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  • 201.
    Bask, Miia
    et al.
    University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway.
    Bask, Mikael
    Department of Economics, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Social Influence and the Matthew Mechanism: The Case of an Artificial Cultural Market2013Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    We show that the Matthew effect, or Matthew mechanism, was present in the artificial cultural market Music Lab when social influence between individuals was allowed, whereas this was not the case when social influence was not allowed. We also sketch on a class of social network models, derived from social influence theory, that may gener-ate the Matthew effect. Thus, we propose a theoretical framework that may explain why the most popular songs were much more popular, and the least popular songs were much less popular, than when disallowing social influence between individuals.

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    Social Influence and the Matthew Mechanism: The Case of an Artificial Cultural Market
  • 202.
    Bask, Miia
    et al.
    Department of Sociology, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway.
    Bask, Mikael
    Department of Economics, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Social influence and the Matthew mechanism: The case of an artificial cultural market2014Ingår i: Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications, ISSN 0378-4371, E-ISSN 1873-2119, Vol. 412, s. 113-119Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We show that the Matthew effect, or Matthew mechanism, was present in the artificial cultural market Music Lab in one-fourth of the "worlds" when social influence between individuals was allowed, whereas this effect was not present in the "world" that disallowed social influence between individuals. We also sketch on a class of social network models, derived from social influence theory, that may generate the Matthew effect. Thus, we propose a theoretical framework that may explain why the most popular songs could be much more popular, and the least popular songs could be much less popular, than when disallowing social influence between individuals.

  • 203.
    Beechey, Meredith
    et al.
    Division of Monetary Affairs, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System, Washington DC, USA.
    Hjalmarsson, Erik
    Division of International Finance, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System, Washington DC, USA.
    Österholm, Pär
    Department of Economics, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Testing the expectations hypothesis when interest rates are near integrated2009Ingår i: Journal of Banking & Finance, ISSN 0378-4266, E-ISSN 1872-6372, Vol. 33, nr 5, s. 934-943Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Nominal interest rates are unlikely to be generated by unit-root processes. Using data on short and  long interest rates from eight developed and six emerging economies, we test the expectations hypothesis using cointegration methods under the assumption that interest rates are near integrated. If the null hypothesis of no cointegration is rejected, we then test whether the estimated cointegrating vector is consistent with that suggested by the expectations hypothesis. The results show support for cointegration in 10 of the 14 countries we consider, and the cointegrating vector is similar across countries. However, the parameters differ from those suggested by theory. We relate our findings to existing literature on the failure of the expectations hypothesis and to the role of term premia.

  • 204.
    Beechey, Meredith
    et al.
    Sveriges Riksbank, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Österholm, Pär
    National Institute of Economic Research, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Central bank forecasts of policy interest rates: An evaluation of the first years2014Ingår i: Economic notes - Monte dei Paschi di Siena, ISSN 0391-5026, E-ISSN 1468-0300, Vol. 43, nr 1, s. 63-78Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years, the central banks of Norway and Sweden have published their endogenous policy interest‐rate forecasts. In this paper, we evaluate those forecasts alongside policy‐rate expectations inferred from market pricing. We find that for both economies, there are only small differences in relative forecasting precision between the central bank and market‐implied measures. However, both types of forecast fail tests for unbiasedness and efficiency at longer horizons.

  • 205.
    Beechey, Meredith
    et al.
    Monetary Policy Department, Sveriges Riksbank, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Österholm, Pär
    National Institute of Economic Research, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Forecasting inflation in an inflation-targeting regime: A role for informative steady-state priors2010Ingår i: International Journal of Forecasting, ISSN 0169-2070, E-ISSN 1872-8200, Vol. 26, nr 2, s. 248-264Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Inflation targeting as a monetary-policy regime is widely associated with an explicit numerical target for the rate of inflation. This paper investigates whether the forecasting performance of Bayesian autoregressive models can be improved by incorporating information about the target. We compare a mean-adjusted specification, which allows an informative prior on the distribution for the steady state of the process, to traditional methodology. We find that the out-of-sample forecasts of the mean-adjusted autoregressive model outperform those of the traditional specification, often by non-trivial amounts, for five early adopters of inflation targeting. It is also noted that as the sample lengthens, the posterior distribution of steady-state inflation narrows more for countries with explicit point targets.

  • 206.
    Beechey, Meredith
    et al.
    Sveriges Riksbank, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Österholm, Pär
    National Institute of Economic Research, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Policy interest-rate expectations in Sweden: a forecast evaluation2014Ingår i: Applied Economics Letters, ISSN 1350-4851, E-ISSN 1466-4291, Vol. 21, nr 14, s. 984-991Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article, we evaluate two types of Swedish policy interest-rate expectations: survey expectations and expectations inferred from market pricing. The data are drawn from the most prominent survey of financial-market economists and from Swedish financial markets, and they are carefully matched by date to ensure comparability. Results show that both kinds of expectations suffer from bias and inefficiency, and in terms of forecast precision there is no clear winner. We do find, though, evidence that the forecast accuracy of both kinds of policy-rate expectations has improved since the Riksbank started publishing its own policyrate forecast, suggesting that this communication strategy has been beneficial from a policy perspective.

  • 207.
    Beechey, Meredith
    et al.
    Division of Monetary Affairs, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System, Washington DC, USA.
    Österholm, Pär
    Sveriges Riksbank and Department of Economics, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Revisiting the uncertain unit root in GDP and CPI: Testing for non-linear trend reversion2008Ingår i: Economics Letters, ISSN 0165-1765, E-ISSN 1873-7374, Vol. 100, nr 2, s. 221-223Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We test for the presence of a unit root in U.S. GDP and CPI, allowing for non-linear trend reversion under the alternative hypothesis. In contrast to most previous results, we find evidence in favour of trend stationarity for both variables.

  • 208.
    Beechey, Meredith
    et al.
    Monetary Policy Department, Sveriges Riksbank, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Österholm, Pär
    Monetary Policy Department, Sveriges Riksbank, Stockholm, Sweden.
    The Rise and Fall of U.S. Inflation Persistence2012Ingår i: The International Journal of Central Banking, ISSN 1815-4654, E-ISSN 1815-7556, Vol. 8, nr 3, s. 55-86Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We estimate the path of inflation persistence in the United States over the last 50 years using an ARMA model of inflation with time-varying autoregressive parameter. The model is motivated by the familiar New-Keynesian framework which, paired with a common model of monetary-policy optimization, predicts that the central bank’s relative preference for output stability is a determinant of inflation persistence. As such, time variation of the relative preference for output stability can generate time-varying inflation persistence. The estimated ARMA model provides an estimate of the inflation objective and the path of inflation persistence. The estimated path of inflation persistence is consistent with a general reading of Federal Reserve history; inflation persistence is estimated to have declined substantially during Volcker and Greenspan’s tenures from the high persistence of the 1970s. Interpreted in light of the theoretical framework, the results suggest that the Federal Reserve has placed increasing weight on inflation stability in recent decades.

  • 209.
    Beechey, Meredith
    et al.
    Division of Monetary Affairs, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System, Washington DC, USA.
    Österholm, Pär
    National Institute of Economic Research, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Time-varying inflation persistence in the Euro area2009Ingår i: Economic Modelling, ISSN 0264-9993, E-ISSN 1873-6122, Vol. 26, nr 2, s. 532-535Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates how inflation persistence in the Euro area has evolved between 1991 and 2006. Employing an ARMA(1,11) model with time-varying autoregressive parameter, we find that inflation persistence has fallen markedly since the third stage of the EMU began in January 1999 and inflation no longer exhibits unit-root behaviour.

  • 210.
    Beechey, Meredith
    et al.
    Reserve Bank of Australia, Sydney NSW, Australia; Sveriges Riksbank, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Österholm, Pär
    Örebro universitet, Handelshögskolan vid Örebro Universitet. National Institute of Economic Research, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Poon, Aubrey
    Örebro universitet, Handelshögskolan vid Örebro Universitet.
    Estimating the US trend short-term interest rate2023Ingår i: Finance Research Letters, ISSN 1544-6123, E-ISSN 1544-6131, Vol. 55, nr Part A, artikel-id 103913Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We estimate the trend short-term interest rate in the United States using an unobserved-components stochastic-volatility model with interest-rate and survey data from 1998Q2 to 2022Q4. Our results indicate that the trend short-term interest rate has drifted down during most of the sample and remains low in a historical perspective, despite the recent sharp increase in the short-term interest rate.

  • 211.
    Benz, Sebastian
    et al.
    OECD, Paris, France.
    Anupam, Khanna
    OECD, Paris, France.
    Nordås, Hildegunn Kyvik
    OECD, Paris, France.
    Services and Performance of the Indian Economy: Analysis and Policy Options2017Ingår i: OECD Trade Policy Papers, E-ISSN 1816-6873, nr 196, s. 1-55Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper highlights India’s unique services export led growth path. Observing that Indian business services have helped manufacturers all over the world to become more efficient and productive, it raises the question how Indian business services can do the same for local manufacturers and thus support the Make in India initiative. The paper also explores the potential for broadening the export base in services. The services sector that appears to have the largest prospect for unleashing the potential of both manufacturing and knowledge intensive business services is the telecommunications sector, particularly broadband internet services. In addition reforms in the distribution sector that enable multi-channel wholesale and retailing could facilitate the development of marketing channels for SME manufacturers both across the vast Indian market and abroad. Reforms in the logistics sector would further improve the competitiveness of local manufacturers producing time-sensitive goods including inputs to global value chains. Finally, competitiveness in knowledge-intensive services is obtained through knowledge sharing across borders. A prerequisite for broadening the export base in these sectors is openness to foreign professionals. The set of proposed recommendations emerging from this analysis underlines the importance of streamlining sector-level regulatory frameworks in all sectors to encourage foreign entry and competition, and the role that cross-cutting improvements in the trade and business environment would play to render services providers as well as down-stream manufacturers more competitive.

  • 212.
    Benz, Sebastian
    et al.
    OECD, Trade and Agriculture Directorate, Paris, France.
    Ferencz, Janos
    OECD, Trade and Agriculture Directorate, Paris, France.
    Kyvik Nordås, Hildegunn
    Örebro universitet, Handelshögskolan vid Örebro Universitet. Norwegian Institute of International Affairs, Oslo, Norway.
    Regulatory barriers to trade in services: A new database and composite indices2020Ingår i: The World Economy, ISSN 0378-5920, E-ISSN 1467-9701, Vol. 43, nr 11, s. 2860-2879Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents new data on services trade regulation for 46 countries in 22 services sectors over 6 years (2014-2019). The data consist of qualitative information which is scored and weighted to produce composite indices. They cover market access and national treatment restrictions with respect to all GATS modes of supply, but also behind the border domestic regulation such as licensing, non-transparent regulatory procedures and competition policy. The database is updated annually. The trade restrictiveness indices (STRIs) are significantly correlated with services trade flows, but also with the performance of the sectors subject to the restrictions including logistics performance indicators, interest spreads, density of ATMs and secure servers, broadband penetration and outcomes such as legal rights and the time to resolve insolvency.

  • 213.
    Berck, Peter
    et al.
    Department of Agricultural and Resource Economics and Policy, University of California, Berkeley CA, United States.
    Tano, Sofia
    Umeå School of Business and Economics, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Westerlund, Olle
    Jyväskylä School of Business and Economics, Jyväskylä University, Jyväskylä, Finland.
    Regional sorting of human capital: the choice of location among young adults in Sweden2016Ingår i: Regional studies, ISSN 0034-3404, E-ISSN 1360-0591, Vol. 50, nr 5, s. 757-770Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Migration rates are highest among young adults, especially students, and their location choices affect the regional distribution of human capital, growth and local public sector budgets. Using Swedish register data on young adults, the choice of whether to enroll in education and the choice of location are estimated jointly. The results indicate a systematic selection into investment in further education based on school grades and associated preferences for locations with higher per capita tax bases. For students, the estimates indicate lower preferences for locations with higher shares of older people.  The importance of family networks for the choice of location is confirmed.    

  • 214.
    Berck, Peter
    et al.
    Department of Agricultural and Resource Economics and Policy, University of California, Berkeley, USA.
    Tano, Sofia
    Umeå School of Business and Economics, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Westerlund, Olle
    Jyväskylä School of Business and Economics, Jyväskylä University, Jyväskylä, Finland.
    Regional sorting of human capital: the choice of location among young adults in Sweden2014Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Migration rates are highest among young adults, especially students, and their location choices affect the regional distribution of human capital, growth and local public sector budgets. Using Swedish register data on young adults, the choice of whether to enroll in education and the choice of location are estimated jointly. The results indicate a systematic selection into investment in further education based on school grades and associated preferences for locations with higher per capita tax bases. For students, the estimates indicate lower preferences for locations with higher shares of older people.  The importance of family networks for the choice of location is confirmed. 

  • 215.
    Berck, Peter
    et al.
    Department of Agricultural and Resource Economics and Policy, University of California, Berkeley, USA.
    Tano, Sofia
    Department of Economics, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Westerlund, Olle
    Department of Economics, The Ageing and Living Conditions Program, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    The determinants of the choice of location among young adults: evidence from Sweden2011Övrigt (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 216.
    Berger, Helge
    et al.
    International Monetary Fund, Washington DC, USA; Free University Berlin, Berlin, Germany; CESifo, Munich, Germany.
    Karlsson, Sune
    Örebro universitet, Handelshögskolan vid Örebro Universitet.
    Österholm, Pär
    Örebro universitet, Handelshögskolan vid Örebro Universitet. National Institute of Economic Research, Stockholm, Sweden; School of Economics, University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia.
    A note of caution on the relation between money growth and inflation2023Ingår i: Scottish Journal of Political Economy, ISSN 0036-9292, E-ISSN 1467-9485, Vol. 70, nr 5, s. 479-496Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We assess the bivariate relation between money growth and inflation in the euro area and the United States using hybrid time-varying parameter Bayesian VAR models. Model selection based on marginal likelihoods suggests that the relation is statistically unstable across time in both regions. The effect of money growth on inflation weakened notably after the 1980s before strengthening after 2020. There is evidence that this time variation is related to the pace of price changes, as we find that the maximum impact of money growth on inflation is increasing in the trend level of inflation. These results caution against asserting a simple, time-invariant relationship when modeling the joint dynamics of monetary aggregates and consumer prices.

  • 217.
    Berger, Helge
    et al.
    International Monetary Fund, Washington DC, USA; Free University Berlin, Berlin, Germany.
    Österholm, Pär
    National Institute of Economic Research, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Does Money Granger Cause Inflation in the Euro Area?: Evidence from Out-of-Sample Forecasts Using Bayesian VARs2011Ingår i: The Economic Record, ISSN 0013-0249, E-ISSN 1475-4932, Vol. 87, nr 276, s. 45-60Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We use Bayesian estimation techniques to assess whether money growth Grangercauses inflation in the USA. We investigate the issue of Granger-causality out-of-sample and find that including money growth in simple VAR models of inflation does systematically improve out-of-sample forecasting accuracy. This holds for a long forecasting sample 1960–2005, as well for more recent subperiods, including the Volcker and Greenspan eras. However, the contribution of money to inflation forecasting accuracy is quantitatively limited and tends to be close to negligible in recent subperiods.

  • 218.
    Berger, Helge
    et al.
    International Monetary Fund, Washington DC, USA.
    Österholm, Pär
    Sveriges riksbank, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Does Money matter for U.S. Inflation?: Evidence from Bayesian VARs2011Ingår i: CESifo Economic Studies, ISSN 1610-241X, E-ISSN 1612-7501, Vol. 57, nr 3, s. 531-550Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We use Bayesian estimation techniques to assess whether money growth Granger causes inflation in the USA. We investigate the issue of Granger-causality out-of-sample and find that including money growth in simple VAR models of inflation does systematically improve out-of-sample forecasting accuracy. This holds for a long forecasting sample 1960–2005, as well for more recent subperiods, including the Volcker and Greenspan eras. However, the contribution of money to inflation forecasting accuracy is quantitatively limited and tends to be close to negligible in recent subperiods.

  • 219.
    Berger, Helge
    et al.
    Free University Berlin, Economics Department, Berlin, Germany; CESifo, Germany.
    Österholm, Pär
    National Institute of Economic Resarch, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Does money still matter for U.S. output?2009Ingår i: Economics Letters, ISSN 0165-1765, E-ISSN 1873-7374, Vol. 102, nr 3, s. 143-146Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this note, we use an out-of-sample approach to investigate whether money growth Granger-causes output growth in the United States. We find that after the ‘Great moderation,’ the Granger-causal role of money appears to have vanished completely.

  • 220.
    Berggren, Niclas
    et al.
    The Ratio Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Elinder, Mikael
    Department of Economics, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Jordahl, Henrik
    The Research Institute of Industrial Economics, Stockholm, Sweden; The Ratio Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Trust and growth: a shaky relationship2008Ingår i: Empirical Economics, ISSN 0377-7332, E-ISSN 1435-8921, Vol. 35, nr 2, s. 251-274Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We conduct an extensive robustness analysis of the relationship between trust and growth by investigating a later time period and a bigger sample than in previous studies. In addition to robustness tests that focus on model uncertainty, we systematize the investigation of outlier influence on the results by using the robust estimation technique Least Trimmed Squares. We find that when outliers (especially China) are removed, the trust-growth relationship is no longer robust. On average, the trust coefficient is half as large as in previous findings.

  • 221.
    Berggren, Niclas
    et al.
    The Ratio Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Jordahl, Henrik
    Department of Economics, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Does free trade really reduce growth?: Further testing using the economic freedom index2005Ingår i: Public Choice, ISSN 0048-5829, E-ISSN 1573-7101, Vol. 122, nr 1-2, s. 99-114Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    While studies of the relationship between economic freedom and economic growth have shown it to be positive, significant and robust, it has rightly been argued that different areas of economic freedom may have quite different effects on growth. Along that line, Carlsson and Lundström (2002) present the surprising result that "International exchange: Freedom to trade with foreigners" is detrimental for growth. We find that "Taxes on international trade" seems to drive this result. However, using newer data and a more extensive sensitivity analysis, we find that it is not robust. Least Trimmed Squares-based estimation in fact renders the coefficient positive.

  • 222.
    Berggren, Niclas
    et al.
    The Ratio Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Jordahl, Henrik
    Department of Economics, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden; The Ratio Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Free to trust: Economic freedom and social capital2006Ingår i: Kyklos (Basel), ISSN 0023-5962, E-ISSN 1467-6435, Vol. 59, nr 2, s. 141-169Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We present new evidence on how generalized trust is formed. Unlike previous studies, we look at the explanatory power of economic institutions, we use newer data, we incorporate more countries, and we use instrumental variables in an attempt to handle the causality problem. A central result is that legal structure and security of property rights (area 2 of the Economic Freedom Index) increase trust. The idea is that a market economy, building on voluntary transactions and interactions with both friends and strangers within the predictability provided by the rule of law, entails both incentives and mechanisms for trust to emerge between people.

  • 223.
    Berggren, Niclas
    et al.
    Research Institute of Industrial Economics (IFN), Stockholm, Sweden; Department of Institutional, Experimental and Environmental Economics (KIE), University of Economics in Prague, Prague, Czech Republic.
    Jordahl, Henrik
    Research Institute of Industrial Economics (IFN), Stockholm, Sweden; CESifo, Germany; IZA, Germany.
    Poutvaara, Panu
    CESifo, Germany; IZA, Germany; Department of Economics, LMU Munich, Munich, Germany; Ifo Institute–Leibniz Institute for Economic Research at the University of Munich, Munich, Germany.
    The right look: Conservative politicians look better and voters reward it2017Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Since good-looking politicians win more votes, a beauty advantage for politicians on the left or on the right is bound to have political consequences. We show that politicians on the right look more beautiful in Europe, the United States and Australia. Our explanation is that beautiful people earn more, which makes them less inclined to support redistribution. Our model of within-party competition predicts that voters use beauty as a cue for conservatism when they do not know much about candidates and that politicians on the right benefit more from beauty in low-information elections. Evidence from real and experimental elections confirms both predictions.

  • 224.
    Berggren, Niclas
    et al.
    Research Institute of Industrial Economics (IFN), Stockholm, Sweden; Department of Institutional, Experimental and Environmental Economics (KIE), University of Economics in Prague, Prague, the Czech Republic.
    Jordahl, Henrik
    Research Institute of Industrial Economics (IFN), Stockholm, Sweden; IZA, Bonn, Germany.
    Poutvaara, Panu
    University of Munich, Munich, Germany; Ifo Institute, Germany; CESifo, Munich, Germany; CReAM, London, UK; IZA, BOnn, Germany.
    The Right Look: Conservative Politicians Look Better and Voters Reward It2015Rapport (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [en]

    Since good-looking politicians win more votes, a beauty advantage for politicians on the left or on the right is bound to have political consequences. We show that politicians on the right look more beautiful in Europe, the United States and Australia. Our explanation is that beautiful people earn more, which makes them less inclined to support redistribution. Accordingly, our model predicts that voters use beauty as a cue for conservatism when they do not know much about candidates and that politicians on the right benefit more from beauty in low-information elections. Evidence from real and experimental elections confirms both predictions.

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    The Right Look: Conservative Politicians Look Better and Voters Reward It
  • 225.
    Berggren, Niclas
    et al.
    The Ratio Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Jordahl, Henrik
    Research Institute of Industrial Economics (IFN), Stockholm, Sweden.
    Stern, Charlotta
    Department of Sociology, Stockholm University, Stockholm Sweden.
    The Political Opinions of Swedish Social Scientists2009Ingår i: Finnish economic papers, ISSN 0784-5197, Vol. 22, nr 2, s. 75-88Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We study the political opinions of Swedish social scientists in seven disciplines and find indications of a left‑right divide, with sociology and gender studies being the most disciplines, with business administration, economics, and law being the most right‑leaning ones, and with political science and economic history being located somewhere in between. This pattern is found when looking at party preferences, left‑right self‑identification, and positions on economic policy issues. Overall, there is a slight dominance in sympathies for the right, although there are more academics to the left among those most involved in activities with a potential to influence decision‑makers.

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    The Political Opinions of Swedish Social Scientists
  • 226.
    Bergh, Andreas
    et al.
    Research Institute of Industrial Economics (IFN), Stockholm, Sweden; Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Jordahl, Henrik
    Research Institute of Industrial Economics (IFN), Stockholm, Sweden.
    Öhrvall, Richard
    Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Tål den svenska modellen att jämföras?: om utlandssvenskars attityder till välfärdsstaten2016Ingår i: Svenska utlandsröster: SOM-undersökningen till utlandssvenskar 2014 / [ed] Maria Solevid, Göteborg: Göteborgs universitet, 2016, s. 211-232Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Frågan om välfärdsmissnöje driver utvandring från Sverige är en av frågorna i Andreas Berghs, Henrik Jordahls och Richard Öhrvalls kapitel Tål den svenska modellen att jämföras? Utlandssvenskars attityder till välfärdsstaten. Mer specifikt undersöks utlandssvenskarnas åsikter om välfärdssystem, skatter, skola och sjukvård i det land de flyttat till och hur synen på den svenska välfärdsstaten skiljer sig åt beroende på till vilken typ av välfärdsystem man flyttat. Resultaten visar att utlandssvenskar generellt sett är mer nöjda med sjukvården och skolan i det nya landet än i Sverige. Sammanfattningsvis tycks utlandssvenskar samtidigt föredra det svenska välfärdssystemet, men (den oftast lägre) skattenivån i andra typer av välfärdsstater vilket inte är en förenlig ståndpunkt. Författarna finner inte stöd för att välfärdsmissnöje driver utvandring, men det förekommer negativa bedömningar av den svenska sjukvården och svenska skatter bland utlandssvenskar i välfärdssystem som skiljer sig från det svenska. Resultaten tyder på att flera åsikter om Sverige omvärderas i ljuset av nya erfarenheter. Ju rikare land man flyttat till, desto mindre nöjd är man med den svenska sjukvården och med välfärdssystemet som helhet. Den som flyttat till ett land med bra skola enligt Pisa-mätningarna har också en mer negativ bild av den svenska skolan. Utlandssvenskar som flyttat till en annan typ av välfärdsstat är mer nöjda med det nya landets skattenivå, men mindre nöjda med välfärdssystemet som helhet. Viktigt att poängtera är att den negativa uppfattningen om den svenska skattenivån uppvisar stora skillnader mellan män och kvinnor; män är negativa till skattenivån i Sverige, vilket kvinnor inte är, medan kvinnor är mer negativa till skattenivån i boendelandet.

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    Tål den svenska modellen att jämföras? Om utlandssvenskars attityder till välfärdsstaten
  • 227.
    Bergh, Andreas
    et al.
    Department of Economics, Lund University, Lund, Sweden; Research Institute of Industrial Economics (IFN), Stockholm, Sweden.
    Kärnä, Anders
    Örebro universitet, Handelshögskolan vid Örebro Universitet. Research Institute of Industrial Economics (IFN), Stockholm, Sweden.
    Explaining the rise of populism in European democracies 1980-2018: The role of labor market institutions and inequality2022Ingår i: Social Science Quarterly, ISSN 0038-4941, E-ISSN 1540-6237, Vol. 103, nr 7, s. 1719-1731Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: This article aims to find country-level factors that explain the rise of populist parties in European democracies. While populism is often connected to inequality, we not that right-wing populist parties tend to thrive on fear, including fear of job loss. If flexible labor markets mean that unemployment is dedramatized because finding a new job is easier, labor market flexibility could dampen populism and inequality may be less important.

    Methods: We run country-level fixed effects regressions on populist party vote shares in 26 European countries from 1980 to 2018. We use two different classifications of right-wing and left-wing populist parties and control for employment protection strictness as measured by OECD, Gini coefficients of disposable income, and a large set of control variables.

    Results: Unemployment is positively associated with left-wing populism. Strict employment protection is positively associated with right-wing populism. Gini inequality of income is unrelated to (both types of) populism.

    Conclusion: Strong employment protection and low-income inequality may not be the most efficient way to combat right-wing populism. A strategy that promotes flexible labor markets, and job upgrading may be an alternative. More research on the link between labor market institutions and (in particular, right-wing) populism is needed.

  • 228.
    Bergh, Andreas
    et al.
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden; The Research Institute of Industrial Economics (IFN), Stockholm, Sweden.
    Kärnä, Anders
    Örebro universitet, Handelshögskolan vid Örebro Universitet. The Research Institute of Industrial Economics (IFN), Stockholm, Sweden.
    Globalization and populism in Europe2021Ingår i: Public Choice, ISSN 0048-5829, E-ISSN 1573-7101, Vol. 189, nr 1-2, s. 51-70Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent micro-level studies have suggested that globalization-in particular, economic globalization and trade with China-breeds political polarization and populism. This study examines whether or not those results generalize by examining the country-level association between vote shares for European populist parties and economic globalization. Using data on vote shares for 267 right-wing and left-wing populist parties in 33 European countries during 1980-2017, and globalization data from the KOF institute, we find no evidence of a positive association between (economic or other types of) globalization and populism. EU membership is associated with a 4-6-percentage-point larger vote share for right-wing populist parties.

  • 229.
    Bergius, Caroline
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Handelshögskolan vid Örebro Universitet.
    Karlsson, Elin
    Örebro universitet, Handelshögskolan vid Örebro Universitet.
    Alternativa sätt att betala för bilförsäkringar: En marknadsundersökning bland studenter i Örebro2012Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
  • 230.
    Berglind, Tom
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Handelshögskolan vid Örebro Universitet.
    Liljefors, Pontus
    Örebro universitet, Handelshögskolan vid Örebro Universitet.
    Stockholm utan hyreskontroll: En studie där marknadshyra skattas2018Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    Stockholm utan hyreskontroll
  • 231.
    Berglund, Josefine
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Handelshögskolan vid Örebro universitet.
    Kåberg, Marie
    Örebro universitet, Handelshögskolan vid Örebro universitet.
    De svenska hushållens skuldsättning: Påverkas hushållens skuldsättning av ekonomiska och demografiska variabler?2011Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    De svenska hushållens skuldsättning har ökat under ett flertal år och syftet med uppsatsen är att presentera olika sätt att förstå ökningen. Hushållens skuldsättning kan under åren 1995 till 2010 förklaras av dels olika reformer och förändringar på kapitalmarknaden, dels av förändringar i fastighetspriserna. Ett urval av några ekonomiska och demografiska variabler, inflation, BNP, räntenivå, räntekvot, fastighetsprisindex samt demografi analyseras utifrån en regressionsanalys på både hushållens totala skulder och på hushållens skuldkvot. De variabler som testas i regressionsanalyserna visar inte på signifikant resultat, vilket gör det svårt att fastställa om någon av variablerna uteslutande skulle påverka hushållens skuldsättning. Därtill diskuteras i uppsatsen de risker som är förenade med att hushållens skuldsättning har ökat. Det finns inget entydigt svar på vilka effekterna blir i ekonomin eller för hushållen. Det är möjligt att följderna kan bli omfattande i kombination med andra faktorer, exempelvis en stigande ränta, både för det enskilda hushållet och för ekonomin som helhet.

  • 232.
    Bergman, Mats A.
    et al.
    Södertörn University, Stockholm.
    Coate, Malcolm B.
    Bureau of Economics, Federal Trade Comission.
    Mai Thi Van, Anh
    Örebro universitet, Handelshögskolan vid Örebro Universitet. Södertörn University.
    Ulrick, Shawn W.
    Bureau of Economics, Federal Trade Comission.
    Does Merger Policy Converge After the 2004 European Union Reform?Manuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 233.
    Bergman, Mats A.
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola, Huddinge, Sveirge.
    Jordahl, Henrik
    Institutet för Näringslivsforskning (IFN), Sverige.
    Goda år på ålderns höst?: En ESO-rapport om konkurrens i äldreomsorgen2014Rapport (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [sv]

    Under de senaste decennierna har det blivit möjligt att driva äldreomsorg i privat regi. Förespråkarna för denna utveckling pekar på valfrihet och ökad effektivitet. Kritikerna talar om vanvård och menar att äldreomsorg inte lämpar sig för marknadslösningar. I rapporten analyserar forskarna förutsättningarna för att nå god kvalitet och effektivt resursutnyttjande vid marknadsliknande lösningar i äldreomsorgen. De frågor som diskuteras i rapporten är bl.a.:

    • Hur fungerar den svenska äldreomsorgsmarknaden?
    • Under vilka förutsättningar kan valfrihet och konkurrens förbättra omsorgen?
    • Vilka krav kan och bör ställas på äldreomsorgens utförare?
    • Vilken betydelse har brukarval för omsorgens kvalitet?
    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    Goda år på ålderns höst?: En ESO-rapport om konkurrens i äldreomsorgen
  • 234.
    Bergman, Mats A.
    et al.
    Södertörn University, Huddinge, Sweden.
    Jordahl, Henrik
    Research Institute of Industrial Economics (IFN), stockholm, Sweden.
    Lundberg, Sofia
    Umeå School of Business, Economics and Statistics (USBE), Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Choice and Competition in the Welfare State: Home Care as the Ideal Quasi-market2018Rapport (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [en]

    We study a reform by which a standardized model of choice and competition was introduced in tax-financed home care in a majority of Swedish municipalities. The market for home care is of particular interest since it is close to the ideal quasi-market. For identification, we exploit the different timing of reform implementation across municipalities. We find that the introduction of free choice and free entry in home care increased perceived quality by about one quarter of a standard deviation without affecting costs. Since satisfaction is unrelated to the private market share, the underlying mechanism seems to be new choice opportunities rather than competition or an advantage of private providers.

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    Choice and Competition in the Welfare State: Home Care as the Ideal Quasi-market
  • 235.
    Bergman, Mats A.
    et al.
    Södertörn university.
    Lundberg, Johan
    Umeå university.
    Lundberg, Sofia
    Umeå university.
    Stake, Johan Y.
    Södertörn University.
    Using spatial econometrics to test for collusive behavior in procurement auction dataManuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 236.
    Bergman, Mats A.
    et al.
    Södertörn University, Stockholm.
    Mai, Anh
    Örebro universitet, Handelshögskolan vid Örebro Universitet. Södertörn University, Stockholm.
    Accountable Regulators - To Whom?: A Survey-Based Analysis of National Regulatory Authorities' GovernanceManuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 237.
    Bergman, Mats A.
    et al.
    Södertörn University, Stockholm.
    Mai, Anh
    Örebro universitet, Handelshögskolan vid Örebro Universitet. Södertörn University, Stockholm.
    Regulatory accountability, power sharing and corruptionManuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 238.
    Bergman, Mats A.
    et al.
    Södertörn university.
    Stake, Johan Y.
    Bid distribution and transaction costsManuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 239.
    Bergman, Mats
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola.
    Jordahl, Henrik
    Örebro universitet, Handelshögskolan vid Örebro Universitet.
    Svensk marknads- och konkurrenspolitik2022Ingår i: Marknad och politik / [ed] Lars Hultkrantz; Pär Österholm, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2022, 13, s. 289-329Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 240.
    Bergman, Mats
    et al.
    Södertörn university.
    Stake, Johan Y.
    Södertörn university.
    The anatomy of public procurement in SwedenManuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 241.
    Bergman, Olivia
    Örebro universitet, Handelshögskolan vid Örebro Universitet.
    Tre konkurrensmått möter internationell konkurrens: En komparativ studie mellan Lernerindex, Herfindahl-Hirschmanindex och Relativa vinstdifferenser2020Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 242.
    Bergstedt, Ellen
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Handelshögskolan vid Örebro Universitet.
    Ghorbani, Alexander
    Örebro universitet, Handelshögskolan vid Örebro Universitet.
    Responsiveness of Swedish firms’ investments to monetary policy shocks: Are riskier firms more responsive to monetary policy shocks than less risky firms?2024Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    Responsiveness of Swedish firms’ investments to monetary policy shocks
  • 243.
    Bergstedt, Ellen
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Handelshögskolan vid Örebro Universitet.
    Malmberg, Hanna
    Örebro universitet, Handelshögskolan vid Örebro Universitet.
    Sambandet mellan produktivitet och utlandsägande i svenska företag: Hur påverkas sannolikheten för att svenska bolag blir utlandsägda avproduktiviteten?2022Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 244.
    Bergström, Anna
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Karlstad, Sweden.
    Krüger, Niclas
    Örebro universitet, Handelshögskolan vid Örebro Universitet. Transportekonomi Stockholm (TEK-S), Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Linköping, Sweden.
    Modeling passenger train delay distributions: evidence and implications2013Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper addresses the lack of reliability within the Swedish rail network by identifying passenger train delay distributions. Arrival delays are analyzed in detail using data provided by the Swedish Transport Administration, covering all train departures and arrivals during 2008 and 2009. The paper identifies vulnerabilities by size, space and time in the network.

    Our results show that the delay distribution seems to be plagued by low probability high impact events. A major share of all delay time is associated with the tail of the delay distribution, indicating that extreme delays cannot be neglected when prioritizing between measures improving rail infrastructure. Delays are not only concentrated in size, but also concentrated in space and time and seem to follow a precise power law with respect to days and an exponential distribution with regard to stations. Moreover, we also examine the link between capacity usage and expected delay over different time scales.

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 245.
    Bergström, Anna
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Karlstad, Sweden.
    Krüger, Niclas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute (VTI), Linköping, Sweden.
    Modeling passenger train delay distributions: Evidence and Implications for Valuation2012Ingår i: Programme and Abstract Compendium of the 5th International Symposium on Transportation Network Reliability / [ed] William H.K. Lam, Hong K. Lo & S.C. Wong, Hong Kong, China, 2012, s. 61-61Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 246.
    Bergström, Anna
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Karlstad, Sweden.
    Krüger, Niclas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute (VTI), Stockholm, Sweden.
    Vierth, Inge
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Transportekonomi Stockholm (TEK-S), Linköping, Sweden.
    Spatial, Temporal and Size Distribution of Passenger Train Delays: Evidence and Implications2012Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 247. Bergström, Fredrik
    et al.
    Johansson, Dan
    The Ratio Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Företagaren som upptäckare: om konkurrens som en upptäckts- och läroprocess och konkurrensens betydelse för den ekonomiska utvecklingen2004Rapport (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 248.
    Bernström, Linda
    Örebro universitet, Handelshögskolan vid Örebro Universitet.
    Tobak i Sverige: En studie om hur snus påverkar cigarettkonsumtionen2014Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 249.
    Bigsten, Arne
    et al.
    Handelshögskolan, Göteborgs universitet.
    Levin, Jörgen
    Örebro universitet, Handelshögskolan vid Örebro universitet.
    Persson, Håkan
    Örebro universitet, Handelshögskolan vid Örebro Universitet.
    Debt relief and growth: a study of Tanzania and Zambia2004Ingår i: Debt relief for poor countries / [ed] Tony Addison, Henrik Hansen, Finn Tarp, Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2004, s. 181-208Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper discusses some issues on how to evaluate the impact of HIPC debt relief in the cases of Tanzania and Zambia using two computable general equilibrium models. Within our relatively simple model framework, we found that the macroeconomic impact of debt relief is modest. One reason for this relatively modest impact is that the annual injection of additional resources relative to current actual debt service is small in both cases, which implies that the impact of debt relief per se would be expected to be modest. However, as illustrated in the case of Tanzania the impact could be considerably higher if additional public investment succeeds to improve private sector productivity.

  • 250.
    Billstam, Maria
    et al.
    Konjunkturinstitutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Frändén, Kristina
    Statistiska centralbyrån, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Samuelsson, Johan
    Konjunkturinstitutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Österholm, Pär
    Örebro universitet, Handelshögskolan vid Örebro Universitet.
    Quasi-Real-Time Data of the Economic Tendency Survey2017Ingår i: Journal of Business Cycle Research, ISSN 2509-7962, Vol. 13, nr 1, s. 105-138Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Survey data from businesses and households are widely used for forecasting and economic analysis. In Sweden, the most important survey of this kind is the Economic Tendency Survey of the National Institute of Economic Research. A shortcoming with this survey is that real-time data of it largely are unavailable. In this paper, we describe how two quasi-real-time data sets of this survey have been constructed – one monthly and one quarterly. The term “quasi-real-time data” refers to data which are not actual real-time data but have been created in order to provide a close approximation to real-time data. The data sets consist of monthly/quarterly vintages of the most important series of the survey, including the main confidence indicators. A natural usage of these data sets is evaluations of model-based forecasts and nowcasts. We illustrate this with an application to Swedish GDP growth. This shows that several of the studied indicators from the Economic Tendency Survey appear to have positive nowcast content for GDP growth.

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