oru.sePublikationer
Ändra sökning
Avgränsa sökresultatet
12345 101 - 150 av 214
RefereraExporteraLänk till träfflistan
Permanent länk
Referera
Referensformat
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Annat format
Fler format
Språk
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Annat språk
Fler språk
Utmatningsformat
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Träffar per sida
  • 5
  • 10
  • 20
  • 50
  • 100
  • 250
Sortering
  • Standard (Relevans)
  • Författare A-Ö
  • Författare Ö-A
  • Titel A-Ö
  • Titel Ö-A
  • Publikationstyp A-Ö
  • Publikationstyp Ö-A
  • Äldst först
  • Nyast först
  • Skapad (Äldst först)
  • Skapad (Nyast först)
  • Senast uppdaterad (Äldst först)
  • Senast uppdaterad (Nyast först)
  • Disputationsdatum (tidigaste först)
  • Disputationsdatum (senaste först)
  • Standard (Relevans)
  • Författare A-Ö
  • Författare Ö-A
  • Titel A-Ö
  • Titel Ö-A
  • Publikationstyp A-Ö
  • Publikationstyp Ö-A
  • Äldst först
  • Nyast först
  • Skapad (Äldst först)
  • Skapad (Nyast först)
  • Senast uppdaterad (Äldst först)
  • Senast uppdaterad (Nyast först)
  • Disputationsdatum (tidigaste först)
  • Disputationsdatum (senaste först)
Markera
Maxantalet träffar du kan exportera från sökgränssnittet är 250. Vid större uttag använd dig av utsökningar.
  • 101.
    Isaksson, Ann-Kristin
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Hälsovetenskapliga institutionen.
    Ahlström, Gerd
    Örebro universitet, Hälsovetenskapliga institutionen.
    From symptom to diagnosis: illness experiences of multiple sclerosis patients2006Ingår i: Journal of Neuroscience Nursing, ISSN 1945-2810, Vol. 38, nr 4, s. 229-237Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This interview study describes 61 multiple sclerosis (MS) patients' conceptions of the disease before they were diagnosed and their experiences of the initial symptoms and the diagnosis. Qualitative content analysis was applied. The patients' perception of MS was in most cases disablement and death, but some narrated a more nuanced image of MS. The experiences of the initial symptoms and the diagnosis were stressful. The patients became and remained vulnerable through diagnosis. They managed the situation in a variety of ways to acquire strength. Nurses who encounter MS patients require specialized knowledge to understand the vulnerability of these patients and to provide support.

  • 102.
    Isaksson, Ann-Kristin
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Hälsovetenskapliga institutionen.
    Gunnarsson, Lars-Gunnar
    Ahlström, Gerd
    Örebro universitet, Hälsovetenskapliga institutionen.
    The presence and meaning of chronic sorrow in patients with multiple sclerosis2007Ingår i: Journal of Clinical Nursing, ISSN 0962-1067, E-ISSN 1365-2702, Vol. 16, nr 11C, s. 315-324Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    AIM AND OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to explore the presence and meaning of chronic sorrow and the presence of depression in a fairly large group of persons with multiple sclerosis (MS). BACKGROUND: MS is a chronic and progressive neurological disease with a variety of symptoms. The patients have to live with losses of different kinds. A few earlier studies have used the concept of chronic sorrow to illustrate the emotional situation of such patients. METHOD: Sixty-one patients were interviewed about the occurrence of chronic sorrow and, thereafter, screened for depression. Thirty-eight (62%) of them fulfilled the criteria for chronic sorrow. The interviews were analysed with latent content analysis. RESULTS: Seven themes describe the losses that caused sorrow: loss of hope, loss of control over the body, loss of integrity and dignity, loss of a healthy identity, loss of faith that life is just, loss of social relations and loss of freedom. The sorrow was constantly present or periodically overwhelming. Only four of the 38 patients with chronic sorrow had symptoms of being mildly depressed. CONCLUSION: Chronic sorrow meant loss of hope, of control over the body, of integrity and of identity. The concept of chronic sorrow complements that of depression in providing important new knowledge relevant to understanding the consequences MS can have for the individual. RELEVANCE TO CLINICAL PRACTICE: Knowledge of the meaning of chronic sorrow can contribute to the nurse's ability to give psychological support and promote a sense of hope and control in the MS patient.

  • 103. Ivanoff, Carl-Johan
    et al.
    Widmark, Göran
    Johansson, Carina B.
    Örebro universitet, Hälsovetenskapliga institutionen. Örebro universitet, Institutionen för klinisk medicin.
    Wennerberg, Ann
    Histologic evaluation of bone response to oxidized and turned titanium micro-implants in human jawbone2003Ingår i: International Journal of Oral & Maxillofacial Implants, ISSN 0882-2786, E-ISSN 1942-4434, Vol. 18, nr 3, s. 341-348Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE:

    To evaluate the human bone tissue response to 2 surfaces (oxidized or turned) on commercially available titanium implants.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS:

    Screw-type turned (control) and oxidized (test) micro-implants were manufactured in the same manner as commercially available turned and oxidized (TiUnite, Brånemark System) implants. The thickness of the oxide layer of the test implants was on average 10 microm, corresponding to the oxide thickness of the apical part of the TiUnite implant. Twenty patients received 1 test and 1 control micro-implant each during implant surgery. Before placement, the surface topography of the implants was characterized with an optical confocal laser profilometer. After a mean healing period of 6.6 months in the maxilla and 3.5 months in the mandible, the micro-implants and surrounding tissue were removed with a trephine bur. Histologic sections were produced, and the specimens were analyzed histomorphometrically.

    RESULTS:

    Surface roughness and enlargement were greater for the oxidized implants than for the turned implants. All micro-implants, except for 2 controls, were found to be clinically stable at the time of retrieval. Histomorphometric evaluation demonstrated significantly higher bone-to-implant contact for the oxidized implants, whether placed in the maxilla or in the mandible. Significantly more bone was found inside the threaded area for the oxidized implants placed in the mandible and maxilla, but there was no difference between implants with regard to position (maxilla or mandible).

    DISCUSSION:

    The stronger bone response to the oxidized implants may have contributed to the fact that 2 control implants but no test implants were lost. The reason for these findings may depend on one or multiple differences of the surfaces between test and control implants: (1) the thicker oxide layer itself, (2) increased surface roughness, (3) different surface morphology in terms of porosity, or (4) change in crystal structure.

    CONCLUSION:

    The present histologic study in human jawbone demonstrated a significantly higher bone response for anodic oxidized titanium implants than for implants with a turned surface.

  • 104.
    Ivarsson, Camilla
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Hälsovetenskapliga institutionen.
    Rojas, Nevenka
    Örebro universitet, Hälsovetenskapliga institutionen.
    Tinnitus Retraining Therapy (TRT): - En behandlingsmetod för tinnitus2006Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats
    Abstract [sv]

    Sammanfattning

    Tinnitus är idag ett folkhälsoproblem i Sverige som drabbar allt fler. Det finns i dagsläget inget definitivt botemedel men det finns behandlingsmetoder som syftar till att på olika sätt lindra tinnitus. En av dessa metoder är Tinnitus Retraining Therapy (TRT) som grundar sig i den neurofysiologiska modellen. TRT består av två delar; rådgivning och ljudterapi. I ljudterapin tillämpas vanligtvis en ljudstimulator som tillför ett bredbandigt brus på svag nivå i patientens öra.

    Syftet

    Syftet med uppsatsen är att redogöra för effekten av behandlingsmetoden Tinnitus Retraining Therapy.

    Metod

    Metoden har omfattat granskning av artiklar som sökts via Örebro Universitets databaser samt via relevanta referenslistor i arbeten, böcker och artiklar. Urvalet har innefattat tre steg. Första steget var att välja ut artiklar publicerade i vetenskapliga tidskrifter genom att granska artiklarnas titel. Andra steget var att granska de artiklar som valdes ut i steg ett genom att läsa deras sammanfattningssida för att se om innehållet var relevant för arbetets syfte. Tredje steget var att utförligt läsa de artiklar som valts ut i steg två.

    Resultat och diskussion

    Resultatet och diskussionen visar att det är svårt att säga huruvida TRT är effektivt. För detta skulle en mer omfattande liknande studie vara nödvändig.

  • 105.
    Jackson, Karin
    Örebro universitet, Hälsovetenskapliga institutionen.
    Att vara förälder till ett för tidigt fött barn: en prospektiv studie om upplevelsen av föräldraskap och möten med vården2005Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The present doctoral thesis focuses mainly on the experiences of 20 women and men of becoming and being parents of a prematurely born child and on their perceptions of their contacts with health and medical care services. An additional aim was to investigate the utilisation of health care during the first year of life and its relation to high-risk diagnoses in the neonatal period.

    Data were obtained by interviews of the 20 sets of parents to infants born at a gestational age of <34 weeks with no serious congenital defects. These parents were interviewed 1-2 weeks after the infant’s birth and at 2, 6 and 18 months of age. The interview texts were subjected to phenomenological and content analysis. Data was also obtained from the records of 36 infants born at a gestational age of <31 weeks and with a birth weight of <1500 g and 36 full-term infants. The records included information regarding contact with health care services including the child health centres (CHCs) and the outpatient clinics of the paediatric and ophthalmic clinics. Finally data from the other two quantitative studies were obtained from three questionnaires: Quality of Care from The Patient’s Perspective, The Swedish Parenthood Stress Questionnaire and The Toddler Behaviour Questionnaire.

    The result of the studies showed that the utilisation of health care by the very low birth weight infants was higher than that by the fullterm infants in paediatric and ophthalmic outpatient clinics. High-risk diagnoses in the neonatal period did not correlate with utilisation of care except for visits to the paediatric outpatient clinic, especially planned visits.

    The internalisation of parenthood was described by the parents as a time-dependent process, with four syntheses of experiences – alienation, responsibility, confidence and familiarity.

    The development and construction of the mothers’ and fathers’ parental identity followed a pattern that could be summarised into three themes: Unexpected start of parenthood, integration of parenthood into the sense of identity and recognition of parental identity. Important turning points in experiences of parenthood often occurred when the infant could be removed from the incubator, when it was discharged from the ward, and when the infant appeared normal compared to full-term infants.

    The quality of care was judged, from the parents’ and nurses’ perspective. In general the subjective importance of the given care was rated higher than the care actual given in both neonatal care and care at the CHCs. Higher ratings were given to neonatal care compared with the care at CHSs for medico-technical competence. It was also of importance, of both parents, to receive an optimal identity-oriented approach and socio-cultural atmosphere in the neonatal care and the care at the CHSs. High-risk diagnoses in the newborn did not affect the answers.

    Parental stress of very preterm children, at 18 months of age, did not differ notably from those parents of children born somewhat less premature, but they assessed their children as being rather later in the development of social behaviours. Parents of children who had had a difficult neonatal period were not more stressed when the child was 18 months old than those who had no problems in the neonatal period.

    In sum, this research project showed that the parents’ expectations and experiences of becoming mothers and fathers in preterm birth was a process of integrating the unexpected start of parenthood into the parents’ sense of identity and their way of being. When the parents developed a relationship with the infant, actively participated in its care on the basis of their own preferences, and received recognition as parents, this process was strengthened. It is therefore important that the professional caring of the staff should meet and involve the natural caring of the parents.

    Delarbeten
    1. Utilization of healthcare by very-low-birthweight infants during their first year of life
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Utilization of healthcare by very-low-birthweight infants during their first year of life
    2001 (Engelska)Ingår i: Acta Paediatrica, ISSN 0803-5253, E-ISSN 1651-2227, Vol. 90, nr 2, s. 213-217Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
    Abstract [en]

    New knowledge in perinatal medicine has resulted in increased survival of very-low-birthweight (VLBW) infants. After leaving hospital, the child is seen at regular medical check-ups, but there is often a persistent worry about the child which affects the family as a whole. This can lead to an increased utilization of healthcare. Our objective was therefore to describe the utilization of healthcare by VLBW infants during their first year of life and its relation to high-risk diagnoses in the neonatal period. The study group comprised 36 infants born at gestational ages of < or = 31 wk and with a birthweight of < or = 1500 g, and was compared with a control group of 36 full-term infants. Utilization of healthcare by the VLBW infants was higher than that by the control group in paediatric and ophthalmic outpatient clinics. The total number of contacts with healthcare was on average 38.7 versus 17.4. High-risk diagnoses in the neonatal period did not correlate with utilization of care, except for visits to the paediatric outpatient clinic, especially planned visits. Further studies focusing on how to support these families after leaving hospital are therefore needed.

    Nyckelord
    Neonatal care;very-low-birthweight infants;utilization of healthcare
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Omvårdnad
    Forskningsämne
    Vårdvetenskap; Omvårdnadsforskning med medicinsk inriktning
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-2947 (URN)10.1111/j.1651-2227.2001.tb00286.x (DOI)000167243800019 ()11236053 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-0035103687 (Scopus ID)
    Tillgänglig från: 2005-11-28 Skapad: 2005-11-28 Senast uppdaterad: 2017-12-14Bibliografiskt granskad
    2. From alienation to familiarity: experiences of mothers and fathers of preterm infants
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>From alienation to familiarity: experiences of mothers and fathers of preterm infants
    2003 (Engelska)Ingår i: Journal of Advanced Nursing, ISSN 0309-2402, E-ISSN 1365-2648, Vol. 43, nr 2, s. 120-129Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: The birth of a preterm infant has a long-term impact on both parents. Mothers report more stress and poor adjustment compared with fathers. Influencing factors, such as family situation and health status of the child, can support or weaken the coping ability of the parents. Studies on experiences of fathers are sparse.

    AIM: The aim of this research was to study how mothers and fathers of preterm infants describe their experiences of parenthood during the infant's first 18 months of life.

    METHODS: Seven consecutively selected sets of parents of preterm infants born at </=34 weeks of gestation with no serious congenital defects were interviewed 1-2 weeks after the infant's birth and at 2, 6 and 18 months of age, and the findings were analysed using a phenomenological method.

    FINDINGS: Internalization of parenthood was described as a time-dependent process, with four syntheses of experiences - alienation, responsibility, confidence and familiarity. Within the syntheses, similarities in how mothers and fathers described their parental roles involved concern for the child, insecurity, adjustment and relationship with the child. Regarding differences, mothers experienced having more responsibility and control of the care and a need to be confirmed as a mother, while fathers described confidence in leaving the care to the staff and wanted to find a balance between work and family life. Important turning points in parenthood experiences often occurred when the infant could be removed from the incubator, discharged from the ward, and when the infant looked normal compared to full-term infants.

    CONCLUSIONS: The structure of the phenomenon of parenthood was formed by the integration of the syntheses of alienation, responsibility, confidence and familiarity. The structure seems to be based on the parents' expectations of the parental role, the infant's health condition and the health care environment. These interacting factors are influenced by cultural beliefs.

    Nyckelord
    low birth weight infant;parenting;support;coping;family functioning;mother;father;nursing care
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Omvårdnad
    Forskningsämne
    Vårdvetenskap; Omvårdnadsforskning med medicinsk inriktning
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-2948 (URN)10.1046/j.1365-2648.2003.02686.x (DOI)000183894900001 ()12834369 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-0041851026 (Scopus ID)
    Tillgänglig från: 2005-11-28 Skapad: 2005-11-28 Senast uppdaterad: 2017-12-14Bibliografiskt granskad
    3. Development and construction of parental identity in preterm birth: qualitative analysis of mothers' and fathers' narratives
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Development and construction of parental identity in preterm birth: qualitative analysis of mothers' and fathers' narratives
    (Engelska)Manuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Omvårdnad
    Forskningsämne
    Vårdvetenskap
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-15755 (URN)
    Tillgänglig från: 2011-05-31 Skapad: 2011-05-31 Senast uppdaterad: 2017-10-17Bibliografiskt granskad
    4. Quality of care of the preterm infant: the parent and nurse perspective
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Quality of care of the preterm infant: the parent and nurse perspective
    2006 (Engelska)Ingår i: Acta Paediatrica, ISSN 0803-5253, E-ISSN 1651-2227, Vol. 95, nr 1, s. 29-37Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
    Abstract [en]

    AIM: To study the subjective opinions about what is important in care at neonatal units and child health centres (CHCs) for premature newborns, and to compare these opinions with the care actually given. SUBJECTS: 21 mothers, 20 fathers and 15 nurses at the neonatal unit, and 21 mothers, 14 fathers and 18 nurses at CHCs.

    METHODS: A questionnaire on quality of Care from the Patient's Perspective was used. It contained three dimensions: identity-oriented approach, medical-technical competence and socio-cultural atmosphere. Each dimension was evaluated in terms of subjective importance and perceived reality of given care.

    RESULTS: In general, subjective importance was rated higher than perceived reality both for neonatal care and care at CHCs for the dimensions identity-oriented approach and medical-technical competence. However, higher ratings were given to neonatal care compared to CHCs for medical-technical competence. High-risk diagnoses and very low gestational age in the newborn did not affect the answers. Mothers rated medical-technical competence higher than nurses for neonatal care. Mothers and nurses rated identity-oriented approach higher than fathers for CHCs.

    CONCLUSION: Although both neonatal care and care at CHCs were highly rated, improvements can be made to fulfil the expectations of parents and nurses. Neonatal units seem to be more efficient in taking care of the special needs of these newborns compared to CHCs. The need for an optimal identity-oriented approach, medical-technical competence and socio-cultural atmosphere could strengthen the possibilities of parents to be confident in their parental role.

    Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
    Oslo: Taylor & Francis, 2006
    Nyckelord
    health care, neonatal care, preterm infant, quality of care
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Övrig annan medicin och hälsovetenskap Omvårdnad
    Forskningsämne
    Vårdvetenskap
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-11167 (URN)10.1111/j.1651-2227.2006.tb02176.x (DOI)000234121900006 ()16373293 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-29944438089 (Scopus ID)
    Tillgänglig från: 2010-06-18 Skapad: 2010-06-18 Senast uppdaterad: 2017-12-12Bibliografiskt granskad
    5. Parental stress and toddler behaviour at age 18 months after pre-term birth
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Parental stress and toddler behaviour at age 18 months after pre-term birth
    2007 (Engelska)Ingår i: Acta Paediatrica, ISSN 0803-5253, E-ISSN 1651-2227, Vol. 96, nr 2, s. 227-232Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
    Abstract [en]

    AIM: To describe the parent's judgement of their own stress and the child's behaviour at 18 months after pre-term birth and if there are any correlations between these assessments, the morbidity in the neonatal period, the gestational age at birth and the occurrence of twin/triplet births. METHOD: Twenty-one mothers and 19 fathers of pre-term infants answered two questionnaires, The Swedish Parenthood Stress Questionnaire (SPSQ) and The Toddler Behaviour Questionnaire (TBQ). RESULTS: Mothers scored somewhat higher than fathers concerning parental stress. Parents with twins/triplets and of children born in gestational week 25-30 felt more stress, though the differences were not statistically significant. High-risk diagnoses did not correlate to any of the dimensions. The parents judged the behaviour of the children similar except that parents of children born in gestational week 25-30 scored significantly higher for intensity/activity (p = 0.002). The correlation between parental stress and judgement of their children's behaviour did not show any significant association except for the dimension regularity in TBQ (p = 0.016). CONCLUSIONS: The mothers' and fathers' assessments of their own stress and of the children's behaviour were similar. Parents of very pre-term children felt more stress and judged the children somewhat delayed in their social behaviours, probably due to their low gestational age.

    Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
    Oslo: Taylor & Francis, 2007
    Nyckelord
    Parental stress;Pre-term infant;Toddler behaviour
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Pediatrik Omvårdnad
    Forskningsämne
    Pediatrik; Omvårdnadsforskning med medicinsk inriktning
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-5640 (URN)10.1111/j.1651-2227.2007.00015.x (DOI)000243993800018 ()17429910 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-33847192852 (Scopus ID)
    Tillgänglig från: 2009-02-17 Skapad: 2009-02-17 Senast uppdaterad: 2017-12-13Bibliografiskt granskad
  • 106.
    Jackson, Karin
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Hälsovetenskapliga institutionen.
    Ternestedt, Britt-Marie
    Schollin, Jens
    Development and construction of parental identity in preterm birth: qualitative analysis of mothers' and fathers' narrativesManuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 107.
    Jakobsson, Mari
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Hälsovetenskapliga institutionen.
    Fredriksson, Carina
    Örebro universitet, Hälsovetenskapliga institutionen.
    Nutriionens betydelse i omvårdnaden vid cancer: Sjuksköterskans, patientens och den närståendes perspektiv2007Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats
    Abstract [sv]

    Patienter med cancer drabbas ofta av nutritionsproblem främst i form av minskat näringsintag. Det beror dels på sjukdomen i sig, men även på behandlingen mot cancer och dess biverkningar. Ungefär 30 - 85 % av patienterna utvecklar nutritionsproblem. Försämrat näringsintag kan leda till en svår form av utmärglig (cancerkakexi). Nutrition och nutritionsproblem påverkar patienterna och deras närstående, vilket kan ge konsekvenser för dem i det dagliga livet. Syftet med den systematiska litteraturstudien var att beskriva nutritionens betydelse i omvårdnaden vid cancer, sett ur tre olika perspektiv: sjuksköterskans, patientens och den närståendes. Sökningar efter vetenskapliga artiklar begränsades till åren 2000-2006 och gjordes dels elektroniskt i databaserna Cinahl, Pubmed och dels manuellt. Resultatet presenteras via följande sju kategorier: Identifiering och kartläggning av nutritionsproblematik; Skattning av nutritionsstatus; Patientfokuserad nutritionsomvårdnad; Biverkningar av cancerbehandling; Konsekvenser för det dagliga livet; Upplevelser av viktförlust; och Att hantera sin situation. Studiens slutsats var att nutrition är en viktig omvårdnadsåtgärd i omvårdnaden av patienter med cancer. Vidare har nutritionen en stor betydelse för bl.a. patienternas utgångsläge och för att nå ett optimalt behandlingsresultat. Nutritionsproblem påverkar patienterna och deras anhöriga, vilket kan ge konsekvenser för dem det dagliga livet. Vidare beskrivs patienternas upplevelser och känslor runt behandlingen mot cancer och dess biverkningar, samt hur patienterna och deras närstående försöker hantera sin situation.

  • 108.
    James, Inger
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Hälsovetenskapliga institutionen.
    Andershed, Birgitta
    Örebro universitet, Hälsovetenskapliga institutionen.
    Ternestedt, Britt-Marie
    Örebro universitet, Hälsovetenskapliga institutionen.
    A family's beliefs about cancer, dying, and death in the end of life2007Ingår i: Journal of Family Nursing, ISSN 1074-8407, E-ISSN 1552-549X, Vol. 13, nr 2, s. 226-252Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this case study was to describe the beliefs over time of a Swedish family and individual family members about cancer and death and how these beliefs affected their daily lives. Data were collected over 10 months using interviews, conversations, and diary notations. The beliefs were aggregated into eight main beliefs and four themes: Cancer is a deadly threat/death is a liberator, death can be held at bay/death can be lived near, dying is done alone/dying should not be done alone, and life has an end/life is endless. These beliefs appear to oscillate between seemingly contrasting poles. Some beliefs were shared by all family members, whereas others were described by only one or more members of the family. The complexity of daily life in families experiencing life-shortening illness underscores the need of individualized nursing care with openness to difference and collaboration as guiding principles.

  • 109.
    Jansson, Andreas
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Hälsovetenskapliga institutionen.
    Svensson, Olof
    Örebro universitet, Hälsovetenskapliga institutionen.
    Att beskriva klientcentrerad arbetsterapi - En litteraturstudie2006Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med C-uppsatsen var att beskriva genomförandet av klientcentrerad arbetsterapi.

    Uppsatsen har en kvalitativ ansats med en deskriptiv design där datainsamling skett genom sökning av litteratur.

    I hälso- och sjukvårdslagen står det: ”Vården och behandlingen skall så långt det är möjligt utformas och genomföras i samråd med patienten.”. Att arbeta klientcentrerat innebär en respekt för individens vilja, att arbeta tillsammans med klienten, ge information om olika alternativ samt underlätta för klientens beslutstagande. Många av de individer en arbetsterapeut möter saknar förmågan att fullt ut kommunicera och/eller samarbeta. Detta ställer krav på förmågan, som arbetsterapeut, att arbeta klientcentrerat.

    Resultatet visar vikten av att se individen samt ha en god kommunikationsförmåga där arbetsterapeuten aktivt arbetar för att öka förståelsen. Det är viktigt att reflektera över sina strategier och tillvägagångssätt. Arbetsterapeuten bör arbeta för en jämlik maktfördelning mellan klient och arbetsterapeut. Arbetsterapeuten bör ges tid till att lära sig arbetssättet samt få träning, kunskap och handledning. Organisationens struktur och miljö bör gås igenom för att ta bort eventuella hinder samt för att främja ett klientcentrerat arbetssätt.

  • 110.
    Johansson, Björn
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för beteende-, social- och rättsvetenskap.
    Eriksson, Charli
    Örebro universitet, Hälsovetenskapliga institutionen.
    Poor places and poor people: is there a growing health divide?2004Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 111.
    Johansson, Carina B.
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Hälsovetenskapliga institutionen.
    Wennerberg, A.
    Boström-Junemo, K.
    Holmen, A.
    Hansson, S.
    In vivo comparisons of TiO2 blasted and fluoride modified implants in rabbit bone2004Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 112.
    Johansson, Maria
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Hälsovetenskapliga institutionen.
    Löf, Sofia
    Örebro universitet, Hälsovetenskapliga institutionen.
    Följden av långvarig smärta i det dagliga livets aktiviteter2006Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats
    Abstract [sv]

    För de människor som lider av muskuloskeletala smärttillstånd orsakar smärtan ofta aktivitetsbegränsningar. Syftet med studien var att beskriva vilka följder långvarig smärta har på människors aktiviteter i det dagliga livet. Vi har gjort en litteraturstudie med artikelsökning på databaserna Cinahl, Medline, Elin@Örebro och Amed. I resultatet framkommer det att följderna av långvarig smärta på aktiviteter i det dagliga livet är individuellt. Det finns många faktorer som styr vilka följder långvarig smärta har hos en individ. Kvinnor blir ofta mer begränsade i sitt aktivitetsutförande än män av långvarig smärta, liknade gäller även mellan åldersgrupperna där yngre personer blir mindre påverkade än de äldre. Arbetande kvinnor mår allmänt bättre än icke arbetande kvinnor med långvarig smärta. Hur stor aktivitetsbegränsningen blir beror bland annat på vilken sorts aktivitetsmönster dessa människor ta till sig och om de kan acceptera smärtan.

  • 113.
    Johansson [Tinnfält], Agneta
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Hälsoakademin.
    Brunnberg, Elinor
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för beteende-, social- och rättsvetenskap.
    Eriksson, Charli
    Örebro universitet, Hälsovetenskapliga institutionen.
    Adolescent girls' and boys' perceptions of mental health2007Ingår i: Journal of Youth Studies, ISSN 1367-6261, E-ISSN 1469-9680, Vol. 10, nr 2, s. 183-202Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The aims of this study are to analyse the concept of mental health from the perspective of adolescent girls and boys and to describe what adolescent girls and boys regard as important determinants of mental health. Interviews with 48 children, 13 and 16 years old, in Sweden were held individually or in focus groups. The adolescents perceived mental health as an emotional experience, where positive as well as negative health is part of the concept. Family is the most important determinant for young people's mental health, closely followed by friends. Neither girls nor boys believed that there were any large differences in mental health between girls and boys. Age differences seemed to be more important than gender in the perception of mental health by children.

  • 114.
    Johansson [Tinnfält], Agneta
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Hälsovetenskapliga institutionen.
    Ehnfors, Margareta
    Örebro universitet, Hälsovetenskapliga institutionen.
    Mental health-promoting dialogue of school nurses from the perspective of adolescent pupils2006Ingår i: Vård i Norden, ISSN 0107-4083, E-ISSN 1890-4238, Vol. 26, nr 4, s. 10-13, 19Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Mental health is a major public health issue in Sweden, especially concerning children and adolescents. School plays a primary role as a health-promoting arena, where school nurses use the health dialogue to promote mental health. The aim of this study was to describe the prerequisites of a mental health-promoting dialogue with the school nurse from the perspective of young people. A further aim was to explore what adolescents believe are important dimensions for achieving such a desired dialogue. Twenty-six 15-year-olds in Sweden were interviewed after being assigned to five focus groups. Inductive qualitative content analysis was used. The findings show that the prerequisites for a mental health-promoting dialogue with the school nurse include what issues to discuss in the dialogue and where the dialogue should take place. The dimensions of the dialogue include what the adolescents think is most important in the dialogue with the school nurse: trustiness, attentiveness, respectfulness, authencity, accessibility during school hours and continuity.

  • 115.
    Jonsson, Carolina
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Hälsovetenskapliga institutionen.
    Palm, Camilla
    Örebro universitet, Hälsovetenskapliga institutionen.
    Främjande av empowerment i omvårdnaden av den vuxna patienten med diabetes2006Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats
    Abstract [sv]

    SAMMANFATTNING

    Bakgrund: Diabetes är en sjukdom, där patienten med diabetes dagligen fattar beslut gällande sin sjukdom. Genom empowerment kan patienten upptäcka och använda sin egen inneboende förmåga att kontrollera sin diabetes, vilket skapar förutsättningar för en mer individanpassad egenvård.

    Syfte: Litteraturstudiens syfte var att beskriva hur empowerment kan främjas i omvårdnaden av den vuxna patienten med diabetes.

    Metod: Den metod som användes var en systematisk litteraturstudie med beskrivande design. Sökningar har gjorts i databaserna Cinahl, Medline och Medline PubMed, med sökorden diabetes, empowerment, nursing och caring.

    Resultat: För att arbeta empowermentfrämjande krävs en förändring av sjuksköterskans yrkesroll där också patientens egen kunskap om att leva med diabetes erkänns. Att vara en god lyssnare, förmedla kunskap om diabetessjukdomen, vara öppen och lyhörd för varje patients individuella behov och uppmuntra patienten att själv finna lösningar på egenvårdsproblem är viktiga delar för sjuksköterskan och övrig sjukvårdspersonal att arbeta med.

    Slutsats: För att sjuksköterskans yrkesroll ska kunna förändras och nya arbetsmetoder utvecklas är tid, stöd, utbildning och handledning till både sjuksköterskorna själva och den övriga personalen som arbetar runt patienten av betydelse.

  • 116.
    Josefsson, Karin
    Örebro universitet, Hälsovetenskapliga institutionen.
    Municipal elderly care: implications of registered nurses' work situation, education, and competence2006Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Registered nurses (RNs) are key figures in municipal elderly care. It is a challenge to create necessary conditions that enable them to provide quality nursing care. These studies aimed to increase insight into RNs work conditions in municipal elderly care, and to compare RNs working solely in dementia care (DC) with RNs working in general elder care (GC). The specific aims were to describe RNs’ perceptions of: (I) their work situation, regarding demands, influences, and social support, as well as RNs characteristics; (II) violence and threats directed at them, other staff, and care recipients, as well as access to prevention measures and routines for handling violence and threats; (III) their education and competence development; (IV) their needs for knowledge, possibilities for competence development, supervision, organisation of RNs’ development, financial support, competence utilisation, and managers’ competence. A descriptive and comparative design was used. The setting consisted of 60 special housing with subunits in a large city in the middle of Sweden. A total of 213 RNs participated, with a response rate of 62%. Of those, 95 (45%) worked in DC and 118 (55%) in GC. A structured questionnaire, designed for these studies was used. Study I showed on average high time pressure in both groups. Greater knowledge and higher emotional and conflicting demands were found in DC. The majority reported greater opportunities to plan and perform daily work tasks than to influence the work situation in a wider context. On average, there was a high level of support at work from management and fellow workers. Study II indicated that RNs had witnessed and experienced a high degree of indirect threats, direct threats of violent acts, and violent acts, with care recipients also subject to threats and violence. The RNs in DC had greater access to education in managing threats and violence, and routines for managing violence and a door with a lock to their working unit. Study III revealed that RNs possessed a broad range of formal competence. On average, the RNs had 18 years of work experience as an RN. The majority lacked a Degree of Bachelor in Nursing. Few had adequate specialist competence. RNs in DC were willing to invest more in competence development whereas RNs in GC were more motivated to invest in competence development by seeking another position and by attaining a greater authority to make important decisions at work. Study IV showed that, on average, the RNs did not lack or hardly lacked knowledge in the examined domains. RNs in GC lacked knowledge of dementia, falls, and fall injures to a greater extent than RNs in DC. RNs in DC perceived greater possibilities for competence development at work. Most RNs, especially in GC, requested a better organisation for competence development. The majority of RNs had no supervision. Although the utilisation of the competence of RNs was high, RNs used their highest competence about half of the working hours. The employers’ financial contribution to RNs’ continuing education was poor. Conclusions drawn from the studies are: (I) RNs’ time pressure needs to be decreased and their influence on decisions increased. (II) Violence occurs equally frequently without any difference between DC and GC. More often, RNs in DC are offered education on how to manage violence and threats, and have routines for management of violence. Therefore, municipal authorities should increase staff education for management of violence and creating safety routines. Violence needs to be taken seriously with a ‘zero tolerance’ attitude. (III) It is important to develop the RNs’ competence and increase the utilisation of their competence. It is also essential to increase the number of RNs who have specialist competence. (IV) Better organisation and greater possibilities for RNs’ competence development is needed. Employers need to make a greater financial contribution to RNs’ competence development. RNs also need supervision. When combined, high demands and low control in the work situation form the most critical combination for the health of RNs. This may lead to sick-absenteeism and staff turnover. Thus, RNs’ time demands should be decreased, violence be minimised, and influence in decision-making increased in both groups. Further research is required on RNs’ competence development, family conditions, leisure, health, their ‘ideal work’, and the concept of general elder care.

    Delarbeten
    1. Work situation of registered nurses in municipal elderly care in Sweden: a questionnaire survey
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Work situation of registered nurses in municipal elderly care in Sweden: a questionnaire survey
    2007 (Engelska)Ingår i: International Journal of Nursing Studies, ISSN 0020-7489, E-ISSN 1873-491X, Vol. 44, nr 1, s. 71-82Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Organizational changes have occurred in municipal elderly care in Sweden during the past decades. The 'Adel' reform transferred responsibility for the care of older persons from the county councils to the municipalities. Furthermore, the specialisation in dementia care divided elderly care into two groups: dementia and general care. This change has had a significant impact on the work situation of registered nurses (RNs). Aim: The main focus was to describe RNs' work situation and their characteristics in municipal elderly care. Another aim was to compare RNs working solely in dementia care with those working in general care of older persons with diverse diagnoses. Design: A non-experimental, descriptive design with a survey research approach was used. Settings: Sixty special housing units with underlying units including those offering daytime activities in a large city in the middle of Sweden. Participants: The number of participating RNs was a total of 213, with a response rate of 62.3%. Of the 213 RNs, 95 (44.6%) worked in dementia care, and 118 (55.4%) in general care. Method: A questionnaire survey. Results: The results indicated high levels of time pressure in both groups. Greater knowledge and greater emotional and conflicting demands were found in dementia care. The majority perceived a greater opportunity to plan and perform daily work tasks than to influence the work situation in a wider context. Support at work was perceived as generally high from management and fellow workers and higher in dementia care. Conclusion: It is important to decrease RNs' time pressure and increase their influence on decisions made at work. (c) 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

    Nyckelord
    registered nurses, municipal elderly care, work situation, demand-control model
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Omvårdnad
    Forskningsämne
    Vårdvetenskap
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-15705 (URN)10.1016/j.ijnurstu.2005.10.014 (DOI)000243668400008 ()
    Tillgänglig från: 2011-05-25 Skapad: 2011-05-25 Senast uppdaterad: 2017-12-11Bibliografiskt granskad
    2. Violence in municipal care of older people in Sweden as perceived by registered nurses
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Violence in municipal care of older people in Sweden as perceived by registered nurses
    2007 (Engelska)Ingår i: Journal of Clinical Nursing, ISSN 0962-1067, E-ISSN 1365-2702, Vol. 16, nr 5, s. 900-910Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Aims. The main aim was to describe registered nurses' perceptions of violence and threats, as well as their access to prevention measures and routines for handling violent behaviour in municipal care of older people. Another aim was to compare nurses' perceptions working solely in dementia care with those working in general elder care where older people have diverse diagnoses. Background. Violence is often reported in care of older people. The development of dementia units and the implementation of reform have changed care of older people. Dementia disorders have been shown to be a predisposing factor to violence. Design. A non-experimental, descriptive design with a survey research approach was used. The setting was 60 special types of housing with subunits in a large town. The response rate was 62% (n = 213). Forty-five per cent (n = 95) of the nurses worked in dementia care and 55% (118) in general elder care. Method. A questionnaire. Results. Nurses had experienced a high degree indirect threats (dementia care, 45%; general elder care, 51%), direct threats of violent acts (dementia care, 35%; general elder care, 44%) and violent acts (dementia care, 41%; general elder care, 43%). Nurses had witnessed violence and threats towards staff (dementia care, 49%; general elder care, 38%). Even care receivers (dementia care, 20%; general elder care, 19%) were subjected to violence and threats. No statistical differences were found between groups. The nurses in dementia care had more access to education in managing violence and threats, as well as routines for handling violence and a door with a lock to their working unit. Conclusion. Violence occurred frequently in municipal care of older people without any difference between dementia care and general elder care. Nurses in dementia care were more often offered education on how to manage violence and had routines for when violence occurs. Relevance to clinical practice. Municipal authorities should increase staff education for handling violence and creating safety routines. Violence needs to be taken seriously with a 'zero tolerance' attitude.

    Nyckelord
    care receiver, municipal elderly care, questionnaire, registered nurse, staff, violence
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Omvårdnad
    Forskningsämne
    Vårdvetenskap
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-15703 (URN)10.1111/j.1365-2702.2006.01835.x (DOI)000245988900011 ()
    Tillgänglig från: 2011-05-25 Skapad: 2011-05-25 Senast uppdaterad: 2017-12-11Bibliografiskt granskad
    3. Registered nurses' education and their views on competence development in municipal elderly care in Sweden: a questionnaire survey
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Registered nurses' education and their views on competence development in municipal elderly care in Sweden: a questionnaire survey
    2007 (Engelska)Ingår i: International Journal of Nursing Studies, ISSN 0020-7489, E-ISSN 1873-491X, Vol. 44, nr 2, s. 245-258Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Recent changes of municipal elderly care in Sweden have resulted in that persons 65 years and older, previously nursed in hospital facilities, are now being cared for in the municipality. This change has had a significant impact on the work situation of registered nurses (RNs) and calls for appropriate educational preparation to enable RNs to undertake their new roles effectively. Aim: The main focus was to describe RNs' education and their view of competence development in municipal elderly care. Another aim was to compare RNs working solely in dementia care (DC) with those working in general elder care (GC) of older persons with diverse diagnoses. Design: A non-experimental, descriptive design with a survey research approach was used. Settings: Sixty special housing with subunits including those offering daytime activities in a large city in the middle of Sweden. Participants: The number of participating RNs was a total of 213, with a response rate of 62.3%. Of the 213 RNs, 95 (44.6%) worked in DC, and 118 (55.4%) in GC. Method: A questionnaire survey. Results: The findings showed that RNs possessed a broad range of competence. The majority lacked a bachelor's degree in nursing. Few had adequate specialist competence. RNs' in DC wanted to invest more in competence development whereas RNs in GC were more motivated to attain greater authority in the making of important decisions and to seek another position. Conclusion: An important future prospect is to develop the competence of RNs in elderly care. In order to ensure high quality and security in elderly care, it is also essential to increase the number of RNs with specialist competence. (c) 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

    Nyckelord
    competence, education, municipal elderly care, questionnaire, registered nurse
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Omvårdnad
    Forskningsämne
    Vårdvetenskap
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-15704 (URN)10.1016/j.ijnurstu.2005.11.029 (DOI)000244402300011 ()
    Tillgänglig från: 2011-05-25 Skapad: 2011-05-25 Senast uppdaterad: 2017-12-11Bibliografiskt granskad
    4. Competence development of registered nurses in municipal elderly care in Sweden: a questionnaire survey
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Competence development of registered nurses in municipal elderly care in Sweden: a questionnaire survey
    2008 (Engelska)Ingår i: International Journal of Nursing Studies, ISSN 0020-7489, E-ISSN 1873-491X, Vol. 45, nr 3, s. 428-441Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Skilled and specialist registered nurses (RNs) are central to evolving elderly care. The past decades' organisational and structural changes have altered RNs' roles and work situations in municipal elderly care in Sweden. This calls for appropriate educational preparation. However, a substantial proportion of RNs in municipal elderly care lack adequate specialist competence. Aim: The focus of this study was to describe RNs' perceptions of needs and possibilities for competence development in municipal elderly care and compare the perceptions of RNs' who work solely in dementia care (DC) with those who work in general elder care (GC) where older persons have diverse diagnoses. Design: A non-experimental, descriptive and comparative design was used. Settings: Sixty special housing with subunits in a large city in the middle of Sweden. Participants: Participating RNs were a total of 213, with a response rate of 62.3%. Of the 213 RNs, 95 (44.6%) worked in DC and 118 (55.4%) in GC. Method: A structured questionnaire that was specifically designed for this study and focused on needs and possibilities for competence development in nursing. Results: The RNs were on average not lacking or were hardly lacking knowledge in examined domains. However, RNs in GC lacked knowledge of dementia, falls, and fall injures to a greater extent than RNs in DC. RNs in DC perceived greater possibilities for competence development at work. Most RNs requested a better organisation for competence development, especially in GC. The majority of RNs had no supervision. The use of RNs' competence was high, although they used their highest competence about half of the working hours. The employers' financial contribution to RNs' continuing education was poor. Conclusion: A better organisation and greater possibilities for RNs' competence development is needed. The employers need to make a greater contribution financially to RNs' continuing education. It is essential to provide RNs with supervision. (C) 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

    Nyckelord
    competence development, municipal elderly care, questionnaire, registered nurse
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Omvårdnad
    Forskningsämne
    Vårdvetenskap
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-15702 (URN)10.1016/j.ijnurstu.2006.09.009 (DOI)000254142400012 ()
    Tillgänglig från: 2011-05-25 Skapad: 2011-05-25 Senast uppdaterad: 2017-12-11Bibliografiskt granskad
  • 117.
    Josefsson, Karin
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Hälsovetenskapliga institutionen.
    Sonde, Lars
    Robins Wahlin, Tarja-Brita
    Competence development of registered nurses in municipal elderly care in Sweden: a questionnaire survey2008Ingår i: International Journal of Nursing Studies, ISSN 0020-7489, E-ISSN 1873-491X, Vol. 45, nr 3, s. 428-441Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Skilled and specialist registered nurses (RNs) are central to evolving elderly care. The past decades' organisational and structural changes have altered RNs' roles and work situations in municipal elderly care in Sweden. This calls for appropriate educational preparation. However, a substantial proportion of RNs in municipal elderly care lack adequate specialist competence. Aim: The focus of this study was to describe RNs' perceptions of needs and possibilities for competence development in municipal elderly care and compare the perceptions of RNs' who work solely in dementia care (DC) with those who work in general elder care (GC) where older persons have diverse diagnoses. Design: A non-experimental, descriptive and comparative design was used. Settings: Sixty special housing with subunits in a large city in the middle of Sweden. Participants: Participating RNs were a total of 213, with a response rate of 62.3%. Of the 213 RNs, 95 (44.6%) worked in DC and 118 (55.4%) in GC. Method: A structured questionnaire that was specifically designed for this study and focused on needs and possibilities for competence development in nursing. Results: The RNs were on average not lacking or were hardly lacking knowledge in examined domains. However, RNs in GC lacked knowledge of dementia, falls, and fall injures to a greater extent than RNs in DC. RNs in DC perceived greater possibilities for competence development at work. Most RNs requested a better organisation for competence development, especially in GC. The majority of RNs had no supervision. The use of RNs' competence was high, although they used their highest competence about half of the working hours. The employers' financial contribution to RNs' continuing education was poor. Conclusion: A better organisation and greater possibilities for RNs' competence development is needed. The employers need to make a greater contribution financially to RNs' continuing education. It is essential to provide RNs with supervision. (C) 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 118.
    Josefsson, Karin
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Hälsovetenskapliga institutionen.
    Sonde, Lars
    Robins Wahlin, Tarja-Brita
    Registered nurses' education and their views on competence development in municipal elderly care in Sweden: a questionnaire survey2007Ingår i: International Journal of Nursing Studies, ISSN 0020-7489, E-ISSN 1873-491X, Vol. 44, nr 2, s. 245-258Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Recent changes of municipal elderly care in Sweden have resulted in that persons 65 years and older, previously nursed in hospital facilities, are now being cared for in the municipality. This change has had a significant impact on the work situation of registered nurses (RNs) and calls for appropriate educational preparation to enable RNs to undertake their new roles effectively. Aim: The main focus was to describe RNs' education and their view of competence development in municipal elderly care. Another aim was to compare RNs working solely in dementia care (DC) with those working in general elder care (GC) of older persons with diverse diagnoses. Design: A non-experimental, descriptive design with a survey research approach was used. Settings: Sixty special housing with subunits including those offering daytime activities in a large city in the middle of Sweden. Participants: The number of participating RNs was a total of 213, with a response rate of 62.3%. Of the 213 RNs, 95 (44.6%) worked in DC, and 118 (55.4%) in GC. Method: A questionnaire survey. Results: The findings showed that RNs possessed a broad range of competence. The majority lacked a bachelor's degree in nursing. Few had adequate specialist competence. RNs' in DC wanted to invest more in competence development whereas RNs in GC were more motivated to attain greater authority in the making of important decisions and to seek another position. Conclusion: An important future prospect is to develop the competence of RNs in elderly care. In order to ensure high quality and security in elderly care, it is also essential to increase the number of RNs with specialist competence. (c) 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 119.
    Josefsson, Karin
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Hälsovetenskapliga institutionen.
    Sonde, Lars
    Robins Wahlin, Tarja-Brita
    Violence in municipal care of older people in Sweden as perceived by registered nurses2007Ingår i: Journal of Clinical Nursing, ISSN 0962-1067, E-ISSN 1365-2702, Vol. 16, nr 5, s. 900-910Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims. The main aim was to describe registered nurses' perceptions of violence and threats, as well as their access to prevention measures and routines for handling violent behaviour in municipal care of older people. Another aim was to compare nurses' perceptions working solely in dementia care with those working in general elder care where older people have diverse diagnoses. Background. Violence is often reported in care of older people. The development of dementia units and the implementation of reform have changed care of older people. Dementia disorders have been shown to be a predisposing factor to violence. Design. A non-experimental, descriptive design with a survey research approach was used. The setting was 60 special types of housing with subunits in a large town. The response rate was 62% (n = 213). Forty-five per cent (n = 95) of the nurses worked in dementia care and 55% (118) in general elder care. Method. A questionnaire. Results. Nurses had experienced a high degree indirect threats (dementia care, 45%; general elder care, 51%), direct threats of violent acts (dementia care, 35%; general elder care, 44%) and violent acts (dementia care, 41%; general elder care, 43%). Nurses had witnessed violence and threats towards staff (dementia care, 49%; general elder care, 38%). Even care receivers (dementia care, 20%; general elder care, 19%) were subjected to violence and threats. No statistical differences were found between groups. The nurses in dementia care had more access to education in managing violence and threats, as well as routines for handling violence and a door with a lock to their working unit. Conclusion. Violence occurred frequently in municipal care of older people without any difference between dementia care and general elder care. Nurses in dementia care were more often offered education on how to manage violence and had routines for when violence occurs. Relevance to clinical practice. Municipal authorities should increase staff education for handling violence and creating safety routines. Violence needs to be taken seriously with a 'zero tolerance' attitude.

  • 120.
    Josefsson, Karin
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Hälsovetenskapliga institutionen.
    Sonde, Lars
    Winblad, Bengt
    Robins Wahlin, Tarja-Brita
    Work situation of registered nurses in municipal elderly care in Sweden: a questionnaire survey2007Ingår i: International Journal of Nursing Studies, ISSN 0020-7489, E-ISSN 1873-491X, Vol. 44, nr 1, s. 71-82Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Organizational changes have occurred in municipal elderly care in Sweden during the past decades. The 'Adel' reform transferred responsibility for the care of older persons from the county councils to the municipalities. Furthermore, the specialisation in dementia care divided elderly care into two groups: dementia and general care. This change has had a significant impact on the work situation of registered nurses (RNs). Aim: The main focus was to describe RNs' work situation and their characteristics in municipal elderly care. Another aim was to compare RNs working solely in dementia care with those working in general care of older persons with diverse diagnoses. Design: A non-experimental, descriptive design with a survey research approach was used. Settings: Sixty special housing units with underlying units including those offering daytime activities in a large city in the middle of Sweden. Participants: The number of participating RNs was a total of 213, with a response rate of 62.3%. Of the 213 RNs, 95 (44.6%) worked in dementia care, and 118 (55.4%) in general care. Method: A questionnaire survey. Results: The results indicated high levels of time pressure in both groups. Greater knowledge and greater emotional and conflicting demands were found in dementia care. The majority perceived a greater opportunity to plan and perform daily work tasks than to influence the work situation in a wider context. Support at work was perceived as generally high from management and fellow workers and higher in dementia care. Conclusion: It is important to decrease RNs' time pressure and increase their influence on decisions made at work. (c) 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 121.
    Kankainen, Pia
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Hälsovetenskapliga institutionen.
    Johansen, Camilla
    Örebro universitet, Hälsovetenskapliga institutionen.
    Omvårdnadspersonalens beskrivning av sittandets och vilans betydelse för den äldre rullstolsburne personens möjlighet till aktivitet och delaktighet: -en kvalitativ intervjustudie2007Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats
    Abstract [sv]

    Sittandet och vila har betydelse för äldre rullstolsburna personers möjlighet att vara delaktiga i de dagliga aktiviteterna. Arbetsterapeutens roll är bl.a. att främja aktivitetsutförandet för rullstolsanvändaren och sittandet är en viktig förutsättning för detta. Arbetsterapeuten på ett särskilt boende har oftast stora arbetsområden, och har inte möjlighet att vara med de boende dagligen. Det är omvårdnadspersonalen som stödjer de boende i vardagen. Omvårdnadspersonalens perspektiv på betydelsen av sittande och vila påverkar den rullstolsburne personens möjlighet att få vara delaktig i utförandet av dagliga aktiviteter.

    Studiens syfte var att belysa hur omvårdnadspersonalen, på särskilt boende, beskriver sittandets och vilans betydelse för den äldre rullstolsburne personens möjlighet till aktivitet och delaktighet. En kvalitativ intervjustudie gjordes där urvalet var ändamålsenligt. Nio omvårdnadspersonal intervjuades och en kvalitativ innehållsanalys användes. Resultatet redovisades i fyra huvud- och sju underliggande kategorier. Huvudkategorierna belyste: 1. Omvårdnadspersonalens beskrivning av hur de upplever sittandets problematik, och dess lösningar, 2. Omvårdnadspersonalens roll, samt påverkansfaktorer vid aktivitetsutförande i rullstol, 3. Vilans betydelse under dagen och 4. Den egna kunskapen och synen på arbetsterapeuten som kunskapsförmedlare.

    Respondenterna beskrev att de upplevde att en bra sittställning i rullstolen samt möjlighet till vila och sträcka ut kroppen under dagen, var viktiga faktorer för den rullstolsburne personens aktivitetsförmåga och välmående. Detta var något som omvårdnadspersonalen diskuterade och eftersträvade dagligen. Respondenterna upplevde dels att de kunde tillfredsställa vilobehovet, dels att de inte kunde det p.g.a. att tidsbrist och inrutade rutiner ibland hindrade detta. Kunskap om vila och sittande var något som respondenterna upplevde att de hade, trots att få utbildningsmöjligheter erbjöds.

  • 122.
    Kihlgren, Annica
    et al.
    Karolinska institutet, Stockholm.
    Forslund, Kerstin
    Örebro universitet, Hälsovetenskapliga institutionen.
    Fagerberg, Ingegerd
    Mälardalens högskola.
    Managements' perception of community nurses' decision-making processes when referring older adults to an emergency department2006Ingår i: Journal of Nursing Management, ISSN 0966-0429, E-ISSN 1365-2834, Vol. 14, nr 6, s. 428-436Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden, older adults are living and being cared for under the responsibility of their respective community. Extensive reorganizations in the community led to management having different backgrounds, which may have caused uncertainty among community nurses, especially in decision-making processes. The aim was to understand how 10 nurses, 10 doctors and 10 home care assistants as leaders for the nurses conceptualized the decision-making processes of community nurses, when referring older persons to Emergency Departments, and whether perceptual differences and/or similarities exist. Narrative interviews and content analysis were performed. The managers had differing views, but all felt there was a need to feel secure in order to trust professional decisions as being correct, thus avoiding inappropriate referrals. Management could see nurses' exposed position, but had varying solutions. This might lead to different messages being given regarding what is important and might explain why the nurses reported that the managers did not understand them.

  • 123.
    Larsson, Anette
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Hälsovetenskapliga institutionen.
    Molin, Carina
    Örebro universitet, Hälsovetenskapliga institutionen.
    CI-metoden och dess effekter på barn och ungdomar med CP-hemiplegi: - en systematisk litteraturstudie2007Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats
    Abstract [sv]

    CI-metoden är en ny behandlingsmetod för barn och ungdomar med CP-hemiplegi. Metoden innebr att man genom en restrikion på den intakta armen och handen främjar rörelse i den hemiplegiska armen oc handen i syfte att förbättra användningen av den armen och handen i dagliga aktiviteter.

    Syftet med litteraturstudien är att beskriva CI-metoden och dess effekter på funktions- och aktivitetsförmåga hos barn och ungdomar med CP-hemiplegi.

    För att få svar på studiens syfte och frågeställningar gjordes en systematisk litteraturstudie som baseras på vetenskapliga artiklar om effekter av behandling med CI-metoden på barn och ungdomar med hemiplegi till följd av en CP-skada. Studien baseras på sammanlagt 12 artiklar, varav 11 studier från åren 2001-2006 och en studie från 1997. Artiklara är sökta i AMED, Cinahl samt Medline.

    Resultatet visar att barnen och ungdomarna genom behandling med CI-metoden gjorde förbättringar i både funktions- och aktivitetsförmåga. Många av de förbättringar som gjorts under behandlingen kvarstod även vid uppföljningen, fyra veckor till sex månader senare. Resultatet visar att CI-metoden kan vara en effektiv intervention för att förbättra funktions- och aktivitetsförmåga hos barn och ungdomar med CP-hemiplegi. För att få evidens för detta krävs fler studier angående effekter av CI-metoden hos barn och ungdomar med CP-hemplegi.

  • 124.
    Larsson, Anna
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Hälsovetenskapliga institutionen.
    Ljusberg, Maria
    Örebro universitet, Hälsovetenskapliga institutionen.
    Akustiska faktorer som inverkar vid ljudlokalisering: för normalhörande och sensorineuralt hörselskadade personer2006Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (yrkesexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats
    Abstract [sv]

    Sammanfattning:

    Ljudlokalisering är en viktig hörselfunktion och fungerar bäst med en god binaural

    hörsel. För att kunna lokalisera ljud använder hörselsystemet ett antal faktorer. Vid

    en sensorineural hörselskada påverkas förmågan att uppfatta de här faktorerna. Syftet

    med studien var att förklara de faktorer som inverkar vid ljudlokalisering och hur

    riktningshörseln påverkas vid en sensorineural hörselskada. Det här utfördes genom

    att granska och sammanställa aktuell forskning i en forskningsöversikt. Resultatet

    visar att de viktigaste faktorerna vid ljudlokalisering i det horisontella och vertikala

    planet är interaural tidsskillnad, interaural styrkeskillnad och olika spektrala faktorer.

    Andra faktorer av vikt vid ljudlokalisering är ljudets amplitud, konkurrerande ljud,

    ljudkällans placering och avståndet till ljudkällan. Vid avståndsbedömning är den

    viktigaste akustiska faktorn ljudets amplitud, men de spektrala faktorerna har en viss

    inverkan även här. Resultatet visar att sensorineuralt hörselskadade personer överlag

    har en sämre förmåga att tillgodogöra sig de akustiska faktorer som påverkar

    lokalisering av ljud jämfört med normalhörande personer.

  • 125.
    Larsson, Madelene
    Örebro universitet, Hälsovetenskapliga institutionen.
    Systembolagets etablering i en mindre kommun: Skillnader i alkoholvanor 1999 – 2005 bland elever i årskurs nio2006Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats
    Abstract [sv]

    I Sverige har Systembolaget försäljningsmonopol på alkoholhaltiga drycker över 3,5

    procent, vilket gör att dessa drycker endast finns tillgängliga under Systembolagets

    öppnande samt att tillgängligheten är begränsad till ungdomar under 20 år till följd av

    åldersgränsen. Tillgänglighet är en viktig bestämningsfaktor vad gäller

    alkoholkonsumtion.

    Syftet med denna uppsats är att undersöka vad som hänt med alkoholvanorna i en

    kommun efter det att Systembolaget etablerades där 1 mars år 2000. En avgränsning har

    gjorts och arbetet kommer därmed specifikt belysa ungdomar i årskurs nio och deras

    alkoholvanor. Flickor och pojkar kommer att analyseras var för sig.

    En kvantitativ ansats har valts där aggregerad data använts. Informationen som använts

    kommer från drogvaneundersökningar gjorda 1999, 2002 samt Liv & hälsa ung 2005.

    Resultatet visade på att andelen ungdomar som konsumerar alkohol har minskat i

    kommunen. Det har mellan åren blivit vanligare att eleverna i årskurs nio skaffar vin

    och starksprit från ”annan vuxen”.

    Ett nyöppnande av ett Systembolag, med ökad tillgänglighet av alkohol som följd, har

    inte lett till att andelen konsumerande ungdomar av alkohol i årskurs nio i kommunen

    ökat, däremot ses en signifikant minskning bland flickorna.

  • 126.
    Lindstedt, Helena
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet.
    Ivarsson, Ann-Britt
    Örebro universitet, Hälsovetenskapliga institutionen.
    Söderlund, Anne
    Uppsala universitet.
    Background factors related to and/or influencing occupation in mentally disordered offenders2006Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences, ISSN 0283-9318, E-ISSN 1471-6712, Vol. 20, nr 3, s. 331-338Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: Knowledge of background and occupational related factors of mentally disordered offenders are missing. It is essential to understand these issues when planning discharge from forensic psychiatric hospital careto enable community dwelling. Aims: One aim was to investigate mentally disordered offenders’ background factors, confidence in and how they value occupations. Another aim was to investigate MDOs background factors’ in relation to and the influences on Occupational Performance and Social Participation. Method: Data was collected with an explorative, correlative design after informed consent, from 74 mentally disordered offenders (mean age 34,2) cared for in forensic psychiatric hospitals. Assessments were Allen Cognitive Level Screen, Capability to Perform Daily Occupations, Interview Schedule of Social Interaction, Manchester Short Assessment of Quality of Life, Self-efficacy Scale and Importance scale. Eight background factors were assembled from the individual forensic psychiatric investigation. Findings: Most of the investigated background factors relate to and half of them influence occupational performance, particular the cognitive aspect of occupational performance. The influences on occupation originate from adulthood, such as suffering from schizophrenia, psycho/social problems, and having performed violent crimes. These findings indicate that staff in forensic hospital care should initiate rehabilitation with knowledge about MDOs’ complex daily occupations. For avoiding information bias, information gathering preceding treatment planning should be performed in collaboration between caring staff and mentally disordered offenders.

  • 127.
    Lundgren, Tove
    et al.
    Örebro universitet. Örebro universitet, Hälsovetenskapliga institutionen.
    Järlesäter, Sofie
    Örebro universitet. Örebro universitet, Hälsoakademin.
    Hörselnedsättning och självmordsbeteende.: En undersökning av sambandet mellan självskattad hörselnedsätttning och två aspekter av självmordsbeteende.2009Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
  • 128.
    Lundqvist, Nina
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Hälsovetenskapliga institutionen.
    Hansson, Carolina
    Örebro universitet, Hälsovetenskapliga institutionen.
    Kartläggning av studier kring psykosociala konsekvenser av plötslig idiopatisk hörselnedsättning2006Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats
    Abstract [sv]

    Uppsatsen kartlägger forskning kring psykosociala konsekvenser av plötslig idiopatisk hörselnedsättning och en studie beskrivs närmare. Definitionen av plötslig idiopatisk hörselnedsättning är vanligen en sensorineural hörselnedsättning som uppkommit inom 3 dagar på 3 frekvenser i följd och är mer än 30 dB HL. Vid en hörselskada måste uppmärksamhet riktas mot de psykosociala konsekvenserna som kan uppkomma i arbetslivet och äktenskapet samt leda till isolering. Det finns skillnader i den psykologiska anpassningen till en hörselskada beroende på vilken sorts skada det är, samt individuella skillnader i upplevelsen av de konsekvenser en hörselskada ger. Syftet med uppsatsen var att genom en systematisk litteraturstudie kartlägga den forskning som finns kring de psykosociala konsekvenser som plötslig hörselnedsättning kan medföra. Litteratursökning har skett via databaser och manuellt. En studie kunde inkluderas i den djupare analysen. Resultatet visade att personer med unilateral plötslig idiopatisk hörselnedsättning upplevde psykologiska och sociala konsekvenser på grund av symtomen tinnitus och hörselnedsättning. Några slutsatser kunde inte dras då underlaget var för litet. Men det kan tänkas att plötslig idiopatisk hörselnedsättning faktiskt leder till psykosociala konsekvenser. Den slutsats som kunde dras är att det finns få studier gjorda och därmed lite kunskap kring området, och att mer forskning behövs.

  • 129.
    Lövang, Maria
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Hälsovetenskapliga institutionen.
    Eva-Lena, Ögren
    Örebro universitet, Hälsovetenskapliga institutionen.
    Constriant Induced Movement Therapy: ur ett aktivitetsperspektiv2006Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna studie var att utvärdera CI-terapi för strokedrabbade. Metoden som användes var att analysera redan insamlad data från journaler. Bedömningsinstrumenten som användes i studien var självskattningsinstrumentet UE/MAL, handfunktionstestet GAT samt den klientcentrerade intervjun COPM. Undersökningsgruppen bestod av 23 personer. Data behandlades med statistiska metoder.

  • 130.
    Murman, AnneMarie
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Hälsovetenskapliga institutionen.
    Söderberg, Anette
    Örebro universitet, Hälsovetenskapliga institutionen.
    Äldre ensamboendes upplevelser av vardagsliv och vardagsaktiviteter: En kvalitativ intervjustudie2006Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats
    Abstract [sv]

    I dagens samhälle bor äldre personer kvar i eget boende. De kan då vara i behov av insatser från hemtjänst, anhöriga och bekanta. Aktivitetsförmågan, tryggheten, hemmiljön och möjligheten till social gemenskap är viktig för de äldre. När sedan förutsättningarna ändras behövs anpassningar för att vardagen ska bli hanterbar.

    Syftet med studien var att ta reda på hur de äldre ensamboende över 80 år upplever vardagsaktiviteterna, boendemiljön, tryggheten och den sociala situationen. Vi valde en intervjustudie med kvalitativ ansats och intervjuerna skedde på två orter, fyra personer på varje ort.

  • 131.
    Norberg, Maria
    Örebro universitet, Hälsovetenskapliga institutionen.
    Musik och dans? Vi är ju döva!: Musik och dans i idrottsundervisningen för döva barn i specialskolan2006Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna uppsats utgår från perspektiv och intressen hos en döv, blivande lärare i idrott och hälsa. I den svenska grundskolans kursplaner ingår musik, rytm, dans och rörelse, förutom i ämnet musik också i ämnet idrott och hälsa. Specialskolan för döva och hörselskadade barn skall motsvara grundskolan och har i stort sett liknande intentioner i sin kursplan som grundskolans, så när som på att ämnet musik ersätts av ämnet rörelse och drama. Vad gäller ämnet idrott och hälsa är mitt intryck att musik och dans felaktigt plockas bort från ämnet i specialskolan. Syftet med min uppsats är att ge exempel på hur musik och dans i idrottsundervisningen för döva barn i specialskolan kan se ut, uppfattas och påverka barnen. Jag har genomfört kvalitativa intervjuer med tre personer, en skolpsykolog, en rytmiklärare och en idrottslärare, som med sin kunskap representerar varsitt ämnesområde: "Dövhet och socialisation", "Musik och dans" och "Musik och dans i idrottsundervisningen". Dessa tre ämnesområden ger en helhetsbild i diskussionen, som kan inspirera till samverkan över ämnesgränserna i specialskolan. En vanlig fördom är att döva personer inte kan uppfatta musik och därmed inte dansa. Döva personer, kan påverkas av en sådan fördom och anta en negativ uppfattning av musik och dans. En sådan fördom kan också vara en orsak till att musik och dans plockas bort av en del lärare i idrott och hälsa i specialskolan. Musik och dans på dövas villkor är att skapa musik för döva, som ger rytmer att dansa till.

  • 132.
    Nordh, Sofia
    Örebro universitet, Hälsovetenskapliga institutionen.
    Projektsatsningen Frivilligorganisationers alkohol- och drogförebyggande arbete år 2003-2004: En kvantitativ och kvalitatativ studie kring några frivilligorganisationers upplevelser av projektsatsningens påverkan på deras arbete2006Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med kartläggningsstudien är att undersöka om frivilligorganisationerna, som endast beviljades projektpengar för alkohol- och drogförebyggande arbete under åren 2003-2004, har fortsatt med projekten efter projekttidens slut, hur eventuella fortsatta projekt finansieras nu samt om projektledarna finns kvar i verksamheten. För att uppnå detta syfte valdes en deskriptiv, kvantitativ forskningsmetod. Kartläggningsfrågor i enkätform skickades via e-post ut till intervjupersoner inom de aktuella frivilligorganisationerna.

    Av tio svarande frivilligorganisationer uppgav åtta stycken att projektverksamheten än idag drivs i någon form. Projektverksamheterna finansieras idag med bidrag, inkomster från aktiviteter utförda av den egna verksamheten, samt pengar från den egna frivilligorganisationen. Arbetet drivs också helt ideellt eller finansieras genom att organisationen tar betalt för de tjänster som utförs. Alla projektledarna finns idag kvar inom frivilligorganisationerna.

    Syftet med fördjupningsstudien är att undersöka vad frivilligorganisationerna förmedlar att projektpengarna fört med sig till, och haft för betydelse för deras alkohol- och drogförebyggande arbete, samt om de upplever att deltagandet bidragit med något till deras alkohol- och drogförebyggande arbete på längre sikt. Syftet är också att undersöka vad som anses ha gjort en fortsättning av projektverksamheten möjlig samt uppfattningen om denna typ av finansiering. För att uppnå studiens syfte valdes att göra kvalitativa intervjuer. Telefonintervjuer genomfördes med sju respondenter.

    Projektsatsningen uppgavs ha haft positiv påverkan på det samarbete som frivilligorganisationerna hade med andra aktörer, på samma sätt som på utbytet av erfarenheter med andra frivilligorganisationer. Kunskap ansågs vara en komponent som tillförts frivilligorganisationerna under projektsatsningen, genom utbyte av erfarenhet med andra organisationer. Nya metoder kunde prövas och möjligheten att kunna nå ut till fler med frivilligorganisationens alkohol- och drogförebyggande arbete upplevdes. Pengarna uppgavs praktiskt ha underlättat arbetet, och ha medfört en större frihet att kunna planera. Negativa sidor som uppgavs med projektfinansieringen var svårigheter med kontinuitet och planering, i och med korta finansieringsperioder, samt risken att arbetet ständigt befinner sig i en inledande fas utan att på allvar starta upp. Engagemang från medlemmar och ungdomarna som verksamheten riktar sig mot uppgavs vara faktorer som gjort att frivilligorganisationernas alkohol- och drogförebyggande arbete kunnat fortsätta. Fortsatt hjälp med finansieringen och det faktum att tjänsterna som utförs är avgiftsbelagda var andra faktorer, tillsammans med vikten av att besitta en förmåga att kunna utföra arbetet trots att mängden resurser varierar.

  • 133.
    Odencrants, Sigrid
    Örebro universitet, Hälsovetenskapliga institutionen.
    Måltidsrelaterade situationer och näringstillstånd ur patienters med kroniskt obstruktiv lungsjukdom och sjuksköterskors perspektiv2006Licentiatavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Delarbeten
    1. Living with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: Part I. Struggling with meal-related situations: experiences among persons with COPD
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Living with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: Part I. Struggling with meal-related situations: experiences among persons with COPD
    2005 (Engelska)Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences, ISSN 0283-9318, E-ISSN 1471-6712, Vol. 19, nr 3, s. 230-239Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Reduced nutritional intake with low and decreased body weight can be a component of normal ageing. There is, however, also a greater risk for reduced nutritional intake within certain diagnoses, especially for chronic diseases. Malnutrition in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is caused by many factors. The relationship between COPD and low values of body mass index (BMI) is a known independent risk for mortality. For optimal support and care with special focus on nutritional status and interventions, caregivers need more knowledge about the meal-related situations (i.e. shopping for food, cooking and eating) of COPD patients. The aim of this study was to describe experiences of meal-related situations as viewed from the individual's perspective. The sample included eight women and five men with COPD recruited from five primary health clinics. The participants' average age was 68.9 years, with values of forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV(1) percentage) ranging from 18 to 69 and BMI values from 15 to 40. A descriptive design with qualitative interviews and self-reported diaries were used and the data were later analysed using content analysis. Findings showed consistency between informants' COPD, nutritional status and descriptions of experiences in meal-related situations. Findings were disease-specific but were also found to be general- and age-related. Respondents described physical influences and positive and negative feelings in their meal-related situations. Feelings of dependence, level of activity, transport of food, having company or being alone, appetite, hunger and need of time were also mentioned. Most research reports reduced nutritional status from a medical perspective. To our knowledge, no study has reported the positive and negative feelings that arise when eating in persons with COPD. Malnutrition for persons with COPD is not only caused by eating difficulties: eating is an integral part of social situations as shown in this study.

    Nationell ämneskategori
    Omvårdnad
    Forskningsämne
    Omvårdnadsforskning med medicinsk inriktning
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-2900 (URN)16101851 (PubMedID)
    Tillgänglig från: 2008-02-12 Skapad: 2008-02-12 Senast uppdaterad: 2017-12-14Bibliografiskt granskad
    2. Living with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD): Part II. RNs' experience of nursing care for patients with COPD and impaired nutritional status
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Living with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD): Part II. RNs' experience of nursing care for patients with COPD and impaired nutritional status
    2007 (Engelska)Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences, ISSN 0283-9318, E-ISSN 1471-6712, Vol. 21, nr 1, s. 56-63Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
    Abstract [en]

    This study is the second part of a project with the main purpose of obtaining a deeper understanding of the consequences of living with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) concerning meal-related situations and an impaired nutritional status. COPD is a slowly progressive lung disease that results in several complications, including malnutrition. Nutritional status is an important part of COPD treatment, and there are criteria recommended for nutritional assessment and interventions among patients with COPD. Despite this, patients with extreme malnutrition and unnoticed weight loss are reported. The aim of the study was to investigate how Registered Nurses (RNs) in primary care describe nutritional assessment practices and interventions in COPD patients with impaired nutritional status. An interview approach using semistructured questions and case vignettes was chosen. The sample included 19 RNs working specifically with COPD patients. Data from interviews were analysed using qualitative content analysis, and nine categories corresponding to the aim were identified. The RNs reported that their assessment of nutritional status was based largely on intuition. Assessment also included detection of the patients' current beliefs and being sensible about information provision - When and How. Interventions were supportive eating interventions, practical and cognitive participation, and making patients aware of the illness trajectory. An overall category that influenced nursing was respecting patients' feelings of shame and guilt about a self-inflicted disease. It seems that RNs use intuition because of a lack of knowledge of systematic methods of nutritional assessment. The findings also indicate that the RNs attempted to build a relationship of trust with the patients rather than provide early information on sensitive topics (e.g. nutritional information). The study reports areas of nursing care for COPD patients that must be improved in the future

    Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
    Oxford: Blackwell, 2007
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Tvärvetenskapliga studier inom samhällsvetenskap Omvårdnad
    Forskningsämne
    Omvårdnadsforskning med medicinsk inriktning
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-2901 (URN)10.1111/j.1471-6712.2007.00441.x (DOI)17428215 (PubMedID)
    Tillgänglig från: 2008-02-12 Skapad: 2008-02-12 Senast uppdaterad: 2018-01-13Bibliografiskt granskad
  • 134.
    Ortega, Francisco B.
    et al.
    Unit for Preventive Nutrition, Department of Biosciences and Nutrition at NOVUM, Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge, Sweden; Department of Physiology, School of Medicine, University of Granada, Madrid, Spain.
    Ruiz, Jonatan R.
    Unit for Preventive Nutrition, Department of Biosciences and Nutrition at NOVUM, Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge, Sweden; Department of Physiology, School of Medicine, University of Granada, Madrid, Spain.
    Hurtig-Wennlöf, Anita
    Örebro universitet, Hälsovetenskapliga institutionen.
    Vicente-Rodriguez, Germán
    1.Unit for Preventive Nutrition, Department of Biosciences and Nutrition at NOVUM, Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge, Sweden; EU Health Sciences, University of Zaragoza, Zaragoza, Spain.
    Rizzo, Nico S.
    Unit for Preventive Nutrition, Department of Biosciences and Nutrition at NOVUM, Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge, Sweden.
    Castillo, Manuel J.
    Department of Physiology, School of Medicine, University of Granada, Madrid, Spain.
    Sjöström, Michael
    Unit for Preventive Nutrition, Department of Biosciences and Nutrition at NOVUM, Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge, Sweden.
    Cardiovascular fitness modifies the associations between physical activity and abdominal adiposity in children and adolescents: The European Youth Heart Study2010Ingår i: British Journal of Sports Medicine, ISSN 0306-3674, E-ISSN 1473-0480, Vol. 44, nr 4, s. 256-262Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To examine the associations between physical activity (PA) and abdominal adiposity, as measured by waist circumference, in children and adolescents, and to test whether cardiovascular fitness (CVF) modifies these associations.

    Methods: PA components were measured by accelerometry in 1075 individuals aged 9 or 15 years old. CVF was measured by a maximal cycling test. Self-reported maternal educational level, body mass index, children's birth weight and television viewing were used as confounders.

    Results: Linear regression did not show any association between the PA variables and waist circumference, after controlling for sex, age and height. When stratifying by CVF level (low/high), time spent at vigorous PA was inversely associated with waist circumference (p≤0.05) in the low CVF group. Unexpectedly, in the high CVF group, the PA variables were positively associated with waist circumference (p≤0.05). In both groups, the results were unchanged after controlling for the confounders. CVF was inversely associated with waist circumference, after controlling for all PA variables (p≤0.01) and confounders (p≤0.01).

    Conclusion: CVF is inversely associated with abdominal adiposity and seems to modify the associations between PA and abdominal adiposity. In low-fit children and adolescents, time spent in vigorous PA seems to be the key component linked to abdominal adiposity. This finding should be considered in further development of lifestyle intervention strategies. The results found in the high-fit group need to be confirmed.

  • 135.
    Pettersson, Ingvor
    Örebro universitet, Hälsovetenskapliga institutionen.
    The significance of assistive devices in the daily life of persons with stroke and their spouses2006Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The overall aim of this research project was to explore and describe the significance of assistive devices in daily life. The project involves two qualitative and two quantitative studies. Three of these studies were from the perspective of persons with stroke and one from the perspective of spouses of persons with stroke.

    A hermeneutic phenomenological lifeworld approach was used in the qualitative studies and data was obtained through conversational interviews with the two study groups, 22 persons with stroke and 12 spouses of persons with stroke, after the devices had been used for about a year.

    The results indicated that the lived experiences of assistive devices in respect of the different lifeworld existentials (lived body, lived space, lived time, lived human relation) are closely interconnected in both study groups. The lived body existential included aspects of habits, feelings and the incorporation, figuratively speaking, of the devices into their own bodies. Lived space concerned the gradual development of a new view of the environment and the devices’ role as a prerequisite for being able to live at home. The devices brought about a changed relation to lived time with respect to the temporal perspectives of past, present and future. To be able to take control of one’s own time was an important experience that the devices facilitated. Assistive devices were an integral part of the lived human relation between the couples in the study groups, as well as between the disabled persons/spouses and other people, including the health-care professionals. The devices contributed either to the maintenance or the change of social roles, but they sometimes also gave rise to the experience of being stigmatised. The results in the case of both study groups showed that the use of different devices is complex and often contradictory, especially when it comes to persons with stroke. Overall the persons’ experiences of the advantages of the devices overshadowed their experiences of the disadvantages.

    The quantitative studies included a pre- and post-assessment design. Thirty-two persons with disabilities after stroke were included. The impact of an outdoor powered wheelchair on activity and participation (IPPA, WHODAS II) and quality of life (PIADS, EQ-5D) was measured. Statistical analysis with mainly non-parametric tests was used to determine significant within-group and between-group changes after intervention. The conceptual framework ICF was used in one of the quantitative studies when classifying the participants’ stated problems.

    The results showed that the outdoor powered wheelchair is an essential device for persons with disabilities after stroke with regard to overcoming activity limitation and participation restrictions in everyday life. Furthermore it mostly has a positive impact on such users’ quality of life. However, it is also important to highlight the negative experiences of a few with regard to the use of powered wheelchairs. In sum, these results will enable prescribers to better understand the individual experiences of using assistive devices and the individuals’ and the families’ need for support in connection with the prescription of assistive devices, the particular example being powered wheelchairs.

    Delarbeten
    1. Lifeworld perspectives utilizing assistive devices: individuals, lived experience following a stroke
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Lifeworld perspectives utilizing assistive devices: individuals, lived experience following a stroke
    2007 (Engelska)Ingår i: Canadian Journal of Occupational Therapy / Revue Canadienne d`Ergotèrapie, ISSN 0008-4174, Vol. 74, nr 1, s. 15-26Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: In lifeworld research, the individual's experience of meaning is of primary importance.PURPOSE: This paper explores how individuals post stroke who have a disability, described their personal meaning and lived experiences associated with the use of assistive devices.METHODS: A hermeneutic-phenomenological research approach was used. A conversational interview was conducted with 22 post-stroke individuals regarding their daily experiences utilizing assistive devices.RESULTS: The results showed a dual experience regarding the use of assistive devices, which is often complex and contradictory. The devices were viewed as a prerequisite for well-being and independence but at the same time, the devices gave rise to negative feelings because of the restrictions implied by their use. These dual experiences were explored in relation to the lived body, space, relations to others, and time.PRACTICE IMPLICATIONS: The results of this study will facilitate occupational therapists understanding of an individual's experiences utilizing assistive devices and their need for support with this process.

    Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
    Toronto: Canadian Association of Occupational Therapists, 2007
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Tvärvetenskapliga studier inom samhällsvetenskap Omvårdnad Arbetsterapi
    Forskningsämne
    Vårdvetenskap med inriktning arbetsterapi
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-3071 (URN)10.2182/cjot.06.05 (DOI)17319319 (PubMedID)
    Tillgänglig från: 2006-05-11 Skapad: 2006-05-11 Senast uppdaterad: 2018-01-13Bibliografiskt granskad
    2. Lifeworld perspectives on assistive devices: lived experiences of spouses of persons with stroke
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Lifeworld perspectives on assistive devices: lived experiences of spouses of persons with stroke
    2005 (Engelska)Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Occupational Therapy, ISSN 1103-8128, E-ISSN 1651-2014, Vol. 12, nr 4, s. 159-169Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to explore how spouses of persons with a disability following stroke describe their lived experiences regarding assistive devices in everyday life. A phenomenological lifeworld approach was used and conversational interviews were conducted with 12 spouses. Their lived experiences of assistive devices were explored in relation to four lifeworld existentials intertwined in everyday life. The results showed that lived body concerns aspects of feelings, habits, and incorporation of the devices with one's own body. The devices are, from the spouses' perspective, a prerequisite for their partner with stroke living at home. Successively the devices are incorporated into the couples' homes, and they provide a new view of the environment, aspects related to lived space. The devices bring about a changed relation to lived time, related to past, present, and future. Further, lived human relation concerns changed relationships to husbands/wives with stroke, including a great responsibility due to the devices and their usage. The results also included stigmatizing aspects and a twofold relationship to health professionals regarding participation in decisions about prescribing assistive devices. Understanding the unique meaning of assistive devices from the spouses' perspective is vital for occupational therapists prescribing such devices.

    Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
    London: Taylor & Francis, 2005
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Tvärvetenskapliga studier inom samhällsvetenskap Omvårdnad Arbetsterapi
    Forskningsämne
    Vårdvetenskap med inriktning arbetsterapi
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-3072 (URN)10.1080/11038120510031789 (DOI)
    Tillgänglig från: 2006-05-11 Skapad: 2006-05-11 Senast uppdaterad: 2018-01-13Bibliografiskt granskad
    3. The effect of an outdoor powered wheelchair on activity and participation in users with stroke
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>The effect of an outdoor powered wheelchair on activity and participation in users with stroke
    2006 (Engelska)Ingår i: Disability and Rehabilitation: Assistive Technology, ISSN 1748-3107, Vol. 1, nr 4, s. 235-243Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose.Persons with disabilities after stroke are often restricted in activity and participation in society because of mobility limitations. An outdoor powered wheelchair may be one among other interventions in a rehabilitation programme. The aim of this study was to describe and compare activity limitations and participation restrictions in persons with stroke from their own perspective, before and after using an outdoor powered wheelchair. Method. At baseline and follow-up two instruments were used: Individually Prioritized Problem Assessment (IPPA) and World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule II (WHODAS II). Results. The results indicated that the powered wheelchair has a great positive effect on activity and participation assessed with IPPA. The results also showed that most of the participants' problems could be categorised as belonging to the domain of 'Community, social and civic life' according to the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF), and the effect size in this domain was large (2.4) after the participants had used the wheelchair. Conclusion. An outdoor powered wheelchair is an essential device for persons with disability after stroke with regard to overcoming activity limitations and participation restrictions in everyday life.

    Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
    Abingdon, Oxford, UK: Taylor & Francis, 2006
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Tvärvetenskapliga studier inom samhällsvetenskap Omvårdnad Arbetsterapi
    Forskningsämne
    Vårdvetenskap med inriktning arbetsterapi
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-3073 (URN)10.1080/17483100600757841 (DOI)
    Tillgänglig från: 2006-05-11 Skapad: 2006-05-11 Senast uppdaterad: 2018-01-13Bibliografiskt granskad
    4. The value of an outdoor powered wheelchair with regard to the quality of life of persons with stroke: a follow-up study
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>The value of an outdoor powered wheelchair with regard to the quality of life of persons with stroke: a follow-up study
    2007 (Engelska)Ingår i: Assistive technology, ISSN 1040-0435, E-ISSN 1949-3614, Vol. 19, nr 3, s. 143-153Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Evaluating the use of a powered wheelchair is of importance because of the increasing number of people with disabilities who are provided with one. The aim of this study is to describe characteristics of persons with stroke using an outdoor powered wheelchair and to evaluate the impact of the wheelchair on quality of life. A further aim is to compare the impact on quality of life in respect to age, gender, different disability characteristics, and living conditions. The 32 participants with stroke were recruited consecutively from three county council areas in Sweden. A follow-up design was applied including the EuroQol-5D questionnaires at baseline before the persons were prescribed an outdoor powered wheelchair, and after the participants had used the wheelchair for 3 to 5 months, data were collected by means of the EuroQol-5D and the Psychosocial Impact of Assistive Devices Scale (PIADS). The results indicated an improved quality of life with respect to the items competence, independence, capability, quality of life, well-being, happiness, and self-esteem on the PIADS. The usual activity dimension on the EuroQol-5D showed a significant improvement after wheelchair use. The group who drove the powered wheelchair at least once a day in the summer showed a more positive score on the total PIADS and its Competence subscale than persons who drove less. Furthermore, the group with higher rankings of the importance of the powered wheelchair scored higher on psychosocial impact than did the group with lower rankings. The conclusion is that the powered wheelchair mostly has a positive impact on the quality of life of users with stroke. Service providers should be alert, however, to the possible negative impact of a powered wheelchair on quality of life and support the user.

    Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
    New York, NY: Demos, 2007
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Tvärvetenskapliga studier inom samhällsvetenskap Omvårdnad Arbetsterapi
    Forskningsämne
    Vårdvetenskap med inriktning arbetsterapi
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-3074 (URN)17937056 (PubMedID)
    Tillgänglig från: 2006-05-11 Skapad: 2006-05-11 Senast uppdaterad: 2018-01-13Bibliografiskt granskad
  • 136.
    Pettersson, Ingvor
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Hälsovetenskapliga institutionen.
    Ahlström, Gerd
    Örebro universitet, Hälsovetenskapliga institutionen.
    Törnquist, Kristina
    The value of an outdoor powered wheelchair with regard to the quality of life of persons with stroke: a follow-up study2007Ingår i: Assistive technology, ISSN 1040-0435, E-ISSN 1949-3614, Vol. 19, nr 3, s. 143-153Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Evaluating the use of a powered wheelchair is of importance because of the increasing number of people with disabilities who are provided with one. The aim of this study is to describe characteristics of persons with stroke using an outdoor powered wheelchair and to evaluate the impact of the wheelchair on quality of life. A further aim is to compare the impact on quality of life in respect to age, gender, different disability characteristics, and living conditions. The 32 participants with stroke were recruited consecutively from three county council areas in Sweden. A follow-up design was applied including the EuroQol-5D questionnaires at baseline before the persons were prescribed an outdoor powered wheelchair, and after the participants had used the wheelchair for 3 to 5 months, data were collected by means of the EuroQol-5D and the Psychosocial Impact of Assistive Devices Scale (PIADS). The results indicated an improved quality of life with respect to the items competence, independence, capability, quality of life, well-being, happiness, and self-esteem on the PIADS. The usual activity dimension on the EuroQol-5D showed a significant improvement after wheelchair use. The group who drove the powered wheelchair at least once a day in the summer showed a more positive score on the total PIADS and its Competence subscale than persons who drove less. Furthermore, the group with higher rankings of the importance of the powered wheelchair scored higher on psychosocial impact than did the group with lower rankings. The conclusion is that the powered wheelchair mostly has a positive impact on the quality of life of users with stroke. Service providers should be alert, however, to the possible negative impact of a powered wheelchair on quality of life and support the user.

  • 137.
    Pettersson, Ingvor
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Hälsovetenskapliga institutionen.
    Appelros, Peter
    Ahlström, Gerd
    Örebro universitet, Hälsovetenskapliga institutionen.
    Lifeworld perspectives utilizing assistive devices: individuals, lived experience following a stroke2007Ingår i: Canadian Journal of Occupational Therapy / Revue Canadienne d`Ergotèrapie, ISSN 0008-4174, Vol. 74, nr 1, s. 15-26Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: In lifeworld research, the individual's experience of meaning is of primary importance.PURPOSE: This paper explores how individuals post stroke who have a disability, described their personal meaning and lived experiences associated with the use of assistive devices.METHODS: A hermeneutic-phenomenological research approach was used. A conversational interview was conducted with 22 post-stroke individuals regarding their daily experiences utilizing assistive devices.RESULTS: The results showed a dual experience regarding the use of assistive devices, which is often complex and contradictory. The devices were viewed as a prerequisite for well-being and independence but at the same time, the devices gave rise to negative feelings because of the restrictions implied by their use. These dual experiences were explored in relation to the lived body, space, relations to others, and time.PRACTICE IMPLICATIONS: The results of this study will facilitate occupational therapists understanding of an individual's experiences utilizing assistive devices and their need for support with this process.

  • 138.
    Pettersson, Ingvor
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Hälsovetenskapliga institutionen.
    Berndtsson, Inger
    Appelros, Peter
    Ahlström, Gerd
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för vårdvetenskap och omsorg.
    Lifeworld perspectives on assistive devices: lived experiences of spouses of persons with stroke2005Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Occupational Therapy, ISSN 1103-8128, E-ISSN 1651-2014, Vol. 12, nr 4, s. 159-169Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to explore how spouses of persons with a disability following stroke describe their lived experiences regarding assistive devices in everyday life. A phenomenological lifeworld approach was used and conversational interviews were conducted with 12 spouses. Their lived experiences of assistive devices were explored in relation to four lifeworld existentials intertwined in everyday life. The results showed that lived body concerns aspects of feelings, habits, and incorporation of the devices with one's own body. The devices are, from the spouses' perspective, a prerequisite for their partner with stroke living at home. Successively the devices are incorporated into the couples' homes, and they provide a new view of the environment, aspects related to lived space. The devices bring about a changed relation to lived time, related to past, present, and future. Further, lived human relation concerns changed relationships to husbands/wives with stroke, including a great responsibility due to the devices and their usage. The results also included stigmatizing aspects and a twofold relationship to health professionals regarding participation in decisions about prescribing assistive devices. Understanding the unique meaning of assistive devices from the spouses' perspective is vital for occupational therapists prescribing such devices.

  • 139.
    Pettersson, Ingvor
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Hälsovetenskapliga institutionen.
    Törnquist, Kristina
    Ahlström, Gerd
    Örebro universitet, Hälsovetenskapliga institutionen.
    The effect of an outdoor powered wheelchair on activity and participation in users with stroke2006Ingår i: Disability and Rehabilitation: Assistive Technology, ISSN 1748-3107, Vol. 1, nr 4, s. 235-243Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose.Persons with disabilities after stroke are often restricted in activity and participation in society because of mobility limitations. An outdoor powered wheelchair may be one among other interventions in a rehabilitation programme. The aim of this study was to describe and compare activity limitations and participation restrictions in persons with stroke from their own perspective, before and after using an outdoor powered wheelchair. Method. At baseline and follow-up two instruments were used: Individually Prioritized Problem Assessment (IPPA) and World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule II (WHODAS II). Results. The results indicated that the powered wheelchair has a great positive effect on activity and participation assessed with IPPA. The results also showed that most of the participants' problems could be categorised as belonging to the domain of 'Community, social and civic life' according to the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF), and the effect size in this domain was large (2.4) after the participants had used the wheelchair. Conclusion. An outdoor powered wheelchair is an essential device for persons with disability after stroke with regard to overcoming activity limitations and participation restrictions in everyday life.

  • 140.
    Quennerstedt, Mikael
    Örebro universitet, Hälsovetenskapliga institutionen.
    Kursplaner i idrott och hälsa har ingen betydelse! - en bedräglig myt!?2003Ingår i: Tidskrift i gymnastik och idrott : officiellt organ för Svenska g, ISSN 0281-5338, nr 4, s. 42-43Artikel i tidskrift (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 141.
    Quennerstedt, Mikael
    Örebro universitet, Hälsovetenskapliga institutionen.
    Subject content in Swedish physical education2005Konferensbidrag (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [en]

    This paper focuses on the subject content in Swedish Physical Education (PE), and in the paper Dewey’s transactional perspective on meaning making (Bentley & Dewey 1949) is used in the understanding of how people create meaning by means of their actions in specific situations. These actions form patterns and regularities (Sullivan 2001), and by also applying discourse theory a better understanding of these patterns in an institutional practice can be gained. Further with Foucault’s (1982) concept of power relations an understanding can be reached how certain actions are privileged in favour of other potentially acceptable actions. The approach in the paper also allows for the possibility of how one can relate to different aspects of meaning making within a practice (Rogoff 1995). The aspect of particular interest in this paper is the institutional dimension of meaning making in PE (Quennerstedt & Sundberg 2004).

    In the study local curriculum documents from 116 Swedish compulsory schools is analyzed. The documents are within the Swedish school system regarded as important documents, where teachers express the purposes, the goals and the ways the teacher together with the pupils will work towards the nationally set goals in PE.

    The discourses identified in the study of the local documents are; activity discourse, physiology discourse, sports discourse, motor development discourse, body experience discourse, social development discourse, risk discourse, nature experience discourse, hygiene discourse and moral discourse. There is dominance in the documents of the activity-, physiology- and social development discourses. These discourses constitutes the subject content offered to the pupils, and also constitutes the institutionalised dimension of the pupils meaning making. In the paper I argue that it is the combination of discourses that concludes how the subject content offered to the pupils is constituted.

  • 142.
    Ralf, Abrahamsson
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Hälsovetenskapliga institutionen.
    Lind, Britt-Marie
    Örebro universitet, Hälsovetenskapliga institutionen.
    Att leva med ett ständigt ljud: Psykologiska, sociala och psykosociala konsekvenser av tinnitus.2006Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna litteraturstudie var att sammanfatta vetenskapligt dokumenterade resultat kring vilka psykologiska, sociala och psykosociala konsekvenser som

    tinnitus kan orsaka. Elva artiklar, tre kvalitativa och åtta kvantitativa, valdes ut vid litteratursökningen och analyserades. Analysen resulterade i tre resultatdelar, primära konsekvenser där psykologiska konsekvenser sorterades in, sekundära konsekvenser där sociala konsekvenser sorterades in och en för psykosociala konsekvenser. Den primära resultatdelen visade att personer med svår tinnitus ofta led av koncentrationsproblem,

    sömnproblem och psykologiska problem som exempelvis depressioner. Den sekundära resultatdelen visade att personer med svår tinnitus fungerade sämre i det sociala livet och undvek aktiviteter, jämfört med en population som inte har tinnitus. De psykosociala konsekvenserna som fanns dokumenterade var få. En artikel avvek från de övriga och visade liten påverkan på alla områden. Detta togs upp i diskussionen då artikelns författare ansåg att demografiska och kulturella faktorer kunde ha en positiv inverkan. Detta befanns vara intressanta faktorer som liksom hela det psykosociala området kräver ytterligare forskning. I

    diskussionen påpekades även att man inte kan fastställa om de psykologiska problemen har kommit som en biverkan av tinnitus eller var närvarande innan.

  • 143. Ramires, P. A.
    et al.
    Wennerberg, Ann
    Johansson, Carina B.
    Örebro universitet, Hälsovetenskapliga institutionen. Örebro universitet, Institutionen för klinisk medicin.
    Cosentino, F.
    Tundo, S.
    Milella, E.
    Biological behavior of sol-gel coated dental implants2003Ingår i: Journal of materials science. Materials in medicine, ISSN 0957-4530, E-ISSN 1573-4838, Vol. 14, nr 6, s. 539-545Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The biocompatibility of dental implants coated with titania/hydroxyapatite (HA) and titania/bioactive glass (BG) composites obtained via sol-gel process was investigated using an in vitro and in vivo model. A device for the in vitro testing of screw-shaped dental implants was developed, in order to well compare the two experimental models studying the behavior of human MG63 osteoblast-like cells seeded onto a particular geometry. The expression of some biochemical parameters of osteoblastic phenotype (alkaline phosphatase specific activity, collagen and osteocalcin production) and some indications on cells morphology obtained by scanning electron microscopy were evaluated. The in vitro and in vivo models were compared after implants insertion in rabbit tibia and femur. The removal torque and histomorphometric parameters (percentage of bone in contact with implant surface and the amount of bone inside the threaded area) were examined. A good agreement was found between the in vitro and in vivo models. These experiments showed better performances of HA and BG sol-gel coated dental implants with respect to uncoated titanium; in particular, it was found that in vitro the HA coating stimulates osteoblastic cells in producing higher level of ALP and collagen, whereas in vivo this surface modification resulted in a higher removal torque and a larger bone-implant contact area. This behavior could be ascribed to the morphology and the chemical composition of the implants with rough and bioactive surfaces.

  • 144.
    Ranjbar, Parivash
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Akademin för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Anderzén-Carlsson, Agneta
    Örebro universitet, Hälsovetenskapliga institutionen.
    Neovius, Lennart
    Saven Hitech AB.
    Johansson, Camilla
    Audiologiska forskningscentrum.
    Borg, Erik
    Audiologiska forskningscentrum, USÖ.
    Vibrotactile detection, identification and directional perception of signal-processed sounds from environmental events: a pilot field evaluation in five cases2009Ingår i: Iranian Rehabilitation Journal, ISSN 1735-3602, Vol. 6, nr 7-8, s. 89-107Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: Conducting field tests of a vibrotactile aid for deaf/deafblind persons for detection, identification and directional perception of environmental sounds.

    Method: Five deaf (3F/2M, 22–36 years) individuals tested the aid separately in a home environment (kitchen) and in a traffic environment. Their eyes were blindfolded and they wore a headband and holding a vibrator for sound identification. In the headband, three microphones were mounted and two vibrators for signalling direction of the sound source. The sounds originated from events typical for the home environment and traffic. The subjects were inexperienced (events unknown) and experienced (events known). They identified the events in a home and traffic environment, but perceived sound source direction only in traffic.

    Results: The detection scores were higher than 98% both in the home and in the traffic environment. In the home environment, identification scores varied between 25%-58% when the subjects were inexperienced and between 33%-83% when they were experienced. In traffic, identification scores varied between 20%-40% when the subjects were inexperienced and between 22%-56% when they were experienced. The directional perception scores varied between 30%-60% when inexperienced and between 61%-83% when experienced.

    Conclusion: The vibratory aid consistently improved all participants’ detection, identification and directional perception ability.

  • 145. Reigstad, O.
    et al.
    Johansson, Carina B.
    Örebro universitet, Hälsovetenskapliga institutionen.
    Wennerberg, A.
    Rökkum, M.
    Reigstad, A.
    Quantitative evaluation of Ti6Al4V implants with and without an electrochemically deposited CaP coating2004Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 146. Reikerås, Olav
    et al.
    Johansson, Carina B.
    Örebro universitet, Hälsovetenskapliga institutionen. Örebro universitet, Institutionen för klinisk medicin.
    Sundfeldt, Mikael
    icke ÖU.
    Bone Ingrowths to Press-Fit and Loose-Fit Implants: Comparisons between Titanium and Hydroxyapatite2006Ingår i: Journal of long-term effects of medical implants, ISSN 1050-6934, E-ISSN 1940-4379, Vol. 6, nr 2, s. 157-164Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether the coating of titanium (Ti) implants with hydroxyapatite (HA) might create a better fixation when titanium implants are implanted into a gap. In each of 16 rats, the medullary cavity of both femurs was entered by an awl from the trochanteric area. With steel burrs it was successively reamed to a diameter of 1.5 mm. In a random manner the proximal part of the cavity in half of the bones was reamed once again to a diameter of 2.0 mm. Nails with a diameter of 1.5 mm and a length of 34 mm were then inserted into the medullary cavity of these bones with press fit at the distal half and a gap to the bone in the proximal half. In the remaining bones the whole medullary canal was reamed to a diameter of 2.0 mm, and nails with a diameter of 2.0 mm and a length of 34 mm were introduced. In all cases, either a pure Ti nail or a Ti nail entirely plasma sprayed with HA was used in a random manner. The surface roughness of the pure Ti was characterized by Ra 2.6 microm and Rt 22 microm. Ra of HA was 7.5 microm and Rt 52 microm. At sacrifice after 16 weeks, both femurs were dissected free from soft tissues and then immersed in fixative. A specimen slice of about 5 mm in thickness was prepared from the subtrochanteric region with a water-cooled band saw. Sample preparation for undecalcified tissue followed the internal guidelines at the laboratories of the Department of Biomaterials/Handicap Research. Generally, bone contact to the nails with HA coating was more predictable than was bone contact to the Ti nails. But due to rather large variations in bone contact between the samples, statistical analyses revealed non-significant differences between the 4 groups (p = 0.083). There were no significant differences between Ti and HA coated nails of 2.0 mm (p = 0.633), nor between Ti and HA coated nails of 1.5 mm (p = 0.924). The pooled values for the 2.0 mm nails showed significantly higher bone bonding contact than the pooled values of the 1.5 mm nails (p = 0.011). Our results, then, indicate that bone bonding contact to implants with a loose fit insertion is less predictable than in press fit insertion, and HA coating seemed to be more predictable than pure Ti. However, due to large variations between the samples, the differences did not reach significant levels.

  • 147.
    Rosén, Emma
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Hälsovetenskapliga institutionen.
    Jacobsson, Anna
    Örebro universitet, Hälsovetenskapliga institutionen.
    Förebyggande och/eller lindrande omvårdnadsåtgärder vid illamående och kräkning efter operativa ingrepp2006Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats
    Abstract [sv]

    En vanlig komplikation efter operativa ingrepp är illamående och kräkning, som många gånger kan anses som ett mindre problem. Det kan dock leda till både onödigt obehag och förlänga vårdtiden för patienten. Syftet med denna litteraturstudie är att beskriva omvårdnadsåtgärder som kan förebygga och/eller lindra illamående och kräkning efter operativa ingrepp hos vuxna patienter. Frågorna som ställs är: Vilka omvårdnadsåtgärder kan (1) förebygga och (2) lindra illamående och kräkning efter operativa ingrepp hos vuxna patienter? Metoden är en litteraturstudie. Resultatet visar på ett flertal förebyggande och lindrande omvårdnadsåtgärder som: akupressur, akupunktur, elektrisk stimulering, vätska, syrgas, musik och vägledande bildspråk, inhalation av arom och allmänna omvårdnadsåtgärder. Akupressur kan ha en fördelaktig effekt i det förebyggande arbetet mot illamående och kräkning och en ökad intravenös vätsketillförsel kan både förebygga och lindra.

  • 148.
    Rydberg, Emelie
    Örebro universitet, Hälsovetenskapliga institutionen.
    Döva på arbetsmarknaden – en utsatt position2006Ingår i: Dövhet och hörselnedsättning: specialpedagogiska perspektiv / [ed] Carin Roos, Siv Fischbein, Lund: Studentlitteratur, 2006, s. 231-250Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 149.
    Sahlberg-Blom, Eva
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Hälsovetenskapliga institutionen.
    Ternestedt, Britt-Marie
    Johansson, Jan-Erik
    Patient participation in decision making at the end of life as seen by a close relative2000Ingår i: Nursing Ethics, ISSN 0969-7330, E-ISSN 1477-0989, Vol. 7, nr 4, s. 296-313Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the present study was to describe variations in patientparticipation in decisions about care planningduring the final phase of life for a group of gravely ill patients, and how the different actors’manner of acting promotes or impedes patientparticipation. Thirty-seven qualitative research interviewswere conducted with relatives of the patients.The patients’ participation in the decisionscould be categorized into four variations: self-determination,co-determination, delegation and nonparticipation.The manner in which patients, relatives andcaregivers acted differed in the respective variations; thisseemed either to promote or to impede the patients’opportunities of participating in the decisionmaking. The possibility for participation seems to be context dependent and affected by many factors suchas the dying patient’s personality, thesocial network, the availability of different forms of care,cultural values, and the extent to which nursesand other caregivers of the different formsof care can and want to support the wishes of the patients andrelatives in the decision-making process.

  • 150.
    Sakariasson, Marie
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Hälsovetenskapliga institutionen.
    Pettersson, Sofia
    Örebro universitet, Hälsovetenskapliga institutionen.
    Förbättring i dagliga aktiviteter efter rehabilitering på geriatrisk klinik: Improvement in daily activities after rehabilitation in a Geriatric Department2007Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats
12345 101 - 150 av 214
RefereraExporteraLänk till träfflistan
Permanent länk
Referera
Referensformat
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Annat format
Fler format
Språk
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Annat språk
Fler språk
Utmatningsformat
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf