0.072 ng/day (0.005 ng/kg(bw)/day) from house dust. For adults, the average daily intakes of dust were 3.6 and 0.053 ng/day (0.05 and 0.001 ng/kg(bw)/day for a 70 kg adult) for ∑ionic and ∑neutral PFCs, respectively. The average daily inhalation of ∑neutral PFCs was estimated to be 0.9 and 1.3 ng/day (0.06 and 0.02 ng/kg(bw)/day) for toddlers and adults, respectively. For PFOS, the main ionic PFC detected in indoor air samples, the median intakes (based on those samples where PFOS was detected), resulted in indoor exposures of 0.06 and 0.11 ng/day (0.004 and 0.002 ng/kg(bw)/day) for toddlers and adults, respectively. Based on previous studies on dietary intake and drinking water consumption, both house dust and indoor air contribute significantly less to PFC exposure within this population.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Elsevier, 2012
    Keywords
    Per- and polyfluorinated compounds; Indoor environment; Exposure pathways; Intakes; House dust; Indoor air
    National Category
    Chemical Sciences Environmental Sciences
    Research subject
    Environmental Chemistry
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-17167 (URN)10.1016/j.envint.2011.09.004 (DOI)000300129100022 ()2-s2.0-84555217906 (Scopus ID)
    Funder
    Swedish Research Council Formas, 216-2008-865
    Note

    Funding Agency:

    Public Health Agency, Department of Health, Generalitat de Catalunya

    Available from: 2011-09-02 Created: 2011-09-02 Last updated: 2018-05-08Bibliographically approved
  • 146.
    Ericson Jogsten, Ingrid
    et al.
    Örebro University, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Gómez, Mercedes
    Nadal, Martí
    van Bavel, Bert
    Örebro University, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Lindström, Gunilla
    Örebro University, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Domingo, José L.
    Perfluorinated chemicals in blood of residents in Catalonia (Spain) in relation to age and gender: a pilot study2007In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 33, no 5, p. 616-623Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Fluorinated organic compounds (FOCs) are a group of chemicals widely used as surfactants, lubricants, polymers, and fire-fighting foams. Recent studies have shown the ubiquitous distribution of FOCs in the environment, wildlife, and humans. We here report the results of a pilot study conducted to provide preliminary data on the levels of 13 FOCs in the blood of 48 residents in Catalonia, Spain, in relation to gender and age (25+/-5 and 55+/-5 years). The highest mean concentration was obtained for perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS, 7.64 ng/ml), followed by perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS, 3.56 ng/ml) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA, 1.80 ng/ml). Four other FOCs showed mean levels between 0.30 and 0.44 ng/ml, whereas those of the remaining 6 compounds were below the detection limit. Regarding gender, the blood levels of PFHxS and PFOA were significantly higher (p<0.05) in men than in women, while differences according to age were only noted for PFHxS (p<0.05) and perfluorooctane sulfonamide (PFOSA) (p<0.001), for which the levels were higher in the younger (25+/-5 years) group of subjects. A significant correlation between PFOS levels and those of the remaining detected FOCs (except PFDA) was found. In general terms, the current FOC concentrations were lower than those found in recent studies concerning levels of these chemicals in human blood and serum of subjects from different countries.

  • 147.
    Ericson Jogsten, Ingrid
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Hagberg, Jessika
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Lindström, Gunilla
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    van Bavel, Bert
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Analysis of POPs in human samples reveal a contribution of brominated dioxin of up to 15% of the total dioxin TEQ2010In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 78, no 2, p. 113-120Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PBDD/Fs) were analyzed in both human adipose tissue and plasma from nine individuals, from the Swedish general population, using high resolution gas chromatography/high resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC/HRMS). In addition, several other persistent organic pollutants (POPs) were determined in the same samples, including polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and perfluorinated chemicals (PFCs). Polybrominated dibenzofurans were detected in all of the human adipose tissue samples confirming their presence in the Swedish population. The highest concentration was found for 2,3,7,8-TeBDF, ranging from 0.27 to 2.4 pg g(-1) lipid. followed by 1,2,3,7,8-PeBDF, 0.23-0.89 pg g(-1) lipid, 2,3,4,7,8-PeBDF, 0.44-0.54 pg g(-1) lipid, and 2,7/2,8-DiBDF, 0.19-0.30 pg g(-1) lipid. No PBDDs could be detected above the limit of detection (<0.02-<0.21 pg g(-1) lipid) in any of the samples. The levels of PCDD/Fs were in the range 1.79-31.5 pg toxic equivalents (TEQ) g(-1) lipid, and PBDEs were found in the 1.16-7.46 ng g(-1) lipid range. The measured chlorinated dioxins indicate decreasing human concentrations in Sweden. The toxicity equivalents (TEQ) for PBDD/Fs (0.2-0.8 pg TEQ g(-1) lipid) were found to contribute 1-15% of the total dioxin TEQ of the chlorinated dioxins and furans (5-18 pg TEQ g(-1) lipid) depending on the individual. Also PBDEs concentrations are decreasing compared to 1997-2000, but most noteworthy a shift in BDE pattern where BDE#47 is surpassed by BDE#153. The levels of PFCs are in the same range as the highest levels of the traditional POPs (sum of 60 PCBs) based on volume. These findings illustrate the importance of continuous monitoring of brominated compounds in both human and the environment. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 148.
    Ericson Jogsten, Ingrid
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Martí-Cid, Roser
    Nadal, Martí
    van Bavel, Bert
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Lindström, Gunilla
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Domingo, José L.
    Human exposure to perfluorinated chemicals through the diet: intake of perfluorinated compounds in foods from the Catalan (Spain) market2008In: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, ISSN 0021-8561, E-ISSN 1520-5118, Vol. 56, no 5, p. 1787-1794Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to determine the dietary intake of perfluorinated chemicals (PFCs) by the population of Tarragona County (Catalonia, Spain). PFC levels were determined in 36 composite samples of foodstuffs randomly purchased in various locations. Exposure to PFCs through the diet was estimated for various age/gender groups. Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), perfluorocarboxylate perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), and perfluoroheptanoic acid (PFHpA) were the only detected PFCs in foodstuffs. On average, for a standard adult man (70 kg of body weight), the dietary intake of PFOS was estimated to be 62.5 or 74.2 ng/day (assuming ND=0 or ND=1/2 LOD, respectively). Fish, followed by dairy products and meats, were the main contributors to PFOS intake. For an adult man, the intake of PFOS (1.07 ng/kg/day) and those of PFOA and PFHpA were lower than that recently reported for Canada (4.0 ng/kg/day), and considerably lower than that previously found in the United Kingdom, the only two countries where, to date, results concerning this issue have been reported. A correlation between dietary intake and blood levels of PFOS is suggested. However, the current results do not justify dietary intake as the main route of exposure governing blood concentrations of other PFCs.

  • 149.
    Ericson Jogsten, Ingrid
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Nadal, Martí
    van Bavel, Bert
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Lindström, Gunilla
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Domingo, José L.
    Levels of perfluorochemicals in water samples from Catalonia, Spain: is drinking water a significant contribution to human exposure?2008In: Environmental science and pollution research international, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 15, no 7, p. 614-619Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND, AIM, AND SCOPE: In recent years, due to a high persistence, biomagnification in food webs, presence in remote regions, and potential toxicity, perfluorochemicals (PFCs) have generated a considerable interest. The present study was aimed to determine the levels of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), and other PFCs in drinking water (tap and bottled) and river water samples from Tarragona Province (Catalonia, Spain). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Municipal drinking (tap) water samples were collected from the four most populated towns in the Tarragona Province, whereas samples of bottled waters were purchased from supermarkets. River water samples were collected from the Ebro (two samples), Cortiella, and Francolí Rivers. After pretreatment, PFC analyses were performed by HPLC-MS. Quantification was done using the internal standard method, with recoveries between 68% and 118%. RESULTS: In tap water, PFOS and PFOA levels ranged between 0.39 and 0.87 ng/L (0.78 and 1.74 pmol/L) and between 0.32 and 6.28 ng/L (0.77 and 15.2 pmol/L), respectively. PFHpA, PFHxS, and PFNA were also other detected PFCs. PFC levels were notably lower in bottled water, where PFOS could not be detected in any sample. Moreover, PFHpA, PFHxS, PFOA, PFNA, PFOS, PFOSA, and PFDA could be detected in the river water samples. PFOS and PFOA concentrations were between <0.24 and 5.88 ng/L (<0.48 and 11.8 pmol/L) and between <0.22 and 24.9 ng/L (<0.53 and 60.1 pmol/L), respectively. DISCUSSION: Assuming a human water consumption of 2 L per day, the daily intake of PFOS and PFOA by the population of the area under evaluation was calculated (0.78-1.74 and 12.6 ng, respectively). It was found that drinking water might be a source of exposure to PFCs as important as the dietary intake of these pollutants. CONCLUSIONS: The contribution of drinking water (tap and bottled) to the human daily intake of various PFCs has been compared for the first time with data from dietary intake of these PFCs. It was noted that in certain cases, drinking water can be a source of exposure to PFCs as important as the dietary intake of these pollutants although the current concentrations were similar or lower than those reported in the literature for surface water samples from a number of regions and countries. RECOMMENDATIONS AND PERSPECTIVES: Further studies should be carried out in order to increase the knowledge of the role of drinking water in human exposure to PFCs.

  • 150.
    Ericson Jogsten, Ingrid
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Nadal, Martí
    Laboratory of Toxicology and Environmental Health, School of Medicine, Rovira i Virgili University, Reus, Spain.
    van Bavel, Bert
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Lindström, Gunilla
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Domingo, José L.
    Laboratory of Toxicology and Environmental Health, School of Medicine, Rovira i Virgili University, Reus, Spain.
    Per- and polyfluorinated compounds (PFCs) in house dust and indoor air in Catalonia, Spain: implications for human exposure2012In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 39, no 1, p. 172-180Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A total of 27 per- and polyfluorinated compounds (PFCs) were determined in both house dust (n=10) and indoor air (n=10) from selected homes in Catalonia, Spain. Concentrations were found to be similar or lower than those previously reported for household microenvironments in other countries. Ten PFCs were detected in all house dust samples. The highest mean concentrations corresponded to perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA) and perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), 10.7 ng/g (median: 1.5 ng/g) and 10.4 ng/g (median: 5.4 ng/g), respectively, while the 8:2 fluorotelomer alcohol (FTOH) was the dominating neutral PFC at a concentration of 0.41 ng/g (median: 0.35 ng/g). The indoor air was dominated by the FTOHs, especially the 8:2 FTOH at a mean (median) concentration of 51 pg/m(3) (median: 42 pg/m(3)). A limited number of ionic PFCs were also detected in the indoor air samples. Daily intakes of PFCs were estimated for average and worst case scenarios of human exposure from indoor sources. For toddlers, this resulted in average intakes of ∑ionic PFCs of 4.9ng/day (0.33 ng/kg(bw)/day for a 15 kg toddlers) and ∑neutral PFCs of 0.072 ng/day (0.005 ng/kg(bw)/day) from house dust. For adults, the average daily intakes of dust were 3.6 and 0.053 ng/day (0.05 and 0.001 ng/kg(bw)/day for a 70 kg adult) for ∑ionic and ∑neutral PFCs, respectively. The average daily inhalation of ∑neutral PFCs was estimated to be 0.9 and 1.3 ng/day (0.06 and 0.02 ng/kg(bw)/day) for toddlers and adults, respectively. For PFOS, the main ionic PFC detected in indoor air samples, the median intakes (based on those samples where PFOS was detected), resulted in indoor exposures of 0.06 and 0.11 ng/day (0.004 and 0.002 ng/kg(bw)/day) for toddlers and adults, respectively. Based on previous studies on dietary intake and drinking water consumption, both house dust and indoor air contribute significantly less to PFC exposure within this population.

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