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  • 1451.
    Nilsson, Jesper
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Moberg, Simon
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Livstidskostnadskalkyl av förstärkning vid landsvägar- Jämförelse mellan rekonstruktion och asfaltpåläggning2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Each year, 5 % of the state-owned roads get resurfaced and 1-2% of the state-owned roads are

    being reinforced. The most common method of reinforcing the weakened roads in Sweden is

    adding a layer of asphalt on top of the existing surface of the road [1, 3].

    Every reinforcement object has its own prerequisite of where the object is located

    geographically. This means that every object has different proportions for each case (look at

    bilaga E).

    Bitumen is an expensive oil product that is used as a binder in the production of asphalt. Each

    year, tons of bitumen is imported to Sweden at a cost of billions of Swedish crowns. The

    production of bitumen is not an environmentally friendly type of story [4].

    One reinforcement method is to adding a new base and a wearing course layer of asphalt,

    hereafter called “AG-reinforcement”, which increases the roads height, usually by 10 cm [1,

    5]. The new height of the road contributes to the relative lowering of guard railings, to a point

    where the safety barrier tends to become a “stumbling edge” and increases the risk of

    vehicular rollovers [6]. When AG-reinforcement is used it will not have a good insulating

    effect against frost. This could lead to a demand for unreasonably thick layers of asphalt to get

    the same frost insulating effect as with the measure “reconstruction” [16], (look at bilaga A,

    E5).

    During reconstruction, the asphalt pavement is removed and the unbound roadbed gets

    reinforced before a new (often recycled) bound layer of asphalt is added. This method results

    in a larger increase of the roads height and demands more work in the side area. With this

    method, the road safety can be maintained and raised, but requires more re-investment (look

    at Tabell 11) [1].

    Through this report, a lifecostcycle analysis is made by comparing these two reinforcement

    methods through different conditions for Swedish rural highways. The calculations for the

    cost is done in a calculation software and the bearing capacity is analyzed in PMS object

    software, developed by the Swedish Transport Administration. The results show that on

    straight roads, present value of the investment is 15 % higher during reconstruction.

    Reconstruction has a more positive effect on safety and a longer lifetime (look at Tabell 11).

  • 1452.
    Nilsson, Michael
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Konfigurationsverktyg för SIA2016Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This report describes the development of an application used to configure integrations used by Sigma Integration Architecture (SIA). The application is aimed towards Sigma personnel unfamiliar with the integration architecture, as it provides the user with various help elements in an effort to ease the configuration process and lower the entry barrier for creating and editing integrations. Using Java's reflection API in combination with dynamic proxies, the application is able to perform validation and simulation of integration pipelines before they are used for production. We also include a cache mechanism to speed up the process, and provide experimental verification of caching performance. The application is developed as two separate parts, consisting of a back end written in Java, and a web-based front end created with AngularJS.

  • 1453.
    Nilsson, Mikael
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Magnusson, Patrik
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Half Acute: Spelprojekt till Swedish Game Awards2016Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this report we are going to describe the development process of our game that we have as our thesis. To be able to have this project as our thesis, we had to enter our game in the game development competition called “Swedish Game Awards”. This competition is only for students, giving them a place to present their game projects. The game is about a guy named Kurt, who decides to go and rescue his kidnapped dog.

     

    We will explain how we went about developing the game and about the different tools and methods we used to complete the project. Both in terms of the demands that is needed to send our project as an entry to the Swedish Game Awards, and in terms of the requirements we decided on by ourselves. We will describe the adversity we had in our project and how we went about solving them. Finally we will also present and discuss our results from the development of the game, and its future potential for further development.

  • 1454.
    Nilsson, Per
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    An Inferentialist Perspective on How Note-taking can Constrain the Orchestration of Math-Talk2018In: Scandinavian Journal of Educational Research, ISSN 0031-3831, E-ISSN 1470-1170Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study is to investigate relationships between note-taking and the orchestrating of math-talk in whole-class teaching. A lesson on (average) velocity in a Swedish Grade 6 has been observed. Taking an inferentialist stance on human understanding, the study conceptualizes teaching and learning from the perspective of how students come to be engaged in the language practice of giving and asking for reasons. The study shows how note-taking supports a teacher-student relationship where the teacher produces content and the students’ participation is reduced to consume content. It shows how note-taking can support descriptive math-talk of concepts and symbols and step-by-step procedural math-talk, connected to the goal of providing students examples of tasks, similar to the tasks in their textbook.

  • 1455.
    Nilsson, Per
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Building a local theory for the learning of experimental probability2015In: Nordic research in mathematics education: Proceedings of NORMA14, Turku, June 3–6, 2014 / [ed] Harry Silfverberg, Tomi Kärki and Markku S. Hannula, Turku: University of Turku, Department of Teacher Education , 2015, p. 318-328Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The approach of this paper builds on the assumption that there is a need to develop local, domain specific instructional theories for the learning of probability. The aim of the present paper is to explore the qualitative hypothesis of building such a theory on the combination of students’ own experimentations with samples and principles of variation. By using data from 12-13-year old students investigating the probability of obtaining a certain colour when picking, at random, one piece from a bag with six different colours of the candy, the paper shows how variations in students’ own experimentations with samples can be used as means to explore and support students’ understanding of critical features of experimental probability. 

  • 1456.
    Nilsson, Per
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Experimentation in probability teaching and learning2014In: Probabilistic thinking: presenting plural perspectives / [ed] Chernoff, Egan J. och Sriraman, Bharath, Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands, 2014, 1, p. 509-532Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter explores the relationship between theoretical and empirical probability in experimentation-based teaching of probability. We examine previous research and a fresh small-scale teaching experiment in order to explore probability teaching, which involves students’ (12–13 years old) experimentation with data.

    The literature review and the teaching experiment point to several challenges for teaching probability through experimentations. Students emphasize absolute frequencies and part–part relationships, which makes it difficult for them to understand the principle of replacement and end up with numerical values to probability estimates. Students also find it hard to compare and make inferences if the samples are made up with different numbers of observations.

    According to teaching strategies, the teaching experiment shows how experimentation encourages students to engage in questions of chance and probability. Among other things, it is also shown how variation of meaning-contexts supports students understanding of unfamiliar situations and how comparison-oriented questions can be used to promote students understanding of the relationship between theoretical and empirical probability.

  • 1457.
    Nilsson, Per
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Blomberg, Per
    Linnaeus University, Växjö, Sweden.
    Berman-Ärlebäck, Jonas
    Linköpings University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Exploring realistic Bayesian modeling situations2014In: Sustainability in statistics education: Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference on Teaching Statistics / [ed] K. Makar, B. de Sousa, & R. Gould, 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The study reported in the present paper is part of a larger project, which aims to explore possibilities and challenges in developing a teaching practice that supports students’ ability to model random dependent situations by a Bayesian approach. A central premise is that modeling should be based on situations that appear realistic to the students. Given this premise, the specific purpose of the present study is to identify and characterize uncertain situations that are realistic and suitable for a Bayesian treatment. The study involves reviewing some of the literature related to Bayesian applications. Based on that review we distinguish detecting (test) situations and construction composition situations as two general types of Bayesian modeling situations.

  • 1458.
    Nilsson, Per
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Eckert, Andreas
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Pratt, Dave
    London University, London, UK.
    Challenges and opportunities in experimentation-based instruction in probability2017In: Teaching and Learning Probability: Advances in Probability Education Research / [ed] Batanero, C. & Chernoff, E.J., Springer Netherlands, 2017Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 1459.
    Nilsson, Per
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology. Institutionen för matematikdidaktik (MD), Linnéuniversitetet, Växjö, Sweden.
    Lindström, Torsten
    Institutionen för matematik (MA), Linnéuniversitetet, Växjö, Sweden.
    Profiling Swedish teachers’ knowledge base in probability2013In: Nordisk matematikkdidaktikk, ISSN 1104-2176, Vol. 18, no 4, p. 51-72Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper aims at profiling Swedish teachers’ knowledge base in probability. 43 teachers in compulsory school answered a questionnaire on probability estimation tasks and concept tasks. In the concept tasks, they were challenged to explain their solutions and the content involved in the probability estimation tasks. We distin- guish five patterns in the teachers’ knowledge profile: 1) a basic understanding of the theoretical interpretation of probability, 2) problems with structuring compound events, 3) difficulty with conjunction and conditional probability, 4) a higher degree of common content knowledge than of specialized content knowledge and 5) limited understanding of random variation and principles of experimental probability.

  • 1460.
    Nilsson, Per
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Ryve, Andreas
    School of Education, Culture and Communication, Mälardalen University, Västerås, Sweden.
    Larsson, Maria
    School of Education, Culture and Communication, Mälardalen University, Västerås, Sweden.
    Characterizing theories aimed at supporting teachers’ mathematical classroom practices2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we draw upon examples from a recently published systematic literature review (Ryve et al, 2015) on productive classroom practice to contribute to the research on the nature of theories for action in mathematics education. By relating the results from the review to theories and literature on educational policy research, professional development research and implementation research we construct a framework for categorizing theories aiming at supporting teachers’ actions in mathematical classroom practices.

  • 1461.
    Nilsson, Per
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Schindler, Maike
    University of Cologne, Cologne, Germany .
    The nature and use of theories in statistics education: looking back, looking forward2018In: Looking back, looking forward / [ed] M. A. Sorto, A. White, & L. Guyot, Voorburg, The Netherlands: The International Statistical Institute, 2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Theories have a significant role for scientific work—also for statistics education research (SER). This paper elaborates on the use of theories in SER, based on findings of a literature review on the nature and use of theories in SER. In particular, we address theoretical issues and possible directions to further theory development in SER. Subsequently, we discuss five themes that in our view need further attention in SER. 

  • 1462.
    Nilsson, Per
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Schindler, Maike
    University of Cologne, Cologne, Germany.
    Bakker, Arthur
    Utrecht University, Utrecht, The Netherlands.
    The nature and use of theories in statistics education2017In: International Handbook of Research in Statistics Education / [ed] Ben-Zvi, D.; Makar, K.; Garfield, J., Springer, 2017Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 1463.
    Nilsson Övringe, Annelie
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Automation och fixturlösning för monteringsprocess2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this project is to make an assemblyprocess, at the manufacturing company PartnerTech AB in Karlskoga, less dependant on the operators. It will also investigate the possibilities to rationalize and automate this process.

    To create an understanding for the process the project started with a status analysis.

    Because many companies upload films on their solutions on the internet some time were dedicated to study these films. To collect facts about fixtures and automation earlier courselitterature, books and articles were studied.

    The process of constructing a fixture that will be possible to integrate in a automated assemblyprocess is complex and therefore some stuctural tools were necessary to use. A range of different concepts for both the fixturesolution and the assemblyprocess were generated. After an evaluation of the concepts one concept remained.

    The suggested solution will result in an improved solution for glue application, a more solid and userfriendly fixture and a improved assemblymethod.

  • 1464.
    Nimelius, Emma
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Catalantal för gymnasieelever2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Den här uppsatsen behandlar de så kallade Catalantalen, vilket är en talföljd som används inom många olika tillämpningsområden. Tanken är att läsaren först ska få en introduktion/repetition inom de delar av kombinatoriken som är nödvändiga för att sedan kunna förstå Catalantalen och dess användning. Uppsatsen är främst skriven för gymnasieelever som vill fördjupa sig inom kombinatoriken men kan även passa universitetsstuderande inom matematik.Uppsatsen kan kanske även fungera som ett stöd till att förse intresserade elever med ytterligare material och utmaningar.

     

  • 1465.
    Nisstany, Saman
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Integration with Outlook Calendar2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor of Fine Arts), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This report will be covering further development of the Realtime-Updated Dashboard made by two students for Flex Applications in VT2017. The task now is to integrate the Dashboard with Outlook calendar.

    A theoretical deepening into the General Data Protection Regulation was made due to recent development in the European Union. This was used to set strict guidelines for design, consent and security of the application.

     

    The application is a back-end service written mostly in C#, however some TypeScript language was used with Angular 2 framework along with LESS and HTML5. The application is developed as a stand-alone project as the Realtime-Updated Dashboard is now live in the system and it would pose a security risk for Flex which was a great opportunity to study and learn more about ASP.NET MVC model along with TypeScript, Angular2, LESS and HTML5. Integrating with Outlook calendar was just the first step, more calendars will be added in time. The main point of the application is to give the Realtime-Updated Dashboard added value and prove/show integration with Outlook calendar was possible.

     

  • 1466.
    Noori, Azal
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Digital teknik i matematikundervisning: – En systematisk litteraturstudie som undersöker om effekterna av digital teknik ökar elevernas motivation för matematikundervisning2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Mathematics is a subject that is perceived to be abstract and very boring. Students therefore do not feel motivated to learn the subject. Students grow up today entertaining themselves with digital technology. Digital technology has therefore been introduced in school as a tool to develop learning. This systematic literature study investigates the effects of digital technology on students' motivation in mathematics. Two different main categories emerged, Digital technology as a reinforcement of existing teaching practice and Digital games as a teaching method. These main categories examine the effects of digital technology in mathematics education. The result of the study shows that digital technology has positive effects on students' motivation, if used for the right purpose. The role of the teacher is also important. The teacher's knowledge and attitude towards digital technology affect students' learning. Digital technology should not take over the teacher's role, but it is a tool to help the teacher develop pupils' learning.

  • 1467.
    Nordin, Peter
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Rönnlund, Robert
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Utveckling av kapningsmetod för extruderat krut2015Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Powder is an explosive material with many applications. Powder can be used to take lives but also to save lives depending on what it is used for. No matter what, the material requires great respect and ethical responsibility.

    The thesis has been carried out for 11 weeks in the form of a feasibility study for Eurenco Bofors AB. Bofors with its long history of explosive materials and weapon manufacturing invite those who are interested in history to further plunge in the subject. The overall purpose of the study was to support the company with information for further investigation.

    The report describes how the cutting method for extruded powder can be developed so that today's manufacturing method can be more efficient. The method used today causes an undesirable waste product which is difficult to recycle.The report describes proposals on how the waste product should be either eliminated or minimized to improve the after treatment.

    The conclusion of the work indicates that an elimination of the waste product was problematic to implement, therefore were proposals for improvements presented. These consist of two different solutions where the first illustrates how the waste product is cut into several parts with the help of a new designed knife and the other solution illustrates how the waste product can be divided by a specially designed tool.

  • 1468.
    Nordström, Amelie
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Method Development for Quantification of Different Persistent Organic Pollutants in Ringed Seal (Phoca hispida) from the Baltic Sea2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Persistent organic pollutants such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), DDT and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) tend to accumulate in biota and are transferred through the aquatic food web, which result in a high accumulation in marine mammals. In recent years various novel flame retardants (nBFRs), which have replaced the banned PBDEs, have also started to occur in the environment. These nBFRs have similar properties as PBDEs, such as long-range transport and accumulation in biota. The purpose with this study was to evaluate a method by using pre-packed silica columns for quantification of PCBs, DDT, PBDEs and nBFRs in seal blubber, in order to facilitate the pre-treatment and decrease the time. To elute the different POPs from the pre-packed silica column; hexane, toluene and dichloromethane were used in different stages. By using this method levels of PCB and DDT were determined. For DDT the concentration was 8.28 ng/g lipid and 8.94 ng/g lipid for the two samples that was analysed, and the analysis of the PCBs showed a higher trend for the higher chlorinated PCBs. As the pre-packed silica columns are a relative new method. Further studies are therefore needed on these columns to further improve the sample clean-up and fractionation of the different POPs in environmental samples.

  • 1469.
    Nordström, Daniel
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Eklund Hallman, Joel
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Produktifiering av tjänsteprodukter2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis is written at Örebro University as the authors ending project at the University. The main issue treated in the report is complications to identify and describe offerings. This results in a prolonged sales process as well as low efficiency due to a high degree of new development that comes with each sale. The report narrates methodology and the generally important aspects that needs to be tended when working with productification. The general findings have been implicated on a specific service product to identify five key factors; customer participation, customization, transparency, standardization and pricing. Un analysis has been made to determine if the Lean concepts 5S and pulse meeting can be used to increase the efficiency in the company’s assembly workshop.

    To tackle the issue a literature review has been performed in combination with numbers of interviews with respondents from various departments. Internal documents have been analyzed and a benchmarking study at an external industry have been carried out. The study has shown that the largest complication can be found in balancing customization with efficiency. The identified approach is to structure service processes and components into modules with functional interfaces.

  • 1470.
    Nordström, Therese
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Strategier vid läsning och lösning av textuppgifter i matematik: en studie om strategier elever som läser svenska som andraspråk använder för att lösa textuppgifter i matematik.2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Language has a big impact on how we understand some parts in the subject of mathematics. Thera are several factors in mathematics that can be challenging for second language students. One of these factors is to go from everyday language to a mathematic language because there are words that have different meaning depending on the context they are in. It is more challenging for students, who do not fully understand the mathematic language, to solve word problems in mathematics. The purpose of this study was therefore, through observations and interviews, to find out what strategies second language students use to solve word problems in mathematics. It was also to find out what lies behind their choices. This connected to the hidden rules that can exist in a classroom and the didactical contract. Eight strategies where found and four of them could be connected to the hidden rules or the didactical contract. Two strategies where explained with other reasons. Conclusions are that students use several strategies to solve word problems and that there in value in realizing how the hidden rules and the didactical contact can have an impact on student choices.

  • 1471.
    Nordén, Marcus
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Comparative avian developmental toxicity of PFAAs2013Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) are persistent organic pollutants that can commonly be found in environmental matrixes and wildlife from all over the globe. The PFAAs have been used in applications such as water and dirt repelling treatments for textiles, oil-resistant paper coatings and fire-fighting foams. Four studies were designed to evaluate the occurrence of PFAAs in Swedish populations of birds, the developmental toxicity of different PFAAs and species sensitivity differences as well as possible modes of action for the toxicity. The studied species were domestic chicken, and the wild species great cormorant and herring gull. Cormorant and gull eggs were collected from bird colonies in Lake Vänern, Sweden. Chemical analyses were performed on some of the eggs to determine the occurrence of 15 PFAAs in the eggs. The other eggs and eggs of domestic chicken were incubated and injected with solutions of the PFAAs PFOS, PFOA, PFBS and PFUnDA. The eggs were candled every 1-3 days to determine viability. High levels of PFAAs, mainly PFOS followed by PFUnDA, were found in the herring gull and great cormorant eggs. PFOS was found at concentrations up to 1163 ng/g and 771 ng/g in cormorant and herring gull, respectively. In the toxicity tests, chicken was found to be more sensitive than the wild species and cormorant was in general the least sensitive species. PFOA was found to be the most toxic of the chemicals followed by PFOS, PFBS and PFUnDA in decreasing order. Comparing these results with the levels of these chemicals found in the eggs of herring gull and great cormorant, PFOS is the chemical of most concern. Although PFOA had the highest toxicity, the levels found in the eggs were very low. In an additional study, the hepatic β-oxidation in developing chicken embryos after in ovo exposure to PFOS was studied with a tritium release assay. PFOS was found to increase the β-oxidation of palmitic acid at PFOS concentrations 3-7 times lower than the average egg levels in cormorant and herring gull. Therefore the occurrence of effects on the fatty acid metabolism cannot be ruled out. The doses of effect on embryo survival in the toxicity and the levels found in the herring gulls and cormorants gives a small margin of safety for the wild populations. Continued environmental monitoring and further studies on the toxicity of PFAAs that occur at high environmental concentrations is important.

    List of papers
    1. High levels of perfluoroalkyl acids in eggs and embryo livers of great cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis) and herring gull (Larus argentatus) from Lake Vanern, Sweden
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>High levels of perfluoroalkyl acids in eggs and embryo livers of great cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis) and herring gull (Larus argentatus) from Lake Vanern, Sweden
    2013 (English)In: Environmental science and pollution research international, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 20, no 11, p. 8021-8030Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

     In the eggs and developing chick livers in the two wild bird species, great cormorant and herring gull, the concentrations of a range of 15 perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) were determined. Eggs of the two species were collected from Lake Vanern, Sweden, and analysed either as undeveloped egg (whole egg or separated into yolk and albumen) or incubated until start of the hatching process when the chick liver was removed and analysed. High levels of PFAAs were found in all matrixes except albumen. The predominant PFAA was perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), which was found in the mug/g wet weight (ww) range in some samples of cormorant whole egg, yolk and liver and herring gull egg yolk and liver. The average concentration in yolk was 1,506 ng/g ww in cormorant and 589 ng/g ww in herring gull. The average liver concentrations of PFOS were 583 ng/g ww in cormorant and 508 ng/g ww in herring gull. At these concentrations, biochemical effects in the developing embryo or effects on embryo survival cannot be ruled out. For perfluoroalkyl carboxylates (PFCAs), the liver/egg and liver/yolk concentration ratios increased with PFCA chain length in cormorant but not in herring gull, indicating that chain length could possibly affect egg-to-liver transfer of PFCAs and that species differences may exist.

    National Category
    Natural Sciences
    Research subject
    Biology; Enviromental Science
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-29083 (URN)10.1007/s11356-013-1567-3 (DOI)000325811600047 ()
    Funder
    Formas
    Available from: 2013-05-21 Created: 2013-05-21 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
    2. Developmental toxicity of PFOS and PFOA in great cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis), herring gull (Larus argentatus) and chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus)
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Developmental toxicity of PFOS and PFOA in great cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis), herring gull (Larus argentatus) and chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus)
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) are found globally in environmental samples and have been studied in various species. In this study we compare the sensitivity of three avian species to the toxic effects of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA). Eggs of great cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis) and herring gull (Larus argentatus) and the domestic White Leghorn chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus) were exposed in ovo by injection into the air sac. Effects on embryo survival were observed following exposure to PFOS and PFOA in chicken and herring gull. Chicken was found to be the most sensitive species with 50% reduced embryo survival at 8.5 μg/g egg for PFOS and 2.5 μg/g egg for PFOA. Cormorant was shown to be the least sensitive species. The difference in sensitivity between chicken and herring gull was a factor of 2.7 for PFOS and 3.5 for PFOA. Between chicken and great cormorant the sensitivity difference was 2.6 for PFOS and 8.2 for PFOA. Effects on embryo survival were seen at egg injection doses of PFOS close to levels found in environmental samples from wild birds, indicating that PFOS could be having effects in highly exposed populations of birds. This study also shows that there are differences in species sensitivity to PFOS and PFOA that should be taken into consideration in avian wildlife risk assessment.

    Keywords
    PFOS, PFOA, chicken, herring gull, great cormorant, developmental toxicity
    National Category
    Biological Sciences
    Research subject
    Biology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-32655 (URN)
    Available from: 2013-12-06 Created: 2013-12-06 Last updated: 2017-10-17Bibliographically approved
    3. Developmental toxicity of PFBS and PFUnDA in great cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis),herring gull (Larus argentatus) and chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus)
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Developmental toxicity of PFBS and PFUnDA in great cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis),herring gull (Larus argentatus) and chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus)
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Perfluorinated alkyl acids (PFAAs) are found in a wide range of biological matrixes due to their persistent nature and widespread and longtime use. Among the most commonly found in wildlife are perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluoroundecanoic acid (PFUnDA). PFOS and its precursors have been replaced by shorter chained compounds such as perfluorobutane sulfonate (PFBS). PFOS and perfluoroctanoic acid (PFOA) are generally the most studied and studies on wild species of birds are scarce. In this study chicken, great cormorant and herring gull eggs were exposed to solutions of PFBS and PFUnDA. The eggs were incubated and candled to monitor embryo survival. PFBS significantly reduced survival in all species at 17.3 μg/g anion dose. Chicken LD50 was calculated to 29 μg/g. The cormorant was less sensitive. PFUnDA did not affect embryo survival in any of the species but did increase liver somatic index and decrease heart somatic index in chicken. Chemical analysis confirmed that the liver absorption of the chemicals correlated to the injected dose. Chicken was found to accumulate more of the PFAAs in the liver than the wild species. Comparing observed effects and environmental levels, PFBS and PFUnDA are of minor environmental concern compared to PFOS. However, due to their persistent nature and the possibility of cumulative effects of several PFAAs, continued monitoring and moretoxicological studies are needed.

    Keywords
    PFBS, PFUnDA
    National Category
    Biological Sciences
    Research subject
    Biology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-32656 (URN)
    Available from: 2013-12-06 Created: 2013-12-06 Last updated: 2017-10-17Bibliographically approved
    4. Perfluorooctane sulfonate increases β-oxidation of palmitic acid in chicken liver
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Perfluorooctane sulfonate increases β-oxidation of palmitic acid in chicken liver
    2012 (English)In: Environmental science and pollution research international, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 19, no 5, p. 1859-1863Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) belongs to a group of chemicals called perfluoroalkyl acids that have been extensively used in various applications such as stain and oil resistant treatments for fabrics, fire-fighting foams, and insecticides. These chemicals present an environmental and health risk being present in many samples both in wildlife and humans. In this study, we investigate the effect of PFOS on fatty acid β-oxidation in developing chicken embryos.

    Methods: Fertilized chicken eggs were exposed in ovo to PFOS at day 4 of incubation. On day 10, the eggs were dissected and livers were incubated in vitro with (3)H-palmitic acid for 2 h. The media were collected, and after clean up, the amount of tritiated water was measured with liquid scintillation counting to determine the rate of palmitic acid β-oxidation.

    Results: PFOS was found to induce fatty acid β-oxidation at doses starting from a lowest observed effect level (LOEL) of 0.1 μg/g egg weight. Maximum induction of 77 % compared to control was seen at 0.3 μg/g.

    Conclusions: The administered doses in which effects are seen are around and even lower than the levels that can be found in wild populations of birds. General population human levels are a factor of two to three times lower than the LOEL value of this study. The environmental contamination of PFOS therefore presents a possibility of effects in wild populations of birds.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Heidelberg, Germany: Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2012
    Keywords
    Perfluorooctane sulfonate, PFOS, exposure, chicken, palmitic acid, β-oxidation, tritium
    National Category
    Medical and Health Sciences Biological Sciences Biomedical Laboratory Science/Technology
    Research subject
    Biology; Biomedical Laboratory Science
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-24853 (URN)10.1007/s11356-012-0869-1 (DOI)000305884600053 ()22441698 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-84863225035 (Scopus ID)
    Funder
    Swedish Research Council Formas
    Available from: 2012-08-23 Created: 2012-08-23 Last updated: 2017-12-07Bibliographically approved
  • 1472.
    Nordén, Marcus
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Berger, Urs
    Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM), Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Engwall, Magnus
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Developmental toxicity of PFBS and PFUnDA in great cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis),herring gull (Larus argentatus) and chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Perfluorinated alkyl acids (PFAAs) are found in a wide range of biological matrixes due to their persistent nature and widespread and longtime use. Among the most commonly found in wildlife are perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluoroundecanoic acid (PFUnDA). PFOS and its precursors have been replaced by shorter chained compounds such as perfluorobutane sulfonate (PFBS). PFOS and perfluoroctanoic acid (PFOA) are generally the most studied and studies on wild species of birds are scarce. In this study chicken, great cormorant and herring gull eggs were exposed to solutions of PFBS and PFUnDA. The eggs were incubated and candled to monitor embryo survival. PFBS significantly reduced survival in all species at 17.3 μg/g anion dose. Chicken LD50 was calculated to 29 μg/g. The cormorant was less sensitive. PFUnDA did not affect embryo survival in any of the species but did increase liver somatic index and decrease heart somatic index in chicken. Chemical analysis confirmed that the liver absorption of the chemicals correlated to the injected dose. Chicken was found to accumulate more of the PFAAs in the liver than the wild species. Comparing observed effects and environmental levels, PFBS and PFUnDA are of minor environmental concern compared to PFOS. However, due to their persistent nature and the possibility of cumulative effects of several PFAAs, continued monitoring and moretoxicological studies are needed.

  • 1473.
    Nordén, Marcus
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Berger, Urs
    Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM), Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Engwall, Magnus
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Developmental toxicity of PFOS and PFOA in great cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis), herring gull (Larus argentatus) and chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) are found globally in environmental samples and have been studied in various species. In this study we compare the sensitivity of three avian species to the toxic effects of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA). Eggs of great cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis) and herring gull (Larus argentatus) and the domestic White Leghorn chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus) were exposed in ovo by injection into the air sac. Effects on embryo survival were observed following exposure to PFOS and PFOA in chicken and herring gull. Chicken was found to be the most sensitive species with 50% reduced embryo survival at 8.5 μg/g egg for PFOS and 2.5 μg/g egg for PFOA. Cormorant was shown to be the least sensitive species. The difference in sensitivity between chicken and herring gull was a factor of 2.7 for PFOS and 3.5 for PFOA. Between chicken and great cormorant the sensitivity difference was 2.6 for PFOS and 8.2 for PFOA. Effects on embryo survival were seen at egg injection doses of PFOS close to levels found in environmental samples from wild birds, indicating that PFOS could be having effects in highly exposed populations of birds. This study also shows that there are differences in species sensitivity to PFOS and PFOA that should be taken into consideration in avian wildlife risk assessment.

  • 1474.
    Nordén, Marcus
    et al.
    School of Science and Technology, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Berger, Urs
    Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry (ACES), Stockholm university, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Engwall, Magnus
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Developmental toxicity of PFOS and PFOA in great cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis), herring gull (Larus argentatus) and chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus)2016In: Environmental science and pollution research international, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 23, no 11, p. 10855-10862Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) are found globally in environmental samples and have been studied in various species. In this study, we compare the sensitivity of three avian species to the toxic effects of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA). Eggs of great cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis), herring gull (Larus argentatus) and the domestic White Leghorn chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus) were exposed in ovo by injection into the air sac. Effects on embryo survival were observed following exposure to PFOS and PFOA in chicken and herring gull. Chicken was found to be the most sensitive species with 50 % reduced embryo survival at 8.5 μg/g egg for PFOS and 2.5 μg/g egg for PFOA. Cormorant was shown to be the least sensitive species. The difference in sensitivity between chicken and herring gull was a factor of 2.7 for PFOS and 3.5 for PFOA. Between chicken and great cormorant, the sensitivity difference was 2.6 for PFOS and 8.2 for PFOA. Effects on embryo survival were seen at egg injection doses of PFOS close to levels found in environmental samples from wild birds, indicating that PFOS could be having effects in highly exposed populations of birds. This study also shows that there are differences in species sensitivity to PFOS and PFOA that should be taken into consideration in avian wildlife risk assessment.

  • 1475.
    Nordén, Marcus
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Berger, Urs
    Stockholms universitet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Engwall, Magnus
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    High levels of perfluoroalkyl acids in eggs and embryo livers of great cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis) and herring gull (Larus argentatus) from Lake Vanern, Sweden2013In: Environmental science and pollution research international, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 20, no 11, p. 8021-8030Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

     In the eggs and developing chick livers in the two wild bird species, great cormorant and herring gull, the concentrations of a range of 15 perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) were determined. Eggs of the two species were collected from Lake Vanern, Sweden, and analysed either as undeveloped egg (whole egg or separated into yolk and albumen) or incubated until start of the hatching process when the chick liver was removed and analysed. High levels of PFAAs were found in all matrixes except albumen. The predominant PFAA was perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), which was found in the mug/g wet weight (ww) range in some samples of cormorant whole egg, yolk and liver and herring gull egg yolk and liver. The average concentration in yolk was 1,506 ng/g ww in cormorant and 589 ng/g ww in herring gull. The average liver concentrations of PFOS were 583 ng/g ww in cormorant and 508 ng/g ww in herring gull. At these concentrations, biochemical effects in the developing embryo or effects on embryo survival cannot be ruled out. For perfluoroalkyl carboxylates (PFCAs), the liver/egg and liver/yolk concentration ratios increased with PFCA chain length in cormorant but not in herring gull, indicating that chain length could possibly affect egg-to-liver transfer of PFCAs and that species differences may exist.

  • 1476.
    Nordén, Marcus
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Westman, Ola
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Venizelos, Nikolaos
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden.
    Engwall, Magnus
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Perfluorooctane sulfonate increases β-oxidation of palmitic acid in chicken liver2012In: Environmental science and pollution research international, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 19, no 5, p. 1859-1863Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) belongs to a group of chemicals called perfluoroalkyl acids that have been extensively used in various applications such as stain and oil resistant treatments for fabrics, fire-fighting foams, and insecticides. These chemicals present an environmental and health risk being present in many samples both in wildlife and humans. In this study, we investigate the effect of PFOS on fatty acid β-oxidation in developing chicken embryos.

    Methods: Fertilized chicken eggs were exposed in ovo to PFOS at day 4 of incubation. On day 10, the eggs were dissected and livers were incubated in vitro with (3)H-palmitic acid for 2 h. The media were collected, and after clean up, the amount of tritiated water was measured with liquid scintillation counting to determine the rate of palmitic acid β-oxidation.

    Results: PFOS was found to induce fatty acid β-oxidation at doses starting from a lowest observed effect level (LOEL) of 0.1 μg/g egg weight. Maximum induction of 77 % compared to control was seen at 0.3 μg/g.

    Conclusions: The administered doses in which effects are seen are around and even lower than the levels that can be found in wild populations of birds. General population human levels are a factor of two to three times lower than the LOEL value of this study. The environmental contamination of PFOS therefore presents a possibility of effects in wild populations of birds.

  • 1477.
    Norin, Gustav
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Development of UPLC-MS/MS method for the determination of polar metabolites2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Trimethylamine-n-oxide (TMAO) is a metabolite found in plasma/serum in humans. Elevated levels of TMAO have been associated with several types of heart disease. It’s therefore of interest to make a simple analytical method to analyse TMAO and other metabolites that are degraded to TMAO, including betaine. In this study, the goal was to develop a method for the sample preparation and analysis of these compounds in human plasma. Sample preparation was performed with an Ostro 96-well method for sample clean-up. The analysis was performed by ultraperformance liquid chromatography – hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography – tandem masspectrometry (UPLC-HILIC-MS/MS) in multiple reaction monitoring (MRM)-mode using electrospray ionization in positive mode (ESI+)-mode as the ion source. The analytes eluted under five minutes and were all baseline separated in the chromatogram. TMAO and betaine were quantified in quality control (QC) plasma samples using external calibration. Concentration of TMAO ranged from 132 ng/mL – 253 ng/mL and 1025-2084 ng/mL for betaine. Due to the lack of isotopically labelled standards for TMAO and betaine, valine-d8 was tested as an internal standard for the extraction; however, it was not a suitable option due to the low recovery obtained (5-34%) and the low response in ESI+. The recovery needs to be investigated further using isotopically labelled TMAO or betaine. Overall, the developed UPLC-HILIC-MS/MS method was found to be suitable for analysis of TMAO and betaine in human plasma. Further development and validation is required before application to samples from clinical studies.

  • 1478.
    Norrström, Patrik
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Malmkvist, Sara
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Energiförbättring av den timrade Närkestugan2012Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The reason behind this work is that BBR introduced new energy rules as of January 2012. There is a great deal of older timber buildings on the countryside of Närke. The condition these building are in varies, some are in a better shape and some in a worse. Some of these buildings could use additional isolation and improved density as they tend to have air leakage. The purpose with our work is that we want to energy improve a timber house called Närkestuga both from, and without, a conservation point of view. The results we got was that it is possible to energy improve a certain kind of Närkestuga with small means that would not corrupt its characteristics. It is however not possible to meet BBR:s conditions, even with bigger kinds of energy improvements. The only way to do it is to change heat source in the building in which case it would not be counted as a electric heated building anymore. This would make our energy improvement that we calculated on enough to fulfill the conditions from BBR.

  • 1479.
    NOZARI, GOLNAZ
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Category-based Object PoseEstimation with Pose OrientedSEmi-global Feature Histograms2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this thesis we propose a novel, fast and accurate 3D descriptor for use in

    pose estimation of objects. To achieve this, we develop algorithm to identify

    the pose of any instance of a particular object category without having its exact

    model. Our aim is to estimate the object pose given only information about

    its category. To achieve this, we focus on the impact of the choice of the reference

    frame on the performance of a 3D descriptor. We propose a method that

    estimates a reference coordinate system using a single viewpoint of the object

    scene. We use an additional reference vector in order to define our reference

    coordinate system uniquely. The main idea is to use the information retrieved

    from a perception system collecting real world data. This information is neglected

    in most of the state-of-the-art pose estimation methods. In this work,

    we use the information which is given by the support plane that the objects

    are lying on. Based on the reference coordinate system, we define the Pose Oriented

    SEmi-global Feature Histogram (POSEFH) as an efficient 3D semi-global

    descriptor which encodes the geometrical properties of the object surface. We

    perform extensive qualitative and quantitative evaluation of our method on the

    subset of the RGB-D Stereo Object Category database which is collected by the

    7-joint Armar III robotic head with foveal and peripheral stereo cameras We

    compare it with the state-of-the-art 3D descriptors, the Viewpoint Featrue Histogram

    (VFH) and the Clustered Viewpoint Feature Histogram (CVFH). Our

    method works for incomplete 3D pointclouds of objects. The results show a

    significant improvement in the accuracy of one degree-of-freedom orientation

    estimation while dealing with partial and real noisy data.

    i

  • 1480.
    Nylander, Amy
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Kodrefaktorisering2013Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This report has its origins in the code refactoring work issued in spring 2013 as a Degree Project in the Computer Engineering Programme, at Örebro University. The work took place at Nethouse in Örebro, and had a major focus on code design, and code quality.

    The report discusses the factors that affect how maintainable and readable a code is, but also how to reasonably evaluate and measure code quality.

    The theory is mixed with the practical, where the reader is introduced to a variety of methods, and how these were then implemented in the actual project that Nethouse provided.

     

  • 1481.
    Nylin, Tobias
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Z Excursion: Spel-bidrag till Swedish Game Awards2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This report describes my degree project. For my degree project I made a demo for a game idea that I've developed, and implemented for use with Xbox 360. The idea was about converting the feeling and gameplay of old 2D side-scrolling platform games into 3D, viewed from a first-person perspective. The Xbox 360 version of the demo was also submitted for the game competition Swedish Game Awards

    In the report, I explain this idea more extensive, what software I used to implement it, and how I implemented it. Finally, at the end I clarify the results and discuss fulfilled tasks and future improvements. I'm very pleased with my progress so far and I will continue to work on this on my own until it feels like a finished product that can be distributed.

  • 1482.
    Nyström, Björn
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Inomhuspositionering och applikationsanalys: Sammanställning och visualisering av relevant data vid event2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The main task of this thesis was to create a software prototype of an analysing tool that would work as a compliment to IT-Maskinens event application, which is used as a digital tool for events. The requirement for the prototype was that it would be able to identify the user, gather relevant data from a possible storage location and visualize this in an aesthetically pleasing manner.

     

    The thesis contained two different parts, investigation and implementation. The investigation included to determine which tool that would be used for the visualization of the data, which data likeminded companies thought was important and which information that was possible to extract from IT-Maskinens event application and indoor positioning system. How the software prototype was going to be implemented was also something that was investigated, in terms of which programming environment, library and language that could meet the requirements that were set for the prototype.

     

    The implementation part of the thesis included the creation of a software prototype in ASP.NET MVC5 and Google Chart Tools. The creation of the software prototype was created using the programming languages C#, HTML, Razor, CSS, JavaScript and jQuery.

  • 1483.
    Nyström, Niklas
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Implementering av digitala föreskrifter i verkstad – en kvalitativ förundersökning2016Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    SAAB, Support and Service, Ground Based Radar (GBR) in Arboga uses technical instructions with 2D-drawings and pictures to help them in services, repairs and overhauls of parts to radar systems. These instructions have shown a lack of functionality when it comes to introducing the work to a new employee or when sharing work tasks among mechanics.

    The objective was to examine the possibility for GBR to implement digital instructions. This was done by qualitative analysis on their current state and by investigating benefits of digital instructions from previous theories and studies. It was also of interest to scan the market for existing systems that could fit GBR:s current need.

    The results show that digital instructions have positive effects and that GBR should continue their work in the field. Combitech’s system UpTime fulfils GBR:s need for digital instructions within the project restrictions. In conclusion, GBR should continue the work of updating their existing instructions before continuing the implementation of digital instructions.

  • 1484.
    Nytorp, Sara
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Ekologisk, social och ekonomisk hållbarhet i miljonprogram -Med focus på Vivalla i Örebro: Ecological, social and economic sustainability in the million homes programme -Focusing on Vivalla2015Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    År 1965 togs riksdagsbeslutet om miljonprogrammet som innebar att en miljon bostäder

    skulle byggas under tio år. Till en början hade områdena som uppkom under den tiden ett gott

    rykte och symboliserade ett moderiktigt samhälle. Flera av dessa har sedan haft en negativ

    utveckling när det kommer till miljöpåverkan, segregation och trygghet. Ett typiskt exempel

    på ett område från denna tid är Vivalla i Örebro.

    I många av miljonprogramsområdena har underhåll varit eftersatt i många år och det talas om

    att miljonprogrammen läcker energi. Många av områdena står inför stora behov av

    renovering, något som är kostsamt. Men det är också en möjlighet till att ta ett helhetsgrepp i

    hållbarhetsfrågan. I och med renovering finns möjlighet att förbättra de ekologiska

    förutsättningarna genom bland annat sänkt energianvändning. Samtidigt kan de sociala

    frågorna beaktas för att på bästa sätt förbättra förutsättningarna för de boende.

    I Mitt gröna kvarter i Vivalla ville fastighetsägaren, ÖrebroBostäder, skapa ett pilotprojekt

    med hållbarheten i fokus. Resurser sattes in för att bland annat sänka energianvändningen, öka

    tryggheten och minska utanförskapet.

    Syftet med denna rapport var att studera hur ekologisk-, social- och ekonomisk hållbarhet

    beaktas i renovering av miljonprogram, med fokus på Mitt gröna kvarter i Vivalla. Detta

    genomfördes genom omfattande litteraturstudier samt genom intervjuer med personer med

    olika roller i projektet.

    Mitt gröna kvarter var en kostsam satsning som trots stor framgång vad gäller minskad

    energianvändning och ökad delaktighet från de boende inte var ekonomiskt lönsam, sett ur ett

    företagsekonomiskt perspektiv. Däremot finns det mycket som tyder på att samhället gör en

    stor vinst av projektet.

  • 1485.
    Nyxén, Tove
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Utomhusmatematik: Hur ser forskningsfältet ut och vad säger forskningen?2014Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this literature study is to examine what the research field around outdoor mathematics looks like, as well as present the results, research findings and scientific conclusions.

    Through systematic searches thirteen articles have been found in their entirety selected for audit, as well as nine articles that are not available in full text - these were included in order to contribute to a more complete description of the nature of the entire current field of research. The results primarily show that relatively little research and scientific studies have been done in the area of outdoor mathematics. Only five articles could meet the criteria as scientific, and therefore these may be considered the basis of presenting what the research in this field says. The articles concluded that students own spontaneous reaction to outdoor math is that it is fun, that they learn the subject of math easier, and that they get a deeper understanding of mathematics as a whole. One article was also able to demonstrate that the students who are subjected to the learning method of outdoor mathematics, learned more than those who only have access to traditional classroom teaching.

  • 1486.
    Obeid, Qassim
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Processeffektivisering i DHL Supply Chain2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis project will be done in DHL Supply Chain in Örebro. The business in Örebro serve as an interim storage for two customers, Volvo and Ford, which share the warehouse but are two different units with respective processes. These customers place orders at DHL Supply Chain in Örebro for a fixed payment of the service. Customers located around Sweden order finished goods as needed and get it distributed by DHL Supply Chain. The focus of the report will be on Volvo's department in the store and will include a study of their processes from inbound delivery of products to the warehouse, to outbound delivery for costumers. The purpose is to enhance the efficiency of the business in Volvo's department to reduce the number of reclaims that is currently higher than intended, which in turn will reduce costs and increase delivery assurance. The goal is to possibly come up with improvement suggestions that improve the flow in Volvo department.

  • 1487.
    Oberstedt, Andreas
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Belgya, T.
    Billnert, R.
    Borcea, R.
    Brys, T.
    Geerts, W.
    Goeoek, A.
    Hambsch, F. -J
    Kis, Z.
    Martinez, T.
    Oberstedt, S.
    Szentmiklosi, L.
    Takacs, K.
    Vidali, M.
    Improved values for the characteristics of prompt-fission gamma-ray spectra from the reaction U-235(n(th), f)2013In: Physical Review C. Nuclear Physics, ISSN 0556-2813, E-ISSN 1089-490X, Vol. 87, no 5, p. 051602-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we present results from measurements of prompt gamma rays from the thermal neutron induced fission of U-235. Photons were measured in coincidence with fission fragments with cerium-doped LaCl3 and LaBr3 as well as CeBr3 scintillation detectors, which offer an intriguing combination of excellent timing resolution and good resolving power. The spectra measured with all employed detectors are in excellent agreement with respect to their shapes. Characteristic parameters were extracted for a gamma-energy range from 0.1 to 6.0 MeV and the results obtained with several detectors were averaged. From that, the average emission yield of prompt-fission gamma rays was determined to be (nu) over bar (gamma) = (8.19 +/- 0.11) per fission, the average energy per photon to be epsilon(gamma) = (0.85 +/- 0.02) MeV, and the total energy to be E-gamma,E-tot = (6.92 +/- 0.09) MeV. The uncertainties are much lower than the 7.5% requested for the modeling of advanced nuclear reactor cores. Estimating the influence of gamma rays with energies between 6 and 10 MeV on the values determined in this work revealed a negligible deviation of the order of the found uncertainties.

  • 1488.
    Oberstedt, Andreas
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Billnert, R.
    Oberstedt, S.
    Neutron measurements with lanthanum-bromide scintillation detectors: a first approach2013In: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment, ISSN 0168-9002, E-ISSN 1872-9576, Vol. 708, p. 7-14Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we report on the measurement of gamma-rays using a 2 in. x 2 in. LaBr3:Ce scintillation detector. The gamma-rays were emitted in the spontaneous fission of Cf-252 and detected in coincidence with fission fragments. After presenting some of the properties of the detector, we show how well gamma-rays produced in different reactions may easily be distinguished by their characteristic time-of-flight. Then we focus on the analysis of gamma-rays from inelastically scattered neutrons in the scintillation crystal and demonstrate how this information may be used for neutron spectroscopy. We determine the neutron detection efficiency and compare it to the result of calculations based on existing reaction cross-sections. Finally, we discuss the detection performance in relation to other detector systems commonly used for neutron monitoring.

  • 1489.
    Oberstedt, Andreas
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology. Chalmers Tekniska Högskola, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Oberstedt, Stephan
    EC-JRC Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements (IRMM) Geel, Belgium .
    Billnert, R.
    Akademi för Naturvetenskap och Teknik, Örebro Universitet, Örebro, Sweden; Chalmers Tekniska Högskola, Göteborg, Sweden; EC-JRC Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements (IRMM), Geel, Belgium .
    Geerts, W.
    EC-JRC Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements (IRMM), Geel, Belgium.
    Hambsch, F. -J.
    EC-JRC Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements (IRMM), Geel, Belgium.
    Karlsson, J.
    Akademi för Naturvetenskap och Teknik, Örebro Universitet, Örebro, Sweden.
    Identification of prompt fission gamma-rays with lanthanum-chloride scintillation detectors2012In: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment, ISSN 0168-9002, E-ISSN 1872-9576, Vol. 668, p. 14-20Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we demonstrate the employment of LaCl3 : Ce scintillation detectors for the identification of prompt fission gamma-rays from gamma-radiation in contrast to other reactions. We present the properties of cylindrical 1.5 in. x 1.5 in. detectors in terms of intrinsic activity, energy resolution, intrinsic full peak efficiency and intrinsic timing resolution. In addition, we show results from the measurement of gamma-rays emitted in coincidence with the spontaneous fission of Cf-252, which lead us to the conclusion that the properties of the detectors used in this work, in particular the good timing resolution and a reasonably good energy resolution, are more than just sufficient for the assessment of prompt gamma-heat in future nuclear reactors as requested by the OECD. Hence, in our opinion, LaCl3 : Ce detectors, compared to those made out of LaBr3 : Ce crystals, represent an appropriate and quasi low-cost choice for the above mentioned applications.

  • 1490. Oberstedt, S.
    et al.
    Borcea, R.
    Brys, T.
    Gamboni, Th.
    Geerts, W.
    Hambsch, F. -J
    Oberstedt, Andreas
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Vidali, M.
    Artificial diamonds as radiation-hard detectors for ultra-fast fission-fragment timing2013In: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment, ISSN 0168-9002, E-ISSN 1872-9576, Vol. 714, p. 31-37Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the framework of the construction of the double time-of-flight spectrometer VERDI, where we aim at measuring pre- and post-neutron masses directly and simultaneously, ultra-fast time pick-up detectors based on artificial diamond material were investigated for the first time with fission fragments from Cf-252 (0.5 MeV/u < E/A < 2 MeV/u). Signal stability under a high radiation fluence was determined up to at least 10(9) fission-fragments/cm(2) together with more than 3.5 x 10(9) neutrons/cm(2) and 3 x 10(10) alpha-particles/cm(2). This fluence is characteristic for fission experiments. The pre-requisite for the observed signal stability is the application of priming of the diamond material with a strong beta-source for about 48 h. The intrinsic timing resolution of a 100 mu m thick polycrystalline CVD diamond detector with a size of 1 x 1 cm(2) was determined to sigma(int) = (283 +/- 41) ps by comparison with Monte-Carlo simulations. Using broadband pre-amplifiers, 4-fold segmented detectors of same total size and with a thickness of 180 mu m show an intrinsic timing resolution of sigma(int) = (106 +/- 21) ps. This is highly competitive with the best micro-channel plate detectors. Due to the limited and batch-dependent charge collection efficiency of poly-crystalline diamond material, the detection efficiency for fission fragments may be smaller than 100%.

  • 1491.
    Oberstedt, S.
    et al.
    European Commission JRC-IRMM, Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements, Geel, Belgium.
    Oberstedt, Andreas
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Birgersson, Evert
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Fabry, I.
    European Commission JRC-IRMM, Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements, Geel, Belgium.
    Hambsch, F. J.
    European Commission JRC-IRMM, Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements, Geel, Belgium.
    Kornilov, N.
    European Commission JRC-IRMM, Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements, Geel, Belgium.
    Lövestam, G.
    European Commission JRC-IRMM, Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements, Geel, Belgium.
    Tudora, A.
    Bucharest University, Bucharest, Romania.
    First results on the neutron-induced fission cross-section of Pa-231 for incident neutron energies E-n > 17 MeV2012In: Annals of Nuclear Energy, ISSN 0306-4549, E-ISSN 1873-2100, Vol. 43, p. 26-30Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    First results on the neutron-induced fission cross-section of Pa-231 for incident neutron energies E-n > 17 MeV are presented. The experiments were carried out with quasi mono-energetic neutrons produced in the reaction T(d, n)He-4. Corrections for low-energy neutron background produced in this reaction at incident deuteron energies E-d > 2 MeV are taken into account and based on experimental data obtained by two different techniques. Despite the relatively large error bars at the higher neutron energies, the new cross-section values meet the accuracy requirements set by the IAEA and will allow to remove the hitherto existing large spread between different previously published data. Recent cross-section calculations describe well the new experimental results, which are in consistency with cross-section values obtained in a particle-transfer reaction at excitation energies corresponding to neutron energies E-n < 10 MeV. 

  • 1492.
    Odebo Länk, Nils
    et al.
    Department of Physics, Chalmers University of Technology, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Verre, Ruggero
    Department of Physics, Chalmers University of Technology, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Johansson, Peter
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology. Department of Physics, Chalmers University of Technology, Göteborg, Sweden; School of Science and Technology, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden .
    Käll, Mikael
    Department of Physics, Chalmers University of Technology, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Large-Scale Silicon Nanophotonic Metasurfaces with Polarization Independent Near-Perfect Absorption2017In: Nano letters (Print), ISSN 1530-6984, E-ISSN 1530-6992, Vol. 17, no 5, p. 3054-3060Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Optically thin perfect light absorbers could find many uses in science and technology. However, most physical realizations of perfect absorption for the optical range rely on plasmonic excitations in nanostructured metallic metasurfaces, for which the absorbed light energy is quickly lost as heat due to rapid plasmon decay. Here we show that a silicon metasurface excited in a total internal reflection configuration can absorb at least 97% of incident near-infrared light due to interferences between coherent electric and magnetic dipole scattering from the silicon nanopillars that build up the metasurface and the reflected wave from the supporting glass substrate. This "near-perfect" absorption phenomenon loads more than 50 times more light energy into the semiconductor than what would be the case for a uniform silicon sheet of equal surface density, irrespective of incident polarization. We envisage that the concept could be used for the development of novel light harvesting and optical sensor devices.

  • 1493.
    O’Donovan, Sarit
    et al.
    Centre for Marine and Environmental Research, University of Algarve, Faro, Portugal.
    Mestre, Nélia C.
    Centre for Marine and Environmental Research, University of Algarve, Faro, Portugal.
    Abel, Serena
    Centre for Marine and Environmental Research, University of Algarve, Faro, Portugal.
    Fonseca, Tainá G.
    Centre for Marine and Environmental Research, University of Algarve, Faro, Portugal.
    Carteny, Camilla C.
    Systemic Physiological and Ecotoxicological Research, Department of Biology, University of Antwerp, Antwerp, Belgium.
    Cormier, Bettie
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology. UMR CNRS 5805 EPOC, University of Bordeaux, Talence, France.
    Keiter, Steffen H.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Bebianno, Maria J.
    Centre for Marine and Environmental Research, University of Algarve, Faro, Portugal.
    Ecotoxicological Effects of Chemical Contaminants Adsorbed to Microplastics in the Clam Scrobicularia plana2018In: Frontiers in Marine Science, E-ISSN 2296-7745, Vol. 5, article id 143Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although microplastics are distributed globally in the marine environment, a great deal of unknowns relating to their ecotoxicological effects on the marine biota remain. Due to their lipophilic nature, microplastics have the potential to adsorb persistent organic pollutants present in contaminated regions, which may increase their detrimental impact once assimilated by organisms. This study investigates the ecotoxicological effects of exposure to low-density polyethylene (LDPE) microplastics (11 - 13 µm), with and without adsorbed contaminants (benzo[a]pyrene - BaP and perfluorooctane sulfonic acid - PFOS), in the peppery furrow shell clam, Scrobicularia plana. Environmentally relevant concentrations of contaminants (BaP - 16.87±0.22 µg g-1 and PFOS - 70.22±12.41 µg g-1) were adsorbed to microplastics to evaluate the potential role of plastic particles as a source of chemical contamination once ingested. S. plana were exposed to microplastics, at a concentration of 1 mg L-1, in a water-sediment exposure setup for 14 days. Clams were sampled at the beginning of the experiment (day 0) and after 3, 7 and 14 days. BaP accumulation, in whole clam tissues, was analysed. A multi-biomarker assessment was conducted in the gills, digestive gland, and haemolymph of clams to clarify the effects of exposure. This included the quantification of antioxidant (superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase) and biotransformation (glutathione-S-transferases) enzyme activities, oxidative damage (lipid peroxidation levels), genotoxicity (single and double strand DNA breaks), and neurotoxicity (acetylcholinesterase activity). Results suggest a potential mechanical injury of gills caused by ingestion of microplastics that may also affect the analysed biomarkers. The digestive gland seems less affected by mechanical damage caused by virgin microplastic exposure, with the MP-adsorbed BaP and PFOS exerting a negative influence over the assessed biomarkers in this tissue.

  • 1494.
    Ogar, Anna
    et al.
    Jagiellonian University, Krakow, Poland.
    Grandin, Anna
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Sjöberg, Viktor
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Turnau, Katarzyna
    Jagiellonian University, Krakow, Poland.
    Karlsson, Stefan
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Stabilization of Uranium(VI) at Low pH by Fungal Metabolites: Applications in Environmental Biotechnology2014In: 5th International Conference on Environmental Science and Development - ICESD 2014, 2014, Vol. 10, p. 142-148Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Uranium contamination of soils and water is a worldwide problem due to geology or anthropogenic release such as mining, or use of inorganic fertilizers. In situ remediation of low and moderately contaminated sites is a complicated procedure due to the complex chemistry of uranium. This study demonstrates that at pH 3.5, a fungal strain isolated from unprocessed uranium bearing shale creates hydrochemical conditions that immobilize 97% of a total of 10 mg L-1 dissolved uranium in a 0.20 μm pore system. The redistribution occurred within 10 minutes and remained for five weeks and just 12% of the inventory was retrieved in the biomass. Size exclusion chromatography of the dissolved phase identified organic substances in the range of more than 60 kD down to 100 D as a response to time of incubation. Geochemical modeling indicates formation of uranium-organic complexes where ligand size, coordination chemistry and their tendency to agglomerate determine the redistribution.

  • 1495.
    Ogar, Anna
    et al.
    Jagellonian University, Krakow, Poland.
    Sjöberg, Viktor
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Karlsson, Stefan
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Phytostabilization of uranium-containing shale residues using Hieracium pilosella2014In: Uranium Mining and Hydrogelogy: Uranium - Past and Future Challenges / [ed] Broder J. Merkel and Alireza Arab, Springer Publishing Company, 2014, p. 425-432Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A greenhouse pot experiment was conducted to evaluate the feasibility of using Hieracium pilosella and soil microorganisms for phytostabilization of uranium-containing shale residues. Conductivity of leachates significantly decreased and pH increased when plants were grown on the substratum. H. pilosella has ability to change the hydrochemical parameters and to decrease the mobilization of uranium. Moreover, H. pilosella is able to accumulate significant amounts of uranium in the shoots.

  • 1496. Ogar, Anna
    et al.
    Sobczyk, L.
    Sjöberg, Viktor
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Karlsson, Stefan
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Turnau, Katarzyna
    Plant-associated microbes in heavy metal phytoremediation: a network of interaction2014In: / [ed] E. Kothe and G. Büchel, 2014, p. 6-Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 1497.
    Ogier, Robin
    et al.
    Dept Appl Phys, Chalmers, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Fang, Yurui
    Dept Appl Phys, Chalmers, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Svedendahl, Mikael
    Dept Appl Phys, Chalmers, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Johansson, Peter
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology. Dept Appl Phys, Chalmers, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Käll, Mikael
    Dept Appl Phys, Chalmers, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Macroscopic Layers of Chiral Plasmonic Nanoparticle Oligomers from Colloidal Lithography2014In: ACS Photonics, E-ISSN 2330-4022, Vol. 1, no 10, p. 1074-1081Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Optical near-field coupling between closely spaced plasmonic metal nanoparticles is important to a range of nanophotonic applications of high contemporary interest, including surface-enhanced molecular spectroscopy, nanooptical sensing, and various novel light-harvesting concepts. Here we report on monolayers of chiral heterotrimers and heterotetramers composed of closely spaced silver and/or gold nanodisks of different heights fabricated through facile hole-mask colloidal lithography. These quasi-three-dimensional oligomers are interesting for applications because they exhibit "hot" gaps and crevices of nanometric dimensions, a pronounced circular dichroism, and optical chirality in the visible to near-infrared wavelength range, and they can be produced in large ensembles (>109) of identical orientation. We analyze the optical properties of the samples based on simulation results and find that the circular dichroism is due to strong near-field coupling and intricate phase retardation effects originating in the three-dimensional character of the individual oligomers.

  • 1498.
    O'Gorman, A.
    et al.
    Department of Psychiatry, Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland (RCSI), Beaumont Hospital, Dublin, Ireland; Institute of Food and Health, UCD School of Agriculture and Food Science, University College Dublin (UCD) Belfield, Dublin, Ireland.
    Suvitaival, T.
    Steno Diabetes Center, Gentofte, Denmark.
    Ahonen, L.
    Steno Diabetes Center, Gentofte, Denmark.
    Cannon, M.
    Department of Psychiatry, Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland (RCSI), Beaumont Hospital, Dublin, Ireland.
    Zammit, S.
    Medical Research Council (MRC) Centre for Neuropsychiatric Genetics and Genomics, Cardiff University, Cardiff, UK; Centre for Academic Mental Health, School of Social & Community Medicine, University of Bristol, Bristol, UK.
    Lewis, G.
    Division of Psychiatry, University College London, London, UK.
    Roche, H. M.
    Nutrigenomics Research Group, UCD Conway Institute/UCD Institute of Food & Health, School of Public Health, Physiotherapy & Sports Science, University College Dublin (UCD) Belfield, Dublin, Ireland.
    Mattila, I.
    Steno Diabetes Center, Gentofte, Denmark.
    Hyötyläinen, Tuulia
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology. Steno Diabetes Center, Gentofte, Denmark.
    Oresic, Matej
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences. Steno Diabetes Center, Gentofte, Denmark; Turku Centre for Biotechnology, University of Turku, Turku, Finland; Åbo Akademi University, Turku, Finland.
    Brennan, L.
    Institute of Food and Health, UCD School of Agriculture and Food Science, University College Dublin (UCD) Belfield, Dublin, Ireland.
    Cotter, D. R.
    Department of Psychiatry, Beaumont Hospital, Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland (RCSI), Dublin, Ireland.
    Identification of a plasma signature of psychotic disorder in children and adolescents from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) cohort2017In: Translational Psychiatry, ISSN 2158-3188, E-ISSN 2158-3188, Vol. 7, article id e1240Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The identification of an early biomarker of psychotic disorder is important as early treatment is associated with improved patient outcome. Metabolomic and lipidomic approaches in combination with multivariate statistical analysis were applied to identify plasma alterations in children (age 11) (38 cases vs 67 controls) and adolescents (age 18) (36 cases vs 117 controls) preceeding or coincident with the development of psychotic disorder (PD) at age 18 in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC). Overall, 179 lipids were identified at age 11, with 32 found to be significantly altered between the control and PD groups. Following correction for multiple comparisons, 8 of these lipids remained significant (lysophosphatidlycholines (LPCs) LPC(18: 1), LPC(18: 2), LPC(20: 3); phosphatidlycholines (PCs) PC(32: 2; PC(34: 2), PC(36: 4), PC(0-34-3) and sphingomyelin (SM) SM(d18: 1/24: 0)), all of which were elevated in the PD group. At age 18, 23 lipids were significantly different between the control and PD groups, although none remained significant following correction for multiple comparisons. In conclusion, the findings indicate that the lipidome is altered in the blood during childhood, long before the development of psychotic disorder. LPCs in particular are elevated in those who develop PD, indicating inflammatory abnormalities and altered phospholipid metabolism. These findings were not found at age 18, suggesting there may be ongoing alterations in the pathophysiological processes from prodrome to onset of PD.

  • 1499.
    Ohlsson, K. E. Anders
    et al.
    Department of Applied Physics and Electronics, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Yang, Bin
    Department of Applied Physics and Electronics, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Ekblad, Alf
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Boman, Christoffer
    Department of Applied Physics and Electronics, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Nyström, Robin
    Department of Applied Physics and Electronics, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Olofsson, Thomas
    Department of Applied Physics and Electronics, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Stable carbon isotope labelled carbon dioxide as tracer gas for air change rate measurement in a ventilated single zone2017In: Building and Environment, ISSN 0360-1323, E-ISSN 1873-684X, Vol. 115, p. 173-181Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) has often been used as tracer gas for measurement of the air change rate A (h(-1)) in buildings. In such measurements, a correction is required for the presence of indoor CO2, which commonly consists of atmospheric CO2 mixed with human respired CO2. Here, C-13 isotope-labelled CO2 was employed as tracer gas, and cavity ring-down spectroscopy (CRDS) was used for simultaneous measurement of the two isotope analogues (CO2)-C-12 and (CO2)-C-13. This enabled the simultaneOtts measurement of the (CO2)-C-13 tracer gas, with correction for background (CO2)-C-13, and the concentration of indoor CO2, allowing for presence of occupants. The background correction procedute assumes that the isotope delta of the background indoor CO2 equals delta(B)= -19%(0), based on the prior information that the carbon isotope ratio R-B = C-13/C-12 of all carbon in the bio-geosphere of earth is in the interval 0.010900 < R-B < 0.011237. Evidence supported that lambda could be accurately measured, using the new (CO2)-C-13 tracer method, even when the background (CO2)-C-13 concentration varied during the measurement time interval, or when the actual delta(B) value differed from the assumed value. The measurement uncertainty for lambda was estimatdd at 3%. Uncertainty in A due to uncertainty in R-B, u(RB)(lambda), was estimated to increase with a decreasing amount of (CO2)-C-13 tracer. This indicated that at least 4 ppm tracer must be used, in order to obtain u(RB)(lambda)/lambda < 2%. The temporal resolution of the lambda measurement was 1.25/lambda h.

  • 1500.
    Olofsson, Joen
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Nyproduktion av småhus med uthyrningsmöjligheter, en jämförelse ur ett privatekonomiskt perspektiv2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this examination report was to create a private economic comparison between

    newly constructed houses containing separate units for rental and newly constructed houses

    without separate rental sections. This is partially based on the widespread housing shortage

    prevalent in many of Sweden's urban areas, which could be remedied if the house owners

    would be prepared to rent out parts of their homes. A relatively new law which came into

    force in 2013 has also made it more financially advantageous for individuals to rent out a part

    of their homes.

    The survey compares a house with 180 square meters living area with an identical house

    which has been built to be larger, in order to include a rental part measuring 60 square meters.

    Both houses are fictitious, located on a hypothetical building plot in the municipality of

    Örebro.

    The comparison aimed to investigate whether there were long-term cost savings to be made

    when building houses which were larger than necessary, and contained a separate rental part

    that could generate a positive cash flow.

    The results of the survey show that the monthly cost of a house with a separate rental part

    would be considerably lower where the property owner is concerned. The difference is

    particularly noticeable at low interest rates, but even at higher interest rates there is a big

    difference in the private economy.

27282930313233 1451 - 1500 of 2154
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