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  • 201. Geibe, Christine E.
    et al.
    Danielsson, Rolf
    van Hees, Patrick A. W.
    Örebro University, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Lundstrom, Ulla S.
    Comparison of soil solution chemistry sampled by centrifugation, two types of suction lysimeters and zero-tension lysimeters2006In: Applied Geochemistry, ISSN 0883-2927, E-ISSN 1872-9134, Vol. 21, no 12, p. 2096-2111Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The choice of sampling method for soil solution is of great importance. In this paper soil solution chemistry sampled by centrifugation, two types of suction lysimeters and zero-tension lysimeters have been studied with the purpose of investigating systematic differences between them. The samples were taken at 4 depths from an acidified forest soil as well as from adjacent lime and ash treated soils. A centrifugation drainage method was compared with two types of suction lysimeters ('Rhizon' and 'Prenart') and zero-tension lysimeters. About half of the 27 variables measured showed a significant difference between the sampling methods used. Typically the centrifuged samples had lower pH (4.0 vs. 4.4), Ca (21 mu M vs. 30 mu M) and Mg (25 mu M vs. 34 mu M) concentrations and higher CI (330 mu M vs. 230 mu M) and DOC (4.4 mM vs. 3.2 mM) concentrations than the Rhizon lysimeters. Also the other lysimeters showed significant differences compared to the centrifuged samples for about half the number of analytes. Centrifuged samples had higher concentrations of all analytes except NO3 and PO4 compared to zero-tension lysimeters and also for all analytes except NO3 and Al compared to Prenart lysimeters. Among the environmental factors considered depth showed an influence to some extent, while sampling occasion had a great significant impact on the difference between the centrifugation method and the Rhizon lysimeters. Factors like individual pits or soil treatment did not show any influence on the difference between the methods. (c) 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 202.
    Geissinger, Andrea
    et al.
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business. The Ratio Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Laurell, Christofer
    Stockholm School of Economics, Stockholm, Sweden; Jönköping University, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Öberg, Christina
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business. The Ratio Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Sandström, Christian
    The Ratio Institute, Stockholm, Sweden; Sciences and Technology Studies, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    How sustainable is the sharing economy?: On the sustainability connotations of sharing economy platforms2019In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 206, p. 419-429Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The sharing economy has evolved and spread to various sectors of the economy. Its early idea linked to the creation of more sustainable uses of resources. Since then, the development of the sharing economy has included a professionalization with self-employed suppliers rather than peers, and the question is whether the platforms following this development maintain the focus on sustainability. This paper describes and classifies the sustainability connotation of sharing economy platforms. It analyses 121 platforms derived through social media analytics to figure out whether they describe themselves as sustainable. The findings suggest that the sustainability connotation closely connects to specific sectors such as fashion, on-demand services and logistics. Meanwhile, the dominant role model platforms do not communicate about being sustainable. These findings contribute to previous research through (1) giving a systematic empirical account on the way various sharing economy platforms describe themselves in terms of sustainability, (2) pointing out the differences among the platforms, and (3) indicating the diversity in sustainability connotation among various sectors of the economy.

  • 203. Gong, W.
    et al.
    Fiedler, Heidelore
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Wang, B.
    Huang, J.
    Yu, G.
    A review of emission factors for unintentional hexachlorobenzene and pentachlorobenzene from metal production2016In: Organohalogen Compounds, ISSN 1026-4892, Vol. 78, p. 1046-1049Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 204.
    Gong, Wenwen
    et al.
    School of Environment, Beijing Key Laboratory for Emerging Organic Contaminants Control, State Key Joint Laboratory of Environment Simulation and Pollution Control (SKLESPC), Tsinghua University, Beijing, China.
    Fiedler, Heidelore
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology. School of Environment, Beijing Key Laboratory for Emerging Organic Contaminants Control, State Key Joint Laboratory of Environment Simulation and Pollution Control (SKLESPC), Tsinghua University, Beijing, China.
    Liu, Xiaotu
    School of Environment, Beijing Key Laboratory for Emerging Organic Contaminants Control, State Key Joint Laboratory of Environment Simulation and Pollution Control (SKLESPC), Tsinghua University, Beijing, China.
    Wang, Bin
    School of Environment, Beijing Key Laboratory for Emerging Organic Contaminants Control, State Key Joint Laboratory of Environment Simulation and Pollution Control (SKLESPC), Tsinghua University, Beijing, China.
    Yu, Gang
    School of Environment, Beijing Key Laboratory for Emerging Organic Contaminants Control, State Key Joint Laboratory of Environment Simulation and Pollution Control (SKLESPC), Tsinghua University, Beijing, China.
    Emission factors of unintentional HCB and PeCBz and their correlation with PCDD/PCDF2017In: Environmental Pollution, ISSN 0269-7491, E-ISSN 1873-6424, Vol. 230, p. 516-522Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and pentachlorobenzene (PeCBz) have been listed as unintentional POPs in the annex of the Stockholm Convention and thus, attracted attention by government and researchers. Since the intentional production and use has ceased in most countries, the unintentional releases to the environment have increased. This study gathered 206 and 78 emission factors (EFs) of unintentional HCB and PeCBz from scientific publications and governmental reports, respectively. Most of the EFs referred to the release vector "air" (EFAir) and to a less extent to "product" (EFProduct). EFs were proposed for different source categories/classes used in the Toolkit according to the technologies that released the HCB or PeCBz. Overall, lowest and highest EFAir for HCB were found in the metallurgical industry range from 1 μg/t in well controlled plants (coke, iron and steel) up to 40,000 μg/t (secondary zinc). EFs for PeCBz were in similar order of magnitude. Due to lack of data, EFs to water, land or residue cannot be proposed. Using linear regression and statistical analysis such as Pearson correlation, we found strongest correlation of EFAir between HCB and PeCBz (R(2) = 0.79, P < 0.01) and weaker, but still significant, correlations for EFAir between PCDD/PCDFTEQ and HCB (R(2) = 0.56; P < 0.01) or PeCBz (R(2) = 0.31 P < 0.01) for various thermal processes.

  • 205.
    Gong, Wenwen
    et al.
    School of Environment, Beijing Key Laboratory for Emerging Organic Contaminants Control, State Key Joint Laboratory of Environment Simulation and Pollution Control (SKLESPC), Tsinghua University, Beijing, China.
    Fiedler, Heidelore
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology. School of Environment, Beijing Key Laboratory for Emerging Organic Contaminants Control, State Key Joint Laboratory of Environment Simulation and Pollution Control (SKLESPC), Tsinghua University, Beijing, China.
    Liu, Xiaotu
    School of Environment, Beijing Key Laboratory for Emerging Organic Contaminants Control, State Key Joint Laboratory of Environment Simulation and Pollution Control (SKLESPC), Tsinghua University, Beijing, China.
    Wang, Bin
    School of Environment, Beijing Key Laboratory for Emerging Organic Contaminants Control, State Key Joint Laboratory of Environment Simulation and Pollution Control (SKLESPC), Tsinghua University, Beijing, China.
    Yu, Gang
    School of Environment, Beijing Key Laboratory for Emerging Organic Contaminants Control, State Key Joint Laboratory of Environment Simulation and Pollution Control (SKLESPC), Tsinghua University, Beijing, China.
    Reassessment and update of emission factors for unintentional dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls2017In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 605, p. 498-506Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    One of the major goals of the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants is to continuously reduce the releases of unintentional persistent organic pollutants (POPs) such as polychlorinated dibenzo-paradioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/PCDF) or polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) from anthropogenic sources. Until now, most efforts have focused on the releases of PCDD/PCDF and to a lesser extent on unintentionally generated PCB, and therefore, release inventories reported as toxic equivalents (TEQ) do not include the twelve dioxin-like PCB (dl-PCB). In order to facilitate the development of national release inventories for the total TEQ - consisting of PCDD, PCDF and PCB - this study collected and summarized published emission factors (EFs) of unintentional dl-PCB or calculated them from measured data for the sources listed in the UNEP Toolkit. In total, 286 EFs for dl-PCB were found (or could be calculated) whereby 233 described release to air, 23 EFs addressed to residue, 25 EFs to product; and only 5 EFs addressed releases to land. Taking into account performance criteria such as the facility type and scale or abatement technologies, the EFs were grouped and assigned to the source categories and/or classes used in the UNEP Toolkit. With these newly added data and EFs of dl-PCB, the already existing EFs in the Toolkit can be improved and amended. In addition, a statistically significant correlation between the EFAir of dl-PCB proposed in this study and EFAir of PCDD/PCDF recommended in the Toolkit was observed.

  • 206.
    Grahn, Evastina
    Örebro University, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Lake sediment as environmental archive: natural and anthropogenic influence on the chronology of trace elements2006Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The focus of this thesis is the historical pollution of some seldom-monitored trace elements (SMTEs; Ag, Be, Ga, In, Sb and Tl) that have been involuntarily released for several thousands of years but whose usage have increased during the industrial era. Sediment cores from four rural lakes in a south to north transect in central Sweden, and two urban lakes have been used as environmental archives for chronological studies. The historical development of the SMTEs is put in perspective of frequently monitored elements (Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn) that serve as a well-known anthropogenic signal. Dating of the sediments is made with 210Pb, 137Cs and 239,240Pu as well as acid leachable lead and the 206Pb/207Pb ratio. The impact of diagenetic redistribution is included, when necessary.

    The results show that site-specific reference concentrations are required in order to estimate the present pollution as well as its historical development. Atmospheric deposition is the principal pathway of transport in rural lakes and the concentrations are lowered towards the north. It is not possible from this material, however, to separate the direct deposition on the lake surfaces from the contribution from their catchments. From 21Pb, acid-leachable Pb and the 206Pb/207Pb ratio a minimum of four periods of pollution can be discerned. For the SMTEs the quantitatively most important period of pollution took place from the Second World War until present. The growth of the domestic industrialisation as well as the early industrialisation of central Europe and the British Isles are also distinguishable. The pollution history of Ag, In and Sb goes back for several centuries as a result of metal processing whereas the levels of thallium mainly increase as a result of industrialisation. For Ag and Tl in-sediment diagenetic redistribution limits the precision of the historical estimate. The preliminary interpretation of 137Cs and 239,240Pu indicates that they are less suitable as chronological markers in the system studied. The urban impact on the trace metal sediment content in the urban lakes was lower than expected, except for Au. There is a large impact from hydrological conditions on the studied system why further investigations are recommended.

    List of papers
    1. Sediment reference concentrations of seldom monitored trace elements (Ag, Be, In, Ga, Sb, Tl) in four Swedish boreal lakes: comparison with commonly monitored elements
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Sediment reference concentrations of seldom monitored trace elements (Ag, Be, In, Ga, Sb, Tl) in four Swedish boreal lakes: comparison with commonly monitored elements
    2006 (English)In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 367, no 2-3, p. 778-790Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents reference and recent acid-leachable concentrations of some seldom monitored trace elements (SMTE; Ag, Be, Ga, In, Sb and Tl) in sediments from four boreal oligotrophic lakes in a south to north transect in Sweden. For comparison commonly monitored trace elements (As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn) are included as well as those of relevance for redistribution processes (Al, Ca, Fe, Mg and Mn).

    Pore water pH and the corresponding solid/solution distribution coefficients (Kd) indicated that redistribution of the elements due to acidification is minor. The depth of impact was defined as the level in the sediment where the mean values became constant on successive exclusion of metal concentrations in overlying strata. Reference concentrations were calculated below the depth of impact. The present concentration changes are estimated by the ratio between the average concentration above the depth of impact and the reference concentration.

    Reference concentration ranges for the SMT-elements are (mg/kg, dry wt.): Ag 0.16–0.66; Be 1.6–3.7; Ga 2.0–5.1; In 0.05–0.22; Sb 0.05–0.11 and Tl 0.17–0.70. The concentration ratios for these elements ranged in the two most southern lakes from 1.5 to 4.5 and in the two northern ones from 0.6 to 1.6. A high correlation between Kd for the SMT-elements, and iron, except for Sb and Tl, infer that the biogeochemistry of iron is quantitatively important for the accumulation of these elements.

    The reference concentration ranges for the commonly monitored trace elements are (mg/kg, dry wt.): As 7.0–29.6; Cd 0.33–0.98; Co 5.7–23.8; Cr 15.2–26.1; Cu 27.6–58.4; Ni 5.4–20.8; Pb 44–96. The corresponding concentration ratios were 1.2–18 (second highest 3.9) in the two most southern lakes and 0.8–1.6 in the two northern ones. Declining ratios were found from south to north, most obvious for cobalt and zinc. The copper ratios did not show a regional pattern, partly because of the impact from old mine waste.

    Increased concentrations of Ag, Be, Ga, In, Sb and Tl in recent sediments up to 4.5 times the reference levels in combination with the geographical pattern infer an elevated loading of these elements.

    National Category
    Environmental Sciences
    Research subject
    Enviromental Science
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-3058 (URN)10.1016/j.scitotenv.2006.01.018 (DOI)
    Available from: 2006-03-09 Created: 2006-03-09 Last updated: 2017-12-14Bibliographically approved
    2. Historical pollution of seldom monitored trace elements in Sweden - Part A: sediment properties and chronological indicators
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Historical pollution of seldom monitored trace elements in Sweden - Part A: sediment properties and chronological indicators
    2006 (English)In: Journal of Environmental Monitoring, ISSN 1464-0325, E-ISSN 1464-0333, Vol. 8, no 7, p. 721-731Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Sediment cores from four small oligotrophic boreal lakes, with minor acidification, in remote regions of central Sweden were used for historical interpretation of their metal content, with focus on Cu, Cd, Pb and Zn in Lake Stensjön, which has the longest sediment record (at least two centuries according to 210Pb dating). Comparison is made with the other three lakes. Major and trace elements in lake water, porewater and the acid-leached (HNO3) solid sediment phase was analysed with ICP-MS. In addition, general lake water chemistry, TOC and principal anions were measured in the aqueous phases. Redistribution processes were interpreted from geochemical modelling. The solid/solution distribution of pe/pH sensitive elements, indicates a minor diagenetic redistribution and the concentration profiles are therefore suitable for chronological evaluation. The ratios of Al, Ti, Sc and V, indicated a qualitative shift of sedimenting material a century ago, which did not have any impact on the retention of trace elements. Lead had a concentration profile, supported by the 206Pb/207Pb ratio, where it was possible to distinguish preindustrial conditions, early industrialisation in Europe, industrialisation in Sweden, and the use of leaded petrol after the Second World War. Cadmium showed a similar concentration pattern. The zinc profile resembled that of cadmium, but with less enrichment. Local lithogenic sources are believed to be quantitatively important. The solid/solution distribution (Kd) was independent of depth for all four elements. The sediment concentrations of copper and zinc are not related to early industrialisation but its concentration has doubled since the Second World War.

    National Category
    Chemical Sciences Environmental Sciences
    Research subject
    Enviromental Science
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-3059 (URN)10.1039/B601944G (DOI)16826285 (PubMedID)
    Available from: 2006-03-09 Created: 2006-03-09 Last updated: 2017-12-14Bibliographically approved
    3. Historical pollution of seldom monitored trace elements in Sweden: Part B: sediment analysis of silver, antimony, thallium and indium
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Historical pollution of seldom monitored trace elements in Sweden: Part B: sediment analysis of silver, antimony, thallium and indium
    2006 (English)In: Journal of Environmental Monitoring, ISSN 1464-0325, E-ISSN 1464-0333, Vol. 8, no 7, p. 732-744Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Sediment cores from four boreal and remote lakes in a south to north transect in central Sweden were analysed for acid leachable silver, antimony, thallium and indium in the solid sediment phase and the corresponding porewater. Dating of the cores was made by their content of acid leachable lead and the 206Pb/207Pb ratio, in one lake also by 210Pb. The impact of diagenesis on element redistribution in the sediments was included and found to be minor except for thallium. The results show lowered concentrations towards the north and most intense accumulation after the Second World War, which is taken as evidence for atmospheric deposition being the primary source. Indium has declining concentrations in recent strata while silver and antimony increase. Thallium has lowered acid-leachable concentrations in recent strata. For all metals the impact of domestic industrialisation as well as the early industrialisation of central Europe is discernible. Only thallium appears to reach a geological background at depths that correspond to the late 18th century. For the other metals elevated levels are concluded.

    National Category
    Environmental Sciences Chemical Sciences
    Research subject
    Enviromental Science
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-3053 (URN)10.1039/B601948J (DOI)
    Available from: 2006-03-09 Created: 2006-03-09 Last updated: 2017-12-14Bibliographically approved
    4. Seldom monitored trace elements (Ag, Au, Ga, In, Sb, Tl) in two urban lake sediments in Central Sweden: a case study
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Seldom monitored trace elements (Ag, Au, Ga, In, Sb, Tl) in two urban lake sediments in Central Sweden: a case study
    (English)Manuscript (Other academic)
    National Category
    Environmental Sciences
    Research subject
    Enviromental Science
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-3061 (URN)
    Available from: 2006-03-09 Created: 2006-03-09 Last updated: 2017-10-18Bibliographically approved
    5. Failure of 137Cs and 239/240Pu dating of lake sediments: fallout from nuclear weapons testing and from the Chernobyl accident as well as redistribution processes?
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Failure of 137Cs and 239/240Pu dating of lake sediments: fallout from nuclear weapons testing and from the Chernobyl accident as well as redistribution processes?
    Show others...
    (English)Manuscript (Other academic)
    National Category
    Environmental Sciences
    Research subject
    Enviromental Science
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-3062 (URN)
    Available from: 2006-03-09 Created: 2006-03-09 Last updated: 2017-10-18Bibliographically approved
  • 207.
    Grahn, Evastina
    et al.
    Örebro University, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Greis, Christina
    Örebro University, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Karlsson, Stefan
    Örebro University, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Düker, Anders
    Örebro University, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Allard, Bert
    Örebro University, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Pettersson, Håkan
    Failure of 137Cs and 239/240Pu dating of lake sediments: fallout from nuclear weapons testing and from the Chernobyl accident as well as redistribution processes?Manuscript (Other academic)
  • 208.
    Grahn, Evastina
    et al.
    Örebro University, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Greis, Christina
    Örebro University, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Karlsson, Stefan
    Düker, Anders
    Allard, Bert
    Örebro University, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Pettersson, Håkan
    Failure of 137Cs and 239,240Pu dating of lake sediments: fallout from nuclear weapons testing, the Chernobyl accident and redistribution processes?Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 209.
    Grahn, Evastina
    et al.
    Örebro University, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Karlsson, Stefan
    Örebro University, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Düker, Anders
    Örebro University, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Sediment reference concentrations of seldom monitored trace elements (Ag, Be, In, Ga, Sb, Tl) in four Swedish boreal lakes: comparison with commonly monitored elements2006In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 367, no 2-3, p. 778-790Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents reference and recent acid-leachable concentrations of some seldom monitored trace elements (SMTE; Ag, Be, Ga, In, Sb and Tl) in sediments from four boreal oligotrophic lakes in a south to north transect in Sweden. For comparison commonly monitored trace elements (As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn) are included as well as those of relevance for redistribution processes (Al, Ca, Fe, Mg and Mn).

    Pore water pH and the corresponding solid/solution distribution coefficients (Kd) indicated that redistribution of the elements due to acidification is minor. The depth of impact was defined as the level in the sediment where the mean values became constant on successive exclusion of metal concentrations in overlying strata. Reference concentrations were calculated below the depth of impact. The present concentration changes are estimated by the ratio between the average concentration above the depth of impact and the reference concentration.

    Reference concentration ranges for the SMT-elements are (mg/kg, dry wt.): Ag 0.16–0.66; Be 1.6–3.7; Ga 2.0–5.1; In 0.05–0.22; Sb 0.05–0.11 and Tl 0.17–0.70. The concentration ratios for these elements ranged in the two most southern lakes from 1.5 to 4.5 and in the two northern ones from 0.6 to 1.6. A high correlation between Kd for the SMT-elements, and iron, except for Sb and Tl, infer that the biogeochemistry of iron is quantitatively important for the accumulation of these elements.

    The reference concentration ranges for the commonly monitored trace elements are (mg/kg, dry wt.): As 7.0–29.6; Cd 0.33–0.98; Co 5.7–23.8; Cr 15.2–26.1; Cu 27.6–58.4; Ni 5.4–20.8; Pb 44–96. The corresponding concentration ratios were 1.2–18 (second highest 3.9) in the two most southern lakes and 0.8–1.6 in the two northern ones. Declining ratios were found from south to north, most obvious for cobalt and zinc. The copper ratios did not show a regional pattern, partly because of the impact from old mine waste.

    Increased concentrations of Ag, Be, Ga, In, Sb and Tl in recent sediments up to 4.5 times the reference levels in combination with the geographical pattern infer an elevated loading of these elements.

  • 210.
    Grahn, Evastina
    et al.
    Örebro University, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Karlsson, Stefan
    Örebro University, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Düker, Anders
    Örebro University, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Seldom monitored trace elements (Ag, Au, Ga, In, Sb, Tl) in two urban lake sediments in Central Sweden: a case studyManuscript (Other academic)
  • 211.
    Grahn, Evastina
    et al.
    Örebro University, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Karlsson, Stefan
    Örebro University, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Karlsson, Ulrika
    Örebro University, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Düker, Anders
    Örebro University, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Historical pollution of seldom monitored trace elements in Sweden: Part B: sediment analysis of silver, antimony, thallium and indium2006In: Journal of Environmental Monitoring, ISSN 1464-0325, E-ISSN 1464-0333, Vol. 8, no 7, p. 732-744Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sediment cores from four boreal and remote lakes in a south to north transect in central Sweden were analysed for acid leachable silver, antimony, thallium and indium in the solid sediment phase and the corresponding porewater. Dating of the cores was made by their content of acid leachable lead and the 206Pb/207Pb ratio, in one lake also by 210Pb. The impact of diagenesis on element redistribution in the sediments was included and found to be minor except for thallium. The results show lowered concentrations towards the north and most intense accumulation after the Second World War, which is taken as evidence for atmospheric deposition being the primary source. Indium has declining concentrations in recent strata while silver and antimony increase. Thallium has lowered acid-leachable concentrations in recent strata. For all metals the impact of domestic industrialisation as well as the early industrialisation of central Europe is discernible. Only thallium appears to reach a geological background at depths that correspond to the late 18th century. For the other metals elevated levels are concluded.

  • 212.
    Grankvist, Frida
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Beskare grödor i framtidens odlingsklimat?: Morotens (Daucus carota L.) innehåll av terpener, fenoler och polyacetylener i förändrade odlingsförhållanden2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    För Sverige bedöms klimatförändringen medföra ett varmare och fuktigare klimat vilket kan gynna nya arter av patogener. En ökad temperatur respektive nederbörd kan innebära nya odlingsförhållanden som befintliga grödor inte är anpassade för. Temperaturhöjning, nederbördsökning och ökande patogenangrepp kan påverka grödors kemiska och därmed sensoriska egenskaper. Ett exempel är att växter kan bilda beska ämnen som eget försvar mot dessa stressfaktorer. Grödor med hög beska förknippas ofta med ogillande och därför strävar den kommersiella växtförädlingen fortfarande efter att förädla bort den beska smaken.

    Syftet med litteraturstudien var att undersöka hur morötters beska ämnen kan påverkas i takt med klimatförändringen i Sverige. Därför undersöktes först vilka ämnen som visats korrelera och därmed bidra till den beska smaken i morötter. Studien baserades huvudsakligen på en systematisk litteraturgenomgång som sedan kompletterades med en semistrukturerad, kvalitativ intervju med morotsforskaren Lars Kjellenberg.

    Litteraturstudien visade att morötters beska orsakas av en mångfald ämnen då korrelationer fanns med ämnen från grupperna terpener, fenoler och polyacetylener. Polyacetylenen falcarindiol visades vara starkt bidragande och mycket tydde på att hittills oidentifierade ämnen kan bidra till morötters beska. Vidare visades ett varmare och fuktigare odlingsklimat med ökande patogenangrepp bidra till en ökad produktion av beska ämnen i morötter. Samtidigt minskade morötternas sockerinnehåll, vilket resulterade i att mindre socker kunde maskera morötternas beska.

    Om en ökad sötma är en fortsatt strävan på marknaden, är det tänkbart att Sveriges morotsproduktion flyttas norrut för att uppnå en ökad sötma och minskad beska. Men att ta fram sorter med en viss beska kan både bidra till en mer balanserad smakbild och gynnsamma hälsoeffekter. Beska ämnen kan även ge ett ökat skydd mot patogenangrepp och därmed leda till en minskad pesticidanvändning. Att vissa beska ämnen visats smaka mindre beskt än andra, visar på möjligheten att ta fram morotssorter med dessa fördelar, utan att beskan tar överhand.

  • 213.
    Grawunder, A
    et al.
    Friedrich - Schiller - University, Jena, Germany.
    Meissner, S
    Friedrich - Schiller - University, Jena, Germany.
    Merten, D
    Friedrich - Schiller - University, Jena, Germany.
    Basilie, S
    Friedrich - Schiller - University, Jena, Germany.
    Karlsson, Stefan
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Allard, Bert
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Büchel, G
    Friedrich - Schiller - University, Jena, Germany.
    Origin of REE patterns in AMD-impacted areas2013In: Mineralogical magazine, ISSN 0026-461X, E-ISSN 1471-8022, Vol. 77, p. 1210-1210Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 214.
    Greis, Christina
    Örebro University, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Rapid analysis of actinide isotopes using quadrupole ICP-MS for emergency preparedness and environmental monitoring2007Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Transuranium elements in the environment are mainly derived from nuclear weapons testing and the nuclear fuel cycle. Of growing concern are illicit nuclear trafficking and the threat of terror acts. The development of rational methods, for environmental monitoring and for tracing sources of nuclear and radioactive materials in the environment, is constantly required.

    Traditionally, the actinides have been determined by radiometric techniques. These analyses can be time consuming for elements at low concentrations and with long half-lives. This thesis addresses the determination of actinides, especially plutonium, in environmental samples with ICP-QMS (inductively coupled plasma quadrupole mass spectrometry). The ICP-QMS instrument was equipped with an USN (ultrasonic nebuliser), which proved to be a successful combination for the determination of plutonium at low concentrations in acidified solutions after separation with anion exchange. The detection limit for plutonium was in the range 10-30 pg/l with a RSD of 1-10%. The suitability of chemical separation was evaluated for anion exchange, liquid-liquid-extraction and extraction chromatography.

    The outlined procedure, including sample dissolution, chemical separation and analysis, for determination of actinides in environmental matrices proved to be accurate and reliable. Quality assurance of the procedure was performed during an intercomparison exercise and with reference materials. The detection accuracy has also been validated with α-spectrometry and ICP-SFMS. The procedure has been applied to saline sediments and fresh water sediments as well as several fresh water matrices.

    List of papers
    1. Determination of plutonium in environmental samples with quadrupole ICP-MS
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Determination of plutonium in environmental samples with quadrupole ICP-MS
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    2008 (English)In: Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry, ISSN 0236-5731, E-ISSN 1588-2780, Vol. 275, no 1, p. 55-70Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    A method for rapid determination of plutonium isotopes in environmental samples with ultrasonic nebulisation and quadrupole ICP-MS detection was established. Techniques for sample dissolution, pre-concentration and chemical separation were evaluated and the optimal scheme outlined. Comparisons with α-spectrometry and high resolution ICP-MS confirmed the suitability of the method when applied to different environmental matrices within the global fallout concentration range in the northern hemisphere as well as more contaminated sites. Operational detection limits were 0.5–1.5 fg/l for fresh waters and 0.03–0.1 ng/kg for lake sediments and saline marsh sediments.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Berlin: Springer, 2008
    National Category
    Other Basic Medicine Chemical Sciences
    Research subject
    Chemistry
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-3231 (URN)10.1007/s10967-006-7004-z (DOI)000251867200007 ()2-s2.0-37549053953 (Scopus ID)
    Available from: 2007-02-13 Created: 2007-02-13 Last updated: 2018-01-13Bibliographically approved
    2. Rapid method for ICP-MS analysis of plutonium in sediment samples
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Rapid method for ICP-MS analysis of plutonium in sediment samples
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    2004 (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    National Category
    Chemical Sciences Environmental Sciences
    Research subject
    Enviromental Science
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-3232 (URN)
    Available from: 2007-02-13 Created: 2007-02-13 Last updated: 2017-10-18Bibliographically approved
    3. Redistribution pf Pu, Am, Cs and Np in salt marsh sediment - Wigtown Merse, Irish Sea
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Redistribution pf Pu, Am, Cs and Np in salt marsh sediment - Wigtown Merse, Irish Sea
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    (English)Manuscript (Other academic)
    National Category
    Chemical Sciences Environmental Sciences
    Research subject
    Enviromental Science
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-3233 (URN)
    Available from: 2007-02-13 Created: 2007-02-13 Last updated: 2017-10-18Bibliographically approved
    4. Plutonium remobilization in a humic-rich lake
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Plutonium remobilization in a humic-rich lake
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    2007 (English)In: Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry, ISSN 0236-5731, E-ISSN 1588-2780, Vol. 277, no 1, p. 265-268Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Fresh water from Lake Svartsjön, Sweden, was collected and four fractions were prepared: (1) adsorption on DEAE, (2) flocculation with Ca2+, (3) co-precipitation with Fe hydrous oxide and (4) co-precipitation with Mn hydrous oxide. The plutonium level in the lake is 65 fg/l (222 μBq/l), measured by ICP-QMS and ICP-SFMS. Pronounced accumulation in fractions (1) (34%) and (2) (66%), combined with observed levels of organic matter indicate that plutonium is predominantly associated with organic matter. Measurements of isotopic ratios indicate that 77% of the plutonium originates from weapons testing and the remaining appears to originate from the Chernobyl accident.

    National Category
    Environmental Sciences Chemical Sciences
    Research subject
    Enviromental Science
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-3234 (URN)10.1007/s10967-008-0741-4 (DOI)000257318800041 ()2-s2.0-46449100013 (Scopus ID)
    Available from: 2007-02-13 Created: 2007-02-13 Last updated: 2017-12-14Bibliographically approved
    5. Failure of 137Cs and 239,240Pu dating of lake sediments: fallout from nuclear weapons testing, the Chernobyl accident and redistribution processes?
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Failure of 137Cs and 239,240Pu dating of lake sediments: fallout from nuclear weapons testing, the Chernobyl accident and redistribution processes?
    Show others...
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    National Category
    Environmental Sciences
    Research subject
    Enviromental Science
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-3235 (URN)
    Available from: 2007-02-13 Created: 2007-02-13 Last updated: 2017-10-18Bibliographically approved
  • 215.
    Greis, Christina
    et al.
    Örebro University, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Duker, Anders
    Man-Technology-Environment Research Centre, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Allard, Bert
    Örebro University, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Roos, Per
    Department of Radiation Physics, Lund University Hospital, Lund, Sweden; Risø National Laboratory, Roskilde, Denmark.
    Holm, Elis
    Department of Radiation Physics, Lund University Hospital, Lund, Sweden; .
    Plutonium remobilization in a humic-rich lake2007In: Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry, ISSN 0236-5731, E-ISSN 1588-2780, Vol. 277, no 1, p. 265-268Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Fresh water from Lake Svartsjön, Sweden, was collected and four fractions were prepared: (1) adsorption on DEAE, (2) flocculation with Ca2+, (3) co-precipitation with Fe hydrous oxide and (4) co-precipitation with Mn hydrous oxide. The plutonium level in the lake is 65 fg/l (222 μBq/l), measured by ICP-QMS and ICP-SFMS. Pronounced accumulation in fractions (1) (34%) and (2) (66%), combined with observed levels of organic matter indicate that plutonium is predominantly associated with organic matter. Measurements of isotopic ratios indicate that 77% of the plutonium originates from weapons testing and the remaining appears to originate from the Chernobyl accident.

  • 216.
    Greis, Christina
    et al.
    Örebro University, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Düker, Anders
    Pettersson, Håkan
    Karlsson, Stefan
    Allard, Bert
    Rapid method for ICP-MS analysis of plutonium in sediment samples2004Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 217. Grennfelt, Peringe
    et al.
    Lidskog, Rolf
    Örebro University, Department of Social and Political Sciences.
    Lindau, Lars
    Maas, Rob
    Raes, Frank
    Sundqvist, Göran
    Arnell, Jenny
    Towards robust European air pollution policies: constrains and prospects for a wider dialogue between scientists, experts, decision-makers and citizens : a workshop report2006Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The international regulation of transboundary air pollution in Europe is often considered a success story. The success is usually explained by a close relationship between scientists and policy makers. When looking into other international environmental areas (e.g. climate change, marine pollution), there have generally been larger obstacles in the science-policy relationships. Social scientists have for many years studied the international policy development processes for air pollution and pointed to certain factors of importance in for its success. There have however seldom been opportunities for social scientists, policy makers and scientists to discuss together the interrelations between science and policy in the area.

    In order to further evaluate the science policy interactions and discuss possibilities for social scientists to play a role in the further development of air pollution strategies a workshop was organised in Gothenburg, Sweden 5-7 October 2005. The workshop was organised by the Swedish ASTA programme and the EU Network of Excellence ACCENT in collaboration with the Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution and the EU CAFE initiative. Approximately 35 participants from 12 countries representing Europe, North America and Japan attended at the workshop. This report compiles the outcome of the workshop. The report is also available at http://asta.ivl.se/

  • 218.
    Grund, Stefanie
    et al.
    Aquatic Ecology and Toxicology Section, Department of Zoology, University of Heidelberg Im Neuenheimer Feld, Heidelberg, Germany.
    Keiter, Steffen
    Aquatic Ecology and Toxicology Section, Department of Zoology, University of Heidelberg Im Neuenheimer Feld, Heidelberg, Germany.
    Böttcher, Melanie
    Aquatic Ecology and Toxicology Section, Department of Zoology, University of Heidelberg Im Neuenheimer Feld, Heidelberg, Germany.
    Seitz, Nadja
    Aquatic Ecology and Toxicology Section, Department of Zoology, University of Heidelberg Im Neuenheimer Feld, Heidelberg, Germany.
    Wurm, Karl
    Gewässerökologisches Labor, Starzach, Germany.
    Manz, Werner
    Biochemistry/Ecotoxicology, German Federal Institute of Hydrology, Koblenz, Germany.
    Hollert, Henner
    Aquatic Ecology and Toxicology Section, Department of Zoology, University of Heidelberg Im Neuenheimer Feld, Heidelberg, Germany; Department of Ecosystem Analysis, Institute for Environmental Research, RWTH Aachen University, Aachen, Germany.
    Braunbeck, Thomas
    Aquatic Ecology and Toxicology Section, Department of Zoology, University of Heidelberg Im Neuenheimer Feld, Heidelberg, Germany.
    Assessment of fish health status in the Upper Danube River by investigation of ultrastructural alterations in the liver of barbel Barbus barbus2010In: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms, ISSN 0177-5103, E-ISSN 1616-1580, Vol. 23, p. 235-248Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite intensive efforts and tightened guidelines for improvement of water quality over the last 2 decades, declines of fish populations have been reported for several rivers around the world. The present study forms part of a comprehensive weight-of-evidence approach, which aims to identify potential causes for the decline in fish catches observed in the Upper Danube River. The major focus of the present study is the investigation of the health status of wild barbel Barbus barbus L. collected from 3 locations along the Danube River, which experienced different levels of contamination. Whereas the comparison of the condition factor (CF) of field fish with that of control fish revealed no differences, ultrastructural investigations indicated severe disturbance of hepatic cell metabolism in field fish from the more contaminated sites Rottenacker and Ehingen, compared to both control fish and field fish from the less contaminated site Riedlingen. The ultrastructural analysis provided information about reactions of e.g. the rough endoplasmic reticulum, peroxisomes, andmitochondria, indicating an impaired health status of barbel at the sampling sites Rottenacker and Ehingen. Even though a straightforward cause-effect relationship between sediment contamination and ultrastructural alterations could not be established, based on a meta-analysis and toxicity assays it may be suggested that sediment-bound xenobiotics at least partly account for the hepatocellular changes. A relationship between impaired fish health status and the decline of fish catches along the Upper Danube River cannot be excluded.

  • 219.
    Guan, Qingxia
    et al.
    School of Environment, Guangdong Key Laboratory of Environmental Pollution and Health, Jinan University, Guangzhou, China.
    Tan, Hongli
    School of Environment, Guangdong Key Laboratory of Environmental Pollution and Health, Jinan University, Guangzhou, China.
    Yang, Liu
    School of Environment, Guangdong Key Laboratory of Environmental Pollution and Health, Jinan University, Guangzhou, China.
    Liu, Xiaotu
    School of Environment, Guangdong Key Laboratory of Environmental Pollution and Health, Jinan University, Guangzhou, China.
    Fiedler, Heidelore
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Li, Xue
    Institute of Mass Spectrometer and Atmospheric Environment, Jinan University, Guangzhou, China.
    Chen, Da
    School of Environment, Guangdong Key Laboratory of Environmental Pollution and Health, Jinan University, Guangzhou, China.
    Isopropylated and tert-butylated triarylphosphate isomers in house dust from South China and Midwestern United States2019In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 686, p. 1113-1119Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the present study we determined the concentrations and compositions of a suite of isopropylated and tert-butylated triarylphosphate ester (ITP and TBPP) isomers in house dust from the city of Guangzhou located in South China and the city of Carbondale in Midwestern United States. These two groups of organophosphate esters (OPE) are structurally analogous to triphenyl phosphate (TPHP), but have rarely been investigated for environmental occurrences and human exposure risks. The majority of target ITP and TBPP isomers were 100% detected in house dust from the two locations. Median concentrations of Sigma ITPs (including all ITP isomers) and Sigma TBPPs (including all TBPP isomers) were 63.4 ng/g (range: 16.0-500 ng/g) and 35.4 ng/g (8.1-198 ng/g) in South China house dust, respectively, compared with 476 ng/g (140-1610 ng/g) for Sigma ITPs and 81.3 ng/g (352-800 ng/g) for Sigma TBPPs in Midwestern US. dust. The profiles of ITP or TBPP isomers were similar between the two locations and were dominated by 2-isopropylphenyl diphenyl phosphate (2IPPDPP) and 4-tertbutylphenyl diphenyl phosphate (4tBPDPP), respectively. Although the levels of Sigma ITPs and Sigma TBPPs were generally one order of magnitude lower than those of TPHP in the same dust samples, the broad occurrences of most of these isomers in house dust from the two locations likely suggest their wide applications in household consumer products. Estimated intakes of Sigma ITPs and Sigma ITBPPs via dust ingestion were generally three orders of magnitude lower than the reference dose proposed for TPHP. However, these emerging OPE chemicals merit continuous environmental surveillance, given their possible applications as specific commercial mixtures or as components/impurities in other flame retardant/plasticizer mixtures. (C) 2019 Published by Elsevier B.V.

  • 220.
    GuangBo, Qu
    et al.
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology; Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China .
    JianBo, Shi
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology; Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China .
    ZhuoNa, Li
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology; Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China .
    Ting, Ruan
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology; Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China .
    JianJie, Fu
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology; Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China .
    Pu, Wang
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology; Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China .
    Wang, Thanh
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology; Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China .
    GuiBin, Jiang
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology; Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China .
    Detection of tris-(2,3-dibromopropyl) isocyanurate as a neuronal toxicant in environmental samples using neuronal toxicity-directed analysis2011In: Science in China Series B: Chemistry, ISSN 1674-7291, E-ISSN 1869-1870, Vol. 54, no 10, p. 1651-1658Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Neuronal toxic pollutants in environment possess hazards to human health. It is essential to determine the causative neuronal toxicants in environmental samples. In the present study, viability of primary cultured cerebellar granule neurons (CGNs), combined with sample extraction, chemical fractionation and identification, was applied for screening acid-resistant neuronal toxic substances in environmental samples. River sediments and agricultural soils along the river near a brominated flame retardant (BFR) manufacturing plant in South China were collected to screen the key neuronal toxicants. The results indicated that the manufacturing plant was a source of neuronal toxicity risks. In the sediment and soil near the plant, one of the causative toxicants was identified as tris-(2,3-dibromopropyl) isocyanurate (TBC) using HPLC-MS/MS. In addition, an unknown chemical possibly causing significant neuronal toxicity was isolated from all the soil samples in the region.

  • 221.
    Gulkowska, A.
    et al.
    Centre for Coastal Pollution and Conservation, Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, 83 Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong SAR, Hong Kong.
    He, Yuhe
    Centre for Coastal Pollution and Conservation, Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, 83 Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong SAR, Hong Kong.
    So, M. K.
    Centre for Coastal Pollution and Conservation, Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, 83 Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong SAR, Hong Kong.
    Yeung, Leo W. Y.
    Centre for Coastal Pollution and Conservation, Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, 83 Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong SAR, Hong Kong.
    Leung, H. W.
    Centre for Coastal Pollution and Conservation, Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, 83 Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong SAR, Hong Kong.
    Giesy, J. P.
    Centre for Coastal Pollution and Conservation, Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, 83 Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong SAR, Hong Kong; Department of Veterinary Biomedical Sciences, Toxicology Centre, University of Saskatchewan, Canada.
    Lam, Paul K. S.
    Centre for Coastal Pollution and Conservation, Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, 83 Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong SAR, Hong Kong.
    Martin, Michael
    Centre for Coastal Pollution and Conservation, Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, 83 Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong SAR, Hong Kong.
    Richardson, Bruce J.
    Centre for Coastal Pollution and Conservation, Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, 83 Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong SAR, Hong Kong.
    The occurrence of selected antibiotics in Hong Kong coastal waters2007In: Marine Pollution Bulletin, ISSN 0025-326X, E-ISSN 1879-3363, Vol. 54, no 8, p. 1287-1293Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 222.
    Gulkowska, A.
    et al.
    Centre for Coastal Pollution and Conservation, Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong SAR, Hong Kong.
    Leung, H. W.
    Centre for Coastal Pollution and Conservation, Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong SAR, Hong Kong.
    So, M. K.
    Centre for Coastal Pollution and Conservation, Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong SAR, Hong Kong.
    Taniyasu, S.
    National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 16-1 Onogawa, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan.
    Yamashita, N.
    National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 16-1 Onogawa, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan.
    Yeung, Leo W. Y.
    Centre for Coastal Pollution and Conservation, Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong SAR, Hong Kong.
    Richardson, Bruce J.
    Centre for Coastal Pollution and Conservation, Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong SAR, Hong Kong.
    Lei, A. P.
    College of Life Sciences, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen, China.
    Giesy, J. P.
    Centre for Coastal Pollution and Conservation, Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong SAR, Hong Kong; Department of Veterinary Biomedical Sciences, Toxicology Centre, University of Saskatchewan, Canada; National Food Safety and Toxicology Center, Zoology Department, Center for Integrative Toxicology, East Lansing, MI, United States.
    Lam, Paul K. S.
    Centre for Coastal Pollution and Conservation, Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong SAR, Hong Kong.
    Removal of antibiotics from wastewater by sewage treatment facilities in Hong Kong and Shenzhen, China2008In: Water Research, ISSN 0043-1354, E-ISSN 1879-2448, Vol. 42, no 1-2, p. 395-403Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Concentrations of nine antibiotics [erythromycin-H2O (ERY-H2O); trimethoprim (TMP); tetracycline (TET); norfloxacin (NOR); penicillin G (PEN G); penicillin V (PEN V); cefalexin (CLX); cefotaxim (CTX); and cefazolin (CFZ)] were measured in influent and effluent samples from four sewage treatment plants (STPs) in Hong Kong as well as in influent samples from one STP in Shenzhen. Levels of PEN V and CFZ were below method detection limits in all of the samples analyzed. CLX concentrations were the highest in most of the Hong Kong samples, ranging from 670 to 2900 ng/L and 240 to 1800 ng/L in influent and effluent samples, respectively, but CLX was not detected in the samples from Shenzhen. Comparatively lower concentrations were observed for ERY-H2O (470-810 ng/L) and TET (96-1300 ng/L) in the influent samples from all STPs in Hong Kong. CTX was found to be the dominant antibiotic in the Shenzhen STP influents with a mean concentration of 1100 ng/L, but occurred at lower concentrations in Hong Kong sewage. These results likely reflect regional variations in the prescription and use patterns of antibiotics between Hong Kong and Shenzhen. Antibiotic removal efficiencies depended on their chemical properties and the wastewater treatment processes used. In general, relatively higher removal efficiencies were observed for NOR (5-78%) and TET (7-73%), which are readily adsorbed to particulate matter, while lower removal efficiencies were observed for ERY-H2O (9-19%), which is relatively persistent in the environment. Antibiotics were removed more efficiently at Hong Kong STPs employing secondary treatment processes compared with those using primary treatment only. Concentrations of NOR measured in effluents from STPs in Hong Kong were lower than the predicted no-effect concentration of 8000 ng/L determined in a previous study. Therefore, concentrations of antibiotics measured in this preliminary study would be unlikely to cause adverse effects on microorganisms used in wastewater treatment processes at the sampled STPs.

  • 223.
    Gunnarsson, Lars-Gunnar
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences. Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Bodin, Lennart
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business. Department of Statistics, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden; Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Occupational Exposures and Neurodegenerative Diseases: A Systematic Literature Review and Meta-Analyses2019In: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 16, no 3, article id 337Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: To carry out an integrated and stratified meta-analysis on occupational exposure to electromagnetic fields (EMFs), metals and pesticides and its effects on amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and Parkinson's and Alzheimer's disease, and investigate the possibility of publication bias.

    Methods: In the current study, we updated our recently published meta-analyses on occupational exposures in relation to ALS, Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease. Based on 66 original publications of good scientific epidemiological standard, according to the Meta-analysis of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (MOOSE) and the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluations (GRADE) guidelines, we analysed subgroups by carrying out stratified meta-analyses on publication year, statistical precision of the relative risk (RR) estimates, inspection of the funnel plots and test of bias.

    Results: Based on 19 studies the weighted RR for occupational exposure to EMFs was 1.26 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.07-1.50) for ALS, 1.33 (95% CI 1.07-1.64) for Alzheimer's disease and 1.02 (95% CI 0.83-1.26) for Parkinson's disease. Thirty-one studies concerned occupational exposure to pesticides and the weighted RR was 1.35 (95% CI 1.02-1.79) for ALS, 1.50 (95% CI 0.98-2.29) for Alzheimer's disease and 1.66 (95% CI 1.42-1.94) for Parkinson's disease. Finally, 14 studies concerned occupational exposure to metals and only exposure to lead (five studies) involved an elevated risk for ALS or Parkinson's disease and the weighted RR was 1.57 (95% CI 1.11-2.20). The weighted RR for all the non-lead exposures was 0.97 (95% CI 0.88-1.06).

    Conclusions: Exposure to pesticides increased the risk of getting the mentioned neurodegenerative diseases by at least 50%. Exposure to lead was only studied for ALS and Parkinson's disease and involved 50% increased risk. Occupational exposure to EMFs seemed to involve some 10% increase in risk for ALS and Alzheimer's disease only.

  • 224.
    Guo, J.
    et al.
    School of Public Health/Key Laboratory of Public Health Safety of Ministry of Education/Collaborative Innovation Center of Social Risks Governance in Health, Fudan University, Shanghai, China.
    Wu, C.
    School of Public Health/Key Laboratory of Public Health Safety of Ministry of Education/Collaborative Innovation Center of Social Risks Governance in Health, Fudan University, Shanghai, China.
    Qi, X.
    School of Public Health/Key Laboratory of Public Health Safety of Ministry of Education/Collaborative Innovation Center of Social Risks Governance in Health, Fudan University, Shanghai, China; Zhejiang Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Hangzhou, China.
    Jiang, S.
    School of Public Health/Key Laboratory of Public Health Safety of Ministry of Education/Collaborative Innovation Center of Social Risks Governance in Health, Fudan University, Shanghai, China; Shanghai Municipal Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Shanghai, China.
    Liu, Q.
    School of Public Health/Key Laboratory of Public Health Safety of Ministry of Education/Collaborative Innovation Center of Social Risks Governance in Health, Fudan University, Shanghai, China.
    Zhang, J.
    School of Public Health/Key Laboratory of Public Health Safety of Ministry of Education/Collaborative Innovation Center of Social Risks Governance in Health, Fudan University, Shanghai, China.
    Cao, Yang
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences. Unit of Biostatistics, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Chang, X.
    School of Public Health/Key Laboratory of Public Health Safety of Ministry of Education/Collaborative Innovation Center of Social Risks Governance in Health, Fudan University, Shanghai, China.
    Zhou, Z.
    School of Public Health/Key Laboratory of Public Health Safety of Ministry of Education/Collaborative Innovation Center of Social Risks Governance in Health, Fudan University, Shanghai, China.
    Adverse associations between maternal and neonatal cadmium exposure and birth outcomes2017In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 575, p. 581-587Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Effects of low-level cadmium (Cd) exposure during early life on fetal growth remain unclear. Our aim was to evaluate whether Cd exposure in maternal urine and umbilical cord blood was associated with birth size parameters. A birth cohort study including 1073 mother-newborn pairs was conducted from 2009 to 2010 in an agricultural population in China. Cd concentrations were analyzed in both cord blood and maternal urine. Generalized linear models were performed to determine associations between maternal and neonatal exposure to Cd and birth indicators, including birth weight, length, head circumference and ponderal index. The median (25th to 75th percentile) value of Cd concentration in maternal urine and umbilical cord blood was 0.19 (0.08, 1.00) mug/L and 0.40 (<LOD~0.62) mug/L, respectively. After adjusting for potential confounders, Cd concentration in cord blood was significantly negatively associated with ponderal index at birth [beta=-0.06g/cm3, 95% confidence interval (CI): -0.11, -0.02; p<0.01]. Considering sex difference, significant reduction in ponderal index was only observed in males (beta=-0.06g/cm3, 95%CI: -0.11, -0.02; p<0.01), but not in females (beta=-0.03g/cm3, 95%CI: -0.07, 0.01; p=0.18) (p for interaction term=0.24). Additionally, no significant associations were observed between maternal urinary Cd levels and birth outcomes. Our findings suggest that adverse effects of neonatal exposure to Cd on fetal growth are of considerable public health importance.

  • 225.
    Guo, Jianqiu
    et al.
    School of Public Health/Key Laboratory of Public Health Safety of Ministry of Education/Key Lab of Health Technology Assessment, National Health Commission of the People's Republic of China, Fudan University, Shanghai, China.
    Wu, Chunhua
    School of Public Health/Key Laboratory of Public Health Safety of Ministry of Education/Key Lab of Health Technology Assessment, National Health Commission of the People's Republic of China, Fudan University, Shanghai, China.
    Zhang, Jiming
    School of Public Health/Key Laboratory of Public Health Safety of Ministry of Education/Key Lab of Health Technology Assessment, National Health Commission of the People's Republic of China, Fudan University, Shanghai, China.
    Jiang, Shuai
    School of Public Health/Key Laboratory of Public Health Safety of Ministry of Education/Key Lab of Health Technology Assessment, National Health Commission of the People's Republic of China, Fudan University, Shanghai, China.
    Lv, Shenliang
    School of Public Health/Key Laboratory of Public Health Safety of Ministry of Education/Key Lab of Health Technology Assessment, National Health Commission of the People's Republic of China, Fudan University, Shanghai, China.
    Lu, Dasheng
    Shanghai Municipal Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Shanghai, China.
    Qi, Xiaojuan
    School of Public Health/Key Laboratory of Public Health Safety of Ministry of Education/Key Lab of Health Technology Assessment, National Health Commission of the People's Republic of China, Fudan University, Shanghai, China; Zhejiang Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Hangzhou, China.
    Feng, Chao
    Shanghai Municipal Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Shanghai, China.
    Liang, Weijiu
    Changning District Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Shanghai, China.
    Chang, Xiuli
    School of Public Health/Key Laboratory of Public Health Safety of Ministry of Education/Key Lab of Health Technology Assessment, National Health Commission of the People's Republic of China, Fudan University, Shanghai, China.
    Zhang, Yubin
    School of Public Health/Key Laboratory of Public Health Safety of Ministry of Education/Key Lab of Health Technology Assessment, National Health Commission of the People's Republic of China, Fudan University, Shanghai, China.
    Xu, Hao
    Changning District Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Shanghai, China.
    Cao, Yang
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences. Örebro University Hospital. Unit of Biostatistics, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Wang, Guoquan
    Shanghai Municipal Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Shanghai, China.
    Zhou, Zhijun
    School of Public Health/Key Laboratory of Public Health Safety of Ministry of Education/Key Lab of Health Technology Assessment, National Health Commission of the People's Republic of China, Fudan University, Shanghai, China.
    Anthropometric measures at age 3 years in associations with prenatal and postnatal exposures to chlorophenols2019In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 228, p. 204-211Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Chlorophenols (CPs), suspected as endocrine disrupting chemicals, exposure during early life may contribute to body size. However, limited human data with inconsistent findings have examined the developmental effects of CPs exposure.

    Objective: To explore associations between prenatal and postnatal CPs exposure and anthropometric parameters in children aged 3 years.

    Methods: A subset of 377 mother-child pairs with urinary five CP concentrations were enrolled from a prospective birth cohort. Generalized linear models were conducted to evaluate associations of CPs exposure with children's anthropometric measures.

    Results: Maternal urinary 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (2,4,6-TCP) concentrations were significantly negatively associated with weight z scores [regression coefficient (beta)=-0.51, 95% confidence interval (Cl): -0.96, -0.05; p = 0.01], weight for height z scores (beta = -0.54, 95% Cl:-1.02, -0.06; p= 0.01) and body mass index (BMI) z scores (beta = -0.53, 95% CI;-1.03, 0.03; p = 0.01) of children aged 3 years, after adjustment for potential confounders and postnatal CPs exposure. In the sex-stratified analyses, these inverse associations remained among boys, while in girls, positive associations of prenatal 2,4,6-TCP exposure with weight for height z scores and BMI z scores were observed. Postnatal exposure to 2,5-diclorophenol (2,5-DCP) was positively associated with weight z scores (beta = 0.26, 95% CI: 0.02, 0.50; p = 0.04), after controlling for possible confounders and maternal CPs exposure during pregnancy. Considering potential sex-specific effects, these associations were only observed in girls.

    Conclusions: Our findings indicate that prenatal 2,4,6-TCP exposure and postnatal 2,5-DCP exposure may have adverse and sex-specific effects on children's physical development.

  • 226.
    Guo, Jianqiu
    et al.
    School of Public Health/ Key Laboratory of Public Health Safety of Ministry of Education/ Key Lab of Health Technology Assessment of National Health Commission, Fudan University, Shanghai, China.
    Zhang, Jiming
    School of Public Health/ Key Laboratory of Public Health Safety of Ministry of Education/ Key Lab of Health Technology Assessment of National Health Commission, Fudan University, Shanghai, China.
    Wu, Chunhua
    School of Public Health/ Key Laboratory of Public Health Safety of Ministry of Education/ Key Lab of Health Technology Assessment of National Health Commission, Fudan University, Shanghai, China.
    Lv, Shenliang
    School of Public Health/ Key Laboratory of Public Health Safety of Ministry of Education/ Key Lab of Health Technology Assessment of National Health Commission, Fudan University, Shanghai, China.
    Lu, Dasheng
    Shanghai Municipal Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Shanghai, China.
    Qi, Xiaojuan
    School of Public Health/ Key Laboratory of Public Health Safety of Ministry of Education/ Key Lab of Health Technology Assessment of National Health Commission, Fudan University, Shanghai, China;Zhejiang Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Hangzhou, China.
    Jiang, Shuai
    School of Public Health/ Key Laboratory of Public Health Safety of Ministry of Education/ Key Lab of Health Technology Assessment of National Health Commission, Fudan University, Shanghai, China.
    Feng, Chao
    Shanghai Municipal Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Shanghai, China.
    Yu, Haixing
    School of Public Health/ Key Laboratory of Public Health Safety of Ministry of Education/ Key Lab of Health Technology Assessment of National Health Commission, Fudan University, Shanghai, China.
    Liang, Weijiu
    Changning District Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Shanghai, China.
    Chang, Xiuli
    School of Public Health/ Key Laboratory of Public Health Safety of Ministry of Education/ Key Lab of Health Technology Assessment of National Health Commission, Fudan University, Shanghai, China.
    Zhang, Yubin
    School of Public Health/ Key Laboratory of Public Health Safety of Ministry of Education/ Key Lab of Health Technology Assessment of National Health Commission, Fudan University, Shanghai, China.
    Xu, Hao
    Changning District Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Shanghai, China.
    Cao, Yang
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences. Örebro University Hospital. Unit of Biostatistics, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Wang, Guoquan
    Shanghai Municipal Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Shanghai, China.
    Zhou, Zhijun
    School of Public Health/ Key Laboratory of Public Health Safety of Ministry of Education/ Key Lab of Health Technology Assessment of National Health Commission, Fudan University, Shanghai, China.
    Associations of prenatal and childhood chlorpyrifos exposure with Neurodevelopment of 3-year-old children2019In: Environmental Pollution, ISSN 0269-7491, E-ISSN 1873-6424, Vol. 251, p. 538-546Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Chlorpyrifos (CPF), an organophosphate insecticide, has been linked to adverse neurodevelopmental effects in animal studies. However, little is known about long-term neurotoxicity of early-life CPF exposure in humans. We aimed to evaluate the associations of both prenatal and early childhood CPF exposure with neurodevelopment of children. In this observational study based on Sheyang Mini Birth Cohort, pregnant women were recruited from an agricultural region between June 2009 and January 2010, and their children were followed up from birth to age three. Urinary 3,5,6-Trichloro-2-pyridinol (TCPy), a specific metabolite of CPF, was quantified using large-volume-injection gas chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Developmental quotients (DQs) of children in motor, adaptive, language, and social areas were assessed by trained pediatricians. Data from 377 mother-child pairs were used in the current study. Associations between CPF exposure and neurodevelopmental indicators were estimated using generalized linear models with adjustment for potential confounders. The median concentrations of TCPy in maternal and children's urine were 5.39 mu g/L and 5.34 mu g/L, respectively. No statistically significant association was found between maternal urinary TCPy concentrations and children neurodevelopment. While for postnatal exposure, we found lower motor area DQ score 0.61 [95% confidence interval (CI): -1.13, -0.09; p = 0.02] and social area DQ score 0.55 (95% CI: -1.07, -0.03; p = 0.04) per one-unit increase in the In-transformed childhood urinary TCPy concentrations. Further stratification by sex indicated that the inverse associations were only observed in boys, but not in girls. Our findings suggest that adverse neurodevelopmental effects were associated with early childhood CPF exposure, but not prenatal exposure. Additional longitudinal studies are needed to replicate these results and to further understand the toxicological mechanisms of CPF.

  • 227.
    Guruge, K S
    et al.
    Toxico-Biochemistry Section, National Institute of Animal Health, Kannondai 3-1-5, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan.
    Yeung, L W Y
    Toxico-Biochemistry Section, National Institute of Animal Health, Kannondai 3-1-5, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan;Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong SAR, Hong Kong.
    Yamanaka, N
    Toxico-Biochemistry Section, National Institute of Animal Health, Kannondai 3-1-5, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan.
    Miyazaki, S
    Toxico-Biochemistry Section, National Institute of Animal Health, Kannondai 3-1-5, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan.
    Lam, P K S
    Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong SAR, Hong Kong.
    Giesy, J P
    Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong SAR, Hong Kong;Zoology Dept., National Food Safety and Toxicology Center, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI, United States.
    Jones, P D
    Zoology Dept., National Food Safety and Toxicology Center, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI, United States.
    Yamashita, N
    Environmental Measurement Group, National Institute of Advance Industrial Science and Technology, Onogawa 16-1, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan.
    Gene expression profiles in rat liver treated with perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA)2006In: Toxicological Sciences, ISSN 1096-6080, E-ISSN 1096-0929, Vol. 89, no 1, p. 93-107Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA; Pentadecafluorooctanoic acid) is widely used in various industrial applications. It is persistent in the environment and does not appear to undergo further degradation or transformation. PFOA is found in tissues including blood of wildlife and humans; however, the environmental fate and biological effects of PFOA remain unclear. Microarray techniques of gene expression have become a powerful approach for exploring the biological effects of chemicals. Here, the Affymetrix, Inc. rat genome 230 2.0 GeneChip was used to identify alterations in gene regulation in Sprague-Dawley rats treated with five different concentrations of PFOA. Male rats were exposed by daily gavage to 1, 3, 5, 10, or 15 mg PFOA/kg, body weight (bw)/day for 21 days and at the end of the exposure, liver was isolated and total liver RNA were used for the gene chip analysis. Over 500 genes, whose expression was significantly (p < 0.0025) altered by PFOA at two-fold changes compared to control, were examined. The effects were dose-dependent with exposure to 10 mg PFOA/kg, bw/day, causing alteration in expression of the greatest number of genes (over 800). Approximately 106 genes and 38 genes were consistently up- or down-regulated, respectively, in all treatment groups. The largest categories of induced genes were those involved in transport and metabolism of lipids, particularly fatty acids. Other induced genes were involved in cell communication, adhesion, growth, apoptosis, hormone regulatory pathways, proteolysis and peptidolysis and signal transduction. The genes expression of which was suppressed were related to transport of lipids, inflammation and immunity, and especially cell adhesion. Several other genes involved in apoptosis; regulation of hormones; metabolism; and G-protein coupled receptor protein signaling pathways were significantly suppressed.

  • 228.
    Guruge, Keerthi S.
    et al.
    Safety Research Team, National Institute of Animal Health, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan.
    Hikono, Hirokazu
    Research Team for Advanced Biologicals, National Institute of Animal Health, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan.
    Shimada, Nobuaki
    Safety Research Team, National Institute of Animal Health, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan.
    Murakami, Kenji
    Research Team for Viral Diseases, National Institute of Animal Health, Kannondai 3-1-5, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan.
    Hasegawa, Jun
    Safety Research Team, National Institute of Animal Health, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan.
    Yeung, Leo W. Y.
    National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Onogawa 16-1, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan.
    Yamanaka, Noriko
    Safety Research Team, National Institute of Animal Health, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan.
    Yamashita, Nobuyoshi
    National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Onogawa 16-1, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan.
    Effect of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) on influenza A virus-induced mortality in female B6C3F1 mice2009In: Journal of Toxicological Sciences, ISSN 0388-1350, E-ISSN 1880-3989, Vol. 34, no 6, p. 687-691Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent studies showed that perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) affects the mammalian immune system at levels reportedly found in the general human population. It has been demonstrated that exposure to immunotoxic chemicals may diminish the host resistance of animals to various pathogenic challenges and enhance mortality. Therefore, the current study was carried out to characterize the effect of a 21 day pre-administration of zero, 5, or 25 μg PFOS/kg bw/day in female B6C3F1 mice on host resistance to influenza A virus infection. At the end of PFOS exposure, body/organ weights did not significantly change whereas PFOS distribution in blood plasma, spleen, thymus and lung was dose-dependently increased. PFOS exposure in mice resulted a significant increase in emaciation and mortality in response to influenza A virus. The effective plasma concentrations in female mice were at least several fold lower than reported mean blood PFOS levels from occupationally exposed humans, and fell in the upper range of blood concentrations of PFOS in the normal human population and in a wide range of wild animals. Hence, it should be important to clarify the precise mechanism(s) for excess mortality observed in the high dose group.

  • 229.
    Guruge, Keerthi S.
    et al.
    Safety Research Team, National Institute of Animal Health, National Agriculture and Food Research Organization, Kannondai 3-1-5, Tsukuba, Japan.
    Yeung, Leo W. Y.
    National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Onogawa 16-1, Tsukuba, Japan.
    Li, Peng
    National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Onogawa 16-1, Tsukuba, Japan.
    Taniyasu, Sachi
    National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Onogawa 16-1, Tsukuba, Japan.
    Yamashita, Nobuyoshi
    National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Onogawa 16-1, Tsukuba, Japan.
    Nakamura, Mayumi
    Animal Hygiene Service Center, 6-8 Hiraidekougyoudanchi, Utsunomiya, Tochigi, Japan.
    Fluorinated alkyl compounds including long chain carboxylic acids in wild bird livers from Japan2011In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 83, no 3, p. 379-384Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A wide range of fluorinated alkyl compounds (FACs) has been reported in wildlife in various locations in the world. However, such information regarding Japanese wildlife is rarely found. In the present study, we investigated the occurrence of 21 FACs, including perfluorinated alkyl sulfonates (PFASs), perfluorinated carboxylates (PFCAs), and fluorotelomer acids, in the livers of 10 wild bird species from two regions in northern Japan. To avoid interferences, FACs were quantified by a recently developed method using acetonitrile and solid-phase extraction followed by an ion exchange HPLC column separation. Apart from perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), which was found at the highest levels of all the compounds detected, several long chain perfluorinated carboxylates (PFCAs) from C8 to C16, particularly perfluorotetradecanoic acid (PFTeDA) and perfluorohexadecanoic acid (PFHxDA), were detected for the first time. Additionally, 7:3 FTCA, a fluorotelomer acid, was also detected in most swan livers from Miyagi prefecture and all the birds from Tochigi prefecture. However, none of the sulfonamides and unsaturated telomer acids were detected in any species. Swans seem to be the least exposed wild birds to FACs among the investigated birds, signifying that feeding habits may reflect FAC accumulation in wild birds. The highest total concentration of detected FACs was 405ngg-1wet wt., which was found in a Japanese sparrowhawk, indicating that the top predatory wild birds can accumulate several long chain carboxylic acids. However, the current FAC concentrations found in livers may suggest that these compounds alone would not cause a severe toxic effect in these species.

  • 230.
    Gustafsson, Axel
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Incentives for agroforestry: Shade trees effect on ecological sustainability on soil in cacao farms in Colombia2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this bachelor thesis was to examine what effects agroforestry has on ecological sustainability within cacao cultivations in the department of Huila, Colombia. This thesis consists of data collected from a literature study in combination with laboratory analyses of two different biochemical properties in soil collected from cacao farms and a complementary survey. The results of the study suggests that the use of agroforestry as a growing system in cacao cultivations is ecologically sustainable and does have positive effects on soil fertility. The field study was carried out via field visits to five different cacao farms in order to collect soil samples and gathering information regarding the farms’ cropping systems and approach to the use of shade trees. No general conclusions could be drawn from the laboratory analyses due to a too small sample size, although the analyzed data could be interpreted as an indicator, supporting the findings in the literature study. For similar studies in the future, a more detailed documentation of the specific farms and a bigger sample size for analyzation is recommended.

    More research regarding agroforestry in cacao cultivations and its beneficial ecosystem services is requested. Such research could be used in educating farmers and authorities in order to aspire after a halt in the ongoing trend towards full-sun cacao cultivations, which could further contribute to the anthropogenic climate change.

  • 231. Gustafsson, Jon Petter
    et al.
    Dässman, Ellinor
    Bäckström, Mattias
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Towards a consistent geochemical model for prediction of uranium(VI) removal from groundwater by ferrihydrite2009In: Applied Geochemistry, ISSN 0883-2927, E-ISSN 1872-9134, Vol. 24, no 3, p. 454-462Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Uranium(VI), which is often elevated in granitoidic groundwaters, is known to adsorb strongly to Fe (hydr)oxides under certain conditions. This process can be used in water treatment to remove U(VI). To develop a consistent geochemical model for U(VI) adsorption to ferrihydrite, batch experiments were performed and previous data sets reviewed to optimize a set of surface complexation constants using the 3-plane CD-MUSIC model. To consider the effect of dissolved organic matter (DOM) on U(VI) speciation, new parameters for the Stockholm Humic Model (SHM) were optimized using previously published data. The model, which was constrained from available X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy evidence, fitted the data well when the surface sites were divided into low- and high-affinity binding sites. Application of the model concept to other published data sets revealed differences in the reactivity of different ferrihydrites towards U(VI). Use of the optimized SHM parameters for U(VI)-DOM complexation showed that this process is important for U(VI) speciation at low pH. However in neutral to alkaline waters with substantial carbonate present, Ca–U–CO3 complexes predominate. The calibrated geochemical model was used to simulate U(VI) adsorption to ferrihydrite for a hypothetical groundwater in the presence of several competitive ions. The results showed that U(VI) adsorption was strong between pH 5 and 8. Also near the calcite saturation limit, where U(VI) adsorption was weakest according to the model, the adsorption percentage was predicted to be >80%. Hence U(VI) adsorption to ferrihydrite-containing sorbents may be used as a method to bring down U(VI) concentrations to acceptable levels in groundwater.

  • 232.
    Gustafsson, Karin M
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences. Environmental Sociology Section.
    Producing expertise: the Intergovernmental Science-Policy Platform on Biodiversity & Ecosystem Services’ socialisation of young scholars2018In: Journal of Integrative Environmental Sciences, ISSN 1943-815X, E-ISSN 1943-8168, Vol. 15, no 1, p. 21-39Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Expert organisations, such as the Intergovernmental Science-Policy Platform on Biodiversity & Ecosystem Services (IPBES), have become increasingly important in global, regional, and local efforts to manage current environmental challenges. As producers of environmental knowledge assessments, these expert organisations are epistemic authorities in their field of expertise. To achieve and maintain epistemic authority, expert organisations constantly need to reproduce and develop their expertise. By using the first cohort of IPBES’s fellowship program as a case study, the current paper examines the production of expertise and the socialisation of new experts into expert organisations. The paper also examines the importance of these socialisation processes in the institutionalisation of expert organisations. By analyzing interviews, observations, and documents, the current study explores the expected goals, the performance, and the results of the socialisation. The study shows how the fellows learned and acquired new roles and norms. The study also shows that whoever controls the socialisation process also control the production of expertise and the institutionalisation of the expert organisation.

  • 233.
    Gustavsson, L.
    et al.
    Örebro University, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Engwall, Magnus
    Örebro University, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Genotoxic activity of nitroarene-contaminated industrial sludge following large-scale treatment in aerated and non-aerated sacs2006In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 367, no 2-3, p. 694-703Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An industrial sludge containing a complex mixture of nitroaromatic compounds was treated in industrial large-scale aerobic and anaerobic biodegradation processes, performed in compost sacs. The goal was to study changes in genotoxicity during the two different oxygen regimes using the umuC genotoxicity assay. The composting sac was actively aerated during 3 months and allowed to mature for another 3 months. The anaerobic sac was not aerated for 5 months and aerated during the last month in order to enhance degradation of remaining organic carbon. The sludge was obtained from the wastewater treatment plant at an industrial area in Karlskoga, Sweden. The biodegradation study was performed at a commercial waste treatment plant in Stockholm, according to the company routine procedure when treating household waste in sealed sacs.

    The material from the non-aerated system showed increased genotoxicity in the acetone-soluble fraction after treatment, as did the water-soluble fraction. The subsequent aeration period did not decrease the toxicity below the genotoxicity limit. The increase in the water-soluble genotoxic compounds may pose an environmental problem during secondary storage or use of sludge treated this way, since leakage of water-dissolved genotoxic compounds may occur.

    The composting process also generated genotoxicity, but this was restricted to acetone-soluble compounds, while the water-soluble compounds remained low in genotoxicity. The aerated process therefore seems more favorable in term of risk reduction of this industrial sludge, although it is necessary to optimize the aerated process in order to achieve non-toxic levels of potential genotoxic compounds extractable by organic solvents.

  • 234.
    Gustavsson, L.
    et al.
    Karlskoga Environment and Energy Company, Karlskoga, Sweden.
    Engwall, Magnus
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Treatment of sludge containing nitro-aromatic compounds in reed-bed mesocosms: Water, BOD, carbon and nutrient removal2012In: Waste Management, ISSN 0956-053X, E-ISSN 1879-2456, Vol. 32, no 1, p. 104-109Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Since the mid-1970s, Sweden has been depositing 1 million ton d.w sludge/year, produced at waste water treatment plants. Due to recent legislation this practice is no longer a viable method of waste management. It is necessary to improve existing and develop new sludge management techniques and one promising alternative is the dewatering and treatment of sludge in constructed wetlands. The aim of this study was to follow reduction of organic carbon, BOD and nutrients in an industrial sludge containing nitro-aromatic compounds passing through constructed small-scale wetlands, and to investigate any toxic effect such as growth inhibition of the common reed Phragmites australis. The result showed high reduction of all tested parameters in all the outgoing water samples, which shows that constructed wetlands are suitable for carbon and nutrient removal. The results also showed that P. australis is tolerant to xenobiotics and did not appear to be affected by the toxic compounds in the sludge. The sludge residual on the top of the beds contained low levels of organic carbon and is considered non-organic and could therefore be landfilled. Using this type of secondary treatment method, the amount of sludge could be reduced by 50-70%, mainly by dewatering and biodegradation of organic compounds.

  • 235.
    Gustavsson, Lillemor
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology. Karlskoga Environment and Energy Company, Karlskoga, Sweden.
    Heger, Sebastian
    Department of Ecosystem Analysis, Institute for Environmental, Research, RWTH Aachen University, Aachen, Germany.
    Ejlertsson, Jörgen
    Scandinavian Biogas Fuels AB, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ribé, Veronica
    School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology, Mälardalen University, Västerås, Sweden.
    Hollert, Henner
    Department of Ecosystem Analysis, Institute for Environmental, Research, RWTH Aachen University, Aachen, Germany.
    Keiter, Steffen
    Department of Ecosystem Analysis, Institute for Environmental, Research, RWTH Aachen University, Aachen, Germany.
    Industrial sludge containing pharmaceutical residues and explosives alters inherent toxic properties when co-digested with oat and post-treated in reed beds2014In: Environmental Sciences Europe, ISSN 2190-4707, E-ISSN 2190-4715, Vol. 26, no 8, p. 1-11Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Methane production as biofuels is a fast and strong growing technique for renewable energy. Substrateslike waste (e.g. food, sludge from waste water treatment plants (WWTP), industrial wastes) can be used as a suitable resource for methane gas production, but in some cases, with elevated toxicity in the digestion residue. Former investigations have shown that co-digesting of contaminated waste such as sludge together with other substrates canproduce a less toxic residue. In addition, wetlands and reed beds demonstrated good results in dewatering and detoxifying of sludge. The aim of the present study was to investigate if the toxicity may alter in industrial sludgeco-digested with oat and post-treatment in reed beds. In this study, digestion of sludge from Bjorkborn industrial area in Karlskoga (reactor D6) and co-digestion of the same sludge mixed with oat (reactor D5) and post-treatment in reed beds were investigated in parallel. Methane production as well as changes in cytotoxicity (Microtox(R); ISO 11348–3), genotoxicity (Umu-C assay; ISO/13829) and AhR-mediated toxicity (7-ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) assay using RTW cells) were measured.

    Results: The result showed good methane production of industrial sludge (D6) although the digested residue was more toxic than the ingoing material measured using microtox30min and Umu-C. Co-digestion of toxic industrial sludge and oat(D5) showed higher methane production and significantly less toxic sludge residue than reactor D6. Furthermore, dewatering and treatment in reed beds showed low and non-detectable toxicity in reed bed material and outgoingwater as well as reduced nutrients.

    Conclusions: Co-digestion of sludge and oat followed by dewatering and treatment of sludge residue in reed beds canbe a sustainable waste management and energy production. We recommend that future studies should involve co-digestion of decontaminated waste mixed with different non-toxic material to find a substrate mixture that producethe highest biogas yield and lowest toxicity within the sludge residue.

  • 236.
    Gustavsson, Lillemor
    et al.
    Örebro University, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Hollert, Henner
    Jönsson, Sofie
    Örebro University, Department of Natural Sciences.
    van Bavel, Bert
    Örebro University, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Engwall, Magnus
    Örebro University, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Reed beds receiving industrial sludge containing nitroaromatic compounds: Effects of outgoing water and bed material extracts in the umu-c genotoxicity assay, DR-CALUX assay and on early life stage development in Zebrafish (Danio rerio)2007In: Environmental science and pollution research international, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 14, no 3, p. 202-211Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Goal, Scope and Background:  Sweden has prohibited the deposition of organic waste since January, 2005. Since 1 million tons of sludge is produced every year in Sweden and the capacity for incineration does not fill the demands, other methods of sludge management have to be introduced to a larger degree. One common method in the USA and parts of Europe is the use of wetlands to treat wastewater and sewage sludge. The capacity of reed beds to affect the toxicity of a complex mixture of nitroaromatics in sludge, however, is not fully elucidated. In this study, an industrial sludge containing explosives and pharmaceutical residues was therefore treated in artificial reed beds and the change in toxicity was studied. Nitroaromatic compounds, which are the main ingredients of many pharmaceuticals and explosives, are well known to cause cytotoxicity and genotoxicity. Recently performed studies have also showed that embryos of zebrafish (Danio rerio) are sensitive to nitroaromatic compounds. Therefore, we tested the sludge passing through constructed wetlands in order to detect any changes in levels of embryotoxicity, genotoxicity and dioxin-like activity (AhR-agonists). We also compared unplanted and planted systems in order to examine the impact of the root system on the fate of the toxicants. Methods:  An industrial sludge containing a complex mixture of nitroaromatics was added daily to small-scale constructed wetlands (vertical flow), both unplanted and planted with Phragmites australis. Sludge with an average dry weight of 1.25%, was added with an average hydraulic loading rate of 1.2 L/day. Outgoing water was collected daily and stored at −20°C. The artificial wetland sediment was Soxhlet extracted, followed by clean-up with multi-layer silica, or extracted by ultrasonic treatment, yielding one organic extract and one water extract of the same sample. Genotoxicity of the extracts was measured according to the ISO protocol for the umu-C genotoxicity assay (ISO/TC 147/SC 5/WG9 N8), using Salmonella typhimurium TA1535/pSK1002 as test organism. Embryotoxicity and teratogenicity were studied using the fish egg assay with zebrafish (Danio rerio) and the dioxin-like activity was measured using the DR-CALUX assay. Chemical analyses of nitroaromatic compounds were performed using Solid Phase Micro Extraction (SPME) and GC-MS. Results:  Organic extracts of the bed material showed toxic potential in all three toxicity tests after two years of sludge loading. There was a difference between the planted and the unplanted beds, where the toxicity of organic extracts overall was higher in the bed material from the planted beds. The higher toxicity of the planted beds could have been caused by the higher levels of total carbon in the planted beds, which binds organic toxicants, and by enrichment caused by lower volumes of outgoing water from the planted beds. Discussion:  Developmental disorders were observed in zebrafish exposed directly in contact to bed material from unplanted beds, but not in fish exposed to bed material from planted beds. Hatching rates were slightly lower in zebrafish exposed to outgoing water from unplanted beds than in embryos exposed to outgoing water from planted beds. Genotoxicity in the outgoing water was below detection limit for both planted and unplanted beds. Most of the added toxicants via the sludge were unaccounted for in the outgoing water, suggesting that the beds had toxicant removal potential, although the mechanisms behind this remain unknown. Conclusions:  During the experimental period, the beds received a sludge volume (dry weight) of around three times their own volume. In spite of this, the toxicity in the bed material was lower than in the sludge. Thus, the beds were probably able to actually decrease the toxicity of the added, sludge-associated toxicants. When testing the acetone extracts of the bed material, the planted bed showed a higher toxicity than the unplanted beds in all three toxicity tests. The toxicity of water extracts from the unplanted beds, detected by the fish egg assay, were higher than the water extracts from the planted beds. No genotoxicity was detected in outgoing water from either planted or unplanted beds. All this together indicates that the planted reed beds retained semi-lipophilic acetone-soluble toxic compounds from the sludge better than the unplanted beds, which tended to leak out more of the water soluble toxic compounds in the outgoing water. The compounds identified by SPME/GC in the outgoing water were not in sufficient concentrations to have caused induction in the genotoxicity test. Recommendations and Perspectives:  This study has pointed out the benefits of using constructed wetlands receiving an industrial sludge containing a complex mixture of nitroaromatics to reduce toxicity in the outgoing water. The water from planted, constructed wetlands could therefore be directed to a recipient without further cleaning. The bed material should be investigated over a longer period of time in order to evaluate potential accumulation and leakage prior to proper usage or storage. The plants should be investigated in order to examine uptake and possible release when the plant biomass is degraded.

  • 237. Gärdek, Oskar
    et al.
    Sjöberg, Viktor
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Retention of metals by optimized steel slag2017In: Bio-geo interactions: basic knowledge to application: 16th Symposium on remediation in Jena “Jenaer Sanierungskolloquium”. Conference proceedings, 2017, p. 24-24Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Silicon reduced Argon Oxygen Decarburization slag (Si-AOD) is a common by-product from manufacturing of stainless steel. In this work the possibility to use the slag as adsorbent for some selected metals (Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn and Pb) is tested. The slag was obtained from Outokumpu, Avesta, Sweden as one black, powder like, and one greenish, pumice-stone like. Due to its small grain size the black Si-AOD was not suitable as a filter material since it quickly clogged and formed almost impermeable layers. However, the greenish Si-AOD with its porous structure showed good permeability and seems to be good as a filter material. Its ability to remove the selected elements from an aqueous solution was tested at different metal concentrations, ionic strengths and pH. The absorption capacity was tested in columns each holding 30 gram of the greenish Si-AOD and 300 mL of the aqueous phase was passed through the material. Six fractions of 50 mL each were collected and analyzed with respect to pH and metal content to estimate the retention capacity. With an initial concentration of 10 mg/L (Ni, Cu and Zn) and 1 mg/L (Cr and Pb) an almost 100% adsorption was obtained. The adsorption seemed to follow the Freundlich adsorption isotherm and with a 1/n-value of 0.13 the adsorption process is probably chemical. The adsorption capacity of the surface was estimated to be at least 80 μeqv/g. Hence a liquid to solid ratio of up to 100 can be reached with the used metal solution before the retention capacity of the slag is depleted

  • 238.
    Hafner, Christoph
    et al.
    Hydrotox GmbH, Freiburg, Germany.
    Gartiser, Stefan
    Hydrotox GmbH, Freiburg, Germany.
    Garcia-Kaeufer, Manuel
    Hydrotox GmbH, Freiburg, Germany; Department of Ecosystem Analysis, Institute for Environmental Research, ABBt – Aachen Biology and Biotechnology, RWTH Aachen University, Aachen, Germany.
    Schiwy, Sabrina
    Department of Ecosystem Analysis, Institute for Environmental Research, ABBt – Aachen Biology and Biotechnology, RWTH Aachen University, Aachen, Germany.
    Hercher, Christoph
    Hydrotox GmbH, Freiburg, Germany.
    Meyer, Wiebke
    Institute of Geology and Palaeontology – Applied Geology, University of Münster, Münster, Germany.
    Achten, Christine
    Institute of Geology and Palaeontology – Applied Geology, University of Münster, Münster, Germany.
    Larsson, Maria
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Engwall, Magnus
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Keiter, Steffen
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology. Department of Ecosystem Analysis, Institute for Environmental Research, ABBt – Aachen Biology and Biotechnology, RWTH Aachen University, Aachen, Germany.
    Hollert, Henner
    Department of Ecosystem Analysis, Institute for Environmental Research, ABBt – Aachen Biology and Biotechnology, RWTH Aachen University, Aachen, Germany.
    Investigations on sediment toxicity of German rivers applying a standardized bioassay battery2015In: Environmental science and pollution research international, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 22, no 21, p. 16358-16370Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    River sediments may contain a huge variety of environmental contaminants and play a key role in the ecological status of aquatic ecosystems. Contaminants adsorbed to sediments and suspended solids may contribute directly or after remobilization to an adverse ecological and chemical status of surface water. In this subproject of the joint research project DanTox, acetonic Soxhlet extracts from three German river sediments from the River Rhine (Altrip and Ehrenbreitstein with moderate contamination) and River Elbe (Veringkanal Hamburg heavily contaminated) were prepared and redissolved in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). These extracts were analyzed with a standard bioassay battery with organisms from different trophic levels (bacteria, algae, Daphnia, fish) as well as in the Ames test and the umuC test for bacterial mutagenicity and genotoxicity according to the respective OECD and ISO guidelines. In total, 0.01 % (standard) up to 0.25 % (only fish embryo test) of the DMSO sediment extract was dosed to the test systems resulting in maximum sediment equivalent concentrations (SEQ) of 2 up to 50 g l(-1). The sediment of Veringkanal near Hamburg harbor was significantly more toxic in most tests compared to the sediment extracts from Altrip and Ehrenbreitstein from the River Rhine. The most toxic effect found for Veringkanal was in the algae test with an ErC50 (72 h) of 0.00226 g l(-1) SEQ. Ehrenbreitstein and Altrip samples were about factor 1,000 less toxic. In the Daphnia, Lemna, and acute fish toxicity tests, no toxicity at all was found at 2 g l(-1) SEQ. corresponding to 0.01 % DMSO. Only when increasing the DMSO concentration the fish embryo test showed a 22-fold higher toxicity for Veringkanal than for Ehrenbreitstein and Altrip samples, while the toxicity difference was less evident for the Daphnia test due to the overlaying solvent toxicity above 0.05 % dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). The higher toxicities observed with the Veringkanal sample are supported by the PAH and PCB concentrations analyzed in the sediments. The sediment extracts of Altrip andVeringkanal were mutagenic in the Ames tester strain TA98 with metabolic activation (S9mix). The findings allow a better ecotoxicological characterization of the sediments extensively analyzed in all subprojects of the DanTox project (e. g., Garcia-Kaeufer et al. Environ Sci Pollut Res. doi: 10.1007/s11356-014-3894-4, 2014; Schiwy et al. Environ Sci Pollut Res. doi: 10.1007/s11356-014-31850, 2014; Hollert and Keiter 2015). In the absence of agreed limit values for sediment extracts in standard tests, further data with unpolluted reference sediments are required for a quantitative risk assessment of the investigated polluted sediments.

  • 239.
    Hagberg, Jessika
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Li, Y. M.
    Leslie, Heather
    Fiedler, Heidelore
    UNEP Chemicals Branch, Châtelaine GE, Switzerland.
    van Bavel, Bert
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs in samples from African countries participating in the United Nations Environment Programme2011In: Organohalogen Compounds, ISSN 1026-4892, Vol. 73, p. 795-798Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 240. Hagedorn, Frank
    et al.
    van Hees, Patrick A. W.
    Örebro University, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Handa, I. Tanya
    Haettenschwiler, Stephan
    Elevated atmospheric CO(2) fuels leaching of old dissolved organic matter at the alpine treeline2008In: Global Biogeochemical Cycles, ISSN 0886-6236, E-ISSN 1944-9224, Vol. 22, no 2, p. GB2004-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Dissolved organic matter (DOM), the mobile form of soil organic matter (SOM), plays an important role in soil C cycling and in nutrient transport. We investigated the effects of 5 years of CO(2) enrichment (370 versus 570 mu mol CO(2) mol(-1)) on DOM dynamics at the alpine treeline, including the analysis of fast-cycling components such as low molecular weight organic acids (LMWOAs), dissolved organic carbon (DOC) biodegradability, and the decomposition of (14)C-labeled oxalate. Concentrations of DOC in canopy throughfall were 20% higher at elevated CO(2), probably driven by higher carbohydrate concentrations in leaves. In the organic soil layer, 5 years of CO(2) enrichment increased water-extractable organic C by 17% and soil solution DOC at 5 cm depth by 20%. The (13)C tracing of recently assimilated CO(2) revealed that the input of recent plant-derived C (< 15% of total DOC) was smaller than the CO(2)-induced increase in DOC. This strongly suggests that CO(2) enrichment enhanced the mobilization of native DOC, which is supported by significant increases in dissolved organic nitrogen (DON). We mainly attribute these increases to a stimulated microbial activity as indicated by higher basal and soil respiration rates (+27%). The (14)C-labeled oxalate was more rapidly mineralized from high CO(2) soils. The concentrations of LMWOAs, but also those of "hydrophilic'' DOC and biodegradable DOC (6% of total DOC), were, however, not affected by elevated CO(2), suggesting that production and consumption of "labile'' DOC were in balance. In summary, our data suggest that 5 years of CO(2) enrichment speeded up the cycling of "labile'' DOM and SOM in a late successional treeline ecosystem and increased the mobilization of older DOM through a stimulated microbial activity. Such a "priming effect'' implies that elevated CO(2) can accelerate the turnover of native SOM, and thus, it may induce increasing losses of old C from thick organic layers.

  • 241.
    Hagenbjörk-Gustafsson, Annika
    et al.
    Umeå Univ, Umeå, Sweden.
    Tornevi, Andreas
    Umeå Univ, Umeå, Sweden.
    Andersson, Eva M.
    Dept Occupat & Environm Med, Sahlgrenska Univ Hosp & Acad, Univ Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Johannesson, Sandra
    Dept Occupat & Environm Med, Sahlgrenska Univ Hosp & Acad, Univ Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Bellander, Tom
    Inst Environm Med, Karolinska Inst, Stockholm, Sweden; Ctr Occupat & Environm Med, Karolinska Inst, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Merritt, Anne-Sophie
    Inst Environm Med, Karolinska Inst, Stockholm, Sweden; Ctr Occupat & Environm Med, Karolinska Inst, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Tinnerberg, Håkan
    Dept Occupat & Environm Med, Lund Univ, Lund, Sweden.
    Westberg, Håkan
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology. Dept Occupat & Environm Med, Örebro Univ Hosp, Örebro, Sweden.
    Forsberg, Bertil
    Man Technol Environm MTM Res Ctr, Univ Örebro, Örebro, Sweden.
    Sallsten, Gerd
    Dept Occupat & Environm Med, Sahlgrenska Univ Hosp & Acad, Univ Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Determinants of personal exposure to some carcinogenic substances and nitrogen dioxide among the general population in five Swedish cities2014In: Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology, ISSN 1559-0631, E-ISSN 1559-064X, Vol. 24, no 4, p. 437-443Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Environmental levels of airborne carcinogenic and related substances are comparatively better known than individual exposure and its determinants. We report on a personal monitoring program involving five Swedish urban populations. The aim of the program was to investigate personal exposure to benzene, 1,3-butadiene, formaldehyde, and nitrogen dioxide (NO2). The measurements were performed among 40 inhabitants during seven consecutive days, in one urban area each year, during 2000-2008. The estimated population exposure levels were 1.95 mu g/m(3) for benzene, 0.56 mu g/m(3) for 1,3-butadiene, 19.4 mu g/m(3) for formaldehyde, and 14.1,mu g/m(3) for NO2. Statistical analysis using a mixed-effects model revealed that time spent in traffic and time outdoors contributed to benzene and 1,3- butadiene exposure. For benzene, refueling a car was an additional determinant influencing the exposure level. Smoking or environmental tobacco smoke were significant determinants of exposure to NO2, benzene, and 1, 3-butadiene. Those with a gas stove had higher NO2 exposure. Living in a single-family house increased the exposure to formaldehyde significantly. In a variance component model, the between-subject variance dominated for 1,3-butadiene and formaldehyde, whereas the between-city variance dominated for NO2. For benzene, the between-subject and between-cities variances were similar.

  • 242.
    Hagenbo, Andreas
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology. Department of Forest Mycology and Plant Pathology, Uppsala BioCenter, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Hadden, David
    Department of Ecology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Clemmensen, Karina E.
    Department of Forest Mycology and Plant Pathology, Uppsala BioCenter, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Grelle, Achim
    Department of Ecology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Manzoni, Stefano
    Department of Physical Geography, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden; Bolin Centre for Climate Research, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Mölder, Meelis
    Department of Physical Geography and Ecosystem Science, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Ekblad, Alf
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Fransson, Petra
    Department of Forest Mycology and Plant Pathology, Uppsala BioCenter, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Carbon use efficiency of mycorrhizal fungal mycelium increases during the growing season but decreases with forest age across a Pinus sylvestris chronosequence2019In: Journal of Ecology, ISSN 0022-0477, E-ISSN 1365-2745, Vol. 107, no 6, p. 2808-2822Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In boreal forest soils, mycelium of mycorrhizal fungi is pivotal for regulating soil carbon (C) cycling and storage. The carbon use efficiency (CUE), a key parameter in C cycling models, can inform on the partitioning of C between microbial biomass, and potential soil storage, and respiration. Here, we test the dependency of mycorrhizal mycelial CUE on stand age and seasonality in managed boreal forest stands.

    Based on mycelial production and respiration estimates, derived from sequentially incubated ingrowth mesh bags, we estimated CUE on an ecosystem scale during a seasonal cycle and across a chronosequence of eight, 12- to 158-year-old, managed Pinus sylvestris forest stands characterized by decreasing pH and nitrogen (N) availability with increasing age. Mycelial respiration was related to total soil respiration, and by using eddy covariance flux measurements, primary production (GPP) was estimated in the 12- and 100-year-old forests, and related to mycelial respiration and CUE.

    As hypothesized, mycelial CUE decreased significantly with increasing forest age by c. 65%, supposedly related to a shift in mycorrhizal community composition and a metabolic adjustment reducing their own biomass N demand with declining soil N availability. Furthermore, mycelial CUE increased by a factor of five over the growing season; from 0.03 in May to 0.15 in November, and we propose that the seasonal change in CUE is regulated by a decrease in photosynthate production and temperature. The respiratory contribution of mycorrhizal mycelium ranged from 14% to 26% of total soil respiration, and was on average 17% across all sites and occasions.

    Synthesis. Carbon is retained more efficiently in mycorrhizal mycelium late in the growing season, when fungi have access to a more balanced C and nutrient supplies. Earlier in the growing season, at maximum host plant photosynthesis, when below-ground C availability is high in relation to N, the fungi respire excess C resulting in lower mycelial carbon use efficiency (CUE). Additionally, C is retained less efficiently in mycorrhizal fungal biomass in older forest stands characterized by more nutrient depleted soils than younger forest stands.

  • 243.
    Hao, Yanfen
    et al.
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China; University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Li, Yingming
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Han, Xu
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China; University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Wang, Thanh
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Yang, Ruiqiang
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Wang, Pu
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Xiao, Ke
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Li, Wenjuan
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Lu, Huili
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Fu, Jianjie
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Wang, Yawei
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China; University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Shi, Jianbo
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China; University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Zhang, Qinghua
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China; University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Jiang, Guibin
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China; University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Air monitoring of polychlorinated biphenyls, polybrominated diphenyl ethers and organochlorine pesticides in West Antarctica during 2011-2017: Concentrations, temporal trends and potential sources2019In: Environmental Pollution, ISSN 0269-7491, E-ISSN 1873-6424, Vol. 249, p. 381-389Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Annual air samples were collected at various sites in the Fildes Peninsula, West Antarctica from December 2010 to January 2018 using XAD-2 resin passive air samplers to investigate concentrations, temporal trends and potential sources of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in Antarctic air. Relatively low concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) (Σ19PCBs: 1.5-29.7 pg/m3), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) (Σ12PBDEs: 0.2-2.9 pg/m3) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) (Σ13OCPs: 101-278 pg/m3) were found in the atmosphere of West Antarctica. PCB-11, BDE-47 and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) were the predominant compounds in the atmosphere. The concentrations of PCBs, HCHs, DDTs and endosulfans were found to show decreasing temporal trends, whereas uniform temporal trends were observed for HCB. The atmospheric half-life values for PCBs, HCHs, DDTs and endosulfans in Antarctic air were estimated for the first time, using regressions of the natural logarithm of the concentrations versus the number of years, obtaining the values of 2.0, 2.0, 2.4 and 1.2 year, respectively. An increasing ratio of α-HCH/γ-HCH indicated long residence time for α-HCH and possible transformation of γ-HCH to α-HCH in the atmosphere. The ratios of p,p'-DDT/p,p'-DDE were mostly lower than unity in this study, which could be attributed to aged sources. It was found that long-range atmospheric transport was still considered to be the main contributing factor to the atmospheric levels of the POPs in West Antarctica whereas the contribution of human activities at the Chinese Great Wall Station was minor. The results of this study give a view on the most recent temporal trends and provide new insights regarding the occurrence of various POPs in the Antarctic atmosphere.

  • 244.
    Hao, Yanfen
    et al.
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China; University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Li, Yingming
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Wang, Thanh
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Hu, Yongbiao
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Sun, Huizhong
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China; University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Matsiko, Julius
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China; University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Zheng, Shucheng
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China; University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Wang, Pu
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Zhang, Qinghua
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China; University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Distribution, seasonal variation and inhalation risks of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans, polychlorinated biphenyls and polybrominated diphenyl ethers in the atmosphere of Beijing, China2018In: Environmental Geochemistry and Health, ISSN 0269-4042, E-ISSN 1573-2983, Vol. 40, no 5, p. 1907-1918Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Spatial distribution, seasonal variation and potential inhalation risks of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were investigated in the atmosphere of Beijing, using passive air samplers equipped with polyurethane foam disks. Concentrations of ΣPCDD/Fs, ΣPCBs and ΣPBDEs ranged from 8.4 to 179 fg WHO2005-TEQ/m(3), 38.6-139 and 1.5-176 pg/m(3), respectively. PCDFs showed higher air concentrations than those of PCDDs, indicating the influence of industrial activities and other combustion processes. The non-Aroclor congener, PCB-11, was detected in air (12.3-99.4 pg/m(3)) and dominated the PCB congener profiles (61.7-71.5% to ∑PCBs). The congener patterns of PBDEs showed signatures from both penta-BDE and octa-BDE products. Levels of PCDD/Fs, PCBs and PBDEs at the industrial and residential sites were higher than those at rural site, indicating human activities in urban area as potential sources. Higher air concentrations of PCDD/Fs, PCBs and PBDEs were observed in summer, which could be associated with atmospheric deposition process, re-volatilization from soil surface and volatilization from use of technical products, respectively. Results of inhalation exposure and cancer risk showed that atmospheric PCDD/Fs, dioxin-like PCBs and PBDEs did not cause high risks to the local residents of Beijing. This study provides further aid in evaluating emission sources, influencing factors and potential inhalation risks of the persistent organic pollutants to human health in mega-cities of China.

  • 245.
    Hardell, Elin
    et al.
    School of Science and Technology, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Kärrman, Anna
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    van Bavel, Bert
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Bao, Jia
    School of Science and Technology, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Carlberg, Michael
    Department of Oncology, University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden.
    Hardell, Lennart
    Örebro University Hospital. Department of Oncology, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden.
    Case-control study on perfluorinated alkyl acids (PFAAs) and the risk of prostate cancer2014In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 63, p. 35-39Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Perfluorinated alkyl acids (PFAAs) are emerging environmental contaminants. Possible health effects for humans include increased risk for cancer but the knowledge is limited. In this study serum concentrations of certain perfluorinated sulfonates (PFHxS and PFOS) and carboxylates (PFOA, PFNA, PFDA, PFUnDA) were analyzed among 201 cases with prostate cancer and 186 population based control subjects. All blood samples were collected during 2007-2011 and no case had been treated with radio- or chemotherapy before enrolment in the study. The blood concentrations did not differ statistically significant between cases and controls except for PFDA with higher concentration among the cases (p = 0.03). Analyses based on Gleason score and prostate specific antigen (PSA) level did not change the results. Heredity was a risk factor for prostate cancer yielding odds ratio (OR) = 1.8, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.01-3.1. The analyzed PFAAs yielded statistically significant higher ORs in cases with a first degree relative reporting prostate cancer, e.g., PFOA gave OR = 2.6, 95% CI = 1.2-6.0 and PFOS gave OR = 2.7,95% CI = 1.04-6.8. The results showed a higher risk for prostate cancer in cases with heredity as a risk factor. In further studies interaction between gene and environment should be considered. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 246. Hardell, Lennart
    et al.
    Andersson, Swen-Olof
    Carlberg, Michael
    Bohr, Louise
    van Bavel, Bert
    Örebro University, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Lindström, Gunilla
    Örebro University, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Björnfoth, Helen
    Örebro University, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Ginman, Claes
    Adipose tissue concentrations of persistent organic pollutants and the risk of prostate cancer2006In: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, ISSN 1076-2752, E-ISSN 1536-5948, Vol. 48, no 7, p. 700-707Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: We sought to study the concentrations of certain persistent organic pollutants with endocrine-disrupting properties in cases with prostate cancer and controls with benign prostate hyperplasia. METHODS: Adipose tissue was obtained from 58 cases and 20 controls. RESULTS: The median concentration among controls was used as cut-off in the statistical analysis. In the total material, a greater-than median concentration of PCB congener 153 yielded an odds ratio (OR) of 3.15 and 95% confidence interval (CI) of 1.04-9.54 and one chlordane type, trans-chlordane, yielded OR 3.49 (95% CI = 1.08-11.2). In the group of case subjects with PSA levels greater than the median level of 16.5 ng/mL, PCB 153 was OR 30.3 (95% CI = 3.24-284), hexachlorobenzene OR = 9.84 (95% CI = 1.99-48.5), trans-chlordane OR = 11.0 (95% CI = 1.87-64.9), and the chlordane-type MC6 OR = 7.58 (95% CI = 1.65-34.9). The grouping of PCBs according to structural and biological activity was found to produce significantly increased risks for enzyme and phenobarbital-inducing PCBs and lower chlorinated PCBs in the case group with PSA levels greater than 16.5 ng/mL. CONCLUSIONS: These chemicals might be of etiologic significance but need to be further investigated. The biological relevance of the arbitrary cut-off point of PSA is unclear.

  • 247.
    Hardell, Lennart
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology. Department of Oncology, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden.
    Carlberg, Michael
    Department of Oncology, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden.
    Increasing rates of brain tumours in the swedish national inpatient register and the causes of death register2015In: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 12, no 4, p. 3793-3813Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Radiofrequency emissions in the frequency range 30 kHz-300 GHz were evaluated to be Group 2B, i.e., "possibly", carcinogenic to humans by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) at WHO in May 2011. The Swedish Cancer Register has not shown increasing incidence of brain tumours in recent years and has been used to dismiss epidemiological evidence on a risk. In this study we used the Swedish National Inpatient Register (IPR) and Causes of Death Register (CDR) to further study the incidence comparing with the Cancer Register data for the time period 1998-2013 using joinpoint regression analysis. In the IPR we found a joinpoint in 2007 with Annual Percentage Change (APC) +4.25%, 95% CI +1.98, +6.57% during 2007-2013 for tumours of unknown type in the brain or CNS. In the CDR joinpoint regression found one joinpoint in 2008 with APC during 2008-2013 +22.60%, 95% CI +9.68, +37.03%. These tumour diagnoses would be based on clinical examination, mainly CT and/or MRI, but without histopathology or cytology. No statistically significant increasing incidence was found in the Swedish Cancer Register during these years. We postulate that a large part of brain tumours of unknown type are never reported to the Cancer Register. Furthermore, the frequency of diagnosis based on autopsy has declined substantially due to a general decline of autopsies in Sweden adding further to missing cases. We conclude that the Swedish Cancer Register is not reliable to be used to dismiss results in epidemiological studies on the use of wireless phones and brain tumour risk.

  • 248.
    Hardell, Lennart
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology. Dept Oncol, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden.
    Carlberg, Michael
    Fac Med & Hlth, Dept Oncol, Univ Örebro, Örebro, Sweden.
    Response to Ahlbom et al. Comments on Hardell and Carlberg Increasing Rates of Brian Tumors in the Swedish National Inpatient Register and the Causes of Death Register. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12, 3793-38132015In: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 12, no 9, p. 11665-11669Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 249. Hardell, Lennart
    et al.
    Lindström, Gunilla
    Örebro University, Department of Natural Sciences.
    van Bavel, Bert
    Örebro University, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Wedrén, Hans
    Melgaard, Birgitte
    High concentrations of organochlorines in a patient with kidney cancer and anorexia-cachexia syndrome2006In: Medicinal chemistry (Shāriqah (United Arab Emirates)), ISSN 1573-4064, Vol. 2, no 6, p. 607-610Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE: To determine persistent organic pollutants in adipose tissue in a patient with kidney cancer. METHODS: Adipose tissue was sampled from the abdominal wall during autopsy of a 75-year old man who had died from a kidney cancer. The concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), p,p'-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDE), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), chlordanes and tetrabromodiphenyl ether (TeBDE) were determined on lipid basis. For comparison results from 29 male population based subjects aged 70-80 years were used. RESULTS: All concentrations except for TeBDE were very high in the patient; sum of PCBs 18 808 ng/g fat (median for controls 997), DDE 14 183 (median for controls 751), HCB 424 (median for controls 46), and sum of chlordanes 2 389 (median for controls 62). The patient lost weight from 80 kg to 48 kg when he died, which may have contributed wholly or partly to the very high concentrations of organochlorines. CONCLUSION: Changes in weight must be recorded in cancer patients and the concentrations of persistent organic pollutants should be normalized to weight. The concentrations in this patient were 10- to almost 40-times higher than in the controls. Such very high concentrations may give clinical symptoms in the final stage of a wasting cancer patient.

  • 250.
    Hargrove, Andrew
    et al.
    Department of Sociology, Stony Brook University, USA.
    Qandeel, Mais
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Sommer, Jamie M.
    Department of Sociology, University of South Florida, USA.
    Global governance for climate justice: A cross-national analysis of CO2 emissions2019In: Global Transitions, ISSN 2589-7918, Vol. 1, p. 190-199Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sustainable energy transitions are key to achieving climate justice for all. Carbon dioxide emissions’(CO2) unequal distribution globally is one of the many issues preventing climate justice. Efforts to reduceglobal CO2impacts are vital for environmental justice efforts and a future free from climate change is-sues. Researchers have long been interested in how the rise of global governance initiatives, such asmultilateral treaties, impact environmental outcomes across the world. However, little is known abouthow global governance concerning energy usage and technologies impacts CO2emissions across theworld. Using two-wayfixed effects regression analysis from 1996 to 2011, we test how 24 multilateralenvironmental treaties with an energy focus impact CO2emissions per capita, CO2emissions as a per-centage of gross domestic product, and total CO2emissions for 162 nations. The multilateral energytreaties were collected from Ecolex. This analysis assesses how the legitimacy of global contracts mayimpact actual decreases in CO2emissions, resulting in climate justice outcomes. Additionally, thisanalysis considers how factors of institutional state governance, including control of corruption, rule oflaw, political stability, government effectiveness, and regulatory quality moderate the impact of multi-lateral energy environmental treaties and CO2emissions. Wefind that stocks of environmental treatyratification are associated with decreases in all three types of CO2emissions. Renewable energy con-sumption, GDP per capita, and urban and total population are associated with increased CO2 emissions.We alsofind some support for the idea that treaties are associated with larger decreases in emissions innations with higher levels of state governance. Understanding how state accountability, transparency,and legitimacy factor into the effectiveness of multilateral environmental treaties on reducing CO2emissions is essential to combating climate change issues.

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