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  • 151.
    Ericson Jogsten, Ingrid
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap.
    Gómez, Mercedes
    Nadal, Martí
    van Bavel, Bert
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap.
    Lindström, Gunilla
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap.
    Domingo, José L.
    Perfluorinated chemicals in blood of residents in Catalonia (Spain) in relation to age and gender: a pilot study2007Inngår i: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 33, nr 5, s. 616-623Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Fluorinated organic compounds (FOCs) are a group of chemicals widely used as surfactants, lubricants, polymers, and fire-fighting foams. Recent studies have shown the ubiquitous distribution of FOCs in the environment, wildlife, and humans. We here report the results of a pilot study conducted to provide preliminary data on the levels of 13 FOCs in the blood of 48 residents in Catalonia, Spain, in relation to gender and age (25+/-5 and 55+/-5 years). The highest mean concentration was obtained for perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS, 7.64 ng/ml), followed by perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS, 3.56 ng/ml) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA, 1.80 ng/ml). Four other FOCs showed mean levels between 0.30 and 0.44 ng/ml, whereas those of the remaining 6 compounds were below the detection limit. Regarding gender, the blood levels of PFHxS and PFOA were significantly higher (p<0.05) in men than in women, while differences according to age were only noted for PFHxS (p<0.05) and perfluorooctane sulfonamide (PFOSA) (p<0.001), for which the levels were higher in the younger (25+/-5 years) group of subjects. A significant correlation between PFOS levels and those of the remaining detected FOCs (except PFDA) was found. In general terms, the current FOC concentrations were lower than those found in recent studies concerning levels of these chemicals in human blood and serum of subjects from different countries.

  • 152.
    Ericson Jogsten, Ingrid
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Akademin för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Hagberg, Jessika
    Örebro universitet, Akademin för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Lindström, Gunilla
    Örebro universitet, Akademin för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    van Bavel, Bert
    Örebro universitet, Akademin för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Analysis of POPs in human samples reveal a contribution of brominated dioxin of up to 15% of the total dioxin TEQ2010Inngår i: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 78, nr 2, s. 113-120Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PBDD/Fs) were analyzed in both human adipose tissue and plasma from nine individuals, from the Swedish general population, using high resolution gas chromatography/high resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC/HRMS). In addition, several other persistent organic pollutants (POPs) were determined in the same samples, including polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and perfluorinated chemicals (PFCs). Polybrominated dibenzofurans were detected in all of the human adipose tissue samples confirming their presence in the Swedish population. The highest concentration was found for 2,3,7,8-TeBDF, ranging from 0.27 to 2.4 pg g(-1) lipid. followed by 1,2,3,7,8-PeBDF, 0.23-0.89 pg g(-1) lipid, 2,3,4,7,8-PeBDF, 0.44-0.54 pg g(-1) lipid, and 2,7/2,8-DiBDF, 0.19-0.30 pg g(-1) lipid. No PBDDs could be detected above the limit of detection (<0.02-<0.21 pg g(-1) lipid) in any of the samples. The levels of PCDD/Fs were in the range 1.79-31.5 pg toxic equivalents (TEQ) g(-1) lipid, and PBDEs were found in the 1.16-7.46 ng g(-1) lipid range. The measured chlorinated dioxins indicate decreasing human concentrations in Sweden. The toxicity equivalents (TEQ) for PBDD/Fs (0.2-0.8 pg TEQ g(-1) lipid) were found to contribute 1-15% of the total dioxin TEQ of the chlorinated dioxins and furans (5-18 pg TEQ g(-1) lipid) depending on the individual. Also PBDEs concentrations are decreasing compared to 1997-2000, but most noteworthy a shift in BDE pattern where BDE#47 is surpassed by BDE#153. The levels of PFCs are in the same range as the highest levels of the traditional POPs (sum of 60 PCBs) based on volume. These findings illustrate the importance of continuous monitoring of brominated compounds in both human and the environment. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 153.
    Ericson Jogsten, Ingrid
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Akademin för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Martí-Cid, Roser
    Nadal, Martí
    van Bavel, Bert
    Örebro universitet, Akademin för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Lindström, Gunilla
    Örebro universitet, Akademin för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Domingo, José L.
    Human exposure to perfluorinated chemicals through the diet: intake of perfluorinated compounds in foods from the Catalan (Spain) market2008Inngår i: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, ISSN 0021-8561, E-ISSN 1520-5118, Vol. 56, nr 5, s. 1787-1794Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to determine the dietary intake of perfluorinated chemicals (PFCs) by the population of Tarragona County (Catalonia, Spain). PFC levels were determined in 36 composite samples of foodstuffs randomly purchased in various locations. Exposure to PFCs through the diet was estimated for various age/gender groups. Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), perfluorocarboxylate perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), and perfluoroheptanoic acid (PFHpA) were the only detected PFCs in foodstuffs. On average, for a standard adult man (70 kg of body weight), the dietary intake of PFOS was estimated to be 62.5 or 74.2 ng/day (assuming ND=0 or ND=1/2 LOD, respectively). Fish, followed by dairy products and meats, were the main contributors to PFOS intake. For an adult man, the intake of PFOS (1.07 ng/kg/day) and those of PFOA and PFHpA were lower than that recently reported for Canada (4.0 ng/kg/day), and considerably lower than that previously found in the United Kingdom, the only two countries where, to date, results concerning this issue have been reported. A correlation between dietary intake and blood levels of PFOS is suggested. However, the current results do not justify dietary intake as the main route of exposure governing blood concentrations of other PFCs.

  • 154.
    Ericson Jogsten, Ingrid
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Akademin för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Nadal, Martí
    van Bavel, Bert
    Örebro universitet, Akademin för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Lindström, Gunilla
    Örebro universitet, Akademin för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Domingo, José L.
    Levels of perfluorochemicals in water samples from Catalonia, Spain: is drinking water a significant contribution to human exposure?2008Inngår i: Environmental science and pollution research international, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 15, nr 7, s. 614-619Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND, AIM, AND SCOPE: In recent years, due to a high persistence, biomagnification in food webs, presence in remote regions, and potential toxicity, perfluorochemicals (PFCs) have generated a considerable interest. The present study was aimed to determine the levels of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), and other PFCs in drinking water (tap and bottled) and river water samples from Tarragona Province (Catalonia, Spain). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Municipal drinking (tap) water samples were collected from the four most populated towns in the Tarragona Province, whereas samples of bottled waters were purchased from supermarkets. River water samples were collected from the Ebro (two samples), Cortiella, and Francolí Rivers. After pretreatment, PFC analyses were performed by HPLC-MS. Quantification was done using the internal standard method, with recoveries between 68% and 118%. RESULTS: In tap water, PFOS and PFOA levels ranged between 0.39 and 0.87 ng/L (0.78 and 1.74 pmol/L) and between 0.32 and 6.28 ng/L (0.77 and 15.2 pmol/L), respectively. PFHpA, PFHxS, and PFNA were also other detected PFCs. PFC levels were notably lower in bottled water, where PFOS could not be detected in any sample. Moreover, PFHpA, PFHxS, PFOA, PFNA, PFOS, PFOSA, and PFDA could be detected in the river water samples. PFOS and PFOA concentrations were between <0.24 and 5.88 ng/L (<0.48 and 11.8 pmol/L) and between <0.22 and 24.9 ng/L (<0.53 and 60.1 pmol/L), respectively. DISCUSSION: Assuming a human water consumption of 2 L per day, the daily intake of PFOS and PFOA by the population of the area under evaluation was calculated (0.78-1.74 and 12.6 ng, respectively). It was found that drinking water might be a source of exposure to PFCs as important as the dietary intake of these pollutants. CONCLUSIONS: The contribution of drinking water (tap and bottled) to the human daily intake of various PFCs has been compared for the first time with data from dietary intake of these PFCs. It was noted that in certain cases, drinking water can be a source of exposure to PFCs as important as the dietary intake of these pollutants although the current concentrations were similar or lower than those reported in the literature for surface water samples from a number of regions and countries. RECOMMENDATIONS AND PERSPECTIVES: Further studies should be carried out in order to increase the knowledge of the role of drinking water in human exposure to PFCs.

  • 155.
    Ericson Jogsten, Ingrid
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Akademin för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Nadal, Martí
    Laboratory of Toxicology and Environmental Health, School of Medicine, Rovira i Virgili University, Reus, Spain.
    van Bavel, Bert
    Örebro universitet, Akademin för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Lindström, Gunilla
    Örebro universitet, Akademin för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Domingo, José L.
    Laboratory of Toxicology and Environmental Health, School of Medicine, Rovira i Virgili University, Reus, Spain.
    Per- and polyfluorinated compounds (PFCs) in house dust and indoor air in Catalonia, Spain: implications for human exposure2012Inngår i: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 39, nr 1, s. 172-180Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A total of 27 per- and polyfluorinated compounds (PFCs) were determined in both house dust (n=10) and indoor air (n=10) from selected homes in Catalonia, Spain. Concentrations were found to be similar or lower than those previously reported for household microenvironments in other countries. Ten PFCs were detected in all house dust samples. The highest mean concentrations corresponded to perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA) and perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), 10.7 ng/g (median: 1.5 ng/g) and 10.4 ng/g (median: 5.4 ng/g), respectively, while the 8:2 fluorotelomer alcohol (FTOH) was the dominating neutral PFC at a concentration of 0.41 ng/g (median: 0.35 ng/g). The indoor air was dominated by the FTOHs, especially the 8:2 FTOH at a mean (median) concentration of 51 pg/m(3) (median: 42 pg/m(3)). A limited number of ionic PFCs were also detected in the indoor air samples. Daily intakes of PFCs were estimated for average and worst case scenarios of human exposure from indoor sources. For toddlers, this resulted in average intakes of ∑ionic PFCs of 4.9ng/day (0.33 ng/kg(bw)/day for a 15 kg toddlers) and ∑neutral PFCs of 0.072 ng/day (0.005 ng/kg(bw)/day) from house dust. For adults, the average daily intakes of dust were 3.6 and 0.053 ng/day (0.05 and 0.001 ng/kg(bw)/day for a 70 kg adult) for ∑ionic and ∑neutral PFCs, respectively. The average daily inhalation of ∑neutral PFCs was estimated to be 0.9 and 1.3 ng/day (0.06 and 0.02 ng/kg(bw)/day) for toddlers and adults, respectively. For PFOS, the main ionic PFC detected in indoor air samples, the median intakes (based on those samples where PFOS was detected), resulted in indoor exposures of 0.06 and 0.11 ng/day (0.004 and 0.002 ng/kg(bw)/day) for toddlers and adults, respectively. Based on previous studies on dietary intake and drinking water consumption, both house dust and indoor air contribute significantly less to PFC exposure within this population.

  • 156.
    Ericson Jogsten, Ingrid
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Akademin för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Perelló, Gemma
    Laboratory of Toxicology and Environmental Health, School of Medicine, Institut d’Investigacions Sanitàries Pere Virgili, “Rovira i Virgili” University, Sant Llorenç 21, 43201 Reus, Spain.
    Llebaria, Xavier
    Health Protection Agency, Department of Health, Generalitat de Catalunya, Roc Boronat 81-95, Barcelona, Spain.
    Bigas, Esther
    Health Protection Agency, Department of Health, Generalitat de Catalunya, Roc Boronat 81-95, Barcelona, Spain.
    Martí-Cid, Roser
    Laboratory of Toxicology and Environmental Health, School of Medicine, Institut d’Investigacions Sanitàries Pere Virgili, “Rovira i Virgili” University, Sant Llorenç 21, 43201 Reus, Spain.
    Kärrman, Anna
    Örebro universitet, Akademin för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Domingo, José L.
    Laboratory of Toxicology and Environmental Health, School of Medicine, Institut d’Investigacions Sanitàries Pere Virgili, “Rovira i Virgili” University, Sant Llorenç 21, 43201 Reus, Spain.
    Exposure to perfluorinated compounds in Catalonia, Spain, through consumption of various raw and cooked foodstuffs, including packaged food2009Inngår i: Food and Chemical Toxicology, ISSN 0278-6915, E-ISSN 1873-6351, Vol. 47, nr 7, s. 1577-1583Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, the role that some food processing and packaging might play as a source of perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) through the diet was assessed. The levels of PFCs were determined in composite samples of veal steak (raw, grilled, and fried), pork loin (raw, grilled, and fried), chicken breast (raw, grilled, and fried), black pudding (uncooked), liver lamb (raw), marinated salmon (home-made and packaged), lettuce (fresh and packaged), pate of pork liver, foie gras of duck, frankfurt, sausages, chicken nuggets (fried), and common salt. Among the 11 PFCs analyzed, only PFHxS, PFOS, PFHxA, and PFOA were detected in at least one composite sample, while the levels of the remaining PFCs (PFBuS, PFHpA, PFNA, PFDA, PFUnDA, and PFDoDA) were under their respective detection limits. PFOS was the compound most frequently detected, being found in 8 of the 20 food items analyzed, while PFHxA was detected in samples of raw veal, chicken nuggets, frankfurt, sausages, and packaged lettuce. According to the results of the present study, it is not sufficiently clear if cooking with non-stick cookware, or packaging some foods, could contribute to a higher human exposure to PFCs.

  • 157.
    Ericson Jogsten, Ingrid
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Yeung, Leo W. Y.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Analysis of ultra-short chain perfluoroalkyl substances in Swedish environmental waters2017Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the environmental occurrence of ultra-short chain perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in Swedish water samples. So far established protocols have focused on measuring PFASs with a carbon chain length of four or more carbons. In this study, perfluoroalkyl sulfonates of chain lengths of two, perfluoroethane sulfonate (PFEtS), and three, perfluoropropane sulfonate (PFPrS), carbons have been measured using a newly established instrumental method employing supercritical fluid separation (SFC) coupled to tandem mass spectrometry detection.

    A total of 26 samples were analysed, including ground water, surface water, rain water and snow. The sample locations included military and civilian airports, a former hard chromium plating facility, the vicinity of a hazardous waste management facility and background areas (lake surface water, rain and snow). Results show that both PFPrS and PFEtS could be detected in environmental samples using SFC separation coupled to triple quadrupole detection. Out of the 26 samples analysed, the ultra-short-chain PFPrS could be detected and quantified in 22 samples. The concentrations for PFPrS in all the samples ranged between 0.93 ng/l to 39 000 ng/l. The ultra-short-chain PFPEtS could be quantified in all of the 26 samples, with a concentration range between 0.07 and 5 700 ng/l. The highest concentrations represents highly contaminated ground water samples collected from a military airport. In the samples, PFPrS had a relative contribution to total PFAS concentration of 6 and 10 %, indicating the importance of measuring these compounds in environmental samples.

  • 158.
    Eriksson, Johanna
    et al.
    Department of Architecture, Chalmers University of Technology, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Glad, Wiktoria
    Department of Thematic Studies, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Johansson, Madelaine
    Örebro universitet.
    User involvement in Swedish residential building projects: a stakeholder perspective2015Inngår i: Journal of Housing and the Built Environment, ISSN 1566-4910, E-ISSN 1573-7772, Vol. 30, nr 2, s. 313-329Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    One factor influencing quality in the building industry is the ability of users, such as residents, to identify and express their requirements for the product, i.e. the residential building. However, the handling of communication with users in building projects has been insufficiently specified and studied. Drawing on a study of user involvement in building project design, production, and management, this paper examines user involvement in Swedish residential projects. To map current perceptions and approaches, building industry actors met in four focus groups. Group participants were asked to reflect on the definition of users, communication handling, how information from users is used, and challenges and opportunities in user involvement. Our initial emphasis was front-end activities, but focus group results revealed that user involvement was a continuous process extending from project initiation to evaluating the finished project as a basis for future projects. Discussions indicated confusion about who constituted users in various situations but, regardless of level of experience, focus group participants agreed on the importance and potential of user involvement and on the need for specific methods to acquire useful input.

  • 159.
    Eriksson, Matilda
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Dryckessvinn i enskilda hushåll2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Ett av de stora miljöproblemen vi står inför är förändringen av vårt klimat. Vårt sätt att leva påverkar och skyndar på klimatförändringarna, vår konsumtion av livsmedel och aktiviteter kopplat till detta beräknas stå för cirka 25 % av vår klimatpåverkan. Genom att vara medvetna om hur konsumtionen påverkar klimatet kan konsumenter göra medvetna val.

    Flertalet studier har gjorts där svinn av livsmedel mätts, både från offentliga verksamheter och enskilda hushåll. Dels för att kunna beräkna hur mycket livsmedel som slängs och dels för att beräkna hur stor klimatpåverkan produktionen av dessa livsmedel, som vi sedan slänger, har.

    Klimatpåverkan från produktion av onödigt svinn (livsmedel som sedan slängs trots att de vid annorlunda hantering kunnat konsumeras) är onödig klimatpåverkan. Det onödiga svinnet är svinn som kan minskas om livsmedel hanteras annorlunda, och minskas det onödiga svinnet så kommer också klimatpåverkan från livsmedelssektorn att minska.

    I de rapporter som finns om livsmedelssvinn har de flesta uteslutit svinn av flytande livsmedel, då dessa har ansetts svåra att mäta.

    I denna uppsats jämförs de egna mätningarna av dryckessvinn med siffror på flytande svinn dels från Konsumentföreningen Stockholm och dels från en rapport från Naturvårdsverket.

  • 160.
    Eriksson, Ulrika
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Kärrman, Anna
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    World-Wide Indoor Exposure to Polyfluoroalkyl Phosphate Esters (PAPs) and other PFASs in Household Dust2015Inngår i: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 49, nr 24, s. 14503-14511Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Human exposure to perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and other per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) is ongoing and in some cases increasing, despite efforts made to reduce emissions. The role of precursor compounds such as polyfluorinated phosphate esters (PAPs) has received increasing attention, but there are knowledge gaps regarding their occurrence and impact on human exposure. In this study, mono-, di-, and triPAPs, perfluorinated alkyl acids (PFAAs), saturated, and unsaturated fluorotelomer carboxylic acids (FTCA/FTUCAs), perfluoroalkane sulfonamides, and sulfonamidethanols (FOSA/FOSEs), and one fluorotelomer sulfonic acid (FTSA)) were compared in household dust samples from Canada, the Faroe Islands, Sweden, Greece, Spain, Nepal, Japan, and Australia. Mono-, di-, and triPAPs, including several diPAP homologues, were frequently detected in dust from all countries, revealing an ubiquitous spread in private households from diverse geographic areas, with significant differences between countries. The median levels of monoPAPs and diPAPs ranged from 3.7 ng/g to 1 023 ng/g and 3.6 ng/g to 692 ng/g, respectively, with the lowest levels found in Nepal and the highest in Japan. The levels of PAPs exceeded those of the other PFAS classes. These findings reveal the importance of PAPs as a source of PFAS exposure worldwide.

  • 161.
    Eriksson, Ulrika
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Roos, Anna
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Lind, Ylva
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Hope, Kjell
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Ekblad, Alf
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Kärrman, Anna
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Comparison of PFASs contamination in the freshwater and terrestrial environments by analysis of eggs from osprey (Pandion haliaetus), tawny owl (Strix aluco), and common kestrel (Falco tinnunculus)2016Inngår i: Environmental Research, ISSN 0013-9351, E-ISSN 1096-0953, Vol. 149, s. 40-47Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The level of PFAS (per- and polyfluorinated alkyl substances) contamination in freshwater and terrestrial Swedish environments in 2013/2014 was assessed by analyzing a range of perfluorinated alkyl acids, fluorotelomer acids, sulfonamides, sulfonamidoethanols and polyfluoralkyl phosphate diesters (diPAPs) in predator bird eggs. Stable isotopes ((13)C and (15)N) were analyzed to elucidate the dietary source. The tawny owl (Strix aluco, n=10) and common kestrel (Falco tinnunculus, n=40), two terrestrial species, and the osprey (Pandion haliaetus, n=30), a freshwater specie were included. In addition, a temporal trend (1997-2001, 2008-2009, 2013) in osprey was studied as well. The PFAS profile was dominated by perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) in eggs from osprey and tawny owl, while for common kestrel perfluorinated carboxylic acids (∑PFCA) exceeded the level of PFOS. PFOS concentration in osprey eggs remained at the same level between 1997 and 2001 and 2013. For the long-chained PFCAs, there were a significant increase in concentrations in osprey eggs between 1997 and 2001 and 2008-2009. The levels of PFOS and PFCAs were about 10 and five times higher, respectively, in osprey compared to tawny owl and common kestrel. Evidence of direct exposure from PFCA precursor compounds to birds in both freshwater and terrestrial environment was observed. Low levels of diPAPs were detected in a few samples of osprey (<0.02-2.4ng/g) and common kestrel (<0.02-0.16ng/g) eggs, and 6:2 FTSA was detected in a majority of the osprey eggs (<6.3-52ng/g). One saturated telomer acid (7:3 FTCA), which is a transformation marker from precursor exposure, was detected in all species (<0.24-2.7ng/g). The (15)N data showed higher levels in osprey eggs compared to tawny owl and common kestrel, indicating that they feed on a 2-3 times higher trophic level. We conclude that ospreys are continuously exposed to PFAS at levels where adverse toxic effects have been observed in birds.

  • 162.
    Evans, Alina L.
    et al.
    Department of Forestry and Wildlife Management, Faculty of Applied Ecology and Agricultural Sciences, Hedmark University of Applied Sciences Evenstad (earlier University College Inland, Evenstad), Elverum, Norway.
    Singh, Navinder J.
    Department of Wildlife, Fish and Environmental Studies, Faculty of Forest Sciences, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), Umeå, Sweden.
    Fuchs, Boris
    Department of Forestry and Wildlife Management, Faculty of Applied Ecology and Agricultural Sciences, Hedmark University of Applied Sciences Evenstad, Elverum, Norway.
    Blanc, Stéphane
    Institut Pluridisciplinaire Hubert Curien, Université de Strasbourg, Strasbourg, France; CNRS UMR 7178, Strasbourg, France.
    Friebe, Andrea
    Department of Ecology and Natural Resources Management, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Ås, Norway.
    Laske, Timothy G.
    Medtronic Inc., Mounds View MN, USA; University of Minnesota, Minneapolis MN, USA.
    Fröbert, Ole
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper. Region Örebro län. Department of Cardiology, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden.
    Swenson, Jon E.
    Department of Ecology and Natural Resources Management, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Ås, Norway; Norwegian Institute for Nature Research, Trondheim, Norway.
    Arnemo, Jon M.
    Department of Forestry and Wildlife Management, Faculty of Applied Ecology and Agricultural Sciences, Hedmark University of Applied Sciences Evenstad, Elverum, Norway; Department of Wildlife, Fish and Environmental Studies, Faculty of Forest Sciences, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden.
    Physiological reactions to capture in hibernating brown bears2016Inngår i: Conservation Physiology, E-ISSN 2051-1434, Vol. 4, artikkel-id cow061Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Human disturbance can affect animal life history and even population dynamics. However, the consequences of these disturbances are difficult to measure. This is especially true for hibernating animals, which are highly vulnerable to disturbance, because hibernation is a process of major physiological changes, involving conservation of energy during a resource-depleted time of year. During the winters of 2011-15, we captured 15 subadult brown bears (Ursus arctos) and recorded their body temperatures (n = 11) and heart rates (n = 10) before, during and after capture using biologgers. We estimated the time for body temperature and heart rate to normalize after the capture event. We then evaluated the effect of the captures on the pattern and depth of hibernation and the day of den emergence by comparing the body temperature of captured bears with that of undisturbed subadult bears (n = 11). Both body temperature and heart rate increased during capture and returned to hibernation levels after 15-20 days. We showed that bears required 2-3 weeks to return to hibernation levels after winter captures, suggesting high metabolic costs during this period. There were also indications that the winter captures resulted in delayed den emergence.

  • 163.
    Fahlqvist, Linnea
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik. Bergskraft Bergslagen, Kopparberg, Sweden.
    Bäckström, Mattias
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Sartz, Lotta
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik. Bergskraft Bergslagen AB, Kopparberg, Sweden.
    Allard, Bert
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Removal of uranium from a neutral mine water using uncoated and iron oxyhydroxide coated iron tailings2013Inngår i: Annual International Mine Water Association Conference: Reliable Mine Water Technology / [ed] Brown, A.; Figueroa, L. & Wolkersdorfer, Ch., Colorado, USA: IMWA , 2013, s. 551-557Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 164.
    Fahlqvist, Linnea
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Sartz, Lotta
    Bergskraft Bergslagen AB, Kopparberg, Sweden.
    Bäckström, Mattias
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik. Bergskraft Bergslagen AB, Kopparberg, Sweden.
    Removal of zinc and lead from a neutral mine water using iron tailings and iron oxyhydroxide coated iron tailings2012Inngår i: Mine Water and the Environment / [ed] McCullough, C.D., Lund, M.A. and Wyse, L., International Mine Water Association (IMWA) , 2012, s. 584A-584GKonferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 165.
    Fang, Xin
    et al.
    Unit of Biostatistics, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Fang, Bo
    Division of Vital Statistics, Shanghai Municipal Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Shanghai, China.
    Wang, Chunfang
    Division of Vital Statistics, Shanghai Municipal Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Shanghai, China.
    Xia, Tian
    Institute of Health Information, Shanghai Municipal Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Shanghai, China.
    Bottai, Matteo
    Unit of Biostatistics, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Fang, Fang
    Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Cao, Yang
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper. Region Örebro län.
    Comparison of Frequentist and Bayesian Generalized Additive Models for Assessing the Association between Daily Exposure to Fine Particles and Respiratory Mortality: A Simulation Study2019Inngår i: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 16, nr 5, artikkel-id 746Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To compare the performance of frequentist and Bayesian generalized additive models (GAMs) in terms of accuracy and precision for assessing the association between daily exposure to fine particles and respiratory mortality using simulated data based on a real time-series study.

    Methods: In our study, we examined the estimates from a fully Bayesian GAM using simulated data based on a genuine time-series study on fine particles with a diameter of 2.5 m or less (PM2.5) and respiratory deaths conducted in Shanghai, China. The simulation was performed by multiplying the observed daily death with a random error. The underlying priors for Bayesian analysis are estimated using the real world time-series data. We also examined the sensitivity of Bayesian GAM to the choice of priors and to true parameter.

    Results: The frequentist GAM and Bayesian GAM show similar means and variances of the estimates of the parameters of interest. However, the estimates from Bayesian GAM show relatively more fluctuation, which to some extent reflects the uncertainty inherent in Bayesian estimation.

    Conclusions: Although computationally intensive, Bayesian GAM would be a better solution to avoid potentially over-confident inferences. With the increasing computing power of computers and statistical packages available, fully Bayesian methods for decision making may become more widely applied in the future.

  • 166.
    Fassbender, Christopher
    et al.
    Aquatic Ecology and Toxicology Section, Centre for Organismal Studies, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany.
    Braunbeck, Thomas
    Aquatic Ecology and Toxicology Section, Centre for Organismal Studies, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany.
    Keiter, Steffen
    Department of Ecosystem Analysis, Institute for Environmental Research, (Biology V), RWTH Aachen University, Aachen, Germany.
    Gene-TEQ-a standardized comparative assessment of effects in the comet assay using genotoxicity equivalents2012Inngår i: Journal of Environmental Monitoring, ISSN 1464-0325, E-ISSN 1464-0333, Vol. 14, s. 1325-1334Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Existing methods for the comparison of genotoxic effects in the comet assay bear considerable disadvantages such as the problem to link information about concentration dependence and severity of effects. Moreover, given the lack of standardized protocols and the use of various standards, it may be extremely difficult to compare different studies. In order to provide a method for standardized comparative assessment of genotoxic effects, the concept of genotoxicity equivalents (Gene-TEQ) was developed. As potential reference compounds for genotoxic effects, three directly acting (N-methyl-N0-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG), methyl-methanesulfonate, and N-methyl-N-nitrosourea) and three indirectly acting (cyclophosphamide, dimethylnitrosamine, and 4-nitroquinoline-oxide) genotoxic substances were compared with respect to their cytotoxic (neutral red) and genotoxic (cometassay) concentration–response profiles in the permanent fish cell line RTL-W1. For further comparison, two sediment extracts from the upper Danube River were investigated as environmental samples. Based on the results of cytotoxicity and genotoxicity testing, MNNG was selected as the reference compound. At several exposure levels and durations, genotoxic effects of both the other pure substances and the environmental samples were calculated as percentages of the maximum MNNGeffect and related to the absolute MNNG effect (EC values). Thus, genotoxicity equivalent factors(Gene-TEQs) relative to MNNG could be calculated. Gene-TEQs can easily be applied to puresubstances, mixtures and field samples to provide information about their toxicity relative to the reference compound. Furthermore, the Gene-TEQ concept allows a direct comparison of environmental samples from different laboratories.

  • 167.
    Fiedler, H.
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    van der Veen, I.
    Vrije Universiteit, Environment & Health, Amsterdam, the Netherlands.
    de Boer, J.
    Vrije Universiteit, Environment & Health, Amsterdam, the Netherlands.
    Global interlaboratory assessments of perfluoroalkyl substances under the Stockholm Convention on persistent organic pollutants2020Inngår i: TrAC. Trends in analytical chemistry, ISSN 0165-9936, E-ISSN 1879-3142, Vol. 124, artikkel-id 115459Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The Global Monitoring Plan (GMP) according to article 16 of the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) requires that POP laboratories must be capable – at any time – to analyse samples for POPs within a variation of ±25%. Based on this target error of 25%, a statistical model using z-scores was applied to assess the performance of analytical laboratories for POPs and a number of matrices. Since the second round of these ‘Bi-ennial Global Interlaboratory Assessment on Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs)’, carried out in 2012/2013, perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) have been included into the proficiency tests. The third round was carried out in 2016/2017. The test materials included test solutions of PFASs analytical standards, the abiotic matrices sediment, air (extract) and water and the biotic matrices fish, human milk and human plasma. The number of laboratories submitting results for PFASs remained quite stable (IL2 = 27 laboratories; IL3 = 29), but there was broader geographic distribution observed in IL3: in addition to the laboratories from Asia and the Western Europe/other groups, two laboratories from Africa participated, two from Central-Eastern Europe and one from the Latin American/Caribbean region.

    Considering that PFASs were introduced for the first time in round 2, the results were good to reasonable compared to those of a number of other POPs included in the same study. However, it shall also be mentioned that for some matrices and PFASs, the number of laboratories submitting results was too small and the results too scattered to derive a consensus value. This was especially true for the PFOS precursor compounds and the air matrix. Also, laboratories struggle with the analysis of the branched PFOS isomers.

    These interlaboratory assessments on PFASs gave promising results and demonstrated the importance of proficiency tests in an international environment to generate trust in laboratory results. The need to participate regularly in such intercomparison assessments is highlighted. The results show the current level of PFAS analysis, which varies by laboratory and by matrix rather than per geographic region.

  • 168.
    Fiedler, Heidelore
    UNEP Chemicals, Chatelaine (GE), Schweiz, Germany.
    Existierende dioxininventare weltweit und neue methodik zur erstellung von vergleichbaren und vollständigen emissionsinventaren [Existing dioxin inventories worldwide and a new methodology for establishing comparable and complete emissions inventories]2001Inngår i: Umweltwissenschaften und Schadstoff-Forschung, ISSN 0934-3504, E-ISSN 1865-5084, Vol. 13, nr 2, s. 88-94Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Presently, there are less than 20 inventories to estimate releases of dioxins and furans. According to a recent survey, 12,900 g TEQ of these unwanted byproducts are emitted into the atmosphere by 16 countries. Highest emissions are from the densely populated industrialized countries of the Northern hemisphere - Japan and the United States of America. Whereas the metal producing and recycling industry is the sector with the highest dioxin emissions in Europe, waste incineration is considered to be the major source in many other countries. Measures to reduce dioxin emissions have resulted in strong downward trends, as shown e.g. in Germany and Japan; however, potentials for further reduction have been identified.

    So far, countries have utilized own methods to calculate their dioxin emissions and the majority has addressed releases to air only. The future Stockholm Convention on POPs will require to continuously reduce dioxin emissions. In order to assist countries in inventory making, UNEP has produced the Toolkit, a methodology to establish comparable dioxin inventories that address releases to air, water and land, with products and in residues.

  • 169.
    Fiedler, Heidelore
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik. DTIE Chemicals Branch, United Nations Environment Programme, Châtelaine GE, Switzerland.
    From release inventories to body burden: some examples from POPs monitoring projects2015Inngår i: Organohalogen Compounds, ISSN 1026-4892, Vol. 77, s. 725-755Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents information in relation to production or generation of POPs compiled in inventories at national or global level, concentrations in the environment using ambient air data and information on body burden using human milk data. The pathway source inventory-environmental concentration-body burden is evaluated for “typical classes of POPs”.

  • 170.
    Fiedler, Heidelore
    University of Bayreuth, Ecol. Chemistry and Geochemistry, Bayreuth, Germany.
    Global and local disposition of PCBs2001Inngår i: PCBs: recent advances in environmental toxicology and health effects / [ed] Larry W. Robertson, Larry G. Hansen, Lexington, Ky.: University Press of Kentucky , 2001, s. 11-15Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 171.
    Fiedler, Heidelore
    UNEP Chemicals Branch, DTIE, Châtelaine (GE), Switzerland.
    National PCDD/PCDF release inventories under the Stockholm convention on persistent organic pollutants2007Inngår i: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 67, nr 9, s. S96-S108Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 172.
    Fiedler, Heidelore
    United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) Chemicals, Châtelaine, Switzerland.
    Persistent organic pollutants: chemical identity and properties2000Inngår i: European Journal of Lipid Science and Technology, ISSN 1438-7697, E-ISSN 1438-9312, Vol. 102, nr 1, s. 45-49Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 173.
    Fiedler, Heidelore
    United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) Chemicals, Châtelaine, Switzerland.
    POPs convention: present status2000Inngår i: European Journal of Lipid Science and Technology, ISSN 1438-7697, E-ISSN 1438-9312, Vol. 102, nr 1, s. 58-60Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 174.
    Fiedler, Heidelore
    Chair of Ecological Chemistry and Geochemistry, University of Bayreuth, Bayreuth, Germany .
    Sources of PCDD/PCDF and impact on the environment1996Inngår i: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 32, nr 1, s. 55-64Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    PCDD/PCDF can be formed in a variety of industrial and thermal processes. Especially the combustion sources contribute to the ambient air levels. In addition to the well-investigated emissions from municipal waste incinerators dioxins were measured in the flue gases of other thermal emitters. It was found that some recycling plants can emit high concentrations of PCDD/PCDF. Ambient air concentrations monitored over several years have shown a clear seasonal trend with higher PCDD/PCDF levels in winter and lower concentrations during summer. Thus, results from short-term measurements cannot be used to calculate annual means for ambient air concentations or deposition rates. Dioxins, once concentrated in sewage sludge and compost can re-enter the environment when these ''reservoirs'' are applied onto agricultural and horticultural soils.

  • 175.
    Fiedler, Heidelore
    UNEP Chemicals Branch, DTIE, Châtelaine, GE, Switzerland.
    Stockholm convention on POPs: Obligations and implementation2008Inngår i: The Fate of Persistent Organic Pollutants in the Environment / [ed] Ebru Mehmetli, Bogdana Koumanova, Springer, 2008, s. 3-12Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants requires Parties to implement certain measures to protect human health and the environment from persistent organic pollutants by eliminating or reducing production, use, and releases of these chemicals. The global treaty involves politics and economics, but also science and technology to resolve global environmental problems. It is a living treaty and will evolve with time. First results to tackle a global problem jointly by developed and developing countries can already be seen. The Stockholm Convention also calls for cooperation between intergovernmental organizations.

  • 176.
    Fiedler, Heidelore
    Bavarian Institute for Waste Research-BIfA GmbH, Augsburg, Germany; University of Bayreuth, Ecol. Chemistry and Geochemistry, Bayreuth, Germany.
    Thermal formation of PCDD/PCDF: A survey1998Inngår i: Environmental Engineering Science, ISSN 1092-8758, E-ISSN 1557-9018, Vol. 15, nr 1, s. 49-58Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Since polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/PCDF) were quantified in the emissions from the Amsterdam municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) in 1977, more than 20 years of intensive research gave many answers on how PCDD and PCDF can form in thermal processes. As a result, it can be concluded that PCDD/PCDF can be formed in all combustion processes where organic carbon, oxygen, and chlorine are present. Although there are still open questions, findings can be summarized as follows:

    • PCDD/PCDF can be formed in the gas phase as well as in the heterogeneous phase.
    • Geometry of the combustion chamber, time, temperature, feeding rate, input (chlorine), and so forth may have an influence on the formation of PCDD/PCDF.
    • There may be different processes dominating to form PCDD or PCDF.
    • The amount of PCDD and PCDF formed differs between types of thermal processes.
    • Within the same process categories, e.g., MSWIs, hazardous waste incinerators, steel mills, etc., the PCDD/PCDF pattern is very similar.
    • Formation of PCDD/PCDF can be prevented by addition of "inhibitors" such as sulfur- or nitrogen-containing agents.
    • Results from field investigations, i.e., waste wood combustion and a new technology for thermal treatment of municipal solid waste, support these basic findings.
  • 177.
    Fiedler, Heidelore
    et al.
    United Nations Environment Programme, DTIE Chemicals Branch, Châtelaine GE, Switzerland.
    Abad, E.
    Martrat, G.
    van Bavel, B.
    Ericsson, I.
    de Boer, J.
    New POPs in Ambient Air Samples Using Passive Air Samplers2014Inngår i: Organohalogen Compounds, ISSN 1026-4892, Vol. 76, s. 1533-1536Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 178.
    Fiedler, Heidelore
    et al.
    UNEP Chemicals Branch, Châtelaine GE, Switzerland.
    Cao, Z.
    Huang, J.
    Wang, B.
    Deng, S.
    Yu, G.
    PCDD/PCDF Inventories 1990 vs. 20122012Inngår i: Organohalogen Compounds, ISSN 1026-4892, Vol. 74, s. 1521-1524Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 179.
    Fiedler, Heidelore
    et al.
    Ecological Chemistry and Geochemistry, University of Bayreuth, Bayreuth, Germany.
    Cheung, C. K.
    Institute for Natural Resources and Waste Management, and Department of Biology, Hong Kong Baptist University, Kowloon, China.
    Wong, M. H.
    Institute for Natural Resources and Waste Management, and Department of Biology, Hong Kong Baptist University, Kowloon, China.
    PCDD/PCDF, chlorinated pesticides and PAH in Chinese teas2002Inngår i: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 46, nr 9-10, s. 1429-1433, artikkel-id PII S0045-6535(01)00264-8Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Four samples of Chinese tea (two green teas, and two brick teas) were analyzed for their concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/PCDF), chlorinated pesticides and PAH. The infusions prepared from these teas were also analyzed for PCDD/PCDF. The levels of DDT and its metabolites in tea leaves were within the safety limit of 0.2 mg/kg. Rather high levels of total PAH were obtained in brick tea (1048-1162 mg/kg), when compared with green tea (497-517 mg/kg). In terms of PCDD/PCDF, the concentrations of green tea and brick tea differed by a factor of 16, while the concentrations of all infusions were within a factor of 2. The dioxin concentrations in green tea leaves can be explained through uptake of atmospheric PCDD/PCDF. The higher concentrations in the brick tea leaves are due the longer exposure time, and to certain extent, the use of old leaves, branches and roots when making the tea, and additional components such as soil particulates through contamination. Certain Chinese populations drinking a large amount of brick tea (>31 per day) indicated that individuals of these populations consume more tea than Europeans or North Americans result in a comparably higher intake of PCDD/PCDF. Tea consumption can attribute to up to 10% of the TDI recommended by WHO (only PCDD/PCDF considered, no PCB analyzed).

  • 180.
    Fiedler, Heidelore
    et al.
    University of Bayreuth, Ecological Chemistry and Geochemistry, Bayreuth, Germany .
    Cooper, K.
    Rutgers University, Cook College, New Brunswick, USA .
    Bergek, S.
    Institute of Environmental Chemistry, Umeå University, Umeå Sweden .
    Hjelt, M.
    Institute of Environmental Chemistry, Umeå University, Umeå Sweden .
    Rappe, C.
    Institute of Environmental Chemistry, Umeå University, Umeå Sweden .
    Bonner, M.
    Bonner Analytical Testing Co., Hattiesburg, MS, USA .
    Howell, F.
    University of Southern Mississippi, Department of Biological Sciences, Hattiesburg, MS, USA .
    Willett, K.
    Texas A&M University, Department of Veterinary Physiology & Pharmacology, College Station, TX, USA .
    Safe, S.
    Texas A&M University, Department of Veterinary Physiology & Pharmacology, College Station, TX, USA .
    PCDD, PCDF, and PCB in farm-raised catfish from southeast United States - Concentrations, sources, and CYP1A induction1998Inngår i: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 37, nr 9-12, s. 1645-1656Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Nine catfish fillets, three catfish nuggets, two feed samples, and one pond sediment were analyzed for PCDD, PCDF, and-PCB. Farm-raised catfish from Mississippi, Alabama, and Arkansas contained significant levels of 2,3,7,8-substituted PCDD and PCDF. In addition, a large number of non-2,3,7,8-substituted congeners were present in all samples. The catfish fillets and catfish nuggets also contained high concentrations of dioxin-like PCB, as well as a number of non-dioxin-like PCB. The TEQ based on PCDD and PCDF ranged from 9.5 to 43.0 pg/g lipid and the TEQ based on PCB ranged from 0.45 to 4.9 pg/g lipid for all catfish samples. The dioxin-like PCB contributed 4-16% to the total TEQ (PCDD/PCDF/PCB) for the catfish samples. The major source for the PCDD, PCDF, and PCB appears to be from feed and not from pond sediment. Immunoreactive CYP1A protein was elevated 2.5 fold in the pond-raised catfish compared to the aquarium-raised one. The results of this study suggest that the PCDD/PCDF are more important than the PCB in the CYP1A induction.

  • 181.
    Fiedler, Heidelore
    et al.
    University of Bayreuth, Chair of Ecological Chemistry and Geochemistry, Bayreuth, Germany .
    Cooper, K. R.
    Rutgers University, E.O.H.S.I., Piscataway, USA .
    Bergek, S.
    Umeå University, Institute of Environmental Chemistry, Umeå, Sweden .
    Hjelt, M.
    Umeå University, Institute of Environmental Chemistry, Umeå, Sweden .
    Rappe, C.
    Umeå University, Institute of Environmental Chemistry, Umeå, Sweden .
    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/PCDF) in food samples collected in southern Mississippi, USA1997Inngår i: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 34, nr 5-7, s. 1411-1419Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    n 1994, we analyzed 43 foodstuff samples from local supermarkets in southern Mississippi, USA, for PCDD/PCDF. 2,3,7,8-Cl4DD could be quantified in 31 of these samples. On a lipid basis, levels in meat (0.53-1.10 pg I-TEQ/g) and dairy products (0.42-1.10 pg I-TEQ/g) were slightly lower than those reported from other industrialized countries. While levels in dairy samples from the United States and Europe are comparable, there is a difference in the contribution of individual congeners to the I-TEQ: for example, in milk samples from Germany approximately 40% of the I-TEQ is due to the presence of 2,3,4,7,8-Cl5DF while in the Mississippi samples this congener only contributes 16%. The highest concentrations of PCDD/PCDF in our study were detected in the farm-raised catfish (10.2-27.8 pg I-TEQ/g). A unique finding was that in addition to the 2,3,7,8-substituted PCDD/PCDF the catfish samples contained many non-2,3,7,8-substituted congeners. This is unusual because vertebrate animals selectively eliminate or metabolize the non-2,3,7,8-substituted congeners.

  • 182.
    Fiedler, Heidelore
    et al.
    Chair of Ecological Chemistry and Geochemistry, University of Bayreuth, Bayreuth, Germany.
    Herrmann, G.
    Chair of Ecological Chemistry and Geochemistry, University of Bayreuth, Bayreuth, Germany.
    Schramm, K.-W.
    Chair of Ecological Chemistry and Geochemistry, University of Bayreuth, Bayreuth, Germany.
    Hutzinger, O.
    Chair of Ecological Chemistry and Geochemistry, University of Bayreuth, Bayreuth, Germany.
    Application of QSARS to predict potential aquatic toxicities of organochlorine pesticides1990Inngår i: Toxicological & Environmental Chemistry, ISSN 0277-2248, E-ISSN 1029-0486, Vol. 26, nr 1-4, s. 157-160Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    On the basis of physico‐chemical data, such as water solubility and vapour pressure as well as acute toxicity tests we developed an ecotoxicological model for preliminary hazard assessment. By use of the reciprocal product from log H and LC50 we developed a suitable ranking system that allows us to predict potential damage to aquatic organisms through pesticides

  • 183.
    Fiedler, Heidelore
    et al.
    Chair of Ecological Chemistry and Geochemistry, University of Bayreuth, Bayreuth, Germany.
    Hutzinger, O.
    Chair of Ecological Chemistry and Geochemistry, University of Bayreuth, Bayreuth, Germany.
    Sources and sinks of dioxins: Germany1992Inngår i: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 25, nr 7-10, s. 1487-1491Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Combustion processes are known to produce dioxins and especially municipal waste incineration is thought to have the highest contribution to the general background. On the other hand the general acceptance of non-thermal waste treatment methods such as composting is much higher than incineration. The results of an estimation on the input of PCDD/PCDF to Germany show that besides the thermal processes so-called sinks for pollutants, such as sewage sludge, compost, and foliage represent a reservoir to release dioxins by use in agriculture.

  • 184.
    Fiedler, Heidelore
    et al.
    Chair of Ecological Chemistry and Geochemistry, University of Bayreuth, Bayreuth, Germany.
    Hutzinger, O.
    Chair of Ecological Chemistry and Geochemistry, University of Bayreuth, Bayreuth, Germany.
    Giesy, J. P.
    Department of Fisheries and Wildlife, Center for Environmental Toxicology and Pesticide Research Center, Michigan State University, MI, USA.
    Utility of the QSAR modeling system for predicting the toxicity of substances on the European inventory of existing commercial chemicals1990Inngår i: Toxicological & Environmental Chemistry, ISSN 0277-2248, E-ISSN 1029-0486, Vol. 28, nr 2-3, s. 167-188Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Many chemicals are in common commercial use for which no information on the environmental fate or toxicity exists. Recent legislation requires that many substances be assessed for their toxicity to aquatic organisms within a very short time and determine which of these chemicals need to be studied in greater detail. It would be impossible to measure the acute and chronic effects of all of these compounds on a single organism, let alone a battery of different types of organisms, communities or ecosystems. Initially, the chemicals on the European Inventory of Existing Commercial Chemical Substances (EINECS) need to be screened and relative hazard to the environment determined. In response to OECD directives, there has been a great deal of activity by government and industry scientists. At the International Workshop on Advances in Environmental Hazard and Risk Assessment it was concluded that quantitative structure activity relationships (QSAR) could and should be used in the hazard assessment process. Papers published in that volume outline the advantages, disadvantages, limitations, advances and research requirements.

    The QSAR, structure‐activity based chemical modeling and information system, which was developed by the US‐Environmental Protection Agency was used to predict the acute toxicity of 113 substances from the “Old Substances”; list of the German government to the four commonly used aquatic toxicity test organisms: Daphnia magna (DM), fathead minnow (FHM), rainbow trout (RBT), and blue‐gill sunfish (BG).

    Of these compounds the QSAR system predicted the acute toxicity of 87 substances towards fathead minnow. For the other three species examined the QSAR system could be used to predict toxicity for 78 compounds.

    The predicted toxicities were compared to observed toxicities of compounds which have been evaluated and stored in the “Aquire”; data base. Observed toxicity values were available for at least one species for 38 compounds. The toxicities of some compounds are well predicted while those of other compounds were not well predicted. Overall, the QSAR system accurately classified the acute toxicity ranges of 50%, 64%, 56% and 56% of the compounds investigated for DM, FHM, RBT and BG, respectively. Of the compounds studied 10 were very poorly predicted, of these the QSAR system overpredicted the toxicity of three, while underpredicting the toxicity of seven. Of these seven compounds, five contained amino groups.

  • 185.
    Fiedler, Heidelore
    et al.
    Chair of Ecological Chemistry and Geochemistry, University of Bayreuth, Bayreuth, Germany .
    Hutzinger, O.
    Chair of Ecological Chemistry and Geochemistry, University of Bayreuth, Bayreuth, Germany.
    Timms, C. W.
    Procter & Gamble GmbH, Schwalbach am Taunus, Germany.
    Dioxins: Sources of environmental load and human exposure1990Inngår i: Toxicological & Environmental Chemistry, ISSN 0277-2248, E-ISSN 1029-0486, Vol. 29, nr 3, s. 157-234Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Polychlorinated dibenzo‐p‐dioxins (PCDD) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDF) represent a class of tricylic, almost planar, aromatic ethers with 1 to 8 chlorine atoms. Congeners with substituents in the positions 2, 3, 7, and 8 are of special concern due to their toxicity, stability, and persistence. These compounds have been identified in almost all environmental compartments and humans.

    Dioxins are a potent carcinogen for animals and—at the moment—considered a probable carcinogen for humans. Actual toxicological risk assessment for humans are based on 2,3,7,8‐Cl4DD carcinogenicity studies on rodents. Tumorigenic effects were found for 2 strains of rats and 2 strains of mice. All dioxins and furans elicit common toxic and biological responses, starting with a specific binding to a protein receptor, but existing epidemiologic data do not provide definitive data on human health effects.

    Toxicity equivalency factors (TEFs) have been developed by several agencies as a provisional method of risk assessment for complex mixtures of PCDD/PCDF.

    Dioxins have never been produced intentionally and have never served any useful purpose. They are formed in trace amounts as by‐products in industrial processes; for instance within the chemical industry, of the pulp and paper industry, metallurgical processes, processes for reactivation of granular carbon, dry cleaning, and the manufacture of flame‐retarded plastics.

    The main pathway for dioxins to enter the environment is via combustion processes. Incineration is of special importance since PCDD/PCDF are directly released to the atmosphere from either stationary sources, such as municipal, hazardous and hospital waste incinerators, the combustion of sewage sludge, and scrap metal recycling, or diffuse sources, e.g. automobile exhausts, private home heating with fossil fuels, forest fires, and cigarette smoking. Furthermore, fires with PCB and PVC have additionally contributed to the total dioxin load. The emission gases can undergo long‐range transport, so that dioxins have been found even in remote areas.

    Besides the two primary sources (industrial processes and combustion processes) the release of dioxins from contaminated areas and waste dumps via the leachate and the application of sewage sludge for fertilization represents a third source of PCDD/PCDF.

    After more than 10 years of dioxin research the most important sources of PCDD/PCDF have been identified and analytical methods have been developed for their quantification in trace levels and in complex matrices.

    Various efforts have been undertaken to reduce the emission of dioxins: for example, optimization of combustion processes for municipal waste incineration, use of unleaded gasoline, ban of chemicals, such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and pentachlorophenol (PCP). More detail is provided in the pulp and paper section where changes have been initiated to significantly reduce the sources of PCDD/PCDF.

    However, relatively little is known about transport and transformation processes, so only rough estimates can be made. Photodegradation has been found to be the primary process for 2,3,7,8‐Cl4DD breakdown. A half‐life of 3–4 days has been estimated for photochemical degradation under oxidative conditions. Field studies on the fate of 2,3,7,8‐Cl4DD in soil gave a half‐life of 9.1 (Seveso) and 12 years (under special conditions: sand, erosion), respectively. Biodegradation seems to be negligible. Transfer factors soil‐plants for PCDD/PCDF have been determined—with a high degree of uncertainty—to be less than 0.1.

    Human exposure primarily occurs via ingestion whereas inhalation is a minor pathway. Dermal absorption can be neglected although skin contact to polluted surfaces may occur. Due to the lipophilicity of PCDD/PCDF and their potential for accumulation, foods such as meat and especially dairy products contribute most to the dioxin body burden of humans.

    Both national agencies and international organizations have recognized the significance of this problem and as a result have initiated regulations, recommendations and research programmes (1) to understand where and how PCDD/PCDF are formed, (2) to reduce their impact on the environment and to humans, and (3) to start remedial action on contaminated areas.

  • 186.
    Fiedler, Heidelore
    et al.
    Chair of Ecological Chemistry and Geochemistry, University of Bayreuth, Bayreuth, Germany .
    Hutzinger, Otto
    Chair of Ecological Chemistry and Geochemistry, University of Bayreuth, Bayreuth, Germany .
    Lau, Christoph
    Chair of Ecological Chemistry and Geochemistry, University of Bayreuth, Bayreuth, Germany .
    Cikryt, Peter
    Institute of Toxicology, University of Wiirzburg, Wiirzburg, Germany .
    Hosseinpour, Jamshid
    Okometric GmbH, Bayreuth, Germany.
    Case study of a highly dioxin contaminated sports field: Environmental risk assessment and human exposure1995Inngår i: Journal of Hazardous Materials, ISSN 0304-3894, E-ISSN 1873-3336, Vol. 43, nr 3, s. 217-227Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Copper slag, containing high levels of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/PCDF) was used as covering material of a community sports field. This led to a contamination up to 40 000 fold in comparison to background concentrations in soils. Levels and patterns of dioxins found in sediments of a nearby river proved a translocation of contaminated copper slag, while slightly elevated dioxin levels found in soil from nearby house gardens could not be attributed to the sports field as the source of dioxins.

    The annual flux of dioxins and furans to the environment was estimated using worst-case assumptions and the potential exposure of humans was deduced. Calculations of possible PCDD/PCDF-fluxes to the environment showed that only one major process - wind erosion - may have contributed to more than 90% of the total dioxin flux from the contaminated site to the surroundings, Based on PCDD/PCDF-exposure pathways for humans it was concluded that the PCDD/PCDF-content of the copper slag of the sports field did not pose a health hazard to athletes nor to the residents living in the neighbourhood.

  • 187.
    Fiedler, Heidelore
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Kallenborn, Roland
    Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Norway.
    de Boer, Jacob
    Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam, the Netherlands.
    Sydnes, Leiv K.
    University of Bergen, Norway.
    The Stockholm Convention: A Tool for the Global Regulation of Persistent Organic Pollutants2019Inngår i: Chemistry International, ISSN 0193-6484, E-ISSN 1365-2192, Vol. 41, nr 2, s. 4-11Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) is to eliminate persistent organic chemicals worldwide by either prohibiting their production and use or gradually reducing them. The Stockholm Convention was adopted in 2001 and entered into force in 2004, 90 days after receiving the 50th instrument of ratification. The Parties to the Convention have to regularly report progress in implementation of their measures taken to achieve the goals. The Convention has a mechanism to add more compounds; today 28 POPs are covered, 16 more than the initial ones.

  • 188.
    Fiedler, Heidelore
    et al.
    University of Bayreuth, Ecological Chemistry and Geochemistry, Bayreuth, Germany.
    Lau, C.
    University of Bayreuth, Ecological Chemistry and Geochemistry, Bayreuth, Germany.
    Eduljee, G.
    ERM, Eaton House, Wallbrook Court, Oxford, UK.
    Statistical analysis of patterns of PCDDs and PCDFs in stack emission samples and identification of a marker congener2000Inngår i: Waste Management & Research, ISSN 0734-242X, E-ISSN 1096-3669, Vol. 18, nr 3, s. 283-292Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Samples from three major categories of thermal sources, namely municipal solid waste incinerators, hazardous waste incinerators and the iron and steel industry, were evaluated fur common patterns of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans. The major contributors to the total of the 17 2,3,7,8-substituted congeners and to the I-TEQ were identified. It was found that Cl8DD was the most abundant congener in most samples. However, the highest contribution to the toxic equivalent (I-TEQ) was attributable to 2,3,4,7,8-PeCDF. More than 30% of the TER was a result of the presence of this congener. Hierarchical cluster analysis revealed that the emission pattern from the iron and steel industry were slightly different from those of the waste incineration. It was not possible tu differentiate between emissions from municipal solid waste and hazardous waste incinerators. Linear regression identified 2,3,4,7,8-PeCDF as a potential marker analyte to predict I-TEQ concentrations of emission samples. However, whilst in theory such correlations may open new possibilities for application of screening techniques to predict the total I-TEQ of a sample of known origin by determining a single marker congener or surrogate compound, the study suggests that a screening technique based on the direct measurement uf the total I-TEQ of a sample is likely to offer a more robust conceptual foundation for PCDD/F screening.

  • 189.
    Fiedler, Heidelore
    et al.
    Chair of Ecological Chemistry and Geochemistry, University of Bayreuth, Bayreuth, Germany .
    Lau, C.
    Chair of Ecological Chemistry and Geochemistry, University of Bayreuth, Bayreuth, Germany .
    Kjeller, L.-O.
    Institute of Environmental Chemistry, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden .
    Rappe, C.
    Institute of Environmental Chemistry, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden .
    Patterns and sources of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans found in soil and sediment samples in southern Mississippi1996Inngår i: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 32, nr 3, s. 421-432Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Using hierarchical cluster analysis and Principal Component Analysis (PCA), sediment and soil samples from the State of Mississippi were compared with the effluents of a pulp mill, a potential point source. Additionally, data of many known sources of PCDD/PCDF from the scientific literature were evaluated. Both methods were able to distinguish between different matrices with known PCDD/PCDF contamination (e.g. PCP, PCB, kraft pulp mill effluents). In some instances, a specific PCDD/PCDF source could be correlated to an environmental sample, e.g. the pattern of a U.S, brand of pentachlorophenate was found in sediment samples. None of the mathematical and statistical techniques could identify the pulp mill as the source of the PCDD/PCDF in the sediments and soils in the floodplain.

  • 190.
    Fiedler, Heidelore
    et al.
    Chair of Ecological Chemistry and Geochemistry, University of Bayreuth, Bayreuth, FRG.
    Schramm, K.-W.
    Chair of Ecological Chemistry and Geochemistry, University of Bayreuth, Bayreuth, FRG.
    QSAR generated octanol-water partition coefficients of selected mixed halogenated dibenzodioxins and dibenzofurans1990Inngår i: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 20, nr 10-12, s. 1597-1602Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We have calculated the values of pkow, water solubility, and Koc for chlorinated, brominated and mixed halogenated dibenzodioxins and dibenzofurans that have been identified in environmental samples. From the results it can be concluded that brominated and mixed halogenated dioxins and furans will show an ecological behaviour similar to that of the pure chlorinated compounds.

  • 191.
    Fiedler, Heidelore
    et al.
    BIfA GmbH, Bavarian Institute of Waste Research, Augsburg, Germany.
    Van den Berg, Martin
    RITOX, University of Utrecht, Utrecht, Netherlands.
    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, polychlorinated dibenzofurans and related compounds: Update and recent developments1996Inngår i: Environmental science and pollution research international, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 3, nr 3, s. 122-128Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 192. Finlay, R.
    et al.
    Wallander, H.
    Smits, M.
    Holmstrom, S.
    van Hees, Patrick A. W.
    Örebro universitet, Akademin för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Lian, B.
    Rosling, A.
    The role of fungi in biogenic weathering in boreal forest soils2009Inngår i: Fungal Biology Reviews, ISSN 1878-0253, Vol. 23, nr 4, s. 101-106Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article we discuss the possible significance of biological processes, and of fungi in particular, in weathering of minerals. We consider biological activity to be a significant driver of mineral weathering in forest ecosystems. In these environments fungi play key roles in organic matter decomposition, uptake, transfer and cycling of organic and inorganic nutrients, biogenic mineral formation, as well as transformation and accumulation of metals. The ability of lichens, mutualistic symbioses between fungi and photobionts such as algae or cyanobacteria, to weather minerals is well documented. The role of mycorrhizal fungi forming symbioses with forest trees is less well understood, but the mineral horizons of boreal forests are intensively colonised by mycorrhizal mycelia which transfer protons and organic metabolites derived from plant photosynthates to mineral surfaces, resulting in mineral dissolution and mobilisation and redistribution of anionic nutrients and metal cations. The mycorrhizal mycelia, in turn provide efficient systems for the uptake and direct transport of mobilised essential nutrients to their host plants which are large sinks. Since almost all (99.99. %) non-suberised lateral plant roots involved in nutrient uptake are covered by ectomycorrhizal fungi, most of this exchange of metabolites must take place through the plant-fungus interface. This idea is still consistent with a linear relationship between soil mineral surface area and weathering rate since the mycelia that emanate from the tree roots will have a larger area of contact with minerals if the mineral surface area is higher. Although empirical models based on bulk soil solution chemistry may fit field data, we argue that biological processes make an important contribution to mineral weathering and that a more detailed mechanistic understanding of these must be developed in order to predict responses to environmental changes and anthropogenic impact. © 2010 The British Mycological Society.

  • 193.
    Forslind, B.
    et al.
    Experimental Dermatology Research Group, Dept. of Medical Biophysics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Li, H. K.
    Dept. of Nuclear Physics, Lund Institute of Technology, Lund, Sweden.
    Malmqvist, K. G.
    Dept. of Nuclear Physics, Lund Institute of Technology, Lund, Sweden.
    Wiegleb Edström, Desirée
    Experimental Dermatology Research Group, Dept. of Medical Biophysics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Elemental analysis of hair fibres using PIXE - a population study of sulphur and zinc content1985Inngår i: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 42, nr 1-2, s. 219-222Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 194.
    Fransson, Anna-Lisa Sayuli
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för humaniora, utbildnings- och samhällsvetenskap.
    Tragedy or Chivalrous Romance?: The Swedish Government and the Baltic Sea Pipeline2014Inngår i: Nature and Culture, ISSN 1558-6073, E-ISSN 1558-5468, Vol. 9, nr 3, s. 266-287Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    When Sweden was confronted with the idea of building a gas pipeline through the Baltic Sea, the Swedish government found itself in a paradoxical situation. Should it give in to strong foreign interests and abandon its proudly held line of environmental policy, or stick to its profile at the risk of earning a powerful adversary? This narrative analysis, building on the government's official narratives, explains how and why the self-proclaimed environmental guardian of the sea ended up having it both ways. By using strategies of depoliticization, polarization, and parallel storytelling, the Swedish government surrendered narrative power to its antagonist, alternated between incompatible views of its own political capability, and added a happy ending to the pipeline tragedy. These strategies enabled the government to make an environmentally controversial decision without losing prestige or abandoning its ethical profile regarding the Baltic Sea.

  • 195.
    Fransson, Petra M. A.
    et al.
    Department of Forest Mycology and Pathology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Ulltuna, Sweden.
    Johansson, Emma M.
    Örebro universitet, Akademin för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Elevated CO2 and nitrogen influence exudation of soluble organic compounds by ectomycorrhizal root systems2010Inngår i: FEMS Microbiology Ecology, ISSN 0168-6496, E-ISSN 1574-6941, Vol. 71, nr 2, s. 186-196Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Root and mycelial exudation contributes significantly to soil carbon (C) fluxes, and is likely to be altered by an elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration and nitrogen (N) deposition. We quantified soluble, low-molecular-weight (LMW) organic compounds exuded by ectomycorrhizal plants grown under ambient (360 p.p.m.) or elevated (710 p.p.m.) CO2 concentrations and with different N sources. Scots pine seedlings, colonized by one of five different ectomycorrhizal or nonmycorrhizal fungi, received 70 μM N, either as NH4Cl or as alanine, in a liquid growth medium. Exudation of LMW organic acids (LMWOAs), dissolved monosaccharides and total dissolved organic carbon were determined. Both N and CO2 had a significant impact on exudation, especially of LMWOAs. Exudation of LMWOAs was negatively affected by inorganic N and decreased by 30–85% compared with the organic N treatment, irrespective of the CO2 treatment. Elevated CO2 had a clear impact on the production of individual LMWOAs, although with very contrasting effects depending on which N source was supplied.

  • 196.
    Fredriksson, Maria
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Betesdjurens betydelse: Om det svenska landskapets förändring från dåtid till samtid med fokus på framtid och biologisk mångfald2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Den här litteraturstudien har tagits fram genom en semi-systematisk litteraturgenomgång och syftar till att skapa förståelse för hur förändringar i djurhållningen och djurantalet främst med avseende på nötkreatur har påverkat det svenska odlingslandskapet och den biologiska mångfalden över tid. Litteraturen har kompletterats med intervjuer med sak-kunniga.

    Under tusentals år har stora delar av det svenska odlingslandskapet hävdats genom bete och slåtter. Den långvariga hävden har skapat den största mångfalden i världen per kvadratmeter. Fram till det förra sekelskiftet omgavs små öar av åkermark av ett hav av öppna och halvöppna betesmarker. Från början av 1900-talet har en omvälvande förändring skett i landskapet. Betesmarkerna har krympt ihop till en tiondel av sin ursprungliga omfattning, och täta skogar har brett ut sig på en stor del av Sveriges yta.

    Konsekvenserna för den biologiska mångfalden är oerhörda. En stor del av växterna, insekterna, fåglarna, kräldjuren och däggdjuren som under årtusenden har anpassat sig till ett landskap med öppna, vidsträckta gräsmarker har eller riskerar att slås ut. Förlusten av biologisk och genetisk mångfald bedöms vara ett av de främsta hoten mot stabila, planetära tillstånd. Övergivna naturbetesmarker är också en förlust av kulturarv.

    För att komma tillrätta med problemet och uppnå FN:s och EU:s mål om att värna och stärka den biologiska mångfalden krävs det att utvecklingen med minskande djurantal, allt färre jordbruksföretag med djur och allt större besättningsstorlekar vänder. God tillgång på betesdjur som klarar sig på magert bete, vilket många av dagens högavkastande produktions-djur inte gör, är ett måste. Om fragmenteringen i landskapet minskar genom restaurering av naturbetesmarker finns det goda möjligheter för delar av floran och faunan att återhämta sig.

  • 197.
    Frostenson, Magnus
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Handelshögskolan vid Örebro Universitet.
    Prenkert, Frans
    Örebro universitet, Handelshögskolan vid Örebro Universitet.
    Sustainable supply chain management when focal firms are complex: a network perspective2015Inngår i: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 107, s. 85-94Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the paper is to generate an understanding of the prerequisites for sustainable supply chain management. A common tendency in the literature is to see sustainable supply chain management as something that is undertaken by a focal firm at the end of the chain. Even though many scholars point to the need for cooperative approaches, focal firms are still considered to manage supply chains from one fixed and coherent vantage point: the managerial outlook of the focal firm itself, understood as a structurally coherent, top-down controlled unit. Through an illustration from the Swedish retail sector, we argue that such a vantage point is problematic. We suggest a deeper analysis of focal firms and sustainable supply chain management in terms of a network perspective employed mainly in the Industrial Marketing and Purchasing (IMP) literature. The adopted network perspective recognizes both internal and external complexity of sustainable supply chain management, implying, for example, difficulties to control entire organizations and the existence of multiple supply chains to manage. It is also suggested that sustainable supply networks may be a viable concept to use when dealing with sustainability issues related to production, since it relates sustainability in the supply chain to the more general responsibility context of firms.  

  • 198.
    Fu, Jianjie
    et al.
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Gao, Yan
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Wang, Thanh
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Liang, Yong
    Jianghan University, Wuhan, China.
    Zhang, Aiqian
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Wang, Yawei
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Jiang, Guibin
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Elevated levels of perfluoroalkyl acids in family members of occupationally exposed workers: the importance of dust transfer2015Inngår i: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 5, artikkel-id 9313Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The exposure pathways of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) to humans are still not clear because of the complex living environment, and few studies have simultaneously investigated the bioaccumulative behaviour of different PFAAs in humans. In this study, serum, dust, duplicate diet, and other matrices were collected around a manufacturing plant in China, and homologous series of PFAAs were analysed. PFAA levels in dust and serum of local residents in this area were considerably higher than those in non-polluted area. Although dietary intake was the major exposure pathway in the present study, dust ingestion played an important role in this case. Serum PFAAs in local residents was significantly correlated with dust PFAAs levels in their living or working microenvironment. Serum PFAAs and dust PFAAs were significantly higher in family members of occupational workers (FM) than in ordinary residents (OR) (p<0.01). After a careful analysis of the PFAAs exposure pathway, a potential pathway in addition to direct dust ingestion was suggested: PFAAs might transferred from occupational worker's clothes to dinners via cooking processes. The bioaccumulative potential of PFHxS and PFOS were higher than other PFAAs, which suggested a substantial difference between the bioaccumulative ability of perfluorinated sulfonic acids and perfluorinated carboxylic acids.

  • 199.
    Fu, Jianjie
    et al.
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Wang, Thanh
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Wang, Pu
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Qu, Guangbo
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Wang, Yawei
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Zhang, Qinghua
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Zhang, Aiqian
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Jiang, Guibin
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Temporal trends (2005-2009) of PCDD/Fs, PCBs, PBDEs in rice hulls from an e-waste dismantling area after stricter environmental regulations2012Inngår i: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 88, nr 3, s. 330-335Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Primitive e-waste dismantling activities have been of increasing concern due to serious environmental and human health problems, and therefore authorities in China have strengthened the regulations on illegal e-waste recycling activities. In this work, we used rice hull as a passive sampler and investigated temporal trends of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in areas near e-waste recycling sites after the stricter regulations. Furthermore, the distribution patterns and composition profiles of these contaminants were also discussed. The average concentrations of the three groups of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in rice hulls have markedly decreased during the period of 2005-2009. Specifically, from 12.9 (average value in 2005) to 0.37 pg WHO-TEQ/g (dry weight, dw) (in 2009) for PCDD/Fs, 47.6 (2005) to 7.10 ng g(-1)dw (2009) for PCBs, and 2.51 (2005) to 0.89 ng g(-1), dw (2009) for PBDEs. The significant decrease of combustion markers 2,3,4,7,8-PeCDF, 1,2,3,6,7,8HxCDF and PCB126, and the PCDD/PCDF ratio from 1:9 (2005) to 7:3 (2009) is likely a result of stricter regulations on open combustion activities. This study suggests that stricter control measures, strengthened laws and regulations and more environmental friendly techniques could be effective measures in reducing the release and formation of related POPs in typical e-waste dismantling sites, and these measures could further improve the quality of the environment and health of the local inhabitants.

  • 200.
    Fu, Jianjie
    et al.
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Wang, Yawei
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Zhang, Aiqian
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Zhang, Qinghua
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Zhao, Zongshan
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Wang, Thanh
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Jiang, Guibin
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Spatial distribution of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated biphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in an e-waste dismantling region in Southeast China: use of apple snail (Ampullariidae) as a bioindicator2011Inngår i: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 82, nr 5, s. 648-655Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Fengjiang is a large e-waste dismantling site located in southeast China. In this paper, apple snail and soil samples were collected from this e-waste dismantling site and 25 vicinal towns to investigate the contamination status, spatial distributions and congener patterns of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated biphenyl ethers (PBDEs). Total PCB concentrations in apple snails (3.78-1812ngg(-1) dry weight (dw)) were significant higher than that in soil samples (0.48-90.1ngg(-1) dw). PBDE (excluding BDE 209) concentrations in apple snail and soil samples ranged from 0.09 to 27.7ngg(-1) dw and 0.06 to 31.2ngg(-1) dw, respectively. Concentrations of PCBs and PBDEs in snails and soils correlated negatively with the distance from Fengjiang. Both the concentrations and profiles of the pollutants were significantly correlated (p<0.05) between the snail and soil samples, indicating the suitability of apple snail as a reliable bioindicator for PCBs and PBDEs contamination in this region. Relatively high concentrations of PCBs and PBDEs at locations far from e-waste dismantling sites implied that these pollutants have been transported to surrounding regions.

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