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  • 101. Hagquist, Curt
    et al.
    Sundh, Mona
    Eriksson, Charli
    Örebro University, Department of Health Sciences.
    Smoking habits before and after the introduction of a minimum-age law for tobacco purchase: analysis of data on adolescents from three regions of Sweden2007In: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1403-4948, E-ISSN 1651-1905, Vol. 35, no 4, p. 373-379Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims: The purpose of this study was to analyse changes in smoking habits among adolescents in three regions of Sweden following the introduction in 1997 of a law prohibiting sales of tobacco to persons under 18 years: the minimum-age law. Methods: The analysis is based on data collected among adolescents in compulsory school years 7 and 9 (about 13-14 and 15-16 years respectively), in 1996, 2000, and 2005, in three regions of Sweden. The samples comprise 43,857 students who completed a self-administered questionnaire anonymously in the classroom. The data were subjected to contingency-table analysis and logistic regression analysis. Results: The rates of smoking among students in year 9 were significantly lower in 2005 than in 1996 in two regions and unchanged in one region. This pattern held even after control for sex, parents' smoking habits, and academic orientation. In year 7 there were no changes over time (boys) or any clear pattern (girls). Conclusions: Based on outcomes from test purchases of tobacco products that were carried out in parallel to the collection of the questionnaire data, it is reasonable to hypothesize that the regional differences described may at least in part be due to differences in the availability of cigarettes. In 2005 it was significantly easier for adolescents to purchase tobacco products at retailers in the city of Malmo than at those in the counties of Varmland and Vasternorrland.

  • 102.
    Islam, Farzana
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden. Centre for Injury Prevention and Research Bangladesh (CIPRB), Dhaka, Bangladesh.
    Rahman, Aminur
    Centre for Injury Prevention and Research Bangladesh (CIPRB), Dhaka, Bangladesh.
    Halim, Abdul
    Centre for Injury Prevention and Research Bangladesh (CIPRB), Dhaka, Bangladesh.
    Eriksson, Charli
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden.
    Dalal, Koustuv
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden.
    Rahman, Fazlur
    Centre for Injury Prevention and Research Bangladesh (CIPRB), Dhaka, Bangladesh.
    Assessment of quality of infrastructure and clinical care performance of HCPs during MNH services at district and sub-district level government hospitals, Bangladesh2015In: HealthMed, ISSN 1840-2291, E-ISSN 1986-8103, Vol. 9, no 12, p. 500-510Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Despite the progress towards the MDG4 and 5, compared to the developed world maternal and newborn deaths are still high in Bangladesh. Poor quality of maternal and newborn health care is often blamed for this high mortality. However, only few studies assessed the quality of health care of the facilities in Bangladesh. This study assessed the two important components of quality of maternal and newborn health care namely, infrastructure and performance of health care providers (HCPs) of three different levels of health facilities in Bangladesh.

    Methodology: A cross sectional survey including observation and document reviews conducted to measure the quality of infrastructures and to assess the clinical care performance of the health care providers related to maternal and newborn services. Two district hospitals, two maternal and child welfare centres, and 10 upazila (sub-district) health complexes were purposively selected from Thakurgaon and Jamalpur districts of Bangladesh to conduct the study. Six components including human resource, physical infrastructure, infection prevention, equipments/logistics/supplies, essential drugs and recordkeeping were assessed under infrastructure. Maternal and newborn care services provided by the health care providers were evaluated during antenatal care, postnatal care, conduction of delivery care and newborn care. Sixteen doctors using pre-tested infrastructure survey and observation checklists collected data between November and December 2011. The average of the sub-items of each item was calculated and then the mean average of the items were calculated and expressed in percentage. Ethical clearance was obtained from a competent authority and informed consent was obtained from the hospital authorities and the persons who participated in the study.

    Results: The percentage of mean average scores of all items of infrastructure for district hospitals, maternal and child welfare centres and upazila health complexes were 57.1%, 52.7% and 45.9% respectively, which were below the cut-off point (60.0%). None of the health care providers of three types of government hospitals obtained 100% score in any areas namely antenatal care, post-natal care, delivery care and newborn care.

    Conclusion: Quality of infrastructure of health facilities, and clinical care performance of the health care providers during discharging maternal and newborn health services were found poor in the selected three types of public hospitals.

  • 103.
    Islam, Farzana
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences. Centre for Injury Prevention and Research, Bangladesh (CIPRB), Dhaka, Bangladesh.
    Rahman, Aminur
    Centre for Injury Prevention and Research, Bangladesh (CIPRB), Dhaka, Bangladesh.
    Halim, Abdul
    Centre for Injury Prevention and Research, Bangladesh (CIPRB), Dhaka, Bangladesh.
    Eriksson, Charli
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    Rahman, Fazlur
    Centre for Injury Prevention and Research, Bangladesh (CIPRB), Dhaka, Bangladesh.
    Dalal, Koustuv
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    A Model Quality Improvement System for Maternal and Newborn Health Services Applicable for District and Sub-district Level government hospitals in Bangladesh: Description of Model Development processManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 104.
    Islam, Farzana
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences. Centre for Injury Prevention and Research, Bangladesh (CIPRB), Dhaka, Bangladesh.
    Rahman, Aminur
    Centre for Injury Prevention and Research, Bangladesh (CIPRB), Dhaka, Bangladesh.
    Halim, Abdul
    Centre for Injury Prevention and Research, Bangladesh (CIPRB), Dhaka, Bangladesh.
    Eriksson, Charli
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    Rahman, Fazlur
    Centre for Injury Prevention and Research, Bangladesh (CIPRB), Dhaka, Bangladesh.
    Dalal, Koustuv
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    Evaluation of a “Model Quality Improvement System" for MNH service for its acceptability and feasibility by the health care providers and patients in district and sub-district level government hospitals, BangladeshManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 105.
    Islam, Farzana
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden. Centre for Injury Prevention and Research, Bangladesh (CIPRB), Dhaka, Bangladesh .
    Rahman, Aminur
    Centre for Injury Prevention and Research, Bangladesh (CIPRB), Dhaka, Bangladesh .
    Halim, Abdul
    Centre for Injury Prevention and Research, Bangladesh (CIPRB), Dhaka, Bangladesh .
    Eriksson, Charli
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden.
    Rahman, Fazlur
    Centre for Injury Prevention and Research, Bangladesh (CIPRB), Dhaka, Bangladesh.
    Dalal, Koustuv
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden.
    Perceptions of health care providers and patients on quality of care in maternal and neonatal health in fourteen Bangladesh government healthcare facilities: a mixed-method study2015In: BMC Health Services Research, ISSN 1472-6963, E-ISSN 1472-6963, Vol. 15, article id 237Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Bangladesh has achieved remarkable progress in healthcare with a steady decline in maternal and under-5 child mortality rates in efforts to achieve Millennium Development Goals 4 and 5. However, the mortality rates are still very high compared with high-income countries. The quality of healthcare needs improve to reduce mortality rates further. It is essential to investigate the current quality of healthcare before implementing any interventions. The study was conducted to explore the perception of healthcare providers about the quality of maternal and neonatal health (MNH) care. The study also investigated patient satisfaction with the MNH care received from district and sub-district hospitals.

    Methodology: Both qualitative and quantitative methods were used in the study. Two district and 12 sub-district hospitals in Thakurgaon and Jamalpur in Bangladesh were the study settings. Fourteen group discussions and 56 in-depth interviews were conducted among the healthcare providers. Client exit interviews were conducted with 112 patients and their attendants from maternity, labor, and neonatal wards before being discharged from the hospitals. Eight physicians and four anthropologists collected data between November and December 2011 using pretested guidelines.

    Results: The hospital staff identified several key factors that affected the quality of patient care: shortage of staff and logistics; lack of laboratory support; under use of patient-management protocols; a lack of training; and insufficient supervision. Doctors were unable to provide optimal care because of the high volume of patients. The exit interviews revealed that 85 % of respondents were satisfied with the hospital services received. Seven out of 14 respondents were satisfied with the cleanliness of the hospital facilities. More than half of the respondents were satisfied with the drugs they received. In half of the facilities, patients did not get an opportunity to ask the healthcare providers questions about their health conditions and treatments.

    Conclusion: The quality of healthcare is poor in district and sub-district hospitals in Bangladesh because of the lack of healthcare personnel and logistic support. An integrated quality improvement approach is needed to improve MNH care service in district and sub-district hospitals in Bangladesh.

  • 106.
    Johansson, Björn
    et al.
    Örebro University, Department of Behavioural, Social and Legal Sciences.
    Eriksson, Charli
    Örebro University, Department of Health Sciences.
    Poor places and poor people: is there a growing health divide?2004Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 107.
    Johansson [Tinnfält], Agneta
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences.
    Brunnberg, Elinor
    Örebro University, Department of Behavioural, Social and Legal Sciences.
    Eriksson, Charli
    Örebro University, Department of Health Sciences.
    Adolescent girls' and boys' perceptions of mental health2007In: Journal of Youth Studies, ISSN 1367-6261, E-ISSN 1469-9680, Vol. 10, no 2, p. 183-202Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aims of this study are to analyse the concept of mental health from the perspective of adolescent girls and boys and to describe what adolescent girls and boys regard as important determinants of mental health. Interviews with 48 children, 13 and 16 years old, in Sweden were held individually or in focus groups. The adolescents perceived mental health as an emotional experience, where positive as well as negative health is part of the concept. Family is the most important determinant for young people's mental health, closely followed by friends. Neither girls nor boys believed that there were any large differences in mental health between girls and boys. Age differences seemed to be more important than gender in the perception of mental health by children.

  • 108. Larsson, M.
    et al.
    Pettersson, C.
    Eriksson, Charli
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences.
    Design and participation in parents together, a longitudinal intervention study of a parental support program2011In: European Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1101-1262, E-ISSN 1464-360X, Vol. 21, no Suppl. 1, p. 248-248Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 109.
    Larsson, Madelene
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences.
    Eriksson, Charli
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences.
    Rapport om Verdandi Stockholmskretsens förebyggande ungdomsverksamhet och projektet Bli trygg i Tensta-Rinkeby Möt oss!2008Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Föreliggande rapport baserar sig på fokusgruppsintervjuer med blivande/erfarna ungdomsledare samt medlemmar över 13 år, inom Verdandi Stockholmskretsens ungdomsverksamhet. Dels skedde medverkan på en metodutbildning under en helg och dels med deltagande i verksamheten i Spånga-Tensta med individuella intervjuer.

    Det huvudsakliga syftet med utvärderingen har varit att ta reda på vilka faktorer som gör Verdandis ungdomsverksamhet så framgångsrik och följande frågeställningar besvaras i denna rapport.

    • Vad är det som gör att organisationen får fram så engagerade ledare och ungdomar i verksamheten?
    • Hur är pedagogiken upplagd?
    • Hur ser ledarna på sin roll/sitt ansvar?
    • Hur och till vilken nytta kan man sprida de goda exemplen?

    Fokus ligger på ungdomsledarnas och medlemmarnas egna upplevelser av verksamhetens innehåll och betydelse i deras liv samt deras reflektioner kring betydelsen av att ungdomar själva leder verksamheten.

    I arbetet med denna rapport har ett antal personer varit involverade. Studien har initierats av Forskarteamet för utvärdering av frivilligorganisationers alkohol- och drogförebyggande arbete inom Hälsoakademin, Örebro universitet och har sedan planerats gemensamt tillsammans med Verdandis projektledare och verksamhetsansvarige, Stig Nilsson.

    Vi vill rikta ett STORT TACK till alla de ungdomar som har intervjuats och som generöst har delat med sig av sina erfarenheter och reflektioner. Ett speciellt TACK till Stig Nilsson, Verdandi.

  • 110.
    Larsson, Madelene
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden.
    Pettersson, Camilla
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden.
    Eriksson, Charli
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden.
    Föräldrar Tillsammans: en longitudinell interventionsstudie av stöd till tonårsfamiljer 2007-20102012Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Föräldrar Tillsammans är ett föräldrastödsprogram som framarbetats av nykterhetsorganisationen IOGT-NTO. Programmet liknar ÖPP, Örebro Preventions Program. Programmet syftar till att stärka vuxna i sin roll som tonårsföräldrar genom att påverka föräldrarnas attityder och beteenden kring alkohol och ungdomar. Föräldrarna pratar om gemensamma förhållningssätt kring deras barn och alkohol och skriver en gemensam överenskommelsen för vad som ska gälla deras barn. Detta ska i sin tur minska alkoholkonsumtionen bland högstadieungdomar.

    Syfte: Syftet med utvärderingen har varit att försöka identifiera effekter av programmet. Forskningsprogrammet har i en longitudinell studie följt utvecklingen hos tonåringar och deras föräldrar. Detta har skett med avseende på familjeliv, kommunikation och levnadsvanor med särskild inriktning på alkohol som en utvärdering av föräldrastödsprogrammet.

    IOGT-NTO hade önskemål om att undersöka om programmet ger samma effekt om det genomförs med start för föräldrar i skolår 7 som i skolår 8. Därför har programmet testats i studien med start såväl i skolår 7 som i skolår 8 år 2008.

    Metod: Studien genomfördes 2007-2010. Totalt deltog 13 skolor i Halland, Jönköping, Kronoberg, Norrbotten, Skåne, Södermanland och Uppsala. Studien har en klusterrandomiserad design vilket innebär att deltagande skolor har slumpats på gruppnivå till att tillhöra antingen interventionsgrupp eller kontrollgrupp. Det innebar att sju skolor kom att tillhöra interventionsgruppen och sex skolor kontrollgruppen. Interventionsskolorna erbjöds programmet Föräldrar Tillsammans för föräldrar i skolår 7 och 8 med start våren 2008. Baslinjemätningen bland ungdomar och föräldrar genomfördes våren 2008 i både interventions- och kontrollskolorna. Uppföljande mätningar under de två följande åren gjordes tills ungdomarna slutade skolår 9. Föräldrarna besvarade enkäten ytterligare en gång då deras barn gick i skolår 9. Eleverna besvarade sina enkäter i skolan medan föräldrarna fick sina enkäter hemskickade med post. Totalt ingick 1684 elever och 1312 föräldrar.

    Resultat: Programmet har effekt på ungdomarnas alkoholkonsumtion om det introduceras i skolår 8 (grupp 2) men inte om det startar i skolår 7 (grupp 1). Färre ungdomar i interventionsgruppen i skolår 9 (grupp 2) definieras som alkoholkonsumenter i jämförelse med ungdomarna i kontrollgruppen, flickorna i grupp 2 berusar sig i mindre utsträckning än kontrollgruppens flickor och färre ungdomar i grupp 2 i jämförelse med kontrollgruppens ungdomar rapporterar att deras kamrater dricker alkohol. I grupp 2 minskade också andelen föräldrar i kontrollgruppen vid T1 som ansåg att gemensamma värderingar med andra föräldrar har en förebyggande effekt på alkoholbruk bland ungdomar. Denna minskning kunde inte urskiljas i interventionsgruppen eller i grupp 1.

    Slutsatser: Sammanfattningsvis går det inte att se några resultat om programmet introduceras bland föräldrarna i skolår 7. Detta innebär att timingen av programmet har betydelse för att få de effekter som resultatet visar. Detta ger ny kunskap om vikten av under vilka skolår program genomförs.

  • 111.
    Larsson, Madelene
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    Pettersson, Camilla
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    Eriksson, Charli
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    Systerskap för att främja tjejers hälsa: En studie av Tjejzonens storasysterverksamhet 2011-20152016Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 112.
    Larsson, Madelene
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    Pettersson, Camilla
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    Eriksson, Charli
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    Skoog, Therése
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work. Department of Psychology, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Initial motives and organizational context enabling female mentors' engagement in formal mentoring: a qualitative study from the mentors' perspective2016In: Children and youth services review, ISSN 0190-7409, E-ISSN 1873-7765, Vol. 71, p. 17-26Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mentoring aimed at supporting young people and their development shows promising results, but its delivery is threatened by the difficulty of recruiting sufficient numbers of mentors and keeping them engaged over time. The aim of this study was to help overcome this problem by examining female mentors’ motives for engaging in formal voluntary mentoring of young women, and exploring how organizations can facilitate these mentors’ satisfaction in staying engaged over time. Based on qualitative interviews with 12 mentors in a Swedish non-governmental organization, the Girls Zone, we show six categories of mentor motives related to initial motivation for engagement: self-interested reasons, empowering women, being a responsible citizen, sense of compassion, self-awareness, and longing for meaningfulness. In addition, we show five categories related to the organizational work of satisfying mentors: a win-win relationship, a feeling of ambivalence despite clear responsibilities and contributions, customized support and guidance, a caring organizational identity, and a commitment to pursue with feelings of duty and emotional connection. Using Self-Determination Theory as the framework to guide our understanding of the findings, we conclude that mentors’ motivations for engaging as mentors are linked to the fulfillment of basic psychological needs for autonomy, competence, and relatedness. Practical recommendations are offered in light of the findings.

  • 113.
    Larsson, Madelene
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden.
    Pettersson, Camilla
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden.
    Skoog, Theresé
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Eriksson, Charli
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden.
    NGOs as a complement to youth mental health services aimed at young females in Sweden2015In: 8th European Public Health Conference: Health in Europe – from global to local policies, methods and practices, 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: During adolescence, mental health problems, including anxiety and loneliness, among girls increase drastically. The perceived problems among this group do not match the inclusion criteria for mental health services and barriers to access occur. In Sweden, both the government and the voluntary sector provide services to youth. The Girls Zone (Tjejzonen) is a Swedish NGO, which targets young females. Its goal is to prevent mental health problems and to strengthen girls´ self-esteem, confidence, and trust by offering a female mentoring program. How can a NGO constitute a complement to the mental health services for young girls with mental health problems?                                                                       

    Methods: In a qualitative, ecologically sensitive study young females aged 15 to 26 (n=5), women mentors (n=12) and organization managers (n=3) were interviewed and national supervisory reports on youth health services were included in inductive qualitative content analyses.                                                                                                              

    Results: The analyzes show a variety of differences between the youth mental health services and the Girls Zone. Added value of the NGO is the availability, including support without inclusion criteria and a great potential to act based on young females conditions, needs and preferences including a possibility to establish a relationship with a female mentor without demand and hierarchy.                                                                                    

    Conclusion: NGOs can act as important complements to the youth mental health service. A salutogenic perspective on young female’s mental health based on the Convention of Rights of the Children can empower young girls and reduce barriers for access to youth mental health service for those with severe mental health problems.                                          

    Main messages: NGOs are important actors in the prevention of mental health problems among young females. NGOs can meet the needs and preferences of the target groups and facilitate empowering processes in preventing mental health problems among young females.

  • 114.
    Larsson, Madelene
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden.
    Pettersson, Camilla
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden.
    Skoog, Theresé
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Eriksson, Charli
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden.
    The importance of a mentoring program in strengthening female youths and promoting female mental health2013In: Nobel Day Festivities 10th of December 2013, Book of Abstracts, 2013Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Young females report overall lower moods, more negative self-concepts and more psychosomatic disorders compared to boys. Tjejzonen (the Girl zone) is a NGO in Sweden targeting female youths to prevent mental health problems and to strengthening girls´ self-esteem, confidence and trust. Dyads of a young girl 12-25 years old, the Little sister (LS), and a ten year older girl, the Big sister (BS) (mentor), meet twice a month to talk about issues important to the LS. A BS’s role is to be someone girls can talk to, be inspired from and be supported by.

    Objective: The study is examining the importance of the mentoring program. What do this mentoring program and the relationship mean to the LSs?

    Methods: As part of a larger study, five LSs who had met their BSs for at least 6 months participated in semi-structured interviews analyzed using inductive qualitative content analysis.

    Results: The LS were strengthened by the relationships. The BS had limited information about the LS before they met and the LS were in control of what information to share with their mentors. The LS had strong positions in the mentoring program. They were taken seriously and treated with respect. The BS did not judge them and were good listeners. The LS also expressed that the relationships contributed to their personal development, increased the self-insights and constructive handling of feelings.

    Conclusions: The mentoring program can contribute to increased empowerment among female youth. This will be further analyzed in the on-going longitudinal study.

     

     

     

     

     

     

  • 115.
    Larsson, Madelene
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    Pettersson, Camilla
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    Skoog, Therése
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Eriksson, Charli
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    Enabling relationship formation, development, and closure in a one-year female mentoring program at a non-governmental organization: a mixed-method study2016In: BMC Public Health, ISSN 1471-2458, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 16, no 1, article id 179Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Mental health problems among young women aged 16-24 have increased significantly in recent decades, and interventions are called for. Mentoring is a well-established preventative/promotive intervention for developing adolescents, but we have yet to fully understand how the relationship between the mentor and the protégé forms, develops, and closes. In this study, we focused on a female mentoring program implemented by a Swedish non-governmental organization, The Girls Zone. First, we examined the psychological and social characteristics of the young women who chose to take part in the program as protégés. Second, we investigated adolescent female protégés’ own experiences of the relationship process based on a relational-cultural theory perspective.

    Methods: The mixed-method study included 52 questionnaires and five semi-structured interviews with young women aged 15–26 who had contacted The Girls Zone between 2010 and 2012 in order to find a mentor. Their experience of the mentoring relationships varied in duration. Data were analysed statistically and with inductive qualitative content analysis.

    Results: The group of protégés was heterogeneous in that some had poor mental health and some had good mental health. On the other hand, the group was homogenous in that all its members had shown pro-active self-care by actively seeking out the program due to experiences of loneliness and a need to meet and talk with a person who could listen to them. The relationships were initially characterized by feelings of nervousness and ambivalence. However, after some time, these developed into authentic, undemanding, non-hierarchical relationships on the protégés’ terms. The closure of relationships aroused feelings of both abandonment and developing strength.

    Conclusions: Mentorships that are in line with perspectives of the relational-cultural theory meet the relationship needs expressed by the female protégés. Mentor training should focus on promoting skills such as active listening and respect for the protégé based on an engaged, empathic, and authentic approach in a non-hierarchical relationship. These insights have the potential to inform interventions in several arenas where young women create authentic relationships with older persons, such as in school, in traditional health care contexts, and in youth recreation centres. 

  • 116.
    Larsson, Sandra
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden.
    Fredriksson, Ingela
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden.
    Eriksson, Charli
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden.
    Kraft och vilja att nå fram: Etniska grupper som mål och medel i ANDT-förebyggande arbete 2003-20142015Report (Other academic)
  • 117.
    Linden-Bostrom, Margareta
    et al.
    Dept Community Med & Publ Hlth, Örebro Cty Council, Örebro, Sweden.
    Persson, Carina
    Dept Community Med & Publ Hlth, Örebro Cty Council, Örebro, Sweden.
    Eriksson, Charli
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences.
    Neighbourhood characteristics, social capital and self-rated health - A population-based survey in Sweden2010In: BMC Public Health, ISSN 1471-2458, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 10, p. 628-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: In previous public health surveys large differences in health have been shown between citizens living in different neighbourhoods in the Orebro municipality, which has about 125000 inhabitants. The aim of this study was to investigate the determinants of health with an emphasis on the importance of neighbourhood characteristics such as the influence of neighbourhood social cohesion and social capital. The point of departure in this study was a conceptual model inspired by the work of Carpiano, where different factors related to the neighbourhood have been used to find associations to individual self-rated health. Methods: We used data from the survey 'Life & Health 2004' sent to inhabitants aged 18-84 years in Orebro municipality, Sweden. The respondents (n = 2346) answered a postal questionnaire about living conditions, housing conditions, health risk factors and individual health. The outcome variable was self-rated health. In the analysis we applied logistic regression modelling in various model steps following a conceptual model. Results: The results show that poor self-rated health was associated with social capital, such as lack of personal support and no experience of being made proud even after controlling for strong factors related to health, such as age, disability pension, ethnicity and economic stress. Also the neighbourhood factors, housing area and residential stability were associated with self-rated health. Poor self-rated health was more common among people living in areas with predominately large blocks of flats or areas outside the city centre. Moreover, people who had lived in the same area 1-5 years reported poor health more frequently than those who had lived there longer. Conclusions: The importance of the neighbourhood and social capital for individual health is confirmed in this study. The neighbourhoods could be emphasized as settings for health promotion. They can be constructed to promote social interaction which in turn supports the development of social networks, social support and social capital - all important determinants of health.

  • 118. Lindén-Boström, Margareta
    et al.
    Persson, Carina
    Eriksson, Charli
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences.
    Bostadsområdets karaktäristika, socialt kapital och självskattad hälsa2010In: Partnerskap för hållbar välfärdsutveckling: utveckling och forskning under sex år i fyra städer / [ed] Charli Eriksson, Eva Järliden, Annika Larsson, Solveig Sandberg, Örebro: Örebro universitet , 2010, p. 199-217Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 119. Molarius, Anu
    et al.
    Berglund, Kenneth
    Eriksson, Charli
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences.
    Eriksson, Hans G.
    Linden-Bostrom, Margareta
    Nordstrom, Eva
    Persson, Carina
    Sahlqvist, Lotta
    Starrin, Bengt
    Ydreborg, Berit
    Mental health symptoms in relation to socio-economic conditions and lifestyle factors: a population-based study in Sweden2009In: BMC Public Health, ISSN 1471-2458, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 9, p. 302-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Poor mental health has large social and economic consequences both for the individual and society. In Sweden, the prevalence of mental health symptoms has increased since the beginning of the 1990s. There is a need for a better understanding of the area for planning preventive activities and health care. Methods: The study is based on a postal survey questionnaire sent to a random sample of men and women aged 18-84 years in 2004. The overall response rate was 64%. The area investigated covers 55 municipalities with about one million inhabitants in central part of Sweden. The study population includes 42,448 respondents. Mental health was measured with self-reported symptoms of anxiety/depression (EQ-5D, 5th question). The association between socio-economic conditions, lifestyle factors and mental health symptoms was investigated using multivariate multinomial logistic regression models. Results: About 40% of women and 30% of men reported that they were moderately or extremely anxious or depressed. Younger subjects reported poorer mental health than older subjects, the best mental health was found at ages 65-74 years. Factors that were strongly and independently related to mental health symptoms were poor social support, experiences of being belittled, employment status (receiving a disability pension and unemployment), economic hardship, critical life events, and functional disability. A strong association was also found between how burdensome domestic work was experienced and anxiety/depression. This was true for both men and women. Educational level was not associated with mental health symptoms. Of lifestyle factors, physical inactivity, underweight and risk consumption of alcohol were independently associated with mental health symptoms. Conclusion: Our results support the notion that a ground for good mental health includes balance in social relations, in domestic work and in employment as well as in personal economy both among men and women. In addition, physical inactivity, underweight and risk consumption of alcohol are associated with mental health symptoms independent of socio-economic factors.

  • 120. Molarius, Anu
    et al.
    Berglund, Kenneth
    Eriksson, Charli
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences.
    Lambe, Mats
    Nordstrom, Eva
    Eriksson, Hans G.
    Feldman, Inna
    Socioeconomic conditions, lifestyle factors, and self-rated health among men and women in Sweden2007In: European Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1101-1262, E-ISSN 1464-360X, Vol. 17, no 2, p. 125-133Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Socioeconomic conditions and lifestyle factors have been found to be related to self-rated health, which is an established predictor of morbidity and mortality. Few studies, however, have investigated the independent effect of material and psychosocial conditions as well as lifestyle factors on self-rated health. Methods: The association between socioeconomic conditions, lifestyle factors, and self-rated health was investigated using a postal survey questionnaire sent to a random population sample of men and women aged 18-79 years during March-May 2000. The overall response rate was 65%. The area investigated covers 58 municipalities in the central part of Sweden. Multivariate odds ratios for poor self-rated health were calculated for a range of variables. A total of 36 048 subjects with full data were included in the analysis. Similar analyses of the influence of working conditions were conducted among those employed aged 18-64 years (17 820 subjects). Results: The overall prevalence of poor self-rated health was 7% among men and 9% among women. Poor self-rated health was most common among persons who had been belittled, who had experienced economic hardship, who lacked social support, or who had retired early. A low educational level was independently associated with poor self-rated health among men, but not among women. Physically inactive as well as underweight and obese subjects were more likely to have poor self-rated health than other subjects. Working conditions associated with poor self-rated health were dissatisfaction with work, low job control and worry about losing one's job. Conclusion: While a cross-sectional study does not allow definite conclusions as to which factors are determinants and which are consequences of poor self-rated, the present findings support the notion that both psychosocial and material conditions as well as lifestyle factors are independently related with poor self-rated health.

  • 121.
    Pettersson, Camilla
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences.
    Lindén-Boström, Margareta
    Department of Community Medicine, Örebro County Council .
    Eriksson, Charli
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences.
    Parental attitudes and behaviour concerning adolescent alcohol consumption: do sociodemographic factors matter?2009In: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1403-4948, E-ISSN 1651-1905, Vol. 37, no 5, p. 509-517Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims: Parental attitudes and behaviour with regard to young people and alcohol are associated with teenagers' drinking behaviour. This study examined the association between sociodemographic factors among parents and parental attitudes and behaviour with regard to alcohol and adolescents. Methods: Postal questionnaires were sent to parents of children aged 12—16 years in six Swedish municipalities. Seven hundred and ninety-five parents were included in the study. Seven sociodemographic factors and four questions identifying parental attitudes and behaviour were examined. Logistic regression was used to compute odds ratios and confidence intervals. Results: The study showed that fathers were more likely than mothers to report that children had been drinking or tasting alcohol at home. Parents who answered the questionnaire together also stated that their children had been served alcohol at home to a larger extent than mothers. Fathers, single parents and parents with older children were more likely to have non-restrictive attitudes towards adolescents and alcohol than mothers, parents living in a household with more than one adult, and parents with younger children. Factors such as age of the parents, employment status and numbers of children in the household were not associated with either parental attitudes or behaviour. Conclusions: The sex of the responding parent was the only sociodemographic factor that was associated with both parental attitudes and behaviour. Fathers were more likely than mothers to have a non-restrictive attitude. The fathers also reported to a greater extent than mothers that children had been drinking or tasting alcohol at home.

  • 122.
    Pettersson, Camilla
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences.
    Lindén-Boström, Margareta
    Department of Community Medicine, Örebro County Council .
    Eriksson, Charli
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences.
    Reasons for non-participation in a parental program concerning underage drinking: a mixed-method study2009In: BMC Public Health, ISSN 1471-2458, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 9, article id 478Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Alcohol consumption among adolescents is a serious public health concern. Research has shown that prevention programs targeting parents can help prevent underage drinking. The problem is that parental participation in these kinds of interventions is generally low. Therefore, the aim of the present study is to examine non-participation in a parental support program aiming to prevent underage alcohol drinking. The Health Belief Model has been used as a tool for the analysis.

    Methods: To understand non-participation in a parental program a quasi-experimental mixed-method design was used. The participants in the study were invited to participate in a parental program targeting parents with children in school years 7-9. A questionnaire was sent home to the parents before the program started. Two follow-up surveys were also carried out. The inclusion criteria for the study were that the parents had answered the questionnaire in school year 7 and either of the questionnaires in the two subsequent school years (n = 455). Multinomial logistic regression analysis was used to examine reasons for non-participation. The final follow-up questionnaire included an opened-ended question about reasons for non-participation. A qualitative content analysis was carried out and the two largest categories were included in the third model of the multinomial logistic regression analysis.

    Results: Educational level was the most important socio-demographic factor for predicting non-participation. Parents with a lower level of education were less likely to participate than those who were more educated. Factors associated with adolescents and alcohol did not seem to be of significant importance. Instead, program-related factors predicted non-participation, e.g. parents who did not perceive any need for the intervention and who did not attend the information meeting were more likely to be non-participants. Practical issues, like time demands, also seemed to be important.

    Conclusion: To design a parental program that attracts parents independently of educational level seems to be an important challenge for the future as well as program marketing. This is something that must be considered when implementing prevention programs.

  • 123.
    Pettersson, Camilla
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences.
    Özdemir, Metin
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Eriksson, Charli
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences.
    Effects of a parental program for preventing underage drinking: the NGO program Strong and Clear2011In: BMC Public Health, ISSN 1471-2458, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 11, article id 251Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    The present study is an evaluation of a 3-year parental program aiming to prevent underage drinking. The intervention was implemented by a non-governmental organization and targeted parents with children aged 13-16 years old and included recurrent activities during the entire period of secondary school. The program consisted of four different types of group and self-administered activities: parent meetings, family dialogues, friend meetings, and family meetings.

    Methods

    A quasi-experimental design was used following parents and children with questionnaires during the three years of secondary school. The analytic sample consisted of 509 dyads of parents and children. Measures of parental attitudes and behaviour concerning underage drinking and adolescents' lifetime alcohol consumption and drunkenness were used. Three socio-demographic factors were included: parental education, school, and gender of the child. A Latent Growth Modelling (LGM) approach was used to examine changes in parental behaviour regarding youth drinking and in young people's drinking behaviour. To test for the pre-post test differences in parental attitudes repeated measures ANOVA were used.

    Results

    The results showed that parents in the program maintained their restrictive attitude toward underage drinking to a higher degree than non-participating parents. Adolescents of participants were on average one year older than adolescents with non-participating parents when they made their alcohol debut. They were also less likely to have ever been drunk in school year 9.

    Conclusion

    The results of the study suggested that Strong and Clear contributed to maintaining parents' restrictive attitude toward underage drinking during secondary school, postponing alcohol debut among the adolescents, and significantly reducing their drunkenness

  • 124.
    Quennerstedt, Mikael
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences.
    Eriksson, Charli
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences.
    Gustavsson, Kjell
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Rudsberg, Karin
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences.
    Sundberg, Marie
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences.
    Johansson, Therese
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Svensson, Lena
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Skolämnet Idrott och hälsa i Sveriges skolor - en utvärdering av läget hösten 20022003Report (Other academic)
  • 125.
    Quennerstedt, Mikael
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences.
    Öhman, Marie
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences.
    Eriksson, Charli
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences.
    Physical education in Sweden: a national evaluation2008In: Education-line, p. 1-17Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A national evaluation of Swedish compulsory schools was undertaken in 2003. This evaluation covers 16 compulsory school subjects in Year 9, including physical education (PE). The PE study includes a sample of 6,788 pupils and 1,688 teachers in Year 9 for background data and school subject comparisons. A questionnaire was also sent to the parents of the 6,788 pupils, and register data was collected on pupils’ final grades and parents’ educational levels. A smaller sample of 2,407 pupils and 82 PE teachers has been used in order to analyse pupils’ and teachers’ attitudes towards PE. The main focus of this article is the subject content in PE, with a particular focus on the teaching, the learning, and the teachers’ and pupils’ attitudes towards the subject. The results of the study show that PE is valued highly by both pupils and parents. Pupils active in sports enjoy PE the most, and the subject content is characterised by enjoyment in movement. The majority of the pupils are physically active during the lessons (85.2 percent), although at the same time a significant minority of the girls are present but inactive during PE. Of all the school subjects in Sweden, PE is the only ‘boyish’ subject and boys attain higher grades, enjoy it more and are more involved in and able to influence the content. The most important determining factors affecting grades in PE are leisure sport activity, parents’ educational levels, gender and cultural capital.

  • 126. Schölin, Lisa
    et al.
    Eriksson, Charli
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden.
    Surveillance of compliance with tobacco regulations in Örebro County, Sweden: a mixed methods study after the ban of test purchases2012In: Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy, ISSN 1747-597X, E-ISSN 1747-597X, Vol. 7, article id 8Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Tobacco has long been known to be one of the most common reasons for sickness and premature deaths in the world. An important aspect of tobacco use is the youth's access to tobacco, and surveillance visits are one way to make sure how retailers are complying with age limit in the tobacco law. In Orebro County, Sweden, a project to reinforce the tobacco legislation was carried out in 2009-2010. One part of the project was surveillance visits that were done according to three different themes, called thematic surveillance.

    Methods: This study is an evaluation of the results from thematic surveillance and has a mixed methods approach. The quantitative analyses concerns protocols from 217 surveillance visits, where questions were asked about three themes (self-monitoring programs; marketing; labeling of products and pricing). In addition, questionnaires filled out by six tobacco administrators who worked within the project were analyzed qualitatively by content analysis in order to study their perceptions and opinions of the project.

    Results: This study shows that half of the visited retailers had self-monitoring programs. Lack of self-monitoring programs was significantly more common in smaller stores/kiosks and at restaurants. Further, the tobacco administrators who worked within the project perceived thematic surveillance as a good method for accomplishing better structure in surveillance work, but not as effective as purchase attempts (mystery shopping).

    Conclusions: Thematic surveillance was perceived as positive and the method was also regarded to be a good way to work with surveillance. However, the method could be developed further for optimal use and better effect at the retailers. It is clear that people who work with tobacco prevention at the local level in Orebro County want to use purchase attempts as a surveillance method, and that they believe that purchase attempts is the best way to make sure if store comply with the tobacco law.

  • 127.
    Schölin, Lisa
    et al.
    Nursing Studies, School of Health in Social Science, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK; Public Health Institute, John Moores University, Liverpool, UK.
    Hughes, Karen
    Public Health Wales, Cardiff University, Cardiff, UK.
    Bellis, Mark A.
    Public Health Wales, Cardiff University, Cardiff, UK.
    Eriksson, Charli
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    Porcellato, Lorna
    Public Health Institute, John Moores University, Liverpool, UK.
    Exploring practices and perceptions of alcohol use during pregnancy in England and Sweden through a cross-cultural lens2018In: European Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1101-1262, E-ISSN 1464-360X, Vol. 28, no 3, p. 533-537Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Qualitative studies have aimed to understand why some women continue to drink during pregnancy; however, there is a lack of comparative cross-cultural research. We aimed to explore perceptions and practices of alcohol use during pregnancy in England and Sweden.

    Methods: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 21 parents in Merseyside, England and 22 parents in Örebro County, Sweden. Interviews were audio recorded, transcribed verbatim and translated. Data were analyzed using thematic analysis.

    Results: The majority of women in both countries abstained from alcohol when they found out they were pregnant, despite alcohol being part of many social contexts before pregnancy. Nine of the seventeen English women drank at some point during pregnancy, typically on special occasions. Most parents felt women should modify their alcohol intake when they become mothers, though several English parents argued that responsible motherhood did not necessarily equate to abstinence. Swedish parents held strong opinions against drinking during pregnancy and argued that any amount of alcohol could harm the foetus. English parents' opinions were divided; some were skeptical of whether low to moderate drinking was associated with risks.

    Conclusions: Practices and attitudes towards alcohol use during pregnancy and views on foetal rights and responsibilities of pregnant women differed in England and Sweden. Shared social norms around drinking may be shaped within the policy context of pregnancy drinking guidelines, determining whether women consume alcohol or not.

  • 128.
    Sedelius, Thomas
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Eriksson, Charli
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences.
    Politiska utmaningar: demokratienkäten 20042010In: Partnerskap för hållbar välfärdsutveckling: utveckling och forskning under sex år i fyra städer / [ed] Charli Eriksson, Eva Järliden, Annika Larsson, Solveig Sandberg, Örebro: Örebro universitet , 2010, p. 173-187Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 129.
    Sedelius, Thomas
    et al.
    Örebro University, Department of Social and Political Sciences.
    Eriksson, Charli
    Örebro University, Department of Health Sciences.
    Sandberg, Andreas
    Välfärdsutveckling på stadsdelsnivå: Baronbackarna i Örebro, Dalhem i Helsingborg, Hageby i Norrköping och Pettersberg i Västerås2007Report (Other academic)
  • 130.
    Stattin, Håkan
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Kerr, Margaret
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Eriksson, Charlie
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    The community environment. Background document for the thematic conference: promotion of mental health and well-being of children and young people – making it happen2009Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 131.
    Stattin, Håkan
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Kerr, Margret
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Eriksson, Charli
    The Role community environment2009In: Background document for the thematic conference: Promotion of mental health and well-being of children and young people – making it happen., Stockholm: Swedish National Institute of Public Health , 2009, p. 24-31Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 132.
    Tinnfält, Agneta
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences.
    Eriksson, Charli
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences.
    Brunnberg, Elinor
    School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Mälardalen University, Västerås, Sweden.
    Adolescent children of alcoholics on disclosure, support, and assessment of trustworthy adults2011In: Child and Adolescent Social Work Journal, ISSN 0738-0151, E-ISSN 1573-2797, Vol. 28, no 2, p. 133-151Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study is to describe adolescent children of alcoholics’ (COA) perspectives on disclosure and support. COA reported assessing the trustworthiness of adults before disclosing their home situation. Before disclosure they may have raised their own level of consciousness, told a peer, told an adult stranger, or in-directly communicated with an adult. These findings are the result of interviews with 27 adolescents attending support groups for COA in Sweden. Adults, who ask questions, listen carefully and cooperate with the child/adolescent, and who are knowledgeable about families with alcohol problems, are considered as supportive and trustworthy. The adolescents reported psychological, communicative, environmental, and generational aspects of the disclosure process.

  • 133.
    Tinnfält, Agneta
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden.
    Jensen, Jennie
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden.
    Eriksson, Charli
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden.
    What characterises a good family?: Giving voice to adolescents2015In: International Journal of Adolescence and Youth, ISSN 0267-3843, E-ISSN 2164-4527, Vol. 20, no 4, p. 429-441Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Parents and family are very important for a young person's health and development, but knowledge is scarce on how young people perceive them. The aim of this study is to give voice to adolescent girls' and boys' perceptions of how parents and families should be. Nineteen adolescents were interviewed. A descriptive design and a qualitative content approach were used to analyse the interview material. To make the approach participatory, young students were involved as partners. They did some pilot interviews, and their conclusions were used during the planning of the study. The results show that adolescents regard their parents and family as very important to them. Everybody in the family has shared responsibility for it, and it is important to spend time together, i.e., ‘to do family’. Moreover, parents have special obligations; in particular, they have a duty to ensure a good future for their children.

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