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  • 1451.
    Pradhan, Ajay
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Asnake, Solomon
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Kharlyngdoh, Joubert Banjop
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Modig, Carina
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Olsson, Per-Erik
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    In silico and biological analysis of anti-androgen activity of the brominated flame retardants ATE, BATE and DPTE in zebrafishManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 1452.
    Pradhan, Ajay
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Asnake, Solomon
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Kharlyngdoh, Joubert Banjop
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Modig, Carina
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Olsson, Per-Erik
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    In silico and biological analysis of anti-androgen activity of the brominated flame retardants ATE, BATE and DPTE in zebrafish2015In: Chemico-Biological Interactions, ISSN 0009-2797, E-ISSN 1872-7786, Vol. 233, p. 35-45Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The brominated flame retardants (BFRs) 1,2-dibromo-4-(1,2-dibromoethyl)cyclohexane (TBECH or DBE-DCBH) and allyl 2,4,6-tribromophenyl ether (ATE or TBP-AE) are alternative BFRs that have been introduced to replace banned BFRs. TBECH is a potential endocrine disrupter in human, chicken and zebrafish and in a recent study we showed that ATE, along with the structurally similar BFR 2,3-dibromopropyl 2,4,6-tribromophenyl ether (DPTE or TBP-DBPE) and its metabolite 2-bromoallyl 2,4,6-tribromophenyl ether (BATE or TBP-BAE) are potential endocrine and neuronal disrupters in human. In this study we analyzed ATE, BATE and DPTE for zebrafish androgen receptor (zAR) modulating properties. In silico analysis with two softwares, Molecular Operating Environment (MOE) and Internal Coordinate Mechanics (ICM), showed that ATE, BATE and DPTE bind to zAR. In vitro AR activation assay revealed that these three BFRs down-regulate 11-ketotestosterone (KT) mediated zAR activation. Exposure to 10 mu M DPTE resulted in reduced hatching success and like TBECH, BATE and DPTE at 10 mu M also had teratogenic properties with 20% and 50% back-bone curvature respectively. Gene transcription analysis in zebrafish embryos as well as in juveniles showed down-regulation of the androgen receptor and androgen response genes, which further support that these BFRs are androgen antagonists and potential endocrine disrupting compounds. Genes involved in steroidogenesis were also down-regulated by these BFRs. In view of this, the impact of these BFRs on humans and wildlife needs further analysis.

  • 1453.
    Pradhan, Ajay
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Ivarsson, Per
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology. BioImpakt AB, Örebro, Sweden.
    Ragnvaldsson, Daniel
    Envix Nord AB, Umeå, Sweden.
    Berg, Håkan
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Jass, Jana
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Olsson, Per-Erik
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Transcriptional responses of zebrafish to complex metal mixtures in laboratory studies overestimates the responses observed with environmental water2017In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 584-585, p. 1138-1146Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Metals released into the environment continue to be of concern for human health. However, risk assessment of metal exposure is often based on total metal levels and usually does not take bioavailability data, metal speciation or matrix effects into consideration. The continued development of biological endpoint analyses are therefore of high importance for improved eco-toxicological risk analyses. While there is an on-going debate concerning synergistic or additive effects of low-level mixed exposures there is little environmental data confirming the observations obtained from laboratory experiments. In the present study we utilized qRT-PCR analysis to identify key metal response genes to develop a method for biomonitoring and risk-assessment of metal pollution. The gene expression patterns were determined for juvenile zebrafish exposed to waters from sites down-stream of a closed mining operation. Genes representing different physiological processes including stress response, inflammation, apoptosis, drug metabolism, ion channels and receptors, and genotoxicity were analyzed. The gene expression patterns of zebrafish exposed to laboratory prepared metal mixes were compared to the patterns obtained with fish exposed to the environmental samples with the same metal composition and concentrations. Exposure to environmental samples resulted in fewer alterations in gene expression compared to laboratory mixes. A biotic ligand model (BLM) was used to approximate the bioavailability of the metals in the environmental setting. However, the BLM results were not in agreement with the experimental data, suggesting that the BLM may be overestimating the risk in the environment. The present study therefore supports the inclusion of site-specific biological analyses to complement the present chemical based assays used for environmental risk-assessment.

  • 1454.
    Pradhan, Ajay
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Khalaf, Hazem
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden.
    Ochsner, Scott A.
    Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, USA.
    Sreenivasan, Rajini
    Temasek Life Sciences Laboratory, Singapore, Singapore.
    Koskinen, Jarno
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Karlsson, Marie
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Karlsson, Jesper
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    McKenna, Neil J.
    Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, USA.
    Orban, Laszlo
    Temasek Life Sciences Laboratory, Singapore, Singapore; National University of Singapore, Singapore, Singapore; University of Pannonia, Keszthely, Hungary.
    Olsson, Per-Erik
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Activation of NF-kappa B Protein Prevents the Transition from Juvenile Ovary to Testis and Promotes Ovarian Development in Zebrafish2012In: Journal of Biological Chemistry, ISSN 0021-9258, E-ISSN 1083-351X, Vol. 287, no 45, p. 37926-37938Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Testis differentiation in zebrafish involves juvenile ovary to testis transformation initiated by an apoptotic wave. The molecular regulation of this transformation process is not fully understood. NF-kappa B is activated at an early stage of development and has been shown to interact with steroidogenic factor-1 in mammals, leading to the suppression of anti-Mullerian hormone (Amh) gene expression. Because steroidogenic factor-1 and Amh are important for proper testis development, NF-kappa B-mediated induction of anti-apoptotic genes could, therefore, also play a role in zebrafish gonad differentiation. The aim of this study was to examine the potential role of NF-kappa B in zebrafish gonad differentiation. Exposure of juvenile zebrafish to heat-killed Escherichia coli activated the NF-kappa B pathways and resulted in an increased ratio of females from 30 to 85%. Microarray and quantitative real-time-PCR analysis of gonads showed elevated expression of NF-kappa B-regulated genes. To confirm the involvement of NF-kappa B-induced anti-apoptotic effects, zebrafish were treated with sodium deoxycholate, a known inducer of NF-kappa B or NF-kappa B activation inhibitor (NAI). Sodium deoxycholate treatment mimicked the effect of heat-killed bacteria and resulted in an increased proportion of females from 25 to 45%, whereas the inhibition of NF-kappa B using NAI resulted in a decrease in females from 45 to 20%. This study provides proof for an essential role of NF-kappa B in gonadal differentiation of zebrafish and represents an important step toward the complete understanding of the complicated process of sex differentiation in this species and possibly other cyprinid teleosts as well.

  • 1455.
    Pradhan, Ajay
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Kharlyngdoh, Joubert Banjop
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Asnake, Solomon
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Olsson, Per-Erik
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    The brominated flame retardant TBECH activates the zebrafish (Danio rerio) androgen receptor, alters gene transcription and causes developmental disturbances2013In: Aquatic Toxicology, ISSN 0166-445X, E-ISSN 1879-1514, Vol. 142, p. 63-72Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Tetrabromoethylcyclohexane (TBECH) is a brominated flame retardant that has been shown to be a potent agonist to the human androgen receptor (AR). However, while it is present in the environment, it is not known if it interacts with AR from aquatic species. The present study was therefore aimed at improving our understanding of how TBECH affects aquatic animals using zebrafish as a model organism. In silica modeling demonstrated that TBECH diastereomers bind to the zebrafish androgen receptor (zAR) and in vitro and in vivo data showed that TBECH has androgenic properties. Deleterious effects of TBECH were studied on embryonic and juvenile zebrafish and qRT-PCR analysis in vitro and in vivo was performed to determine TBECH effects on gene regulation. TBECH was found to delay hatching at 1 mu M and 10 mu M doses while morphological abnormalities and juvenile mortality was observed at 10 mu M. The qRT-PCR analysis showed alterations of multiple genes involved in chondrogenesis (cartilage development), metabolism and stress response. Thus, TBECH induces androgenic activity and has negative effects on zebrafish physiology and therefore its impact on the environment should be carefully monitored. (C) 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 1456.
    Pradhan, Ajay
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Olsson, Per-Erik
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Inhibition of Retinoic Acid Synthesis Disrupts Spermatogenesis and Fecundity in ZebrafishManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 1457.
    Pradhan, Ajay
    et al.
    Biology, The Life Science Center, School of Science and Technology, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Olsson, Per-Erik
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Inhibition of retinoic acid synthesis disrupts spermatogenesis and fecundity in zebrafish2015In: General and Comparative Endocrinology, ISSN 0016-6480, E-ISSN 1095-6840, Vol. 217, p. 81-91Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Timing of germ cell entry into meiosis is sexually dimorphic in mammals. However it was recently shown that germ cells initiate meiosis at the same time in male and female zebrafish. Retinoic acid (RA) has been shown to be critical for mammalian spermatogenesis. Inhibition of RA synthesis by WIN 18,446 has been reported to inhibit spermatogenesis in a wide variety of animals including humans and was once used as a contraceptive in humans. In this study we explored the role of RA in zebrafish spermatogenesis. In silico analysis with Internal coordinate mechanics docking software showed that WIN 18,446 can bind to the rat, human and zebrafish Aldh1a2 catalytic domain with equivalent potency. RA exposure resulted in upregulation of the RA metabolizing enzyme genes cyp26a1, cyp26b1 and cyp26c1 in vitro and in vivo. Exposure to WIN 18,446 resulted in down-regulation of Aldh1a2, cyp26a1 and cyp26b1 in vivo. WIN 18,446 was effective in disrupting spermatogenesis and fecundity in zebrafish but the reduction in sperm count and fecundity was only observed when zebrafish were maintained on a strict Artemia nauplii diet which is known to contain low levels of vitamin A. This study shows that RA is involved in spermatogenesis as well as oocyte development in zebrafish. As the zebrafish Aldh1a2 structure and function is similar to the mammalian counterpart, Aldh1a2 inhibitor screening using zebrafish as a model system may be beneficial in the discovery and development of new and safe contraceptives for humans.

  • 1458.
    Pradhan, Ajay
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Olsson, Per-Erik
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Juvenile Ovary to Testis Transition in Zebrafish Involves Inhibition of Ptges2014In: Biology of Reproduction, ISSN 0006-3363, E-ISSN 1529-7268, Vol. 91, no 2, p. 1-15Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The sex differentiation mechanisms in zebrafish (Danio rerio) remains elusive, partly due to the absence of sex chromosomes but also the process appears to depend on the synchrony of multiple genes and possibly environmental factors. Zebrafish gonadal development is initiated through the development of immature oocytes. Depending on multiple signaling cues, in about half of the individuals, the juvenile ovaries degenerate or undergo apoptosis to initiate testes development while the other half maintains the oogenic pathway. We have previously shown that activation of NFkappaB and prostaglandin synthase 2 (ptgs2) results in female biased sex ratios. Prostaglandin synthase and prostaglandins are involved in multiple physiological functions including cell survival and apoptosis. In the present study we show that inhibition of ptgs2 by meloxicam result in male biased sex ratios. On further evaluation, we observed that exposure with the prostaglandin D2 (PGD2) analogue BW-245C induced SRY-box containing gene 9a (sox9a) and resulted in male biased sex ratios. On the other hand, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) treatment resulted in female biased sex ratios and involved activation of NFkappaB and the beta-catenin pathway as well as inhibition of sox9. Exposure to the beta-catenin inhibitor, PNU-74654, resulted in up-regulation of ptgds and male biased sex ratios which further confirmed the involvement of beta-catenin in the female differentiation pathway. In this study we show that PGD2 and PGE2 can program the gonads to either the testis or ovary differentiation pathways, indicating that prostaglandins are involved in the regulation of zebrafish gonadal differentiation.

  • 1459.
    Pradhan, Ajay
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Olsson, Per-Erik
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Regulation of zebrafish gonadal sex differentiation2016In: AIMS Molecular Science, ISSN 2372-028X, Vol. 3, no 4, p. 567-584Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    While the master regulator gene Sry on the mammalian Y chromosome controls the switch for initiating male sex differentiation, many other species rely on environmental factors for gonadal sex differentiation. Yet other species, like zebrafish, appears to rely on a multitude of genetic cues for gonadal sex differentiation. Zebrafish gonadal differentiation initiates with the onset of a juvenile ovary stage and depending on the influence of unknown genetic factors either maintains oocyte development or initiate apoptotic processes to override the female differentiation pathway. In this review, we explore the role of different factors and genes that have been reported to influence zebrafish gonadal sex differentiation. We also give a brief insight of primordial germ cell (PGC) involvement in shaping male and female signaling pathway in gonadal development.

  • 1460.
    Pradhan, Ajay
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Olsson, Per-Erik
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Zebrafish Sexual Behavior: role of sex steroid hormones and prostaglandinsManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 1461.
    Pradhan, Ajay
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Olsson, Per-Erik
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Zebrafish sexual behavior: role of sex steroid hormones and prostaglandins2015In: Behavioral and Brain Functions, ISSN 1744-9081, E-ISSN 1744-9081, Vol. 11, article id 23Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Mating behavior differ between sexes and involves gonadal hormones and possibly sexually dimorphic gene expression in the brain. Sex steroids and prostaglandin E-2 (PGE(2)) have been shown to regulate mammalian sexual behavior. The present study was aimed at determining whether exposure to sex steroids and prostaglandins could alter zebrafish sexual mating behavior.

    Methods: Mating behavior and successful spawning was recorded following exposure to 17 beta-estradiol (E2), 11-ketotestosterone (11-KT), prostaglandin D-2 (PGD(2)) and PGE(2) via the water. qRT-PCR was used to analyze transcript levels in the forebrain, midbrain, and hindbrain of male and female zebrafish and compared to animals exposed to E2 via the water.

    Results: Exposure of zebrafish to sex hormones resulted in alterations in behavior and spawning when male fish were exposed to E2 and female fish were exposed to 11-KT. Exposure to PGD(2), and PGE(2) did not alter mating behavior or spawning success. Determination of gene expression patterns of selected genes from three brain regions using qRT-PCR analysis demonstrated that the three brain regions differed in gene expression pattern and that there were differences between the sexes. In addition, E2 exposure also resulted in altered gene transcription profiles of several genes.

    Conclusions: Exposure to sex hormones, but not prostaglandins altered mating behavior in zebrafish. The expression patterns of the studied genes indicate that there are large regional and gender-based differences in gene expression and that E2 treatment alter the gene expression pattern in all regions of the brain.

  • 1462.
    Pradhan, Ajay
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology. Biology, the Life Science Center.
    Olsson, Per-Erik
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology. Biology, the Life Science Center.
    Jass, Jana
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology. Biology, the Life Science Center.
    Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate and diethyl phthalate disrupt lipid metabolism, reduce fecundity and shortens lifespan of Caenorhabditis elegans2018In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 190, p. 375-382Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The widespread use of phthalates is of major concern as they have adverse effects on many different physiological functions, including reproduction, metabolism and cell differentiation. The aim of this study was to compare the toxicity of the widely-used di (2-ethydlhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) with its substitute, diethyl phthalate (DEP). We analyzed the toxicity of these two phthalates using Caenorhabditis elegans as a model system. Gene expression analysis following exposure during the L1 to young adult stage showed that DEHP and DEP alter the expression of genes involved in lipid metabolism and stress response. Genes associated with lipid metabolism, including fasn-1, pod-2, fat-5, acs-6 and sbp-1, and vitellogenin were upregulated. Among the stress response genes, ced-1 wah-1, daf-21 and gst-4 were upregulated, while cd-1, cdf-2 and the heat shock proteins (hsp-16.1, hsp-16.48 and sip-1) were down regulated. Lipid staining revealed that DEHP significantly increased lipid content following 1 mu M exposure, however, DEP required 10 mu M exposure to elicit an effect. Both DEHP and DEP reduced the fecundity at 1 mu M concentration. Lifespan analysis indicated that DEHP and DEP reduced the average lifespan from 14 days in unexposed worms to 13 and 12 days, respectively. Expression of lifespan associated genes showed a correlation to shortened lifespan in the exposed groups. As reported previously, our data also indicates that the banned DEHP is toxic to C. elegans, however its substitute DEP has not been previously tested in this model organism and our data revealed that DEP is equally potent as DEHP in regulating C. elegans physiological functions.

  • 1463.
    Pradhan, Ajay
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Olsson, Per-Erik
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Jass, Jana
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate and diethyl phthalate disrupt lipid metabolism, reduce fecundity and shortens lifespan of Caenorhabditis elegans2018In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 190, p. 375-382, article id S0045-6535(17)31550-3Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The widespread use of phthalates is of major concern as they have adverse effects on many different physiological functions, including reproduction, metabolism and cell differentiation. The aim of this study was to compare the toxicity of the widely-used di (2-ethydlhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) with its substitute, diethyl phthalate (DEP). We analyzed the toxicity of these two phthalates using Caenorhabditis elegans as a model system. Gene expression analysis following exposure during the L1 to young adult stage showed that DEHP and DEP alter the expression of genes involved in lipid metabolism and stress response. Genes associated with lipid metabolism, including fasn-1, pod-2, fat-5, acs-6 and sbp-1, and vitellogenin were upregulated. Among the stress response genes, ced-1 wah-1, daf-21 and gst-4 were upregulated, while ctl-1, cdf-2 and the heat shock proteins (hsp-16.1, hsp-16.48 and sip-1) were downregulated. Lipid staining revealed that DEHP significantly increased lipid content following 1 μM exposure, however, DEP required 10 μM exposure to elicit an effect. Both DEHP and DEP reduced the fecundity at 1 μM concentration. Lifespan analysis indicated that DEHP and DEP reduced the average lifespan from 14 days in unexposed worms to 13 and 12 days, respectively. Expression of lifespan associated genes showed a correlation to shortened lifespan in the exposed groups. As reported previously, our data also indicates that the banned DEHP is toxic to C. elegans, however its substitute DEP has not been previously tested in this model organism and our data revealed that DEP is equally potent as DEHP in regulating C. elegans physiological functions.

  • 1464.
    PRASANTH NANDANAVANAM, MANO
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Hauler Detection for an Autonomous Wheel Loader2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this thesis work, we evaluate an object recognition system for an autonomous

    wheel loader, to detect objects in its vicinity, in particular an articulated hauler

    truck, by using an interest point extraction method that explicitly considers object

    borders information, combined with a feature descriptor known as Normal

    Aligned Radial Features (NARF) in 3D point cloud data. The object recognition

    technique relies on extraction of NARF from range images (computed from

    point clouds) for both model(hauler) and the scene. The technique used is robust

    feature matching where the extracted model features are mapped on to

    the scene containing the model and then seeking for a best transformation that

    aligns the model with respect to the scene.

    In this context we conducted several experiments with many number of 3D

    scans obtained from the laser scanner mounted on the top of an autonomous

    wheel loader to analyze the accuracy of the object recognition system. Finally

    we demonstrated the results, as the system is able to recognize the hauler from

    any view point.

    vii

  • 1465.
    Preiholt, Nilla
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Styvhetsförhållande mellan bottenplatta och pålar: -En jämföresle mellan traditionellt pålberäkningsprogram och FEM-program2012Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 1466.
    Prytz, Erik
    et al.
    Swedish ICT, SICS East, Linköping, Sweden.
    Kristoffersson, Annica
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Lindén, Maria
    Embedded Sensor Systems For Health, Mälardalen University, Västerås, Sweden.
    Petrovic, Nikola
    Embedded Sensor Systems For Health, Mälardalen University Västerås, Sweden.
    Ahmed, Mobyen Uddin
    Embedded Sensor Systems For Health, Mälardalen University, Västerås, Sweden.
    Lind, Leili
    Swedish ICT, SICS East, Linköping, Sweden.
    E-care@home: Initial Usability Considerations2016In: Abstractproceedings from Medicinteknikdagarna 2016, 2016Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 1467.
    Puhakka, Johan
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Sandegren, Philip
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Implementing and evaluating SignalR in a .NET environment2015Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    SignalR is a Asp.Net library that can be used to handle communication in .NET web applications. Since it is a new technology, many companies working in the .NET enviroment are curious with how it can be integrated while developing applications and how well it performs compared to current technology used to handle communication.

    In this work we investigate using Asp.Net library SignalR when developing web applications in Visual Studio using MVC 5 and BootStrap, a project given to us by the Swedish Transportation Agency. In order to evaluate SignalR we integrate it in a Planning Poker application and use a modified version of the Web Application Quality Evaluation Model to evaluate it. We also compare our results of the product and evaluation to the ISO/IEC 25000 System and Software Quality Requirements and Evaluation standard.

    After having finished writing a minimum viable product of a Planning Poker web application using SignalR for the communication, we presented our result and described our code for a number of developers at the Swedish Transportation Agency and had them fill a questionnaire gauging their interest in SignalR and their perception of how easy it would be to implement with their current code standards.

    The general consensus among us who had written the program and the developers at the company was that SignalR is a library that is very easy to use in the .NET environment, and it makes use of new technology that increases communication performance in web applications.

  • 1468.
    Rabiei Far, Parisa
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Differential gene expression profiling of chromatin-modifying enzymes and remodeling factors in the rat motor cortex after motor skill training2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 30 credits / 45 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Fine motor skills are learned through repetitive practice and once learned, last for a long time. Skilled reaching is linked to structural and functional changes in multiple brain regions including, in particular, the primary motor cortex. Previous studies demonstrated that fine motor skill learning is associated with cortical synaptogenesis and motor map reorganization. At present, studies have implicated an indispensable role of epigenetic alterations in both hippocampal- and striatal-dependent memory formations, while examinations into the epigenetic changes in the primary motor cortex are lacking. The current study was aimed to identify epigenetic changes in motor cortex as a result of extensive motor skill learning using the single pellet skilled reaching task. Male Wistar rats were trained in the single pellet skilled reaching task (n = 6) for 10 consecutive days or were, under similar conditions, given access to pellets that did not require skilled reaches (n = 6). Skilled motor trained rats exhibited a rapid increase in successful reaches during the first four days of motor training before reaching a plateau, indicative of the acquisition and consolidation of the learned task, respectively. Expression profiles of chromatin modifying enzymes were screened using epigenetic-targeted PCR arrays. Results suggest that gene expression levels of multiple chromatin regulatory enzymes were down-regulated in the motor cortex of trained animals compared to controls following 10 days of motor training in the skilled reaching task. Among the chromatin modifying enzymes, the transcription level of Smyd1 (SET and MYND domain containing 1; NM_001106595) was lower (-2.17 fold-change) in motor cortex after 10 days of training compared to controls. Our results point to an epigenetic regulation of chromatin modification markers in the primary motor cortex that possibly underlie the mechanisms of synaptic plasticity, synaptogenesis and the formation of procedural memory.

  • 1469.
    Rabiei Far, Parisa
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Study on cytotoxic activity of chloroformic fractions from Astraceae family on a number of cancer cell lines2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Cancer is considered as one of the leading causes of death worldwide. The standard treatments of cancer are surgery, chemotherapy and radiation therapy. It is significant that a number of currently used anti-cancer agents are derived from natural sources, including plants, marine organisms and micro-organisms. In Iran, because of its climate diversity numerous varieties of plants can grow. Many of these plants such as Glycyrrhizaglabra, Foeniculumvulgare and Polygonumspecies have shown to possess anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects. Asteraceae or Compositae family is famous for its tranquilizing effect, antifungal and cytotoxic activities. In frame of an ethnopharmacological project, local healers of some provinces of north east of Iran were interviewed by using questionnaire forms and could identify a number of herbs mainly from Astraceae family which are used for treatment traditionally in some areas of northern part of Iran. To screen the anti cancer effects of plants from this family, plants  were collected and extraction was done by using methanol maceration and finally extracts were tested for their toxicity toward a number of cancer cell lines by performing colorimetric cytotoxicity assay, extracts with high toxicity were sent for fractionation. The current study was aimed to identify the possible cytotoxic effect of two chloroformic fractions from Asteraceae family on four cancer cell lines (HepG2, HeLa, MN1 and MDD2) by using MTT colorimetric cytotoxicity assay. Results suggest that following 72 hours exposure, both fractions exhibited a substantial antiproliferative effect in all four tested cell lines. Moreover, concentration range for inducing 50% of cell death (IC50%) was determined. Our results point to a robust inhibitory effect of chloroformic fractions specifically toward HeLa cancer cell lines. These plants represent valuable resources for the development of potential anticancer agents.

  • 1470.
    Ragén, Cassandra
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    PFAS: En litteraturstudie med fokus på ämnenas förekomst i livsmedel2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Sedan 1950-talet har per- och polyfluorerade alkylsubstanser, PFAS, producerats och används i en rad olika produkter, vilket har resulterat i utsläpp till miljön. Ämnena har sedan spridit sig och hittats i vatten, djur och människor. Perfluoralkyl-karboxylsyror, PFCA, och perfluoralkyl-sulfonsyror, PFSA, är två klasser av konstgjorda perfluorerade alkylsyror, PFAA, som har väckt särskilt intresse på grund av deras persistens i miljön och dess förmåga ackumulera i organiskt material och i biota. Vid djurförsök har PFCA och PFSA visat sig ge toxikologiska effekter och de har även visat sig kunna ge effekter som låg födelsevikt hos spädbarn. Intag av PFAS-förorenad mat, vatten, och damm har visat sig vara de vanligaste exponeringskällorna till PFAS för människor. Den huvudsakliga exponeringen har ansetts ske via PFAS-kontaminerade livsmedel. I fisk och skaldjur, samt kött och köttprodukter, har oftast PFAS förekommit.

    Syftet med denna studie var att genom en litteraturstudie undersöka förekomsten av PFAS i livsmedel, samt att utvärdera om halterna av PFAS i livsmedel utgjorde en risk för människors hälsa. Undersökningen ämnade besvara i vilka livsmedel PFAS kunde förekomma och vilka enskilda PFAS som vanligen detekterades i mat. Dessutom avsåg undersökningen ge svar på huruvida de uppmätta nivåerna av PFAS i livsmedel medförde en risk för människors hälsa eller inte. I uppsatsen undersöktes 11 olika vetenskapliga artiklar genom en semi-systematisk litteraturgenomgång. Genom sökningar i Örebro universitets bibliografiska databas, Biosis Previews, valdes artiklar ut med hjälp av ett antal olika sökord.

    Resultaten från denna undersökning visade att fisk och skaldjur, följt av kött och köttprodukter, var de mest PFAS-förorenade livsmedelsgrupperna. Det ämne som oftast uppträdde i både animalier och vegetabilier, var PFOS, följt av PFOA. I fisk och skaldjur, verkade långkedjiga PFAA och framförallt långkedjiga PFCA, vara vanligast. I kött och köttprodukter förekom oftast långkedjiga PFAA. I vegetabiliska livsmedel, tyckdes kortkedjiga PFCA, vara dominerande. Resultaten från de exponeringsbedömningar som ett flertal studier genomförde, visade att det uppskattade dagliga intaget av PFOS och PFOA, var lägre än TDI för PFOS och PFOA, som har föreslagits av EFSA (2008). Därför ansågs inte intag av den förorenade maten, utgöra någon direkt hälsorisk för människor.

    För ytterligare förståelse för fördelningen av olika PFAS i vissa livsmedelsgrupper och deras potential till bioackumulering och biomagnifiering i näringskedjan, behövs fler undersökningar som möjligen kan förklara detta. Dessutom bör kommande studier omfattas av ett större antal olika livsmedelstyper. I framtida studier kan det även vara viktigt att inkludera flera olika PFAS samt deras prekursorer, vid analys av livsmedel och vid exponeringsbedömningar. Samt inkludera ersättningsföreningar till PFOS och PFOA, som till exempel F53B och ADONA, i kommande undersökningar. Dessutom bör hälsobaserade riktvärden för flera skilda PFAS utvecklas och vidare utredningar borde genomföras beträffande deras toxikologiska effekter på människor. Dessa föreslagna satsningar borde öka kunskapen om flera PFAS, deras prekursorer och alternativ. Samt ge ytterligare förståelse för deras spridning i livsmedel och resultera i mer rättvisande bedömningar av exponering för PFAS via kosten.

  • 1471.
    Rahayem, Mohamed
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Werghi, Naoufel
    Electrical and Computer Engineering Department, Khalifa University, Sharjah, United Arab Emirates.
    Kjellander, Johan
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Best ellipse and cylinder parameters estimation from laser profile scan sections2012In: Optics and lasers in engineering, ISSN 0143-8166, E-ISSN 1873-0302, Vol. 50, no 9, p. 1242-1259Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Industrial applications like robot-aided welding, automated inspection, and 3D measurements require 3D points to be captured from the surfaces of objects and processed to calculate the information-of-interest. The lack of research focused on fitting ellipses to 3D laser profile data, and the intrinsic features that distinguish it from 2D digital images, motivated us to conduct a comparative study involving the most popular ellipse-fitting methods. After describing our laser profile scanning system, and a survey of ellipse-fitting methods, we compare, using extensive experiments performed with synthetic and real data, the fitting algorithms in terms of stability and accuracy with respect to a variety of factors. The estimate obtained with the best method is used to initialize a robust non-linear iterative ellipse fitting method. Finally, we describe a novel method for the construction of cylindrical surfaces from estimated elliptical sections.

  • 1472.
    Rahman, Aminur
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Bioremediation of Toxic Metals for Protecting Human Health and the Ecosystem2016Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Heavy metal pollutants, discharged into the ecosystem as waste by anthropogenic activities, contaminate drinking water for millions of people and animals in many regions of the world. Long term exposure to these metals, leads to several lethal diseases like cancer, keratosis, gangrene, diabetes, cardio- vascular disorders, etc. Therefore, removal of these pollutants from soil, water and environment is of great importance for human welfare. One of the possible eco-friendly solutions to this problem is the use of microorganisms that can accumulate the heavy metals from the contaminated sources, hence reducing the pollutant contents to a safe level.

    In this thesis an arsenic resistant bacterium Lysinibacillus sphaericus B1-CDA, a chromium resistant bacterium Enterobacter cloacae B2-DHA and a nickel resistant bacterium Lysinibacillus sp. BA2 were isolated and studied. The minimum inhibitory concentration values of these isolates are 500 mM sodium arsenate, 5.5 mM potassium chromate and 9 mM nickel chloride, respectively. The time of flight-secondary ion mass spectrometry and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectroscopy analyses revealed that after 120 h of exposure, the intracellular accumulation of arsenic in B1-CDA and chromium in B2-DHA were 5.0 mg/g dwt and 320 μg/g dwt of cell biomass, respectively. However, the arsenic and chromium contents in the liquid medium were reduced to 50% and 81%, respectively. The adsorption values of BA2 when exposed to nickel for 6 h were 238.04 mg of Ni(II) per gram of dead biomass indicating BA2 can reduce nickel content in the solution to 53.89%. Scanning electron micrograph depicted the effect of these metals on cellular morphology of the isolates. The genetic composition of B1-CDA and B2-DHA were studied in detail by sequencing of whole genomes. All genes of B1-CDA and B2-DHA predicted to be associated with resistance to heavy metals were annotated.

    The findings in this study accentuate the significance of these bacteria in removing toxic metals from the contaminated sources. The genetic mechanisms of these isolates in absorbing and thus removing toxic metals could be used as vehicles to cope with metal toxicity of the contaminated effluents discharged to the nature by industries and other human activities.

    List of papers
    1. Isolation and characterization of a Lysinibacillus strain B1-CDA showing potential for bioremediation of arsenics from contaminated water
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Isolation and characterization of a Lysinibacillus strain B1-CDA showing potential for bioremediation of arsenics from contaminated water
    Show others...
    2014 (English)In: Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part A: Toxic/Hazardous Substances and Environmental Engineering, ISSN 1093-4529, E-ISSN 1532-4117, Vol. 49, no 12, p. 1349-1360Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The main objective of this study was to identify and isolate arsenic resistant bacteria that can be used for removing arsenic from the contaminated environment. Here we report a soil borne bacterium, B1-CDA that can serve this purpose. B1-CDA was isolated from the soil of a cultivated land in Chuadanga district located in the southwest region of Bangladesh. The morphological, biochemical and 16S rRNA analysis suggested that the isolate belongs to Lysinibacillus sphaericus. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) value of the isolate is 500mM (As) as arsenate. TOF-SIMS and ICP-MS analysis confirmed intracellular accumulation and removal of arsenics. Arsenic accumulation in cells amounted to 5.0mg g(-1) of the cells dry biomass and thus reduced the arsenic concentration in the contaminated liquid medium by as much as 50%. These results indicate that B1-CDA has the potential for remediation of arsenic from the contaminated water. We believe the benefits of implementing this bacterium to efficiently reduce arsenic exposure will not only help to remove one aspect of human arsenic poisoning but will also benefit livestock and native animal species. Therefore, the outcome of this research will be highly significant for people in the affected area and also for human populations in other countries that have credible health concerns as a consequence of arsenic-contaminated water.

    Keywords
    Pollution, toxic metals, arsenics, bioremediation, bacteria, bioaccumulation
    National Category
    Environmental Sciences
    Research subject
    Enviromental Science
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-36537 (URN)10.1080/10934529.2014.928247 (DOI)000340370000002 ()25072766 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-84905275614 (Scopus ID)
    Funder
    Sida - Swedish International Development Cooperation AgencySwedish Research Council Formas
    Note

    Funding Agency:

    Nilsson-Ehle (The Royal Physiographic Society in Lund) foundation in Sweden

    Available from: 2014-09-16 Created: 2014-09-15 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved
    2. Bioremediation of hexavalent chromium (VI) by a soil-borne bacterium, Enterobacter cloacae B2-DHA
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Bioremediation of hexavalent chromium (VI) by a soil-borne bacterium, Enterobacter cloacae B2-DHA
    Show others...
    2015 (English)In: Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part A: Toxic/Hazardous Substances and Environmental Engineering, ISSN 1093-4529, E-ISSN 1532-4117, Vol. 50, no 11, p. 1136-1147Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Chromium and chromium containing compounds are discharged into the nature as waste from anthropogenic activities, such as industries, agriculture, forest farming, mining and metallurgy. Continued disposal of these compounds to the environment leads to development of various lethal diseases in both humans and animals. In this paper, we report a soil borne bacterium, B2-DHA that can be used as a vehicle to effectively remove chromium from the contaminated sources. B2-DHA is resistant to chromium with a MIC value of 1000 mu g mL(-1) potassium chromate. The bacterium has been identified as a Gram negative, Enterobacter cloacae based on biochemical characteristics and 16S rRNA gene analysis. TOF-SIMS and ICP-MS analyses confirmed intracellular accumulation of chromium and thus its removal from the contaminated liquid medium. Chromium accumulation in cells was 320 mu g/g of cells dry biomass after 120-h exposure, and thus it reduced the chromium concentration in the liquid medium by as much as 81%. Environmental scanning electron micrograph revealed the effect of metals on cellular morphology of the isolates. Altogether, our results indicate that B2-DHA has the potential to reduce chromium significantly to safe levels from the contaminated environments and suggest the potential use of this bacterium in reducing human exposure to chromium, hence avoiding poisoning.

    Keywords
    Bioremediation, chromium, Enterobacter cloacae, human health, soil borne bacterium, tannery effluents
    National Category
    Environmental Sciences
    Research subject
    Enviromental Science
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-45753 (URN)10.1080/10934529.2015.1047670 (DOI)000359339900006 ()26191988 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-84937800926 (Scopus ID)
    Funder
    Sida - Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency, AKT-2010-018Swedish Research Council for Environment, Agricultural Sciences and Spatial Planning, 229-2007-217
    Note

    Funding Agency:

    Nilsson-Ehle (The Royal Physiographic Society in Lund) Foundation in Sweden

    Available from: 2015-09-09 Created: 2015-09-09 Last updated: 2017-12-04Bibliographically approved
    3. Biosorption of nickel by Lysinibacillus sp BA2 native to bauxite mine
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Biosorption of nickel by Lysinibacillus sp BA2 native to bauxite mine
    Show others...
    2014 (English)In: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, ISSN 0147-6513, E-ISSN 1090-2414, Vol. 107, p. 260-268Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The current scenario of environmental pollution urges the need for an effective solution for toxic heavy metal removal from industrial wastewater. Bioremediation is the most cost effective process employed by the use of microbes especially bacteria resistant to toxic metals. In this study, Lysinibacillus sp. BA2, a nickel tolerant strain isolated from bauxite mine was used for the biosorption of Ni(II). Lysinibacillus sp. BA2 biomass had isoelectric point (pI) of 3.3. The maximum negative zeta potential value (-39.45) was obtained at pH 6.0 which was highly favourable for Ni(II) biosorption. 238.04 mg of Ni(II) adsorbed on one gram of dead biomass and 196.32 mg adsorbed on one gram of live biomass. The adsorption of Ni(II) on biomass increased with time and attained saturation after 180 mm with rapid biosorption in initial 30 min. The Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms could fit well for biosorption of Ni(II) by dead biomass while Langmuir isotherm provided a better fit for live biomass based on correlation coefficient values. The kinetic studies of Ni(II) removal, using dead and live biomass was well explained by second-order kinetic model. Ni(II) adsorption on live biomass was confirrned by SEM-EDX where cell aggregation and increasing irregularity of cell morphology was observed even though cells were in non-growing state. The FTIR analysis of biomass revealed the presence of carboxyl, hydroxyl and amino groups, which seem responsible for biosorption of Ni(II). The beads made using dead biomass of Lysinibacillus sp. BA2 could efficiently remove Ni(II) from effluent solutions. These microbial cells can substitute expensive methods for treating nickel contaminated industrial wastewaters.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Elsevier, 2014
    Keywords
    Lysinibacillus sp BA2, Heavy metals, Biosorption, Adsorption isotherm
    National Category
    Other Biological Topics
    Research subject
    Biology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-51857 (URN)10.1016/j.ecoenv.2014.06.009 (DOI)000342122000036 ()25011123 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-84903900011 (Scopus ID)
    Available from: 2016-08-29 Created: 2016-08-29 Last updated: 2018-06-18Bibliographically approved
    4. Comparative genome analysis of Lysinibacillus B1-CDA, a bacterium that accumulates arsenics
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Comparative genome analysis of Lysinibacillus B1-CDA, a bacterium that accumulates arsenics
    Show others...
    2015 (English)In: Genomics, ISSN 0888-7543, E-ISSN 1089-8646, Vol. 106, no 6, p. 384-392Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Previously, we reported an arsenic resistant bacterium Lysinibacillus sphaericus B1-CDA, isolated from an arsenic contaminated lands. Here, we have investigated its genetic composition and evolutionary history by using massively parallel sequencing and comparative analysis with other known Lysinibacillus genomes. Assembly of the sequencing reads revealed a genome of similar to 4.5 Mb in size encompassing similar to 80% of the chromosomal DNA. We found that the set of ordered contigs contains abundant regions of similarity with other Lysinibacillus genomes and clearly identifiable genome rearrangements. Furthermore, all genes of B1-CDA that were predicted be involved in its resistance to arsenic and/or other heavy metals were annotated. The presence of arsenic responsive genes was verified by PCR in vitro conditions. The findings of this study highlight the significance of this bacterium in removing arsenics and other toxic metals from the contaminated sources. The genetic mechanisms of the isolate could be used to cope with arsenic toxicity.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Academic Press, 2015
    Keywords
    Toxic metals, Bioremediation, Lysinibacillus sphaericus B1-CDA, Genome sequencing, de novo assembly, Gene prediction
    National Category
    Environmental Sciences Environmental Biotechnology
    Research subject
    Enviromental Science
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-47292 (URN)10.1016/j.ygeno.2015.09.006 (DOI)000365613100010 ()26387925 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-84948102629 (Scopus ID)
    Note

    Funding Agencies:

    Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency (SIDA) AKT-2010-018

    Swedish Research Council for Environment, Agricultural Sciences and Spatial Planning (FORMAS) 229-2007-217

    Nilsson-Ehle (The Royal Physio-graphic Society in Lund) foundation in Sweden

    Available from: 2016-01-05 Created: 2016-01-04 Last updated: 2018-07-02Bibliographically approved
    5. Genome analysis of Enterobacter cloacae B2-DHA – A bacterium resistant to chromium and/or other heavy metals
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Genome analysis of Enterobacter cloacae B2-DHA – A bacterium resistant to chromium and/or other heavy metals
    Show others...
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    National Category
    Other Biological Topics
    Research subject
    Biology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-51858 (URN)
    Available from: 2016-08-31 Created: 2016-08-29 Last updated: 2017-10-17Bibliographically approved
  • 1473.
    Rahman, Aminur
    et al.
    Systems Biology Research Center, School of Bioscience, University of Skövde, Skövde, Sweden; The Life Science Center, School of Science and Technology, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Nahar, Noor
    Systems Biology Research Center, School of Bioscience, University of Skövde, Skövde, Sweden.
    Nawani, Neelu N.
    Dr. D. Y. Patil Biotechnology and Bioinformatics Institute, Dr. D. Y. Patil Vidyapeeth, Tathawade, Pune, India.
    Jass, Jana
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Desale, Prithviraj
    Dr. D. Y. Patil Biotechnology and Bioinformatics Institute, Dr. D. Y. Patil Vidyapeeth, Tathawade, Pune, India.
    Kapadnis, Balu P.
    Department of Microbiology, University of Pune, Pune, India.
    Hossain, Khaled
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Rajshahi, Rajshahi, Bangladesh.
    Saha, Ananda K.
    Department of Zoology, University of Rajshahi, Rajshahi, Bangladesh.
    Ghosh, Sibdas
    School of Arts and Science, Iona College, New Rochelle, New York, USA.
    Olsson, Björn
    Systems Biology Research Center, School of Bioscience, University of Skövde, Skövde, Sweden.
    Mandal, Abul
    Systems Biology Research Center, School of Bioscience, University of Skövde, Skövde, Sweden.
    Isolation and characterization of a Lysinibacillus strain B1-CDA showing potential for bioremediation of arsenics from contaminated water2014In: Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part A: Toxic/Hazardous Substances and Environmental Engineering, ISSN 1093-4529, E-ISSN 1532-4117, Vol. 49, no 12, p. 1349-1360Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The main objective of this study was to identify and isolate arsenic resistant bacteria that can be used for removing arsenic from the contaminated environment. Here we report a soil borne bacterium, B1-CDA that can serve this purpose. B1-CDA was isolated from the soil of a cultivated land in Chuadanga district located in the southwest region of Bangladesh. The morphological, biochemical and 16S rRNA analysis suggested that the isolate belongs to Lysinibacillus sphaericus. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) value of the isolate is 500mM (As) as arsenate. TOF-SIMS and ICP-MS analysis confirmed intracellular accumulation and removal of arsenics. Arsenic accumulation in cells amounted to 5.0mg g(-1) of the cells dry biomass and thus reduced the arsenic concentration in the contaminated liquid medium by as much as 50%. These results indicate that B1-CDA has the potential for remediation of arsenic from the contaminated water. We believe the benefits of implementing this bacterium to efficiently reduce arsenic exposure will not only help to remove one aspect of human arsenic poisoning but will also benefit livestock and native animal species. Therefore, the outcome of this research will be highly significant for people in the affected area and also for human populations in other countries that have credible health concerns as a consequence of arsenic-contaminated water.

  • 1474.
    Rahman, Aminur
    et al.
    Systems Biology Research Center, School of Bioscience, University of Skövde, Skövde, Sweden; The Life Science Center, School of Science and Technology, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Nahar, Noor
    Systems Biology Research Center, School of Bioscience, University of Skövde, Skövde, Sweden.
    Nawani, Neelu N.
    Dr. D. Y. Patil Biotechnology and Bioinformatics Institute, Dr. D. Y. Patil Vidyapeeth, Tathawade, Pune, India.
    Jass, Jana
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Ghosh, Sibdas
    School of Arts and Science, Iona College, New Rochelle NY, USA.
    Olsson, Björn
    Systems Biology Research Center, School of Bioscience, University of Skövde, Skövde, Sweden.
    Mandal, Abul
    Systems Biology Research Center, School of Bioscience, University of Skövde, Skövde, Sweden.
    Comparative genome analysis of Lysinibacillus B1-CDA, a bacterium that accumulates arsenics2015In: Genomics, ISSN 0888-7543, E-ISSN 1089-8646, Vol. 106, no 6, p. 384-392Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previously, we reported an arsenic resistant bacterium Lysinibacillus sphaericus B1-CDA, isolated from an arsenic contaminated lands. Here, we have investigated its genetic composition and evolutionary history by using massively parallel sequencing and comparative analysis with other known Lysinibacillus genomes. Assembly of the sequencing reads revealed a genome of similar to 4.5 Mb in size encompassing similar to 80% of the chromosomal DNA. We found that the set of ordered contigs contains abundant regions of similarity with other Lysinibacillus genomes and clearly identifiable genome rearrangements. Furthermore, all genes of B1-CDA that were predicted be involved in its resistance to arsenic and/or other heavy metals were annotated. The presence of arsenic responsive genes was verified by PCR in vitro conditions. The findings of this study highlight the significance of this bacterium in removing arsenics and other toxic metals from the contaminated sources. The genetic mechanisms of the isolate could be used to cope with arsenic toxicity.

  • 1475.
    Rahman, Aminur
    et al.
    Systems Biology Research Center, School of Bioscience, University of Skövde, Skövde, Sweden; The Life Science Center, School of Science and Technology, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Nahar, Noor
    Systems Biology Research Center, School of Bioscience, University of Skövde, Skövde, Sweden.
    Nawani, Neelu N.
    Dr. D. Y. Patil Biotechnology and Bioinformatics Institute, Tathawade, Pune, India.
    Jass, Jana
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Hossain, Khaled
    Department of Biochemistry & Molecular Biology, University of Rajshahi, Rajshahi, Bangladesh.
    Saud, Zahangir Alam
    Department of Biochemistry & Molecular Biology, University of Rajshahi, Rajshahi, Bangladesh.
    Saha, Ananda K.
    Department of Zoology, University of Rajshahi, Rajshahi, Bangladesh.
    Ghosh, Sibdas
    School of Arts and Science, Iona College, New Rochelle, New York, USA.
    Olsson, Björn
    Systems Biology Research Center, School of Bioscience, University of Skövde, Skövde, Sweden.
    Mandal, Abul
    Systems Biology Research Center, School of Bioscience, University of Skövde, Skövde, Sweden.
    Bioremediation of hexavalent chromium (VI) by a soil-borne bacterium, Enterobacter cloacae B2-DHA2015In: Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part A: Toxic/Hazardous Substances and Environmental Engineering, ISSN 1093-4529, E-ISSN 1532-4117, Vol. 50, no 11, p. 1136-1147Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Chromium and chromium containing compounds are discharged into the nature as waste from anthropogenic activities, such as industries, agriculture, forest farming, mining and metallurgy. Continued disposal of these compounds to the environment leads to development of various lethal diseases in both humans and animals. In this paper, we report a soil borne bacterium, B2-DHA that can be used as a vehicle to effectively remove chromium from the contaminated sources. B2-DHA is resistant to chromium with a MIC value of 1000 mu g mL(-1) potassium chromate. The bacterium has been identified as a Gram negative, Enterobacter cloacae based on biochemical characteristics and 16S rRNA gene analysis. TOF-SIMS and ICP-MS analyses confirmed intracellular accumulation of chromium and thus its removal from the contaminated liquid medium. Chromium accumulation in cells was 320 mu g/g of cells dry biomass after 120-h exposure, and thus it reduced the chromium concentration in the liquid medium by as much as 81%. Environmental scanning electron micrograph revealed the effect of metals on cellular morphology of the isolates. Altogether, our results indicate that B2-DHA has the potential to reduce chromium significantly to safe levels from the contaminated environments and suggest the potential use of this bacterium in reducing human exposure to chromium, hence avoiding poisoning.

  • 1476.
    Rahman, Aminur
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology. University of Skövde.
    Nahar, Noor
    University of Skövde.
    Olsson, Björn
    University of Skövde.
    Jass, Jana
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Nawani, Neelu N.
    Dr. D. Y. Patil Biotechnology and Bioinformatics Institute, Dr. D. Y. Patil Vidyapeeth, Tathawade, Pune-411033, India.
    Ghosh, Sibdas
    Iona College, New Rochelle, NY, USA.
    Saha, Ananda K.
    University of Rajshahi, Rajshahi, Bangladesh.
    Hossain, Khaled
    University of Rajshahi, Bangladesh.
    Mandal, Abul
    University of Skövde.
    Genome analysis of Enterobacter cloacae B2-DHA – A bacterium resistant to chromium and/or other heavy metalsManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 1477.
    Rajan, Kanna
    et al.
    Department of Engineering Cybernetics, Center for Autonomous Marine Operations and Systems (AMOS), Norges teknisk-naturvitenskapelige universitet (NTNU), Trondheim, Norway.
    Saffiotti, Alessandro
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Towards a science of integrated AI and Robotics2017In: Artificial Intelligence, ISSN 0004-3702, E-ISSN 1872-7921, Vol. 247, p. 1-9Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The early promise of the impact of machine intelligence did not involve the partitioning of the nascent field of Artificial Intelligence. The founders of AI envisioned the notion of embedded intelligence as being conjoined between perception, reasoning and actuation. Yet over the years the fields of AI and Robotics drifted apart. Practitioners of AI focused on problems and algorithms abstracted from the real world. Roboticists, generally with a background in mechanical and electrical engineering, concentrated on sensori-motor functions. That divergence is slowly being bridged with the maturity of both fields and with the growing interest in autonomous systems. This special issue brings together the state of the art and practice of the emergent field of integrated AI and Robotics, and highlights the key areas along which this current evolution of machine intelligence is heading.

  • 1478.
    Ranjbar, Parivash
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Omgivningens ljud fångas upp av nytt hjälpmedel2010In: AudioNYTT, ISSN 0347-6308, Vol. 37, no 4, p. 14-17Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 1479.
    Ranjbar, Parivash
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Sensing the Environment: a Perceptual and Psychosocial Analysis of Events in the Surroundings from a Handicap Perspective. Medicinteknikdagarna Örebro2007Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 1480.
    Ranjbar, Parivash
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Sensing the Environment: a Perceptual and Psychosocial Analysis of Events in the Surroundings from a Handicap Perspective. Missisauga2003Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 1481.
    Ranjbar, Parivash
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Sensing the Environment: a Perceptual and Psychosocial Analysis of Events in the Surroundings from a Handicap Perspective. Perth2007Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 1482.
    Ranjbar, Parivash
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden. Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Signal Processing Methods for Improvement of Environmental Perception of Persons with Deafblindness2014In: Advanced Materials Research, ISSN 1022-6680, Vol. 902, p. 398-404Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Environmental perception is a functional area that is severely limited in persons with  deafblindness (DB) who belong a category of people with severe disabilities. Monitor is a vibratory aid developed with the aim to improve environmental perception of persons with DB. The aid consists of a mobile phone with an application connected to a microphone and vibrator. Monitor picks up the sounds produced by events by microphone, processes the sound using an algorithm programmed as an application in the mobile phone and then presents the signal via the vibrator to the persons with DB to be sensed and interpreted. In previous laboratory studies, four algorithms (AM, AMMC, TR, and TRHA) were developed based on modulating, and transposing principles.

    The algorithms were tested by persons with normal hearing/hearing impairment and selected as good candidates to improve vibratory identification of environmental sounds. In this on-going the algorithms are tested by 13 persons with congenital D and five persons with DB using Monitor in a realistic environment, living room, kitchen or office. Forty five recorded environmental sounds were used as test stimuli.

    The subjects tested the algorithms two times, Test and Retest each including a test session

    initiated by a training session. The four algorithms were tested in four days at Test and four days at Retest in total eight test days. Each test day began with a training session where a sound was presented as vibrations to be sensed by the person with the aim to remember its pattern and identity.

    The 45 sounds were grouped in four groups where an specific algorithm was chosen to process an specific sound group in a specific day. At the test session a sound was presented and the person was given 5 randomly chosen sound alternatives to choose the one as represented sound. The algorithms were different for different sound groups during four different test days so all algorithms were used to process all sounds. The algorithms were tested a second time, Retest, in same way as in Test.

    The mean value of identification of environmental sounds varied between 74.6% and 84.0% at Test and between 86.9% and 90.4% at Retest. The identification results at Retest were

    significantly improved (p<0.01) for all algorithms after a relatively short time of training indicating a good learning effect. At Test the algorithm AM was significantly better than the algorithms AMMC and TRHA (p< 0.01) and the algorithm TR was better than TRHA (p<0.01).

    The algorithms AM, AMMC, and TR were selected as good candidates to be implemented in the Monitor to improve environmental perception.

  • 1483.
    Ranjbar, Parivash
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Sinnena, konst och vetenskap: att känna omvärlden2007Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 1484.
    Ranjbar, Parivash
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Akner-Koler, Cheryl
    Örebro University, School of Hospitality, Culinary Arts & Meal Science.
    Konstfack designar hjälpmedel2010In: Audio-nytt, ISSN 0347-6308, Vol. 37, no 4, p. 24-26Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 1485.
    Ranjbar, Parivash
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Borg, Erik
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences.
    Philipson, Lennart
    Stranneby, Dag
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Auditive identification of signal-processed environmental sounds: monitoring the environment2008In: International Journal of Audiology, ISSN 1499-2027, E-ISSN 1708-8186, Vol. 47, no 12, p. 724-736Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The goal of the present study was to compare six transposing signal-processing algorithms based on different principles (Fourier-based and modulation based), and to choose the algorithm that best enables identification of environmental sounds, i.e. improves the ability to monitor events in the surroundings. Ten children (12-15 years) and 10 adults (21-33 years) with normal hearing listened to 45 representative environmental (events) sounds processed using the six algorithms, and identified them in three different listening experiments involving an increasing degree of experience. The sounds were selected based on their importance for normal hearing and deaf-blind subjects. Results showed that the algorithm based on transposition of 1/3 octaves (fixed frequencies) with large bandwidth was better (p<0.015) than algorithms based on modulation. There was also a significant effect of experience (p<0.001). Adults were significantly (p<0.05) better than children for two algorithms. No clear gender difference was observed. It is concluded that the algorithm based on transposition with large bandwidth and fixed frequencies is the most promising for development of hearing aids to monitor environmental sounds.

  • 1486.
    Ranjbar, Parivash
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden.
    Borg, Erik
    Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden.
    Philipson, Lennart
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Stranneby, Dag
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Sensing the environment: A perceptual and psychosocial analysis of events in surroundings from a handicapped perspective2003Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 1487.
    Ranjbar, Parivash
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Remes, Johan
    Alexandersson, Linda
    Axelhed, Ingrid
    Timstock hjälper dövblinda uppfatta tiden2010In: AudioNYTT, ISSN 0347-6308, Vol. 37, no 4, p. 28-30Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 1488.
    Ranjbar, Parivash
    et al.
    Örebro University Hospital. Örebro University, School of Health Sciences. Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik, School of Science and Technology.
    Stranneby, Dag
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Akner Koler, Cheryl
    Konstfack, Industridesignprogrammet.
    Borg, Erik
    Audiologiskt forskningscentrum i Örebro, Region Örebro län, Örebro, Sweden.
    Identification of vibrotactile morse code on abdomen and wrist2017In: International Journal of Engineering Technology and Scientific Innovation, ISSN 2456-1851, Vol. 1, no 4, p. 351-366Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Morse code has been used as a communications system at a distance to transmit text through tone or light pulses. This comparative study aims to test and evaluate the vibrotactile identification of Morse coded signals communicating instructions for movement. The pulses were presented on abdomen and wrist among 14 males (40-85 yr) experienced in acoustic Morse code and the rate of pulses was 12 words per minute using a Vibration Motor mounted in a plastic holder. There identification results were statistically significantly better on wrist compared to abdomen. Words were identified significantly better on the wrist as compared to abdomen but the identification results of the letters were equally good in both placements. There was a negative correlation between age and the pooled identification results tested on wrist PCC r=-0.45 (p<0.02). The participants rank ordered the wrist, over the abdomen, as the best place for positioning the vibrator. The results support haptic/tactile interaction research in positioning and communication system. Our future plans are to apply the results to the project "Ready Ride" for instructions for horseback riding for people with deafblindness as well as activity and movement for elderly people with impaired vision and hearing.

  • 1489.
    Ranjbar, Parivash
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden. Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden.
    Stranneby, Dag
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Akner-Koler, Cheryl
    Konstfack, University Collage of Arts, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Borg, Erik
    Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden.
    Haptic Technical Aids for EnvironmentalPerception, Time Perception and Mobility (in a Riding Arena) for Persons with Deafblindness2014In: HAPTICS: NEUROSCIENCE, DEVICES, MODELING, AND APPLICATIONS, PT II, Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2014, Vol. 8619, p. 488-490Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This demonstration presents three vibrotactile aids to support personswith deafblindness. One aid, Monitor, consists of a microphone that detectssounds from events which are then processed as a signal that is adapted to thesensitivity range of the skin. The signal is sent as vibrations to the user withdeafblindness, who can interpret the pattern of the vibrations in order to identifythe type and position of the event/source that produced the sounds. Another aid,Distime, uses a smart phone app that informs the user with cognitive impairmentand deafblindness about a planned activity through; audio, visual or tactileinteraction that is adapted to the abilities of each individual. The last aid, Ready-ride, uses two smart phones and up to 11 vibrators that help the horse back riderwith deafblindness to communicate with the instructor from a distance viavibrators placed on different parts of the riders body e.g. wrist, thigh, back, ankle.

  • 1490.
    Ranjbar, Parivash
    et al.
    Audiological Research Centre, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden.
    Stranneby, Dag
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Akner-Koler, Cheryl
    Industridesignprogrammet, Konstfack, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Borg, Erik
    Audiological Research Centre, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden.
    Haptic technical aids for improvement of Time perception, Environmental perception and Mobility (in a riding arena) and Music perception for persons with deafblindness2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Persons with deafblindness have frequently difficulties in e.g. environmental perception, spatial awareness, time perception, social participation and music experience. To experience independence, participation and control, adequate processing of sensory information is important.

  • 1491.
    Ranjbar, Parivash
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Stranneby, Dag
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Akner-Koler, Cheryl
    Konstfack, University College of Arts, Crafts and Design in Sweden, Stockholm,Sweden .
    Borg, Erik
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden.
    Monitor: a vibrotactile aid to improve environmental perception of persons with severe hearing impairment/deafblindness2012In: TeMA Hörsel, 2012, 2012Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 1492.
    Ranjbar, Parivash
    et al.
    Audiological Research Centre, University Hospital At Örebro, Örebro, Seden.
    Stranneby, Dag
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Borg, Erik
    Audiological Research Centre University Hospital At Örebro, Örebro, Sweden.
    Akner-Koler, Cheryl
    Theoretical &Applied Aestetics At Industrial Design, Konstfack, University College Of Arts, Crafts And Design, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Haptic technical aids Distime, Monitor, Good vibrations, Ready-Ride and VibroBraille for improvement of Time perception, Environmental perception, music perception, mobility and communication for persons with deafblindness: Tactile aids2017In: Tactile aids, Ahlborg, 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There are approx. 1300 people with deafblindnes (DB) in Sweden where about 100 of them are with complete deafness (D) and blindness (B). The number will reach about 30000 if we also include people older than 65 with severe visual impairment (VI) and hearing impairment (HI) and several million worldwide.  Difficulties in time perception, environmental perception, music perception, mobility, social participation and communication are examples of their frequent problems. Five haptic technical aids are developed to reduce these problems. Distime is an application in a smart phone to inform the user about the planned activities by choosing different information channel depending on the sense that works and her/his ability. The activities can be presented as sound or vibrations for users with B; as images, movies and also as vibrations for those with D and vibrations for those with DB. Monitor informs users with D and DB about ongoing events with the aim to increase their environmental perception. Using an specific algorithm for environmental sounds, it converts the audible sounds produced by events to sensible vibrations which can be sensed and interpreted as events. Good Vibrations uses an specific algorithm for music and converts the audible music to vibrations which can be felt with the aim to increase music perception for users with severe HI, D/DB as well as for users with normal hearing who want extra enhanced experience of the music. Ready-Ride is a positioning and communication aid to improve the mobility of riders with severe VI, B or DB. It is used for distance communication between a trainer and a rider with VI where the trainer can send information about the rider’s position give commands or feedback about the riding. VibroBraille informs users with B/DB about the short notifications received from different applications in her/his cell phone. It converts the text to its corresponding Braille pattern where the active points are vibrating.

  • 1493.
    Rasha, Zaki
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    IT-stöd för effektiv drivmedelslageravstämning2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna rapport redogör för en webbapplikation med ett användargränssnitt som visar Preems volymdifferenser. Syftet med arbetet var främst utveckla en enklare metod för att spåra oförklarliga differenser i Preems lagerkontroll. Rapporten tar även upp grundläggande metoder för att anpassa webbapplikationer för olika företagsmodeller.

    Det resulterande systemet blev en webbapplikation med ett användargränssnitt för lagerkontroll, där man enkelt kan navigera. Webbapplikationen reagerar på varningar och genererar automatiskt anpassade tabeller/grafer.

  • 1494.
    Rashid, Hesho
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    LoopMe: Rapportgenerator2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis project aims to further develop the functionality of an Android application at a company, with focus on statistics and visualization of graphs. The application is used mainly within the school sector in which teachers have been able to get information from students regarding their well-being, what they have learnt and various aspects via reports. Since these have been the central point in the relation between them, it became important for teachers to gain a better understanding of it. This type of visualization has been one of the main aspirations in the new version of the application, and this has been the main task to develop. By using the tool Chart.js, this form of visualization could be achieved.

     

    Chart.js is a JavaScript library which generates charts and graphs. The advantages of this tool is that it provides a variety of graphs and is independent, which means that it is not in need of any other framework or similar to function. The graphs are stored locally on the company’s server or its computer and not of a third party. This is a further advantage because the company does not need to be dependent on the distributor. In situations when data is confidential (which was relevant in this situation), the company will not be exposed of ethical problems with having to have data on a third party server.

  • 1495.
    Rashid, Jayedur
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Broxvall, Mathias
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Saffiotti, Alessandro
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    A middleware to integrate robots, simple devices and everyday objects into an ambient ecology2012In: Pervasive and Mobile Computing, ISSN 1574-1192, E-ISSN 1873-1589, Vol. 8, no 4, p. 522-541Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The fields of ambient intelligence, distributed robotics and wireless sensor networks are converging toward a common vision, in which ubiquitous sensing and acting devices cooperate to provide useful services in the home. These devices can range from sophisticated mobile robots to simple sensor nodes and even simpler tagged everyday objects. In this vision, a milkbox left on the table after the user has left the home could ask the service of a mobile robot to be placed back in the refrigerator. A missing ingredient to realize this vision is a mechanism that enables the communication and interoperation among such highly heterogeneous entities. In this paper, we propose such a mechanism in the form of a middleware able to integrate robots, tiny devices and augmented everyday objects into one and the same system. The key moves to cope with heterogeneity are: the definition of a tiny, compatible version of the middleware, that can run on small devices; and the concept of object proxy, used to make everyday object accessible within the middleware. We describe the concepts and implementation of our middleware, and show a number of experiments that illustrate its performance.

  • 1496.
    Rasmussen, Alice
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Tillagningsmetodens påverkan på perfluorerade ämnen i Vätternröding2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna studie har undersökt tre tillagningsmetoder; kokning, stekning och ugnsbakning för att se om halten per- och polyfluorerade alkylsubstanser (PFAS) förändras efter tillagning i vätternröding. Proverna har testats för perfluoralkyl sulfonat (PFSA)/perfluorkarboxylsyror (PFCA), polyfluoroalkyl fosfater (PAPs) och perfluoroktan sulfonamid (FOSA)/ perfluoro-1-oktansulfonamid etanol (FOSE). Den substans som hittades i högst halt var perfluoroktansulfonat (PFOS). Resultatet visar att tillagad röding har lägre halter PFAS än färsk röding vilket tyder på att tillagningsmetoden påverkar PFAS, detta är intressant då tidigare forskning inte gett entydiga resultat. Resultatet tyder inte på någon risk för normalkonsumenter att överstiga tolerabelt dagligt intag (TDI) för PFAS vid konsumtion av vätternröding.

  • 1497.
    Rasmussen, Nichlas
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Operator unit simulator2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis was developed as an assignment from Atlas Copco where the goal was to develop

    software that could simulate an OU (Operator Unit) in a PC environment. Atlas Copco’s

    proprietary radio-control system for mining vehicles consists of a transmitter, called OU, and

    a receiver, called MU (Machine Unit). An OU is a controller with controls in the form of

    buttons, joysticks and switches and with indicators in the form of LEDs and display. To

    ensure that an OU only can communicate with a specific MU and vice versa the units’ radio

    modules must be paired together through a process called “learn link”, that is performed by

    connecting the units with a CAN-cable.

     

    By using an OU simulator for MU production tests it would be easier to perform some tests,

    such as internal errors and warnings, and it would be possible to include tests that are

    impossible to do with OU hardware, such as intentionally send a miscalculated checksum, to

    examine the MU’s response. The OU simulator should have a graphical user interface and by

    connecting a radio card to the PC it should be able to send and receive data from an MU. It

    should also be able to perform “learn link”. The final product was developed using C#

    together with an XP-inspired development method.

  • 1498.
    Rastoder, Alen
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    En läroboksanalys mellan Sverige och England: en kvantitativ studie om öppna och slutna problemuppgifter i matematik2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In PISA 2012 England ended in eleventh place and Sweden in twentieth place when it comes to problem solving in mathematics, OECD (2014). In both countries, teaching with textbook are mean thing. In this study, I have therefore examined the most widely used teaching material in each country. This survey was conducted by first ensuring all the problem solving tasks contained in mathematics books using the criteria from previous research. Then use the criteria to see if these problem tasks are open or closed problems. The results show that problem solving is treated to the same extent in both books but that English contains significantly more open problems tasks than the Swedish one.

  • 1499.
    Reed, Sean
    et al.
    Faculty of Engineering, The University of Nottingham, Nottingham, England.
    Löfstrand, Magnus
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Logical Representation of Maintenance Procedures for Verification and Analysis2016Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 1500.
    Reggente, Matteo
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Statistical gas distribution modelling for mobile robot applications2014Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this dissertation, we present and evaluate algorithms for statistical gas distribution modelling in mobile robot applications. We derive a representation of the gas distribution in natural environments using gas measurements collected with mobile robots. The algorithms fuse different sensors readings (gas, wind and location) to create 2D or 3D maps.

    Throughout this thesis, the Kernel DM+V algorithm plays a central role in modelling the gas distribution. The key idea is the spatial extrapolation of the gas measurement using a Gaussian kernel. The algorithm produces four maps: the weight map shows the density of the measurements; the confidence map shows areas in which the model is considered being trustful; the mean map represents the modelled gas distribution; the variance map represents the spatial structure of the variance of the mean estimate.

    The Kernel DM+V/W algorithm incorporates wind measurements in the computation of the models by modifying the shape of the Gaussian kernel according to the local wind direction and magnitude.

    The Kernel 3D-DM+V/W algorithm extends the previous algorithm to the third dimension using a tri-variate Gaussian kernel.

    Ground-truth evaluation is a critical issue for gas distribution modelling with mobile platforms. We propose two methods to evaluate gas distribution models. Firstly, we create a ground-truth gas distribution using a simulation environment, and we compare the models with this ground-truth gas distribution. Secondly, considering that a good model should explain the measurements and accurately predicts new ones, we evaluate the models according to their ability in inferring unseen gas concentrations.

    We evaluate the algorithms carrying out experiments in different environments. We start with a simulated environment and we end in urban applications, in which we integrated gas sensors on robots designed for urban hygiene. We found that typically the models that comprise wind information outperform the models that do not include the wind data.

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