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  • 251.
    Hagström, Malin
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Wetterstrand, Frida
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    EPA blir STAR: Problemlösning i matematik2018In: Nämnaren : tidskrift för matematikundervisning, ISSN 0348-2723, no 1, p. 37-40Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 252.
    Haile Kassaye, Meseret
    Örebro University, Swedish Business School at Örebro University.
    A Comparison of Wald and Score Confidence Intervals for a Poisson Parameter2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 253.
    Hailemariam Belen, Mekonnene
    et al.
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Kebede, Tewodros
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Pseudo R Squares and the Selection of Auxiliary Information for the Calibration Estimator2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 254.
    Han, Mengjie
    Örebro University, Swedish Business School at Örebro University.
    How to Deal with Non-normal and Clustered Spatial Data2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 255.
    Hansson, Erika
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    En studie av sambandet mellan huvudets omfång och kognitiv förmåga2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 256.
    Hansson, Martina
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Underpresterande elever med hög potential: Särbegåvning och särskilda förmågor i matematik2014Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Lärare har ett ansvar att stötta särbegåvade elever och elever med särskilda förmågor i matematik, ofta förväntas de klara sig själva. Skollagen fastslår dock att "den [utbildningen] ska främja alla barns och elevers utveckling och lärande" (SFS 2010:800, kap 1, 4 §), alltså att alla har rätt att utvecklas efter sin förmåga. Syftet med denna litteraturstudie är att undersöka vad forskning säger om dessa elevers egenskaper, behov och vad som påverkar deras prestation. Studien visar att särbegåvade elever och elever med särskilda förmågor behöver utmaning för att motiveras och prestera efter sin potential. Många faktorer verkar också påverka motivation och prestation, bland annat självförtroende, känsla av ansvar, verklighetsbaserade uppgifter, läraren, vårdnadshavare och även den fysiska klassrumsmiljön. Dessa elever verkar också dra nytta av grupperingar efter förmåga. Även olika former av anpassning av undervisning påverkar elevernas motivation och prestation positivt, vilket inte läroboken gör. Detta verkar även gälla de flesta andra elever i en klass. En anpassning där alla individer gynnas är att föredra som lärare då inga elever bör utelämnas. En viktig slutsats är att alla elever är individer med olika uttryck, behov och intressen.

  • 257.
    Hansson, Mats
    et al.
    Örebro University, Swedish Business School at Örebro University.
    Zetterman, Robin
    Örebro University, Swedish Business School at Örebro University.
    Oddssättning i Serie A - en statistisk modellansats.2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 258.
    Hao, Chengcheng
    et al.
    Department of Statistics, Shanghai University of International Business and Economics, Shanghai, China.
    Liang, Yuli
    Statistics Sweden, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Mathew, Thomas
    Department of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Maryland, Baltimore County, Baltimore MD, United States.
    Testing variance parameters in models with a Kronecker product covariance structure2016In: Statistics and Probability Letters, ISSN 0167-7152, E-ISSN 1879-2103, Vol. 118, p. 182-189Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Under a model having a Kronecker product covariance structure with compound symmetry, hypothesis testing for a correlation is investigated. Several tests are suggested and practical recommendations are made based on their type I error probabilities and powers.

  • 259.
    Hao, Chengcheng
    et al.
    Department of Statistics, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden; Department of Automation, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China.
    Liang, Yuli
    Department of Statistics, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Roy, Anuradha
    Department of Management Science and Statistics, The University of Texas at San Antonio, One UTSA Circle, San Antonio TX, United States.
    Equivalency between vertices and centers-coupled-with-radii principal component analyses for interval data2015In: Statistics and Probability Letters, ISSN 0167-7152, E-ISSN 1879-2103, Vol. 106, p. 113-120Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Centers and vertices principal component analyses are common methods to explain variations within multivariate interval data. We introduce multivariate equicorrelated structures to vertices' covariance. Assuming the structure, we show equivalence between centers and vertices methods by proving their eigensystems proportional.

  • 260.
    hao, zengyi
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    A simulation study of Poisson Regression model with sample selection effect2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 261.
    Harlén, Mattias
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Motivation till matematik: En systematisk litteraturstudie som undersöker vad i undervisningen som kan bidra till hög motivation till matematik för elever.2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Students motivation in mathematics are something that affects the achievements. If teachers can increase students' motivation for mathematics, they are expected to increase their achievement. The aim with this systematic literature study is to investigate what in the teaching environment that is affecting the students' motivation. The study includes 30 articles which is analyzed through division into two main categories and six subcategories. The main categories are material tools in teaching and psychological and social aspects in teaching. Many methods and aspects of teaching have been examined and proven to increase motivation among students. Several methods are often combined to increase the motivation for the students. Which makes it difficult to state whether it is an individual method that motivates students, or a combination of several methods. In the result, digital tools and social interactions between students are presented as important elements for high motivation. Based on the outcome, it is found that it is extremely individual what motivates each person.

  • 262.
    Harlén, Mattias
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Motiverande lektionsformer i matematik: - En enkätstudie om vilka lektionsformer och medierande redskap som mellanstadieelever upplever gynnar deras lärande och motivation till matematik2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In today's school, many pupils have anxiety towards mathematics, which negatively affects their performance. By increasing the pupils’ motivation, their performance is expected to do the same. If the pupils work with methods they feel that they can learn from, their motivation will increase. The purpose of the survey was to investigate, from a pupil perspective, what methods middle school pupils experience have a positive effect on their learning and motivation in math. To analyze the result the mediating tools of the sociocultural perspective was chosen to support the analysis of the result. The result showed that the math book, mathematical games and teacher-led instructions were estimated slightly better than the remaining methods by the pupils. There was no correlation between the methods according to which mediation tools that was used. The only relationship found was that most pupils of the sample group have used these methods, unlike some of the others. The conclusion suggests that a varied teaching consisting of diverse types of methods and various mediating tools favors the pupils’ learning and motivation but also how often a method is used.

  • 263.
    Hedman, Stephanie
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Nordin, Jenny
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Skriftliga algoritmer inom addition och subtraktion: Missuppfattningar och olika synsätt på algoritmer2014Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This systematic review investigates common errors within standard addition and subtraction algorithms along with the pros and cons that come with teaching algorithms in primary school. The purpose of this study is to get an overview and an understanding of what standard written algorithms contributes with in primary schools. In the process of collecting data we have searched for peer reviewed articles from a database. This provided us with recommended articles which resulted in our choice of using snowballing as a second data collection strategy. The main results of this study show that the most common misconceptions are the ones involving carrying and borrowing. The main pros regarding standard written algorithms are that this is an easy strategy to get the correct results. The central cons in our study are that the conception of place value and number sense are affected negatively by using this strategy. Our conclusion in relation to our discoveries is that standard written algorithms are not suitable to teach in primary school, the strategy is more appropriate in higher grades in school.

  • 264.
    Heggemann, Edvin
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Associativa egenskaper hos oktonionerna2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This essay demonstrates that the clasical octonions are associative as an algebra in tensor category if given an adequate associator. The foundation of the essay is the equivalance between the tensor category of modules over a quasi-Hopf algebra and the tensor category of comodules over a Hopf-quasi algebra and adapts some of the results in Helena Albuquerque's and Shahn Majid's Quasialgebra Structure of the Octonions [1]. The result of our paper is that the octonions can be described as a algebra in a tensor category of Z3 2graded vectorspaces and that there exists associators such that this algebra is associative. We also demonstrate this for a particular associator.

  • 265.
    Hellström, Karin
    et al.
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Journath, Josefin
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Skrivtidens betydelse för nationella proven: - en undersökning om hur skolans val av skrivtid påverkar provresultatet2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 266.
    Helsing, Johan
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Att prognostisera ungdomsarbetslösheten: En jämförelse av prognosförmågan mellan en ADL-modell och en ARIMA-modell2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 267.
    Henrichsen, Jonna
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Resonemang i grupp: En studie om interaktion i matematikundervisning2016Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study has looked at team work as a teaching method in mathematics. Using structured observations of four groups of fifth graders and text analysis of their solutions, I have studied students reasoning and the use of mathematical representation forms. The study shows that group work leads to students reason and communicate with each other, but it is done differently in different groups. In the light of previous research study to image to group work develops students way to communicate and discuss mathematics. The different groups used in a big way by the same representational forms. This may be due to the design of the task and on curriculum and teaching aids design.

  • 268.
    Henrysson, Allan
    et al.
    Örebro University, Department of Business, Economics, Statistics and Informatics.
    Kruse, Daniel
    Örebro University, Department of Business, Economics, Statistics and Informatics.
    Lärares föräldrakontakter: En statistisk analys2007Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna uppsats har som syfte att med hjälp av en statistisk modell samt beskrivande statistik förklara vad som kännetecknar de lärare som enligt vissa förutbestämda kriterier benämns som eldsjälar. Datamaterialet för arbetet bygger på en enkätundersökning som utförts av statistiska centralbyrån (SCB) på uppdrag av pedagogiska institutionen vid Örebro universitet.

  • 269.
    Hermansson, Caroline
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Karlsson, Anton
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    En matematisk modell av släggkastets rotationsfas2014Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Med vår uppsats visar vi hur det med hjälp av Lagranges metod går att ta

    fram en matematisk modell av rotationsfasen i ett släggkast. Släggkastaren

    och släggan utgörs i uppsatsen av en sammansatt stelkroppsmodell. Vi tar

    fram kastarens rörelseekvationer vilka vi får genom Lagranges ekvation. I

    uppsatsen har vi härlett Lagranges ekvation genom Newtons andra lag och

    Hamiltons princip. Resultatet av modellen presenteras i form av en plot i

    Matlab av slägghuvudets position under olika tider under rörelsen.

  • 270.
    Hjalmarsson, Frida
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Motivation: Kan en lärares undervisning bidra till elevens motivation i matematik?2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The teaching in mathematics is influenced by the student's motivation to mathematics. The main purpose of this study is to find factors in the teacher´s methods that can have an effect on the pupil´s motivation in mathematics. In order to create a research overview, a systematic literature study has been conducted, to then later on, deepen the topics that have become visible. Two themes were clearly emerged, Games and Activities and Teaching factors, and these themes were examined to find out which factors can affect the pupil´s motivation. The result of the study shows that the teacher´s methods and how they are implemented, has a significant role in how the pupils will find and experience motivation for math. Active teaching proves to be an important factor for the student's motivation and how it appears in the mathematical subject. The result also shows that educational games in maths education have a positive impact on all pupils, and especially for pupils with learning disabilities.

  • 271.
    Hjalmarsson, Mikael
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Problemuppgifter och förmågor som övas via dem: En läromedelsanalys2016Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Problem solving is a central part of Lgr11 and today's mathematics education. This allows the teaching materials used in the Swedish schools must treat the problem if they are to provide students with the knowledge to reach the vulnerable requirements of Lgr11. In Year 6, pupils get grades in mathematics, making it important to conduct research about learning reaches Lgr11 targets around the problem solving. The study is designed as a teaching material analysis, of Matte Direkt Borgen 6a and 6b. My study is a quantitative study in two parts. First, I analyzed how many of the problems according to the author considers to be problems are problems tasks or routine tasks. Of the result, I could then analyze how well the problem-solving ability, conceptual understanding and reasoning ability went to practice using the information in the teaching material. The results showed that only 59 of the 137 tasks which the author believes is the problem tasks could be classified as problem tasks. The abilities who was exercised by the data, however, does not matter if it was a problem or routine tasks. Here practiced all the information any of the three investigated abilities.

  • 272.
    Hollingby Weller, Helena
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Motivation för att lära matematik2014Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This is a literature review that focuses on students' motivation to learn mathematics. It is based on ten scientific articles that highlight various factors that may influence students' motivation to learn mathematics. The articles results have been divided into four categories, the first dealing with the student in focus develop their cognitive and metacognitive abilities. The next category focuses on students' use of mathematics and highlights activities that help students to see mathematics as something useful and linked to the reality outside the classroom. The third category has the teacher in focus and is aimed primarily at the skills that teachers need in order to enhance students' motivation to learn mathematics. The last category is about teaching character and how it can be designed to be beneficial for student motivation.

  • 273.
    Holm, Jonas
    et al.
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Sörman Olofsson, William
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Modellskattning för energianvändning inom bransch B och C2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 274.
    Holm, Mattias
    et al.
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Remnefors, Michael
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Tränarbyte för att bryta negativ trend under pågående säsong - skröna eller sanning?2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 275.
    Huang, Fangxin
    et al.
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Yin, Lifeng
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Comparison of Different GREG Estimators for Count Data2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 276.
    Hultblad, Brigitta
    et al.
    Statistics Sweden.
    Karlsson, Sune
    Örebro University, Swedish Business School at Örebro University.
    Bayesian simultaneous determination of structural breaks and lag lengths2008In: Studies in Nonlinear Dynamics and Econometrics, ISSN 1081-1826, E-ISSN 1558-3708, Vol. 12, no 3, p. Article 4-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The detection of structural change and determination of lag lengths are long-standing issues in time series analysis. This paper demonstrates how these can be successfully married in a Bayesian analysis. By taking account of the inherent uncertainty about the lag length when deciding on the number of structural breaks and vice versa we avoid some common pitfalls and are able to draw more robust conclusions. The approach is illustrated using both real data and a simulation study.

  • 277.
    Håkansson, Alexandra
    et al.
    Örebro University, Swedish Business School at Örebro University.
    Wahlman, Linda
    Örebro University, Swedish Business School at Örebro University.
    Statistiska centralbyråns Arbetskraftsundersökning år 2000-2008: En utvärdering av länkningsarbetet efter EU-harmoniseringen år 2005 med hjälp av ARIMA modellering2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 278.
    Högberg, Hans
    Örebro University, Swedish Business School at Örebro University.
    Rank-based methods for analysis of individual variations in paired ordinal dataManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 279.
    Högberg, Hans
    Örebro University, Swedish Business School at Örebro University.
    Some properties of measures of disagreement and disorder in paired ordinal data2010Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The measures studied in this thesis were a measure of disorder, D, and a measure of the individual part of the disagreement, the measure of relative rank variance, RV, proposed by Svensson in 1993. The measure of disorder is a useful measure of order consistency in paired assessments of scales with a different number of possible values. The measure of relative rank variance is a useful measure in evaluating reliability and for evaluating change in qualitative outcome variables.

    In Paper I an overview of methods used in the analysis of dependent ordinal data and a comparison of the methods regarding the assumptions, specifications, applicability, and implications for use were made. In Paper II an application, and a comparison of the results of some standard models, tests, and measures to two different research problems were made. The sampling distribution of the measure of disorder was studied both analytically and by a simulation experiment in Paper III. The asymptotic normal distribution was shown by the theory of U-statistics and the simulation experiments for finite sample sizes and various amount of disorder showed that the sampling distribution was approximately normal for sample sizes of about 40 to 60 for moderate sizes of D and for smaller sample sizes for substantial sizes of D. The sampling distribution of the relative rank variance was studied in a simulation experiment in Paper IV. The simulation experiment showed that the sampling distribution was approximately normal for sample sizes of 60-100 for moderate size of RV, and for smaller sample sizes for substantial size of RV. In Paper V a procedure for inference regarding relative rank variances from two or more samples was proposed. Pair-wise comparison by jackknife technique for variance estimation and the use of normal distribution as approximation in inference for parameters in independent samples based on the results in Paper IV were demonstrated. Moreover, an application of Kruskal-Wallis test for independent samples and Friedman’s test for dependent samples were conducted.

    List of papers
    1. An overview of methods in the analysis of dependent ordered categorical data: assumptions and implications
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>An overview of methods in the analysis of dependent ordered categorical data: assumptions and implications
    2008 (English)Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Subjective assessments of pain, quality of life, ability etc. measured by rating scales and questionnaires are common in clinical research. The resulting responses are categorical with an ordered structure and the statistical methods must take account of this type of data structure. In this paper we give an overview of methods for analysis of dependent ordered categorical data and a comparison of standard models and measures with nonparametric augmented rank measures proposed by Svensson. We focus on assumptions and issues behind model specifications and data as well as implications of the methods. First we summarise some fundamental models for categorical data and two main approaches for repeated ordinal data; marginal and cluster-specific models. We then describe models and measures for application in agreement studies and finally give a summary of the approach of Svensson. The paper concludes with a summary of important aspects.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Örebro: Örebro universitet, 2008. p. 33
    Series
    Working paper series, Swedish business school at Örebro, ISSN 1403-0586 ; 7
    National Category
    Probability Theory and Statistics
    Research subject
    Statistics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-12664 (URN)
    Available from: 2010-12-06 Created: 2010-12-06 Last updated: 2017-10-17Bibliographically approved
    2. Comparison of methods in the analysis of dependent ordered catagorical data
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Comparison of methods in the analysis of dependent ordered catagorical data
    2008 (English)Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Rating scales for outcome variables produce categorical data which are often ordered and measurements from rating scales are not standardized. The purpose of this study is to apply commonly used and novel methods for paired ordered categorical data to two data sets with different properties and to compare the results and the conditions for use of these models.

    The two applications consist of a data set of inter-rater reliability and a data set from a follow-up evaluation of patients. Standard measures of agreement and measures of association are used. Various loglinear models for paired categorical data using properties of quasi-independence and quasi-symmetry as well as logit models with a marginal modelling approach are used. A nonparametric method for ranking and analyzing paired ordered categorical data is also used.

    We show that a deeper insight when it comes to disagreement and change patterns may be reached using the nonparametric method and illustrate some problems with standard measures as well as parametric loglinear and logit models. In addition, the merits of the nonparametric method are illustrated.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Örebro: Örebro university, 2008. p. 19
    Series
    Working paper series, Swedish business school at Örebro, ISSN 1403-0586 ; 6
    National Category
    Probability Theory and Statistics
    Research subject
    Statistics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-12665 (URN)
    Available from: 2010-12-06 Created: 2010-12-06 Last updated: 2017-10-17Bibliographically approved
    3. Statistical properties of a nonparametric measure of discordance in paired ordinal data
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Statistical properties of a nonparametric measure of discordance in paired ordinal data
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    National Category
    Probability Theory and Statistics
    Research subject
    Statistics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-12666 (URN)
    Available from: 2010-12-06 Created: 2010-12-06 Last updated: 2017-10-17Bibliographically approved
    4. Rank-based methods for analysis of individual variations in paired ordinal data
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Rank-based methods for analysis of individual variations in paired ordinal data
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    National Category
    Probability Theory and Statistics
    Research subject
    Statistics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-12667 (URN)
    Available from: 2010-12-06 Created: 2010-12-06 Last updated: 2017-10-17Bibliographically approved
    5. Statistical aspects on multiple comparisons of relative rank variance in paired ordinal data
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Statistical aspects on multiple comparisons of relative rank variance in paired ordinal data
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    National Category
    Probability Theory and Statistics
    Research subject
    Statistics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-12668 (URN)
    Available from: 2010-12-06 Created: 2010-12-06 Last updated: 2017-10-17Bibliographically approved
  • 280.
    Högberg, Hans
    Örebro University, Swedish Business School at Örebro University.
    Statistical aspects on multiple comparisons of relative rank variance in paired ordinal dataManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 281.
    Högberg, Hans
    Örebro University, Swedish Business School at Örebro University.
    Statistical properties of a nonparametric measure of discordance in paired ordinal dataManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 282.
    Högberg, Hans
    et al.
    Örebro University, Swedish Business School at Örebro University.
    Svensson, Elisabeth
    Örebro University, Swedish Business School at Örebro University.
    An overview of methods in the analysis of dependent ordered categorical data: assumptions and implications2008Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Subjective assessments of pain, quality of life, ability etc. measured by rating scales and questionnaires are common in clinical research. The resulting responses are categorical with an ordered structure and the statistical methods must take account of this type of data structure. In this paper we give an overview of methods for analysis of dependent ordered categorical data and a comparison of standard models and measures with nonparametric augmented rank measures proposed by Svensson. We focus on assumptions and issues behind model specifications and data as well as implications of the methods. First we summarise some fundamental models for categorical data and two main approaches for repeated ordinal data; marginal and cluster-specific models. We then describe models and measures for application in agreement studies and finally give a summary of the approach of Svensson. The paper concludes with a summary of important aspects.

  • 283.
    Högberg, Hans
    et al.
    Örebro University, Swedish Business School at Örebro University.
    Svensson, Elisabeth
    Örebro University, Swedish Business School at Örebro University.
    Comparison of methods in the analysis of dependent ordered catagorical data2008Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Rating scales for outcome variables produce categorical data which are often ordered and measurements from rating scales are not standardized. The purpose of this study is to apply commonly used and novel methods for paired ordered categorical data to two data sets with different properties and to compare the results and the conditions for use of these models.

    The two applications consist of a data set of inter-rater reliability and a data set from a follow-up evaluation of patients. Standard measures of agreement and measures of association are used. Various loglinear models for paired categorical data using properties of quasi-independence and quasi-symmetry as well as logit models with a marginal modelling approach are used. A nonparametric method for ranking and analyzing paired ordered categorical data is also used.

    We show that a deeper insight when it comes to disagreement and change patterns may be reached using the nonparametric method and illustrate some problems with standard measures as well as parametric loglinear and logit models. In addition, the merits of the nonparametric method are illustrated.

  • 284.
    Hörngren, Gustav
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    From the Axiom of Choice to Tychono ’s Theorem2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    A topological space X, is shown to be compact if and only if every net in X has a cluster point. If s is a net in a product Q 2A X, where each Xis a compact topological space, then, for every subset B of A, such that the restriction of s to B has a cluster point in the partial product Q 2B X, it is found that the restriction of s to B [ fg – extending B by one element 2 A n B – has a cluster point in its respective partial product Q 2B[fg X, as well. By invoking Zorn’s lemma, the whole of s can be shown to have a cluster point. It follows that the product of any family of compact topological spaces is compact with respect to the product topology. This is Tychono’s theorem. The aim of this text is to set forth a self contained presentation of this proof. Extra attention is given to highlight the deep dependency on the axiom of choice.

  • 285.
    Ilves, Maiki
    et al.
    Örebro University, Swedish Business School at Örebro University.
    Laitila, Thomas
    Örebro University, Swedish Business School at Örebro University.
    Probability-sampling approach to editing2009In: Austrian journal of statistics, ISSN 1026-597X, no 3, p. 171-182Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Editing for measurement errors is always part of data processing. In traditional editing, all data records are checked for errors and inconsistencies. In a new way of editing, only the subset with the most important erroneous responses is considered for editing. This approach is applied in selective editing procedures, which have been shown to save resources considerably. However, selective editing lacks a probabilistic basis and the properties of estimators cannot be established using standard methods. In particular, bias properties of the estimator are unknown except for level estimates based on historical data. This paper proposes combining selective editing with an editing procedure based on the traditional probability-sampling framework. The variance of a bias-corrected Horvitz-Thompson estimator is derived and a variance estimator is proposed. The results of a simulation study support the use of the combined editing procedure.

  • 286.
    Ingebrigtsen Axelsson, Julia
    et al.
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Lindgren, Sandra
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Agerar fotbollsspelare enligt Nashs jämviktsteori?2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 287.
    Iversen, Kjærand
    et al.
    Agder University College, Norway.
    Nilsson, Per
    Växjö universitet, Matematiska och systemtekniska institutionen, Växjö, Sweden.
    Students' meaning-making processes of random phenomena in an ICT-environment2006In: European Research in Mathematics Education IV: Proceedings of the Fourth Congress of the European Society for Research in Mathematics Education, Universitat Ramon Llull , 2006, p. 601-610Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 288.
    Iversen, Kjærand
    et al.
    Nord-Trøndelag University College, Røstad, Levanger, Norway; Agder University College, Kristiansand, Norway.
    Nilsson, Per
    Växjö universitet, Matematiska och systemtekniska institutionen, Växjö, Sweden.
    Students' reasoning about one-object stochastic phenomena in an ICT-environment2007In: International Journal of Computers for Mathematical Learning, ISSN 1382-3892, E-ISSN 1573-1766, Vol. 12, no 2, p. 113-133Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper focuses on the different ways in which students in lower secondary school (14–16 year olds) experience compound random events, presented to them in the form of combined junctions. A carefully designed ICT environment was developed enabling the students to interact with different representations of such structures. Data for the analysis was gathered from two interview sessions. The analysis of the interaction is based on constructivist principles on learning; i.e. we adopted a student-oriented perspective, taking into consideration the different ways students try to make sense of chance encounters.

    Our results show how some students give priority to geometrical and physical concerns, and we discuss how seeking causal explanations of random phenomena may have encouraged this. With respect to numerically oriented models a division strategy appears to stand out as the preferred one.

  • 289.
    Jacobson, Tor
    et al.
    Sveriges Riksbank, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Karlsson, Sune
    Stockholm School of Economics, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Finding Good Predictors for Inflation: A Bayesian Model Averaging Approach2004In: Journal of Forecasting, ISSN 0277-6693, E-ISSN 1099-131X, Vol. 23, no 7, p. 479-496Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We consider a Bayesian model averaging approach for the purpose of forecasting Swedish consumer price index inflation using a large set of potential indicators, comprising some 80 quarterly time series covering a wide spectrum of Swedish economic activity. The paper demonstrates how to efficiently and systematically evaluate (almost) all possible models that these indicators in combination can give rise to. The results, in terms of out-of-sample performance, suggest that Bayesian model averaging is a useful alternative to other forecasting procedures, in particular recognizing the flexibility by which new information can be incorporated.

  • 290.
    Jafari, Raheleh
    et al.
    Centre for Artificial Intelligence Research (CAIR), University of Agder, Grimstad, Norway.
    Razvarz, Sina
    Departamento de Control Automático, CINVESTAV-IPN (National Polytechnic Institute), Mexico City, Mexico.
    Gegov, Alexander
    School of Computing, University of Portsmouth, Portsmouth, UK.
    Paul, Satyam
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology. School of Engineering and Sciences, Tecnológico de Monterrey, Monterrey, Mexico.
    Fuzzy Modeling for Uncertain Nonlinear Systems Using Fuzzy Equations and Z-Numbers2019In: Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing / [ed] Lotfi, Ahmad; Bouchachia, Hamid; Gegov, Alexander; Langensiepen, Caroline; McGinnity, Martin, Springer, 2019, Vol. 840, p. 96-107Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, the uncertainty property is represented by Z-number as the coefficients and variables of the fuzzy equation. This modification for the fuzzy equation is suitable for nonlinear system modeling with uncertain parameters. Here, we use fuzzy equations as the models for the uncertain nonlinear systems. The modeling of the uncertain nonlinear systems is to find the coefficients of the fuzzy equation. However, it is very difficult to obtain Z-number coefficients of the fuzzy equations.

    Taking into consideration the modeling case at par with uncertain nonlinear systems, the implementation of neural network technique is contributed in the complex way of dealing the appropriate coefficients of the fuzzy equations. We use the neural network method to approximate Z-number coefficients of the fuzzy equations.

  • 291.
    Jafari, Raheleh
    et al.
    Agder University College, Grimstad, Norway.
    Razvarz, Sina
    National Polytechnic Institute, Mexico City, Mexico.
    Gegov, Alexander
    University of Portsmouth, Portsmouth, UK.
    Paul, Satyam
    National Polytechnic Institute, Mexico City, Mexico.
    Modeling and Control of Uncertain Nonlinear Systems2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A survey of the methodologies associated with the modeling and control of uncertain nonlinear systems has been given due importance in this paper. The basic criteria that highlights the work is relied on the various patterns of techniques incorporated for the solutions of fuzzy equations that corresponds to fuzzy controllability subject. The solutions which are generated by these equations are considered to be the controllers. Currently, numerical techniques have come out as superior techniques in order to solve these types of problems. The implementation of neural networks technique is contributed in the complex way of dealing the appropriate coefficients and solutions of the fuzzy systems.

  • 292.
    Jafari, Raheleh
    et al.
    Agder University College, Grimstad, Norway.
    Razvarz, Sina
    National Polytechnic Institute, Mexico City, Mexico.
    Gegov, Alexander
    University of Portsmouth, Portsmouth, UK.
    Paul, Satyam
    National Polytechnic Institute, Mexico City, Mexico.
    Keshtkar, Sajjad
    Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (UNAM), Mexico City, Mexico.
    Fuzzy Sumudu Transform Approach to Solving Fuzzy Differential Equations With Z-Numbers2019In: Advanced Fuzzy Logic Approaches in Engineering Science / [ed] Mangey Ram, Hershey, PA, USA: IGI Global , 2019, p. 18-48Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Uncertain nonlinear systems can be modeled with fuzzy differential equations (FDEs) and the solutions of these equations are applied to analyze many engineering problems. However, it is very difficult to obtain solutions of FDEs. In this book chapter, the solutions of FDEs are approximated by utilizing the fuzzy Sumudu transform (FST) method. Here, the uncertainties are in the sense of fuzzy numbers and Z-numbers. Important theorems are laid down to illustrate the properties of FST. This new technique is compared with Average Euler method and Max-Min Euler method. The theoretical analysis and simulation results show that the FST method is effective in estimating the solutions of FDEs.

  • 293.
    Jahrl, Timmy
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Ringar, Euklides och polynom: Från ring till polynom2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Heltalen och polynom tycks ha flera gemensamma egenskaper. En av heltalens egenskaper är aritmetikens fundamentalsats som säger att alla heltal kan skrivas som en produkt av primtal. Polynomen har en motsvarande egenskap, faktorsatsen, som innebär att varje polynom kan skrivas som en produkt av rotfaktorer. Denna och flera andra egenskaper som heltal och polynom har som motsvarar varandra beror inte på en slump utan på att de är besläktade. Egenskaper hos många välanvända mängder, de reella talen, de rationella talen samt heltalen kan beskrivas med gruppteori. Dessa egenskaper gäller endast över en binär operation men många intressanta och användbara egenskaper kräver två operationer. Inom denna uppsats undersöks den algebraiska strukturen ringar där många egenskaper som tas för givet beror på speciella egenskaper och därmed inte alltid finns närvarande. Efteråt studeras en speciell typ av ring kallad Euklidiska domän. Där många egenskaper som tillhör heltalen existerar i generaliserade former inom denna ring. Detta kapitel innehåller bevis som har generaliserats. Även polynomens struktur studeras och visar sig vara en Euklidisk domän. I studien används ett annat tillvägagångsätt än den traditionella där det bevisas genom idealer och PID. Uppsatsen avslutas med en kort studie av flervariabelpolynom där de egna bevisen finns varvid det ses att flervariabelpolynom med samma mängdvariabler är isomorfa.

  • 294.
    Jangir, Jailan
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Motivationsfaktorer: En systematisk litteraturstudie om vad som påverkar elevers motivation i matematiklärandet2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Students’ achievement/learning is affected by their motivation and their motivation is affected by different factors. The purpose of this literature study is to examine the factors that contribute to the motivation of student’s mathematics learning

    The basis of this study is international articles that has been systematically selected from the database: Web of Science. The results showed that parents and teacher has strong influence on students’ achievement, motivation and attitudes towards mathematics. Different types of teaching methods have an influence on students’

  • 295.
    Jangir, Jailan
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Problemlösning i matematik: Laborativt material och kommunikation i matematik2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Problem solving is an important part of teaching mathematics. There have been several advantages of problem solving in teaching mathematics while it has proved difficult to teach through problem solving. The current study aimed to investigate the communications between the students during the solution process and what challenge and opportunities manipulative material can give both students and teachers during the solution process. 12 fourth-class graduates were divided into four groups and were observed using video cameras during a math lesson. The students solved a problem solving task where manipulative materials was available. The results of the study show that the communication between the students varied depending on where in the solution process the students were. The results also show that there are both opportunities and challenges for both students and teachers when working with manipulative materials.

  • 296.
    Jatta, Abdullah
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Test of Causality in Conditional Variance Hafner and Herwatz Test for Causality2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 297.
    Javed, Farrukh
    Department of Statistics, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Effect of jumps on causation patterns: an international investigation2013In: International Journal of Computational Economics and Econometrics, ISSN 1757-1170, E-ISSN 1757-1189, Vol. 3, no 3/4, p. 187-204Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we empirically investigate and discuss the effects of jumps in data on causation pattern both in mean and variance. Our data consist of daily stock returns of four countries: France, Sweden, the UK and Finland. A test proposed by Cheung and Ng (1996) and Hong (2001) is applied for testing volatility spillover. We find significant evidence of jump spillover. It is shown that the presence of jump affects the transmission of information between two sets of series. Moreover, it is found that the choice of an appropriate model is essential for understanding the real pattern of transmission.

  • 298.
    Javed, Farrukh
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Stochastic volatility modelsManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 299.
    Javed, Farrukh
    et al.
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Loperfido, Nicola
    Dipartimento di Economia, Societ`a e Politica, Universit`a degli Studi di Urbino ”Carlo Bo”, Urbino (PU), Italy.
    Mazur, Stepan
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Fourth Cumulant of Multivariate Aggregate Claim ModelsManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The fourth cumulant for the aggregated multivariate claims is considered. A formula is presented for the general case when the aggregating variable is independent of the multivariate claims. Two important special cases are considered. In the first one, multivariate skewed normal claims are considered and aggregated by a Poisson variable. The second case is dealing with multivariate asymmetric generalized Laplace and aggregation is made by a negative binomial variable. Due to the invariance property the latter case can be derived directly, leading to the identity involving the cumulant of the claims and the aggregated claims. There is a well established relation between asymmetric Laplace motion and negative binomial process that corresponds to the invariance principle of the aggregating claims for the generalized asymmetric Laplace distribution. We explore this relation and provide multivariate continuous time version of the results. It is discussed how these results that deals only with dependence in the claim sizes can be used to obtain a formula for the fourth cumulant for more complex aggregate models of multivariate claims in which the dependence is also in the aggregating variables.

  • 300.
    Javed, Farrukh
    et al.
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden..
    Mantalos, Panagiotis
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Sensitivity of the causality in variance tests to GARCH(1,1) processes2015In: Chilean Journal of Statistics, ISSN 0718-7912, E-ISSN 0718-7920, Vol. 6, no 1, p. 49-65Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper studies the impact of a number of volatile data sets on volatility spillover tests. We investigate a type of data generating process, AR(1)-GARCH(1,1), with an extensive set of Monte Carlo simulations. It is found that causation pattern, due to causality between two series, is influenced by the intensity of volatility clustering. Two testing procedures are applied for testing causality in the variance. We notice a severe size and power distortion when the clustering parameter is high and when the process is near integration. Furthermore, whenever there is a severe size distortion, there is a serial autocorrelation in the standardized residuals. This is seen when the asymptotic distribution of the statistics is used to define a critical region. So, instead of relying on the asymptotic distribution, we calculate the percentiles of the test statistic with the null hypothesis of no spillover effect and use them as a critical region for both size and power. We observe a significant improvement in the results.

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