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  • 251.
    Hassler, Björn
    et al.
    Department of Life Sciences, Södertörn University, Huddinge, Sweden.
    Boström, Magnus
    Department of Life Sciences, Södertörn University, Huddinge, Sweden.
    Grönholm, Sam
    Department of Political Science, Åbo Akademi, Turku, Finland.
    Towards an Ecosystem Approach to Management in Regional Marine Governance?: The Baltic Sea Context2013In: Journal of Environmental Policy and Planning, ISSN 1523-908X, E-ISSN 1522-7200, Vol. 15, no 2, p. 225-245Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Currently, European marine governance seems to be undergoing significantchanges. From having been based largely on scientific expert knowledge, restricted riskassessments and governmental regulation, we are now witnessing a management turntowards holistic perspectives, the inclusion of stakeholders, adaptive governance, and coproductionof knowledge—the so-called ecosystem approach to management (EAM). Byusing the Baltic Sea as an example of these changes, we have taken a closer look at the2007 Baltic Sea Action Plan (BSAP) of the Helsinki Commission and the recent organizationalchanges within the International Council for the Exploration of the Sea (ICES).Informed by a Reflexive Governance perspective, the primary objective has been toanalyse the extent to which institutional preconditions for using an EAM exist in thesetwo cases. Our results show that even though the BSAP has been designed with anEAM approach as its core philosophy, existing implementation, financing, monitoring,and enforcement structures make it unlikely that actual management modes will changesignificantly in the near feature. Changes in the ICES have occurred as a result of aninternal restructuring process characterized by integrative and learning elements. It hasbeen shown that adopting a broad social science perspective and a reflexive governanceviewpoint can elucidate how factors such as inadequate institutional change, limitedcooperation over sector borders, and adjustment problems caused by path dependencycan threaten the successful turn towards the EAM in marine governance.

  • 252.
    Hassler, Björn
    et al.
    Miljövetenskap, Södertörns högskola, Huddinge, Sweden.
    Boström, Magnus
    Miljövetenskap, Södertörns högskola, Huddinge, Sweden.
    Grönholm, Sam
    Åbo University, Åbo, Finland.
    Kern, Kristine
    Wageningen University, Wageningen, The Netherlands.
    Environmental risk governance in the Baltic Sea - A comparison between five key areas: Deliverable number 82011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report focuses on challenges for adaptive, reflective and legitimate regional environmental governance related to environmental risks in the regional context of the Baltic Sea. The point of departure is the assumed challenges for establishing mutually fruitful regional collaboration among a diverse group of neighbouring countries. The Baltic Sea countries differ considerably in terms of socioeconomic development, institutional structures and procedures, power relations, policy styles, political cultures and history. How can regional governance arrangements cope with such differences and establish robust and sustainable modes of risk management? The report places its focus on regulatory frameworks for identified environmental risks as well as decision-making forms and processes. It builds on a discursive comparative case-study design where five key risks for the long-term ecological integrity of the Baltic Sea previously have been studied in detail: oil discharges from marine transportations, chemical pollution, over-fishing, eutrophication and invasive alien species. The analysis is based on case studies undertaken for the international research project ‘Risk governance of the Baltic Sea’ (RISKGOV). The analytical framework is primarily based on mappings of problem structures (i.e. bio-geophysical features affecting collaborative patterns), existing international conventions, regulatory institutions and to what extent civil society actors take part in governance arrangements. Although our primary focus is on the regional scale, the analysis takes into consideration the interplay (in terms of synergistic or conflicting effects) of such regional arrangements with national, EU, and international risk management. Our findings suggest that whereas comprehensive regulatory frameworks in most cases are in place, enforcement and implementation often lags behind. Moreover, regional institutional mechanisms for systematic reflection among relevant stakeholders on long term improvement of environmental safety within the individual issue-areas as well as between different sectors are largely lacking. This tends to lead to – via mecchanisms such as path dependency, sectoral management, too narrow coneptions of uncertainty, static rather than dynamic approaches, neglect of self-moitoring activities and inadequate appreciation of governance plurality – reactive rather than forward-looking policy responses, legitimacy deficits and sub-optimal social and institutional learning

  • 253.
    Haug, Line Smastuen
    et al.
    Div Environm Med, Norwegian Inst Publ Hlth, Oslo, Norway.
    Salihovic, Samira
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Ericson Jogsten, Ingrid
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Thomsen, Cathrine
    Div Environm Med, Norwegian Inst Publ Hlth, Oslo, Norway.
    van Bavel, Bert
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Lindström, Gunilla
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Becher, Georg
    Div Environm Med, Norwegian Inst Publ Hlth, Oslo, Norway; Dept Chem, Univ Oslo, Oslo, Norway.
    Levels in food and beverages and daily intake of perfluorinated compounds in Norway2010In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 80, no 10, p. 1137-1143Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) have been determined in 21 samples of selected food and beverages such as meat, fish, bread, vegetables, milk, drinking water and tea from the Norwegian marked. Up to 12 different PFCs were detected in the samples. Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) were found in concentrations similar to or lower than what has been observed in other studies world-wide. Differences in the relative proportion of PFOA and PFOS between samples of animal origin and samples of non-animal origin were observed and support findings that PFOS has a higher bio-accumulation potential in animals than PFOA. Based on these 21 measurements and consumption data for the general Norwegian population, a rough estimate of the total dietary intake of PFCs was found to be around 100 ng d(-1). PFOA and PFOS contributed to about 50% of the total intake. When dividing the population in gender and age groups, estimated intakes were decreasing with increasing age and were higher in males than females. The estimated intakes of PFOS and PFOA in the present study are lower than what has been reported in studies from Spain, Germany, United Kingdom, Canada and Japan. This study illustrates that by improving the analytical methods for determination of PFC in food samples, a broad range of compounds can be detected, which is important when assessing dietary exposure. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 254.
    Hauk, A.
    et al.
    Chair of Ecological Chemistry and Geochemistry, University of Bayreuth, Bayreuth, Germany.
    Richartz, H.
    Chair of Ecological Chemistry and Geochemistry, University of Bayreuth, Bayreuth, Germany.
    Schramm, K. W.
    Chair of Ecological Chemistry and Geochemistry, University of Bayreuth, Bayreuth, Germany.
    Fiedler, Heidelore
    Chair of Ecological Chemistry and Geochemistry, University of Bayreuth, Bayreuth, Germany.
    Reduction of nitrated phenols: A method to predict half-wave-potentials of nitrated phenols with molecular modeling1990In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 20, no 6, p. 717-728Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The redox stability of 13 nitrated phenols was investigated using polarographic measured half-wave-potentials. These half-wave-potentials were compared with data from a semi-empirical quantum mechanic computer model. A good correlation was found between LUMO energy and the half-wave-potential for phenols, but for phenolates the correlation coefficient was lower, even when a multivariate regression model was used.

  • 255.
    Hausen, Jonas
    et al.
    Institute for Environmental Research, RWTH Aachen University, Aachen, Germany.
    Otte, Jens C.
    Institute of Toxicology and Genetics, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen, Germany.
    Legradi, Jessica
    Environment and Health, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Amsterdam, Netherlands.
    Yang, Lixin
    Institute of Toxicology and Genetics, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen, Germany .
    Strähle, Uwe
    Institute of Toxicology and Genetics, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen, Germany.
    Fenske, Martina
    Project Group for Translational Medicine and Pharmacology, Fraunhofer Institute for Molecular Biology and Applied Ecology IME, Aachen, Germany .
    Hecker, Markus
    School of Environment and Sustainability, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon SK, Canada.
    Tang, Song
    School of Environment and Sustainability, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon SK, Canada.
    Hammers-Wirtz, Monika
    Research Institute for Ecosystem Analysis and Assessment [gaiac], Aachen, Germany.
    Hollert, Henner
    Institute for Environmental Research [RWTH], Aachen University, Aachen, Germany.
    Keiter, Steffen
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology. Institute for Environmental Research, RWTH Aachen University, Aachen, Germany; Man-Technology-Environment Research Centre, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Ottermanns, Richard
    Institute for Environmental Research [RWTH], Aachen University, Aachen, Germany .
    Fishing for contaminants: identification of three mechanism specific transcriptome signatures using Danio rerio embryos2018In: Environmental science and pollution research international, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 25, no 5, p. 4023-4036Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In ecotoxicology, transcriptomics is an effective way to detect gene expression changes in response to environmental pollutants. Such changes can be used to identify contaminants or contaminant classes and can be applied as early warning signals for pollution. To do so, it is important to distinguish contaminant-specific transcriptomic changes from genetic alterations due to general stress. Here we present a first step in the identification of contaminant class-specific transcriptome signatures. Embryos of zebrafish (Danio rerio) were exposed to three substances (methylmercury, chlorpyrifos and Aroclor 1254, each from 24 to 48 hpf exposed) representing sediment typical contaminant classes. We analyzed the altered transcriptome to detect discriminative genes significantly regulated in reaction to the three applied contaminants. By comparison of the results of the three contaminants, we identified transcriptome signatures and biologically important pathways (using Cytoscape/ClueGO software) that react significantly to the contaminant classes. This approach increases the chance of finding genes that play an important role in contaminant class-specific pathways rather than more general processes.

  • 256.
    Hausen, Jonas
    et al.
    Institute for Environmental Research, RWTH Aachen University, Aachen, Germany.
    Otte, Jens C.
    Institute of Toxicology and Genetics, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen, Germany.
    Straehle, Uwe
    Institute of Toxicology and Genetics, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen, Germany.
    Hammers-Wirtz, Monika
    Research Institute for Ecosystem Analysis and Assessment - gaiac, Aachen, Germany.
    Hollert, Henner
    Institute for Environmental Research, RWTH Aachen University, Aachen, Germany.
    Keiter, Steffen H.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology. Institute for Environmental Research, RWTH Aachen University, Aachen, Germany.
    Ottermanns, Richard
    Institute for Environmental Research, RWTH Aachen University, Aachen, Germany.
    Fold-change threshold screening: a robust algorithm to unmask hidden gene expression patterns in noisy aggregated transcriptome data2015In: Environmental science and pollution research international, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 22, no 21, p. 16384-16392Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Transcriptomics is often used to investigate changes in an organism's genetic response to environmental contamination. Data noise can mask the effects of contaminants making it difficult to detect responding genes. Because the number of genes which are found differentially expressed in transcriptome data is often very large, algorithms are needed to reduce the number down to a few robust discriminative genes. We present an algorithm for aggregated analysis of transcriptome data which uses multiple fold-change thresholds (threshold screening) and p values from Bayesian generalized linear model in order to assess the robustness of a gene as a potential indicator for the treatments tested. The algorithm provides a robustness indicator (ROBI) as well as a significance profile, which can be used to assess the statistical significance of a given gene for different fold-change thresholds. Using ROBI, eight discriminative genes were identified from an exemplary dataset (Danio rerio FET treated with chlorpyrifos, methylmercury, and PCB) which could be potential indicators for a given substance. Significance profiles uncovered genetic effects and revealed appropriate fold-change thresholds for single genes or gene clusters. Fold-change threshold screening is a powerful tool for dimensionality reduction and feature selection in transcriptome data, as it effectively reduces the number of detected genes suitable for environmental monitoring. In addition, it is able to unmask patterns in altered genetic expression hidden by data noise and reduces the chance of type II errors, e.g., in environmental screening.

  • 257.
    Helin, Sven
    et al.
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Babri, Maira
    Umeå School of Business, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Travelling with a code of ethics: a contextual study of a Swedish MNC auditing a Chinese supplier2015In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 107, p. 41-53Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Corporate codes of ethics are integrated into supplier-auditing processes in the hope of ensuring sustainability throughout the supply chain. But little is known about what actually happens when one standardized code of ethics is disseminated and applied in audits on suppliers across the globe. This study builds on the literature on the 'translation of management ideas' and examines what happens when a corporate code of ethics travels in a global context. The specific case reports on a Swedish Multinational Corporation (MNC) with a standardized code of ethics applied in the practice of auditing a supplier in Eastern China. The study shows that the code can be translated in different ways in different organizational and geographical contexts. Observations of and interviews about how the code is translated in practice indicate that the code's ethics are negotiable. It is argued that sustainability and ethics are in danger of being negotiated or completely undermined when efficiency and contractual agreements set the agenda for audits, and that the relative buyer–supplier power relation can play a vital role in setting standards and demanding supplier compliance.

  • 258.
    Helmfrid, Ingela
    et al.
    Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden; Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, County Council of Östergötland, Linköping, Sweden.
    Salihovic, Samira
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    van Bavel, Bert
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Wingren, Gun
    Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Berglund, Marika
    Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Exposure and body burden of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) and metals in a historically contaminated community2015In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 76, p. 41-48Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There are many small villages where environmental contamination is substantial due to historical industrial activities. The aim of the present study was to investigate if long-term or current consumption of local foods, as reported in food frequency questionnaires, co-vary with measured concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorine pesticides ( OCPs), lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd) and mercury (Hg) in blood, urine and hair from a population living in a historically contaminated village.

    Blood, urine and hair were provided by men (n = 38) and women (n = 57), who had participated in a previous case-control study in the contaminated area, and were analyzed for PCB, OCPs, Pb, Cd and Hg. A detailed food frequency questionnaire, used in the previous epidemiological study, was repeated, and up-dated information of life-style, exposure factors and other covariates was collected. Associations between reported consumption of local foods and exposure biomarkers were explored in relation to age, gender, life-style factors and other covariates. A large part of the population in the area reported consumption of local food, and thus, was potentially exposed to the contaminants. Despite the limited number of participants and other weaknesses described, it was possible to link reported consumption of different foods to biomarker concentrations.

    Reported consumption of local vegetables, forest berries and mushrooms co-varied with urinary Cd, indicating an influence from the contaminated area on the Cd exposure. We found no associations between PCB plasma concentrations with reported consumption of local fish, but with consumption of herring (non-local sea fish) which is typically high in PCB. Pesticide (HCB, p,p'-DDE, trans-nonachlor) exposure was mainly associated with agricultural work and having a private well the first five years of life, but we found no associations between pesticide concentrations in plasma and consumption of local vegetables or fish. Exposure to Hg was associated with consumption of fish, both local and non-local, and Pb exposure was associated with the consumption of game.

    Overall, the contaminant concentrations measured in blood, urine and hair varied substantially among study participants, but on average, the concentrations were similar to concentrations measured in other groups of the general Swedish population in the same age range. Larger studies are needed to evaluate health risks (and causality) associated with historical environmental contamination.

  • 259.
    Henry, Barbara J.
    et al.
    W.L. Gore & Associates Inc., Elkton MD, USA.
    Carlin, Joseph P.
    W.L. Gore & Associates Inc., Elkton MD, USA.
    Hammerschmidt, Jon A.
    W.L. Gore & Associates Inc., Elkton MD, USA.
    Buck, Robert C.
    The Chemours Company, Wilmington DE, USA.
    Buxton, L. William
    The Chemours Company, Wilmington DE, USA.
    Fiedler, Heidelore
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Seed, Jennifer
    Risk Assessment Consultant, Alexandria VA, USA.
    Hernandez, Oscar
    Bergeson & Campbell, Washington DC, USA.
    A critical review of the application of polymer of low concern and regulatory criteria to fluoropolymers2018In: Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management, ISSN 1551-3777, E-ISSN 1551-3793, Vol. 14, no 3, p. 316-334Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Per- and poly-fluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) are a group of fluorinated substances that are in the focus of researchers and regulators due to widespread presence in the environment and biota, including humans, of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA). Fluoropolymers, high molecular weight polymers within the PFAS group, have unique properties that constitute a distinct class within the PFAS group. Fluoropolymers have thermal, chemical, photochemical, hydrolytic, oxidative and biological stability. They have negligible residual monomer and oligomer content and low to no leachables. Fluoropolymers are practically insoluble in water and not subject to long-range transport. With a molecular weight well over 100,000 Da, fluoropolymers cannot cross the cell membrane. Fluoropolymers are not bioavailable or bioaccumulative, as evidenced by toxicology studies on PTFE: acute and subchronic systemic toxicity, irritation, sensitization, local toxicity on implantation, cytotoxicity, in vitro and in vivo genotoxicity, hemolysis, complement activation, and thrombogenicity. Clinical studies of patients receiving permanently implanted PTFE cardiovascular medical devices demonstrate no chronic toxicity or carcinogenicity, reproductive or developmental or endocrine toxicity. This paper brings together fluoropolymer toxicity data, human clinical data, and physical-chemical-thermal-biological data for review and assessment to show that fluoropolymers satisfy widely accepted assessment criteria to be considered as "Polymers of Low Concern". This review concludes that fluoropolymers are distinctly different from other polymeric and non-polymeric per- and poly-fluoroalkyl substances and should be separated from them for hazard assessment or regulatory purposes. Grouping fluoropolymers with all classes of PFAS for "read across" or structure activity relationship assessment is not scientifically appropriate.

  • 260.
    Hollert, Henner
    et al.
    Institute for Environmental Research (Biology V), Department of Ecosystem Analysis, RWTH Aachen University, Aachen, Germany; College of Environmental Science and Engineering and State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, Tongji University, Shanhai, China; School of Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing, China; College of Resources and Environmental Science, Chongqing University, Chongqing, China.
    Crawford, Sarah E.
    Institute for Environmental Research (Biology V), Department of Ecosystem Analysis, RWTH Aachen University, Aachen, Germany.
    Brack, Werner
    Institute for Environmental Research (Biology V), Department of Ecosystem Analysis, RWTH Aachen University, Aachen, Germany; Department Effect-Directed Analysis, Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, Leipzig, Germany.
    Brinkmann, Markus
    Institute for Environmental Research (Biology V), Department of Ecosystem Analysis, RWTH Aachen University, Aachen, Germany; Toxicology Centre, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Canada.
    Fischer, Elske
    Laboratory for Archaeobotany, Landesamt für Denkmalpflege im Regierungspräsidium Stuttgart, Gaienhofen-Hemmenhofen, Germany.
    Hartmann, Kai
    Institute for Geographical Sciences, Freie Universität Berlin, Berlin, Germany.
    Keiter, Steffen
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology. Institute for Environmental Research (Biology V), Department of Ecosystem Analysis, RWTH Aachen University, Aachen, Germany.
    Ottermanns, Richard
    Institute for Environmental Research (Biology V), Department of Environmental Biology and Chemodynamics, RWTH Aachen University, Aachen, Germany.
    Ouellet, Jacob D.
    Institute for Environmental Research (Biology V), Department of Ecosystem Analysis, RWTH Aachen University, Aachen, Germany.
    Rinke, Karsten
    Department of Lake Research, Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, Magdeburg, Germany.
    Rösch, Manfred
    Laboratory for Archaeobotany, Landesamt für Denkmalpflege im Regierungspräsidium Stuttgart, Gaienhofen-Hemmenhofen, Germany.
    Ross-Nickoll, Martina
    Institute for Environmental Research (Biology V), Department of Environmental Biology and Chemodynamics, RWTH Aachen University, Aachen, Germany.
    Schäffer, Andreas
    Institute for Environmental Research (Biology V), Department of Environmental Biology and Chemodynamics, RWTH Aachen University, Aachen, Germany.
    Schüth, Christoph
    Institute for Applied Geoscience, Technische Universität Darmstadt, Darmstadt, Germany; Institute of Geosystems and Bioindication, Technische Universität Braunschweig, Braunschweig, Germany.
    Schulze, Tobias
    Department Effect-Directed Analysis, Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, Leipzig, Germany.
    Schwarz, Anja
    Institute of Geosystems and Bioindication, Technische Universität Braunschweig, Braunschweig, Germany.
    Seiler, Thomas-Benjamin
    Institute for Environmental Research (Biology V), Department of Ecosystem Analysis, RWTH Aachen University, Aachen, Germany.
    Wessels, Martin
    Institute for Lake Research, State Institute for Environment, Measurements and Nature Conservation Baden-Württemberg (LUBW), Langenargen, Germany.
    Hinderer, Matthias
    Institute for Applied Geoscience, Technische Universität Darmstadt, Darmstadt, Germany.
    Schwalb, Antje
    Institute of Geosystems and Bioindication, Technische Universität Braunschweig, Braunschweig, Germany.
    Looking back - Looking forward: A novel multi-time slice weight-of-evidence approach for defining reference conditions to assess the impact of human activities on lake systems2018In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 626, p. 1036-1046Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Lake ecosystems are sensitive recorders of environmental changes that provide continuous archives at annual to decadal resolution over thousands of years. The systematic investigation of land use changes and emission of pollutants archived in Holocene lake sediments as well as the reconstruction of contamination, background conditions, and sensitivity of lake systems offer an ideal opportunity to study environmental dynamics and consequences of anthropogenic impact that increasingly pose risks to human well-being. This paper discusses the use of sediment and other lines of evidence in providing a record of historical and current contamination in lake ecosystems. We present a novel approach to investigate impacts from human activities using chemical-analytical, bioanalytical, ecological, paleolimnological, paleoecotoxicological, archeological as well as modeling techniques. This multi-time slice weight-of-evidence (WOE) approach will generate knowledge on conditions prior to anthropogenic influence and provide knowledge to (i) create a better understanding of the effects of anthropogenic disturbances on biodiversity, (ii) assess water quality by using quantitative data on historical pollution and persistence of pollutants archived over thousands of years in sediments, and (iii) define environmental threshold values using modeling methods. This technique may be applied in order to gain insights into reference conditions of surface and ground waters in catchments with a long history of land use and human impact, which is still a major need that is currently not yet addressed within the context of the European Water Framework Directive.

  • 261.
    Hollert, Henner
    et al.
    Department of Zoology, University of Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 230, Heidelberg, Germany .
    Dürr, M.
    Department of Hygiene, Halle, Germany .
    Olsman, Helena
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Halldin, Krister
    Department of Environmental Toxicology, Uppsala, Sweden .
    van Bavel, Bert
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology. Department of Chemistry, Environmental Chemistry, Umeå, Sweden .
    Brack, W.
    UFZ Centre for Environmental Research Leipzig-Halle, Leipzig, Germany .
    Tysklind, M.
    Department of Environmental Toxicology, Uppsala, Sweden .
    Engwall, Magnus
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Braunbeck, T.
    Department of Hygiene, Halle, Germany .
    Biological and chemical determination of dioxin-like compounds in sediments by means of a sediment triad approach in the catchment area of the River Neckar2002In: Ecotoxicology, ISSN 0963-9292, E-ISSN 1573-3017, Vol. 11, no 5, p. 323-336Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To evaluate the sediment quality of selected sites in the catchment area of the River Neckar, an integrative assessment approach was used to assess the ecological hazard potential of dioxin-like sediment compounds. The approach is based on 7-ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) induction in embryonic chicken liver culture and comprehensive chemical analyses of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (priority PAHs according to the US Environmental Protection Agency). The majority of the sediment extracts exhibited high potencies as EROD-inducers. In one sediment sample, which was influenced by a sewage treatment plant, a very high concentration of 930 ng bioassay 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) equivalents (bio-TEQs)/g organic carbon could be determined. However, in none of the samples, more than 6% of the EROD-inducing potency could be explained by the PAHs analyzed chemically. Thus, non-analyzed compounds with EROD-inducing potency were present in the extracts. A fractionation of sediment samples according to pH allowed to localize the major part of EROD-inducing compounds in the neutral fractions. However, a significant portion of the EROD induction could also be explained by the acidic fractions. Following the concept of the Sediment Quality Triad according to Chapman, in situ alterations of macrozoobenthos were examined. A comparison of the results predicted by the EROD assay and chemical analyses with alterations in situ, as measured by means of the saprobic index and the ecotoxicological index according to Carmargo, revealed a high ecological relevance of the results of bioassays and chemical analyses for major sites.

  • 262.
    Hollert, Henner
    et al.
    Universität Heidelberg, Institut für Zooiogie, Heidelberg, Germany .
    Heise, Susanne
    BIS Beratungszentrum für Integriertes Sedimentmanagement an der TU Hamburg-Harburg, Hamburg-Harburg, Germany.
    Keiter, Steffen
    Universität Heidelberg, Institut für Zooiogie, Heidelberg, Germany .
    Heininger, Peter
    Bundesanstalt für Gewässerkunde, Koblenz, Germany.
    Förstner, Ulrich
    Technische Universität Hamburg-Harburg, Institut für Umwelttechnik und Energiewirtschaft, Hamburg-Harburg, Germany.
    Wasserrahmenrichtlinie: Fortschritte und Defizite2007In: Umweltwissenschaften und Schadstoff-Forschung, ISSN 0934-3504, E-ISSN 1865-5084, Vol. 19, no 1 Suppl., p. 58-70Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The water protection policy of the European Union sits on new footings since the end of 2000: The Water Framework

    Directive (WFD). By replacing, merging and renewing all parts of the European water protection policy from the 1970s, the WFD provides a consistent, transparent and comprehensive concept of what water management should be in the Europe of the coming decades. The new directive is aimed at a holistic approach towards integrated water protection. It sets ambitious high-quality goals to achieve a good status for European lakes and rivers primarily in ecological terms, gives details about the essential processes as well as instruments, and includes everything into a strict time schedule.

    Aim: This article adresses progress and shortcomings at the implementation of the WFD in general and with reference to two selected case studies (Rivers Elbe and Upper Danube).

    Results and Discussion: After introducing the WFD, its aims and exceptions, a policy summary and background document ‘Environmental objectives und the Water Framework Directive’ and the use of Environmental Quality Standards (EQS) for single ‘priority substances’ as well as ‘hazardous priority components’ is discussed. The initial characterization undertaken by the German states revealed that only about 14% of all surface waters are considered to meet the WFD objectives by the year of 2015. Approximately 60% of the water bodies assessed are at risk of failing the WFD objectives, if not systematic efforts are made to improve the quality. Screenings of sources and paths of exposure for ‘priority substances’ and ‘priority hazardous substances’ according WFD identified one distinct pollution source for surface waters: ‘Historical pollution from sediments’. Because of industrial emissions in the past several river catchment areas are expected to fail the standards demanded by the WFD, due to a risk of remobilization of contaminants from sediments. This holds true for the Rhine river with high loads of hexachlorobenzene (HCB) as well as for Elbe river, where contaminated sediments can be a severe problem. Therefore, integration of sediments into the holistic river basin management approach and their consideration within the ‘programmes of measures’ scheduled for 2009 is highly recommended. At present, a comprehensive weight-of-evidence study verifies whether the observed fish decline at the Upper Danube. River is caused by ecotoxicological hazard potentials of contaminated sediments.

    Outlook: Combined investigations of sediment contamination and mobility as well as acute and mechanism specific biotests in effect directed analyses/weight-of-evidence studies show grent potential for the assessment of chemically polluted rivers and should be included into the ‘programmes of measures’ within future management concepts.

  • 263.
    Hollert, Henner
    et al.
    Department of Ecosystem Analysis, Institute for Environmental Research (Biology V), RWTH Aachen University, Achen, Germany.
    Keiter, Steffen H.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology. Department of Ecosystem Analysis, Institute for Environmental Research (Biology V), RWTH Aachen University, Achen, Germany.
    Danio rerio as a model in aquatic toxicology and sediment research2015In: Environmental science and pollution research international, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 22, p. 16243-16246Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 264.
    Hollert, Henner
    et al.
    University of Heidelberg.
    Keiter, Steffen
    University of Heidelberg.
    König, Natalie
    University of Heidelberg.
    Rudolf, Marc
    University of Heidelberg.
    Ulrich, Markus
    University of Heidelberg.
    Braunbeck, Thomas
    University of Heidelberg.
    A new sediment contact assay to assess particle-bound pollutants using zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos2003In: Journal of Soils and Sediments, ISSN 1439-0108, E-ISSN 1614-7480, Vol. 3, no 3, p. 197-207Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Goal, Scope and Background. Based on a bioassay battery coveringonly primary producers and consumers as well as degraders, the potential ecological hazard of sediments to vertebrates cannot be estimated comprehensively. Therefore, there is an urgent need to develop and standardize integrated vertebrate-based test systems for sediment investigation strategies. Whereas vertebrate-based in vitro systems have frequently been used for the investigation of aqueous samples, there is a significant lack of whole sediment assays. Thus, the purpose of the present study was: (1)to develop a rapid and reliable, but comprehensive method to investigate native sediments and particulate matters without preceding extraction procedures; (2) to compare the hazard potential of solid phase sediments to the effects of corresponding pore waters and organic extracts in order to characterize the bioavailability of the particle-bound pollutants; and (3) to relatively evaluate the embryotoxic effects of sediments from the catchment areas of the rivers Rhine, Neckar and Danube.

    Methods (or Main Features). To investigate the toxicity of sediment samples on vertebrates, the standard embryo toxicity test with the zebrafish (Danio rerio; Hamilton-Buchanan 1922) according to DIN 38415-6 was modified with respect to exposure scheme and toxicological endpoints. Sediments from the catchment area of the Neckar River were assessed using pore waters, acetonic extracts and native sediments in order to get inside into the potential bioavailability of particle-bound pollutants. A comprehensive test protocol for the investigation of native sediments in the embryo toxicity test with the zebrafish is presented.

    Results and Discussion. The fish embryo assay with Danio rerio can be carried out with both aqueous and organic sediment extracts as well as native (whole, solid phase) sediment samples. Elongation of exposure time from 48 to up to 196 h significantly increased the mortality. Using the fish egg assay with native sediments, a broad range of embryotoxic effects could be elucidated, including clear-cut dose-response curves for the embryotoxic effects of contaminated sediments; in contrast, absence ofembryotoxic effects could be demonstrated even for the highest test concentrations of unpolluted sediments. With native sediments, embryotoxicity was clearly higher than with corresponding pore waters, thus corroborating the view that – at least for fish eggs – the bioavailability of particle-bound lipophilic substances in native sediments is higher than generally assumed. The relative ranking of sediment toxicity was identical using both native sediments and sediment extracts, EC20 values of the latter, however, being eight time lower higher than with the native sediments. A comparison of the embryo toxic effects of samples from the Neckar area with locations along the Rhine and Danube rivers elucidated a broad range of results, thus indicating different levels of contamination.

    Conclusions. A modified protocol of the zebrafish embryo test allows the assessment of sediment toxicity in both aqueous extracts and native sediments. The isolated investigation of pore waters may result in a clear-cut underestimation of the bioavailability of lipophilic particle-bound substances (as determined by native sediments).

    Recommendations and Perspectives. The zebrafish embryo test with native (whole, solid phase) sediments appears very promising for the evaluation of the bioavailable fraction of lipophilicparticle-bound substances and can therefore be recommended for the evaluation of vertebrate toxicity in tiered sediment test strategies and dredging directives such as the HABAB-WSV. Whereas acetone extracts may be tested as a rough estimation of embryotoxicity, native sediment samples will provide a more comprehensive and realistic insight into the bioavailable hazard potential

  • 265.
    Hou, Qihui
    et al.
    Key Laboratory of Environmental Biotechnology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China; College of Life Sciences, Shandong Agricultural University, Taiwan, China.
    Ma, Anzhou
    Key Laboratory of Environmental Biotechnology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Wang, Thanh
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Lin, Jianqiang
    State Key Laboratory of Microbial Technology, Shandong University, Jinan, China.
    Wang, Hailin
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Du, Binghai
    College of Life Sciences, Shandong Agricultural University, Taiwan, China.
    Zhuang, Xuliang
    Key Laboratory of Environmental Biotechnology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Zhuang, Guoqiang
    Key Laboratory of Environmental Biotechnology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Detection of bioavailable cadmium, lead, and arsenic in polluted soil by tailored multiple Escherichia coli whole-cell sensor set2015In: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry, ISSN 1618-2642, E-ISSN 1618-2650, Vol. 407, no 22, p. 6865-6871Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Microbial whole-cell sensor has been widely used to assess bioavailability and risk of toxic elements, but their environmental use is still limited due to the presence of other interfering pollutants and the nonspecific binding in cells, which leads to inaccurate results. Here, we proposed a strategy combining Escherichia coli sensor set with binary regression models for the specific detection of bioavailable cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), and arsenic (As) in a co-polluted environment. Initial tests suggested that the sensor set respectively termed pcadCluc, pzntRluc, and parsRluc could be classified into two groups according to their specific response to Cd, Pb, and As: group 1 (pcadCluc and pzntRluc) induced by a Cd-Pb mix and group 2 (parsRluc) induced by a Cd-As mix. Based on the variance in responses of each sensor to mixtures of target elements, three binary linear equations for two sensor groups were set up to calculate the individual concentrations in the mixture solutions. This method was then used to quantify the bioavailable Cd, Pb, and As in soils from a co-polluted mining region and to compare the results with other methods. Results showed that the conventional single target sensor method overestimated the bioavailability of each element, while sensor set was credible for accurate bioavailable Cd, Pb, and As quantification and comparable with the results from inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) analysis. Our method can potentially be extended to cover the specific detection of other bioavailable toxic elements in different environmental settings.

  • 266.
    Hu, Xindi C.
    et al.
    Department of Environmental Health, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Harvard University , Boston, Massachusetts, USA; Harvard John A. Paulson School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Harvard University , Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA.
    Tokranov, Andrea K.
    Harvard John A. Paulson School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Harvard University , Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA.
    Liddie, Jahred
    Harvard John A. Paulson School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Harvard University , Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA.
    Zhang, Xianming
    Harvard John A. Paulson School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Harvard University , Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA.
    Grandjean, Philippe
    Department of Environmental Health, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Harvard University , Boston, Massachusetts, USA; Institute of Public Health, University of Southern Denmark , Odense, Denmark.
    Hart, Jaime E.
    Department of Environmental Health, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Harvard University , Boston, Massachusetts, USA; Channing Division of Network Medicine, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School , Boston, Massachusetts, USA.
    Laden, Francine
    Department of Environmental Health, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Harvard University , Boston, Massachusetts, USA; Channing Division of Network Medicine, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School , Boston, Massachusetts, USA; Department of Epidemiology, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Harvard University , Boston, Massachusetts, USA.
    Sun, Qi
    Channing Division of Network Medicine, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School , Boston, Massachusetts, USA; Department of Nutrition, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Harvard University , Boston, Massachusetts, USA.
    Yeung, Leo W. Y.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Sunderland, Elsie M.
    Department of Environmental Health, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Harvard University , Boston, Massachusetts, USA; Harvard John A. Paulson School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Harvard University , Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA.
    Tap Water Contributions to Plasma Concentrations of Poly- and Perfluoroalkyl Substances (PFAS) in a Nationwide Prospective Cohort of U.S. Women2019In: Journal of Environmental Health Perspectives, ISSN 0091-6765, E-ISSN 1552-9924, Vol. 127, no 6, article id 67006Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Between 2013 and 2015, concentrations of poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) in public drinking water supplies serving at least six million individuals exceeded the level set forth in the health advisory established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Other than data reported for contaminated sites, no systematic or prospective data exist on the relative source contribution (RSC) of drinking water to human PFAS exposures.

    OBJECTIVES: This study estimates the RSC of tap water to overall PFAS exposure among members of the general U.S.

    POPULATION:

    METHODS: We measured concentrations of 15 PFAS in home tap water samples collected in 1989-1990 from 225 participants in a nationwide prospective cohort of U.S. women: the Nurses' Health Study (NHS). We used a one-compartment toxicokinetic model to estimate plasma concentrations corresponding to tap water intake of PFAS. We compared modeled results with measured plasma PFAS concentrations among a subset of 110 NHS participants.

    RESULTS: Tap water perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) were statistically significant predictors of plasma concentrations among individuals who consumed [Formula: see text] cups of tap water per day. Modeled median contributions of tap water to measured plasma concentrations were: PFOA 12% (95% probability interval 11%-14%), PFNA 13% (8.7%-21%), linear perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (nPFOS) 2.2% (2.0%-2.5%), branched perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (brPFOS) 3.0% (2.5%-3.2%), and perfluorohexanesulfonic acid (PFHxS) 34% (29%-39%). In five locations, comparisons of PFASs in community tap water collected in the period 2013-2016 with samples from 1989-1990 indicated increases in quantifiable PFAS and extractable organic fluorine (a proxy for unquantified PFAS).

    CONCLUSIONS: Our results for 1989-1990 compare well with the default RSC of 20% used in risk assessments for legacy PFAS by many agencies. Future evaluation of drinking water exposures should incorporate emerging PFAS.

  • 267.
    Hung, Craig L. H.
    et al.
    Department of Biology and Chemistry, Centre for Coastal Pollution and Conservation, City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon, Hong Kong SAR, Hong Kong.
    Xu, Yan
    Department of Biology and Chemistry, Centre for Coastal Pollution and Conservation, City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon, Hong Kong SAR, Hong Kong.
    Lam, James C. W.
    Department of Biology and Chemistry, Centre for Coastal Pollution and Conservation, City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon, Hong Kong SAR, Hong Kong.
    Jefferson, Thomas A.
    Southwest Fisheries Center, NOAA Fisheries, La Jolla, CA, United States.
    Hung, Samuel K.
    Hong Kong Cetacean Research Project, 12 Kak Tin Kung Miu Village, Tai Wai, Hong Kong.
    Yeung, Leo W. Y.
    Department of Biology and Chemistry, Centre for Coastal Pollution and Conservation, City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon, Hong Kong SAR, Hong Kong.
    Lam, Michael H. W.
    Department of Biology and Chemistry, Centre for Coastal Pollution and Conservation, City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon, Hong Kong SAR, Hong Kong.
    O'Toole, Desmond K.
    Department of Biology and Chemistry, Centre for Coastal Pollution and Conservation, City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon, Hong Kong SAR, Hong Kong.
    Lam, Paul K. S.
    Department of Biology and Chemistry, Centre for Coastal Pollution and Conservation, City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon, Hong Kong SAR, Hong Kong.
    An assessment of the risks associated with polychlorinated biphenyls found in the stomach contents of stranded Indo-Pacific Humpback Dolphins (Sousa chinensis) and Finless Porpoises (Neophocaena phocaenoides) from Hong Kong waters2006In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 63, no 5, p. 845-852Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The risks to Indo-Pacific Humpback Dolphins and Finless Porpoises associated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were assessed. Stomach contents from twelve stranded Humpback Dolphins and sixteen stranded Finless Porpoises were collected. Concentrations of total and isomer-specific PCBs in the stomach contents were determined using dual-column gas chromatography equipped with electron capture detectors (GC-ECD). Risks due to the PCBs were assessed in three scenarios, based on total PCBs (summation of 41 PCB congeners), total toxicity equivalency (TEQs) and PCB 118, using the toxicity reference values (TRVs) as the threshold effects benchmarks. The calculated risk quotients (RQs) showed that risks due to PCBs were generally low or negligible. Specifically, RQs from total TEQs and total PCBs for Finless Porpoises are below one, suggesting that PCBs should be a low risk for the Finless Porpoise in Hong Kong waters. However, the Humpback Dolphin has RQs larger than 1 for total TEQs and total PCBs when the 95th percentile data were used in the evaluation. This indicates that further investigation may be needed to examine more closely the potential impact of toxic contaminants in the habitat of the Humpback Dolphin.

  • 268.
    Hutzinger, O.
    et al.
    Chair of Ecological Chemistry and Geochemistry, University of Bayreuth, Bayreuth, Germany.
    Fiedler, Heidelore
    Chair of Ecological Chemistry and Geochemistry, University of Bayreuth, Bayreuth, Germany.
    From source to exposure: Some open questions1993In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 27, no 1-3, p. 121-129Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    PCDD/PCDF are trace contaminants in industrial and thermal processes, whose formation often cannot be avoided. Although the most important sources seem to be recognized within the last years new sources have been discovered. Very often only limited data are available. For the understanding of human exposure it is necessary to understand the pathways from the source to target organs or organisms. Environmental concentrations of dioxins have to be analyzed under ectoxicological aspects. Transfer and transformation mechanisms to be considered are: evaporation, deposition, erosion, photochemical degradation

  • 269.
    Hutzinger, O.
    et al.
    Chair of Ecological Chemistry & Geochemistry, University of Bayreuth, Bayreuth, Germany.
    Fiedler, Heidelore
    Chair of Ecological Chemistry & Geochemistry, University of Bayreuth, Bayreuth, Germany.
    Organic trace analysis in environmental chemistry and ecotoxicology1989In: Fresenius' Zeitschrift für analytische Chemie, ISSN 0016-1152, Vol. 334, no 7, p. 608-608Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 270.
    Hutzinger, O.
    et al.
    Chair of Ecological Chemistry & Geochemistry, University of Bayreuth, Bayreuth, Germany.
    Fiedler, Heidelore
    Chair of Ecological Chemistry & Geochemistry, University of Bayreuth, Bayreuth, Germany.
    Sources and emissions of PCDD/PCDF1989In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 18, no 1-6, p. 23-32Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The main sources of polychlorinated dibenzodioxins (PCDD) and dibenzofurans (PCDF) have been found to be the following: 1. Combustion processes in large and small systems; 2. industrial processes of the chemical and other industries, and 3. dumps, accidents and residues. During the last years increasing attention has been paid to the emissions from mobile sources, e.g. automobile exhaust, and to private heating. Even though several theoretical and experimental investigations have been carried out to elucidate the formation mechanism of PCDD/PCDF, many questions still remain unanswered.

  • 271.
    Håkansson, H.
    et al.
    Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Sundin, P.
    Chemical Ecology and Ecotoxicology, Department of Ecology, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Andersson, T.
    Department of Zoophysiology, University of Göteborg, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Brunström, B.
    Department of Zoophysiology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Dencker, L.
    Department of Toxicology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Engwall, Magnus
    Department of Zoophysiology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Ewald, G.
    Chemical Ecology and Ecotoxicology, Department of Ecology, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Gilek, M.
    Department of Zoology, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Holm, G.
    Department of Zoology, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden; Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Honkasalo, S.
    Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, S-10401 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Idestam-Almquist, J.
    Department of Botany, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Jonsson, P.
    Swedish Environmental Protection Agency, Solna, Sweden.
    Kautsky, N.
    Department of Systems Ecology, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Lundberg, G.
    Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Lund-Kvernheim, A.
    Center for Industrial Research, Oslo, Norway.
    Martinsen, K.
    Center for Industrial Research, Oslo, Norway.
    Norrgren, L.
    Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Stockholm, Sweden; Department of Pathology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Personen, M.
    Department of Zoophysiology, University of Göteborg, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Rundgren, M.
    Department of Toxicology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Stålberg, M.
    Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, S-10401 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Tarkpea, M.
    Swedish Environmental Protection Agency, Aquatic Toxicology Section, Nyköping, Sweden.
    Wesén, C.
    Department of Technical Analytical Chemistry, Chemical Center, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    In vivo and in vitro toxicity of fractionated fish lipids, with particular regard to their content of chlorinated organic compounds1991In: Pharmacology and Toxicology, ISSN 0901-9928, E-ISSN 1600-0773, Vol. 69, no 6, p. 459-471Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Six different lipid matrices (the intact lipid (IL), four lipid fractions with different polarity, and the free fatty acids (FFAs) obtained by hydrolysis of the triacylglycerol (TAG) containing fraction) were obtained from salmon (Salmo salar) and eel (Anguilla anguilla), each collected at a contaminated and a comparatively uncontaminated catch site along the coast of Scandinavia. The lipid matrices were studied in toxicological test systems representing various biological functions of different organ systems from several species and trophic levels. The results were evaluated with particular respect to the concentrations of extractable organically bound chlorine (EOCl) in the matrices tested. In some test systems, the specimens with a higher EOCl concentration appeared to be more toxic. For example, the TAG containing fraction (F2) from Idefjord eel, having a higher EOCl content than F2 from Oslofjord eel, reduced the number and hatchability of eggs laid by zebrafish. Both IL and F2 of Idefjord eel increased mortality and reduced the oxygen/nitrogen-ratio in blue mussels. Non-polar compounds (F1) from Bothnian Sea salmon induced 7-ethoxyresurofin O-deethylase (EROD) activity in rainbow trout hepatocytes, whereas F1 from Senja salmon did not. F1 from Bothnian Sea salmon also reduced the number of T-cells in foetal mouse thymus anlagen in vitro compared with the cell number in anlagen exposed to F1 from Senja salmon. A positive correlation between EOCl concentration and test response was found for EROD activity in rainbow trout hepatocytes and for ATP-leakage in Erlich ascites tumour cells when testing the phospolipid containing fraction (F4). However, in most test systems the fish oils, irrespective of EOCl content, were of low toxicity, and the observed effects need to be verified in future studies.

  • 272.
    Ingvarsson, Josef
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Assessing Sustainability in Coffee Farming Systems in Colombia2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigated sustainability challenges and benefits for coffee farming with different amounts of shade management in Colombia. Data was collected from literature studies, quantitative soil analyses and interviews with farmers and other experts. The results show that shade management of coffee farms does increase ecological sustainability, but in general gives lower yields of coffee. However, shaded coffee systems have the potential of increasing economic resilience for farmers by providing diversified income possibilities. The low and fluctuating coffee price of the global market has shown to be a major challenge of sustainability for Colombian small scale coffee farms. In addition a participatory sustainability assessment of soil quality and crop health was conducted with four farmers. The results from these assessments were compared with results from quantitative analyses of soil compaction, microbiological respiration rate and organic matter content in order to evaluate the analytical reliability of the assessment. The results of the participatory assessment were shown to correlate quite well to the quantitative soil analyses. When participatory methodology was evaluated from experiences in field and literature, it was found to be an important approach in facilitating sustainability learning in local contexts.

  • 273.
    Ivarsson, Isabelle
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    PCB126 and PFPAs (FS-780) Combined Effect on Zebrafish Embryos2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Chemicals are present all around us, in our environment, our food and our bodies. Causing most concern are the persistent organic pollutants, the POPs. Both polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and perfluoroalkyl phosphonic acids (PFPAs) are considered to be POPs. PCBs negative effects are well known, e.g. they are embryotoxic. About PFPAs biological fate not much is known, but they seem to be spreading in the environment. In the environment chemicals are present as a mixture with diverse effects, usually referred to as cocktail effect. However chemicals toxicity assessment is usually based on single compound testing. The aim of the present study is to examine the toxicity of PFPAs (FS-780), PCB126 and the binary mixture towards zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos. Fish Embryo acute Toxicity test (FET) with zebrafish is used, lethal and sub-lethal effects are observed over 96hpf. The results show that PFPAs have an enhancing effect on PCB126. The effects observed was abnormal heartbeat, abnormal blood circulation, edema and deformation of the tail.

  • 274.
    Jacobsen, Annette V.
    et al.
    School of Biomedical Sciences, Charles Sturt University, Wagga Wagga, Australia; The Life Science Center, School of Science and Technology, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden; The Walter and Eliza Hall Institute, Department of Medical Biology, The University of Melbourne, Parkville, Australia.
    Nordén, Marcus
    MTM Research Center, School of Science and Technology, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden; Clinical Neurochemistry Laboratory, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Mölndal, Sweden.
    Engwall, Magnus
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Scherbak, Nikolai
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Effects of perfluorooctane sulfonate on genes controlling hepatic fatty acid metabolism in livers of chicken embryos2018In: Environmental science and pollution research international, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 25, no 23, p. 23074-23081Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) are synthetic surfactants with a wide variety of applications; however, due to their stability, they are particularly resistant to degradation and, as such, are classed as persistent organic pollutants. Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) is one such PFAS that is still detectable in a range of different environmental settings, despite its use now being regulated in numerous countries. Elevated levels of PFOS have been detected in various avian species, and the impact of this on avian health is of interest when determining acceptable levels of PFOS in the environment. Due to its similarities to naturally occurring fatty acids, PFOS has potential to disrupt a range of biological pathways, particularly those associated with lipid metabolism, and this has been shown in various species. In this study, we have investigated how in ovo exposure to environmentally relevant levels of PFOS affects expression of genes involved in lipid metabolism of developing chicken embryos. We have found a broad suppression of transcription of genes involved in fatty acid oxidation and PPAR-mediated transcription with more significant effects apparent at lower doses of PFOS. These results highlight the need for more research investigating the biological impacts of low levels of PFAS to properly inform environmental policy governing their regulation.

  • 275.
    Jayasinghe, Saroj
    et al.
    Faculty of Medicine, University of Colombo, Sri Lanka.
    Lind, Lars
    Department of Medical Sciences, Cardiovascular Epidemiology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Salihovic, Samira
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology. Department of Medical Sciences and Science for Life Laboratory, Molecular Epidemiology Unit, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Larsson, Anders
    Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Chemistry, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Lind, P. Monica
    Department of Medical Sciences, Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    DDT and its metabolites could contribute to the aetiology of chronic kidney disease of unknown aetiology (CKDu) and more studies are a priority2019In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 649, p. 1638-1639Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 276.
    Jennessen, Jennifer
    et al.
    Department of Microbiology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), Uppsala, Sweden.
    Schnürer, Johan
    Department of Microbiology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), Uppsala, Sweden.
    Olsson, Johan
    Centre for Human Studies of Foodstuffs – KPL, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Samson, Robert A.
    Department of Applied and Industrial Mycology, CBS Fungal Biodiversity Centre, Utrecht, The Netherlands.
    Dijksterhuis, Jan
    Department of Applied and Industrial Mycology, CBS Fungal Biodiversity Centre, Utrecht, The Netherlands.
    Morphological characteristics of sporangiospores of the tempe fungus Rhizopus oligosporus differentiate it from other taxa of the R-microsporus group2008In: Mycological Research, ISSN 0953-7562, E-ISSN 1469-8102, Vol. 112, p. 547-563Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The fungus Rhizopus oligosporus (R. microsporus var. oligosporus) is traditionally used to make tempe, a fermented food based on soybeans. Interest in the fungus has steadily increased, as it can also ferment other substrates, produce enzymes, and treat waste material. R. oligosporus belongs to the R. microsporus group consisting of morphologically similar taxa, which are associated with food fermentation, pathogenesis, or unwanted metabolite production (rhizonins and rhizoxins). The ornamentation pattern, shape, and size of sporangiospores of 26 R. microsporus group strains and two R. oryzae strains were studied using low-temperature SEM (LT-SEM) and LM. This study has shown that: (1) LT-SEM generates images from well-conserved sporangiophores, sporangia, and spores. (2) Robust spore ornamentation patterns can be linked to all different taxa of the R. microsporus group, some previously incorrectly characterized as smooth. Ornamentation included valleys and ridges running in parallel, granular plateaus, or smooth polar areas. Distribution of ornamentation patterns was related to spore shape, which either was regular, ranging from globose to ellipsoidal, or irregular. Specific differences in spore shape, size, and ornamentation were observed between Rhizopus taxa, and sometimes between strains. (3) R. oligosporus has a defect in the spore formation process, which may be related to the domesticated nature of this taxon. It had a high proportion, 10-31 %, of large and irregular spores, and was significantly differentiated from other, natural Rhizopus taxa as evaluated with partial least squares discriminant analysis. it is remarkable that the vehicle of distribution, the sporangiospore, is affected in the strains that are distributed by human activity. This provides information about the specificity and speed of changes that occur in fungal strains because of their use in (food) industry.

  • 277.
    Jensen, P. E.
    et al.
    Danmarks Tekniske Universitet, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Ottosen, I. M,.
    Danmarks Tekniske Universitet, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Allard, Bert
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Remediation of soil sludge contaminated by As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 278.
    Jensen, Pernille E.
    et al.
    Department of Civil Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Lyngby, Denmark .
    Ottosen, Lisbeth M,.
    Department of Civil Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Lyngby, Denmark .
    Allard, Bert
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Electrodialytic versus acid extraction of heavy metals from soil washing residue2012In: Electrochimica Acta, ISSN 0013-4686, E-ISSN 1873-3859, Vol. 86, p. 115-123Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The feasibility of electrodialytic remediation (EDR) for treatment of suspended sludge after soil washing is in focus in the present paper. Five industrially contaminated soils were treated in laboratory scale remediation experiments, and the toxic elements of the investigation were: As, Cd, Cu, Cr, Ni, Zn and Pb. The results showed that all investigated elements could be removed from all soils to some extent by EDR. For all anthropogenic contaminants, higher extraction can be obtained under the influence of the direct current during EDR than by washing. During EDR most elements were transferred primarily to the cathode, where Cu and Pb precipitated at the cathode, while Cd, Cr, Ni and Zn primarily, or solely (for Ni), were dissolved in the catholyte, showing how cationic species dominated the chemistry of these elements. Despite the differences between the soils, the remediation results were explained well by the hydrolytic chemistry of the elements, with a difference between the soils. The only element transported primarily towards the anode, was arsenic suggesting that As(V) is the dominating species, and showing that As(III) is oxidized during the remediation process. In contrast the kinetic stability of Cr(III) hinders oxidation of this element, and leaves this as the least removable of the seven.

  • 279.
    Jernbro, Susanne
    et al.
    Örebro University, Department of Natural Sciences. University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany.
    Suares Rocha, Paula
    University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany.
    Keiter, Steffen
    University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany.
    Skutlarek, Dirk
    University of Bonn, Germany.
    Färber, Harald
    University of Bonn, Germany.
    Jones, Paul D.
    Michigan State University, Michigan, USA.
    Giesy, John P.
    Michigan State University, Michigan, USA.
    Hollert, Henner
    University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany.
    Engwall, Magnus
    Örebro University, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Perfluorooctane Sulfonate Increases the Genotoxicity of Cyclophosphamide in the Micronucleus Assay with V79 Cells: Further Proof of Alterations in Cell Membrane Properties Caused by PFOS2007In: Environmental science and pollution research international, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 14, no 2, p. 85-87Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS; C8F17SO3–) is a fully fluorinated organic compound which has been manufactured for decades and was used widely in industrial and commercial products. The recent toxicological knowledge of PFOS mainly concerns mono-substance exposures of PFOS to biological systems, leaving the potential interactive effects of PFOS with other compounds as an area where understanding is significantly lacking. However, a recent study, reported the potential of PFOS to enhance the toxicity of two compounds by increasing cell membrane permeability. This is of particular concern since PFOS has been reported to be widely distributed in the environment where contaminants are known to occur in complex mixtures. In this study, PFOS was evaluated alone and in combination with cyclophosphamide (CPP) to investigate whether a presence of PFOS leads to an increased genotoxic potential of CPP towards hamster lung V79 cells. Genotoxicity was investigated using the micronucleus(MN) assay according to the recent draft ISO/DIS 21427-2 method. PFOS alone demonstrated no genotoxicity up to a concentration of 12.5 μg/ml. However, PFOS combined with two different concentrations of CPP, with metabolic activation, caused a significant increase in the number of micronucleated cells compared to treatments with CPP alone. These results provide a first indication that PFOS has the potential to enhance the genotoxic action of CPP towards V79 cells, suggesting, together with the alterations in cell membrane properties shown previously, that genotoxicity of complex mixtures may be increased significantly by changes in chemical uptake. Together with an earlier study performed by the own working group, it can be concluded that PFOS alone is not genotoxic in this bioassay using V79 cells up to 12.5 μg/ml, but that further investigations are needed to assess the potential interaction between PFOS and other substances, in particular regarding the impact of membrane alterations on the uptake of toxic substances.

  • 280.
    Jia, Y.
    et al.
    Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden; Department of Environment and Mineral Resources, Greenland Institute of Natural Resources, Nuuk, Greenland.
    Stahre, Nanna
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology. Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden.
    Maurice, C.
    Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden; Ramböll Sverige AB, Luleå, Sweden.
    Öhlander, B.
    Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden.
    Geotechnical and chemical characterization of field-applied fly ash as sealing material over mine tailings2019In: International Journal of Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 1735-1472, E-ISSN 1735-2630, Vol. 16, no 3, p. 1701-1710Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study addresses the geotechnical and chemical properties of sealing materials using a paper mill by-product, fly ash, on top of sulfide-bearing mine waste tailings after 5years of field application. From a geotechnical perspective, the low in situ bulk density (1500kg/m(3)) ensured a high degree of water saturation (90.2%) for the field-applied ash. The chemical characteristics and behaviors of the fly ash samples reflected a high long-term leaching capacity (liquid-to-solid ratio of 10cm(3)/g) and high alkalinity (liquid-to-solid ratio of up to 500cm(3)/g). The laboratory leaching results suggested that none of the elements released from the field-applied ash exceeded the EU limits for inert materials, and the concentrations of elements were far below the limits for hazardous materials at landfill sites. Based on the in situ and laboratory characterizations of the field-applied ash, the fly ash sealing material was considered geotechnically stable. However, a number of geotechnical parameters could not be measured due to the cementation of the ash. Moreover, the chemical composition of the field-applied ash exhibited considerable variations when compared with that of the raw ash generated from the same paper mill. Overall, the field-applied ash displayed high alkalinity and effectively buffered the acid generated from sulfidic tailings for long-term sealing purposes.

  • 281.
    Jia, Yu
    et al.
    Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden; Department of Environment and Mineral Resources, Greenland Institute of Natural Resources, Nuuk, Denmark.
    Stahre, Nanna
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology. Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden.
    Makitalo, Maria
    Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden.
    Maurice, Christian
    Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden; Ramböll Sverige AB, Luleå, Sweden.
    Öhlander, Bjorn
    Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden.
    Elemental mobility in sulfidic mine tailings reclaimed with paper mill by-products as sealing materials2017In: Environmental science and pollution research international, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 24, no 25, p. 20372-20389Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sealing layers made of two alkaline paper mill by-products, fly ash and green liquor dregs, were placed on top of 50-year-old sulfide-containing tailings as a full-scale remediation approach. The performance and effectiveness of the sealing layers with high water content for an oxygen barrier and low hydraulic conductivity for a sealing layer in preventing the formation of acid rock drainage were evaluated 5 years after the remediation. The leaching behavior of the covered tailings was studied using batch leaching tests (L/S ratio 10 L/kg). The leaching results revealed that, in general, the dregs- and ash-covered tailings released relatively lower concentrations of many elements contained in acid rock drainage compared to those from the uncovered tailings. A change in the chemical composition and mineralogical state of the tailings was observed for the tailings beneath the covers. The increase in pH caused by the alkaline materials promoted metal precipitation. Geochemical modeling using PHREEQC confirmed most of the geochemical changes of the covered tailings. Both the ash and dregs showed potential to function as sealing materials in terms of their geochemical properties. However, mobilization of Zn and Ni from the lower part of the dregs-covered tailings was observed. The same phenomenon was observed for the lower part of the ash-covered tailings. Ash showed advantages over dregs as a cover material; based on geochemical studies, the ash immobilized more elements than the dregs did. Lysimeters were installed below the sealing layers, and infiltrating water chemistry and hydrology were studied to monitor the amount and quality of the leachate percolating through.

  • 282.
    Jiao, Liping
    et al.
    Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon, Hong Kong SAR, Hong Kong; Key Laboratory of Global Change and Marine-Atmospheric Chemistry, State Oceanic Administration, Xiamen, Fijian, China; Third Institute of Oceanography, State Oceanic Administration, Xiamen, Fujian, China.
    Zheng, Gene J.
    Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon, Hong Kong SAR, Hong Kong;Croucher Institute for Environmental Sciences, Department of Biology, Hong Kong Baptist University, Kowloon, Hong Kong SAR, Hong Kong.
    Minh, Tu Binh
    Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon, Hong Kong SAR, Hong Kong.
    Richardson, Bruce
    Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon, Hong Kong SAR, Hong Kong.
    Chen, Liqi
    Key Laboratory of Global Change and Marine-Atmospheric Chemistry, State Oceanic Administration, Xiamen, Fijian, China; Third Institute of Oceanography, State Oceanic Administration, Xiamen, Fujian, China.
    Zhang, Yuanhui
    Key Laboratory of Global Change and Marine-Atmospheric Chemistry, State Oceanic Administration, Xiamen, Fijian, China; Third Institute of Oceanography, State Oceanic Administration, Xiamen, Fujian, China.
    Yeung, Leo W.
    Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon, Hong Kong SAR, Hong Kong.
    Lam, James C. W.
    Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon, Hong Kong SAR, Hong Kong.
    Yang, Xulin
    Key Laboratory of Global Change and Marine-Atmospheric Chemistry, State Oceanic Administration, Xiamen, Fijian, China; Third Institute of Oceanography, State Oceanic Administration, Xiamen, Fujian, China.
    Lam, Paul K. S.
    Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon, Hong Kong SAR, Hong Kong.
    Wong, Ming H.
    Croucher Institute for Environmental Sciences, Department of Biology, Hong Kong Baptist University, Kowloon, Hong Kong SAR, Hong Kong.
    Persistent toxic substances in remote lake and coastal sediments from Svalbard, Norwegian Arctic: Levels, sources and fluxes2009In: Environmental Pollution, ISSN 0269-7491, E-ISSN 1873-6424, Vol. 157, no 4, p. 1342-1351Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Surface sediments from remote lakes and coastal areas from Ny-Ålesund, Svalbard, Norwegian Arctic were analyzed for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs). Relatively high levels of PAHs were encountered from several lakes from Ny-Ålesund, which were within the range of levels reported for European high mountain lakes and some urban/industrialized areas in the world, pointing to the role of remote Arctic lakes as potential reservoir of semi-volatile organic compounds. Specific patterns of PBDEs were observed, showing higher concentrations of lower brominated compounds such as BDE-7, 17 and 28. Estimated surface sediment fluxes of PAHs in Ny-Ålesund remote lakes were similar to those observed for some European high mountain lakes. The current PAH levels in sediments from three lakes exceeded Canadian sediment quality guidelines, suggesting the presence of possible risks for aquatic organisms and the need for further studies.

  • 283.
    Jin, Rong
    et al.
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China; University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Liu, Guorui
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China; University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Zheng, Minghui
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China; University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Fiedler, Heidelore
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Jiang, Xiaoxu
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China; University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China; China National Environmental Monitoring Centre, Beijing, China.
    Yang, Lili
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China; University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Wu, Xiaolin
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China; University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Xu, Yang
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China; University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Congener-specific determination of ultratrace levels of chlorinated and brominated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in atmosphere and industrial stack gas by isotopic dilution gas chromatography/high resolution mass spectrometry method2017In: Journal of Chromatography A, ISSN 0021-9673, E-ISSN 1873-3778, Vol. 1509, p. 114-122Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Isotopic dilution gas chromatography combined with high resolution mass spectrometry (GC/HRMS) has overwhelming advantages with respect to the accuracy of congener-specific ultratrace analysis of complex persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in environmental matrices. However, an isotopic dilution GC/HRMS method for analysis of chlorinated and brominated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (Cl-PAHs and Br-PAHs) using 13C-labelled congeners as internal standards has not been established. In this study, a method for identification and quantification of 38 congeners of Cl-PAHs and Br-PAHs in atmosphere and stack gas samples from waste incinerators was developed using the isotopic dilution GC/HRMS technique. The instrumental detection limits of the GC/HRMS method ranged from 0.2pg to 1.8pg for Cl-PAH congeners, and 0.7pg to 2.7pg for Br-PAH congeners, which were about three orders of magnitude lower than those of the GC/quadrupole MS method. This new method developed was also the first to enable determination of Cl-PAH and Br-PAH homologs comprising congeners with the same molecular skeleton and chlorine or bromine substitution numbers. Among the detected congeners, seven Cl-PAH congeners and thirteen Br-PAH congeners that were abundant in the atmosphere and stack gases released from waste incinerators were firstly detected in real samples and reported using the established isotopic dilution GC/HRMS method. The developed isotopic dilution GC/HRMS is significant and needed for better studying the environmental behavior and health risk of Cl-PAHs and Br-PAHs.

  • 284.
    Johansson, Anders
    et al.
    Global Industrial Development, Scania CV AB, Södertälje, Sweden; Department of Engineering Science, University West, Trollhättan, Sweden.
    Pejryd, Lars
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Christiernin, Linn Gustavsson
    Department of Engineering Science, University West, Trollhättan, Sweden.
    Consideration of market demand volatility risks, when making manufacturing system investments2016In: 13th Global Conference on Sustainable Manufacturing - Decoupling Growth from Resource Use, Elsevier, 2016, Vol. 40, p. 307-311Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    When investing in new manufacturing systems, many aspects must be taken into consideration to ensure a sustainable business. In respect to the financial aspect, both the one-off investment cost and the continuous operational cost must be analysed to ensure that the life-cycle cost perspective is appreciated. However, one detail in the cost analyses that is often overlooked is the composition of fixed and variable cost elements. These details are important to be able to better manage the risk of market demand volatility, and accordingly make appropriate investment decisions. This case study demonstrates that when there is a low risk for reduced market demand, investing in a manufacturing system with low variable cost is favourable. However, if there is a high risk for reduced market demand, the importance will instead be to have a low fixed cost, as this will be the dominant cost factor. (C) 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0) Peer-review under responsibility of International Scientific Committee of the 13th Global Conference on Sustainable Manufacturing

  • 285.
    Johansson, Emma M.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Impact of root and mycorrhizal exudation on soil carbon fluxes: influence of elevated CO2 and metals2009Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The thesis concerns the behavior of root and ectomycorrhizal (ECM) exudates. In particular, the dynamics of soluble low molecular weight (LMW) organic compounds such as organic acids (LMWOAs), amino acids, monosaccharides, and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) have been studied. Our knowledge of exudation rates for tree roots and especially associated ECM is limited, and also factors influencing exudation rates. Two environmental factors, metal stress and elevated atmospheric CO2 level, have been investigated. Both are of great environmental concern, but function in different ways (detoxification and C allocation) and may be highly important for the C flux caused by root/ECM exudation. The project has been carried out with mycorrhizal and nonmycorrhizal (NM) Scots pine seedlings, or saprotrophic fungi, under both sterile and non-sterile (soil) conditions. Analytical determination of exudates and calculation of exudation rates have been major tools for assessment. Assessing the possibility of using naturally occurring chelating agents (e.g. citrate and oxalate) for bioremediation of metals contaminated soils and development and validation of analytical techniques have been additional foci. The results show that from soil-living fungi and ectomycorrhizal roots exudation rates of especially LMWOAs increase significantly at Cd and Pb stress (1-100 μM), while As (as arsenate) and mixtures of metals with As have little effect. The impact of ECM fungi is large and much higher exudation rates are found when the symbionts are present both for controls and metal treatments compared to NM plants. In soil systems there was a significant mobilization of metals from soils under presence of saprotrophic fungi. Both N as well as elevated CO2 (700 ppm) causes sizable increases in exudation rates, independent of biomass, and is a finding that suggests that the availability of easily degradable carbon in soil raises, which may be highly important for the carbon flux in soil. Mycorrhizal seedlings (10 months old) increased total soil respiration ~50% compared to controls without plants in non-sterile soil systems. Key words: amino acids, 13C, carbon cycle, ectomycorrhiza, elevated CO2, exudation, DOC, LMWOA, metal stress, monosaccharides, oxalate, Pinus sylvestris, saprotrophic fungi, soil respiration

    List of papers
    1. Quantitative analysis of exudates from soil-living basidiomycetes in pure culture as a response to lead, cadmium and arsenic stress
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Quantitative analysis of exudates from soil-living basidiomycetes in pure culture as a response to lead, cadmium and arsenic stress
    2008 (English)In: Soil Biology and Biochemistry, ISSN 0038-0717, E-ISSN 1879-3428, Vol. 40, no 9, p. 2225-2236Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Six different ectomycorrhizal fungi (Hebeloma velutipes, Piloderma byssinum, Paxillus involutus, Rhizopogonroseolus, Suillus bovinus and Suillus variegatus) and two saprotrophic fungi (Hypholoma fasciculare andHypholoma capnoides) were exposed to metal stress induced by Pb, Cd and As. After pre-growth ina nutrient solution in Petri dishes, metal exposure was performed either in a nutrient rich solution or ina nutrient poor solution for seven days. The fungi were exposed to two different metal concentrations,low and high (Pb: 10 þ 100 mM; Cd: 1 þ 10 mM; As: 1 þ 10 mM). Exudation of low molecular weightorganic compounds (low molecular weight organic acids (LMWOA), amino acids and dissolved monosaccharides),as well as dissolved organic carbon was quantified as a potential response to the metalstress. The main LMWOA identified was oxalate. Oxalate exudation increased significantly in response toboth low and high Pb and Cd concentrations, as well as low As exposure, relative to nutrient controls.Exposure to As and mixtures of metals (Pb þ Cd, Pb þ As) did not result in any significant increase inoxalate production compared to controls. The presence of a carbon source (glucose) in this study islikely to have been important for exudation of organic compounds. For the nutrient rich (þ1mMglucose) metal treatments exposure to Pb and Cd mainly increased exudation of oxalate and total aminoacids. Production of dissolved monosaccharides, as well as DOC, did not increase significantly in responseto metal exposure, irrespective of nutrient conditions. This may be explained by re-absorption ofthe organic compounds by the mycelium or by the fact that metals had no effect on exudation of thesecompounds.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Amsterdam: Elsevier, 2008
    Keywords
    Amino acids, Ectomycorrhiza, Exudation, Fungi, LMWOA, Metals, Oxalate, Pure culture, Saprotrophic fungi
    National Category
    Natural Sciences
    Research subject
    Environmental Chemistry
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-11838 (URN)10.1016/j.soilbio.2008.04.016 (DOI)
    Available from: 2010-09-14 Created: 2010-09-14 Last updated: 2017-12-12Bibliographically approved
    2. Quantitative analysis of root and ectomycorrhizal exudates as a response to Pb, Cd and As stress
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Quantitative analysis of root and ectomycorrhizal exudates as a response to Pb, Cd and As stress
    2008 (English)In: Plant and Soil, ISSN 0032-079X, E-ISSN 1573-5036, Vol. 313, no 1-2, p. 39-54Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    We examined exudation of low molecular weight (LMW) organic compounds of ectomycorrhizal (ECM) and non-mycorrhizal (NM) seedlings in relation to metals. Scots pine seedlings, either colonized by one of six different ECM fungi or NM, were grown in Petri dishes containing glass beads and liquid growth medium and exposed to elevated concentrations of Pb, Cd and As. Exudation of LMW organic compounds (LMW organic acids (LMWOAs), amino acids and dissolved monosaccharides) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) was determined qualitatively and quantitatively and exudation rates were calculated. Metals had a significant impact on exudation, especially of oxalate. For Pb and Cd treatments, exudation of oxalate and total LMWOAs generally increased by 15–45% compared to nutrient controls. Production of amino acids, dissolved monosaccharides and DOC was not significantly stimulated by exposure to metals; however, there were non-significant trends towards increased exudation. Finally, exudation generally increased in the presence of mycorrhizal seedlings compared to NM seedlings. The results suggest that ECM fungi may reduce the toxicity of metals to plants through significant increases in the production of organic chelators. Axenic conditions are required to assess the full potential for production of these molecules but their overall significance in soil ecosystems needs to be determined using additional experiments under more ecologically realistic conditions.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Berlin: Springer, 2008
    Keywords
    amino acids, 13C, carbon cycle, ectomycorrhiza, elevated CO2, exudation, DOC, LMWOA, metal stress, monosaccharides, oxalate, Pinus sylvestris, saprotrophic fungi, soil respiration
    National Category
    Natural Sciences Environmental Sciences
    Research subject
    Environmental Chemistry
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-11842 (URN)10.1007/s11104-008-9678-1 (DOI)
    Available from: 2010-09-15 Created: 2010-09-15 Last updated: 2017-12-12Bibliographically approved
    3. Remediation of Metal Contaminated Soil by Organic Metabolites from Fungi I—Production of Organic Acids
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Remediation of Metal Contaminated Soil by Organic Metabolites from Fungi I—Production of Organic Acids
    Show others...
    2008 (English)In: Water, Air and Soil Pollution, ISSN 0049-6979, E-ISSN 1573-2932, Vol. 205, no 1-4, p. 215-226Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Investigations were made on living strains offungi in a bioremediation process of three metal (lead)contaminated soils. Three saprotrophic fungi (Aspergillusniger, Penicillium bilaiae, and a Penicillium sp.) wereexposed to poor and rich nutrient conditions (no carbonavailability or 0.11 M D-glucose, respectively) andmetal stress (25 μM lead or contaminated soils) for5 days. Exudation of low molecular weight organicacids was investigated as a response to the metal andnutrient conditions. Main organic acids identified wereoxalic acid (A. niger) and citric acid (P. bilaiae).Exudation rates of oxalate decreased in response tolead exposure, while exudation rates of citrate were lessaffected. Total production under poor nutrient conditionswas low, except for A. niger, for which nosignificant difference was found between the poor andrich control. Maximum exudation rates were 20 μmoloxalic acid g^−1 biomass h^−1 (A. niger) and 20 μmolcitric acid g^−1 biomass h^−1 (P. bilaiae), in the presenceof the contaminated soil, but only 5 μmol organic acidsg^−1 biomass h^−1, in total, for the Penicillium sp. Therewas a significant mobilization of metals from the soilsin the carbon rich treatments and maximum release ofPb was 12% from the soils after 5 days. This was notsufficient to bring down the remaining concentration tothe target level 300 mg kg^−1 from initial levels of 3,800,1,600, and 370 mg kg^−1in the three soils. Target levelsfor Ni, Zn, and Cu, were 120, 500, and 200 mg kg^−1,respectively, and were prior to the bioremediationalready below these concentrations (except for Cu Soil1). However, maximum release of Ni, Zn, and Cu was28%, 35%, and 90%, respectively. The release of metalswas related to the production of chelating acids, but alsoto the pH-decrease. This illustrates the potential to usefungi exudates in bioremediation of contaminated soil.Nonetheless, the extent of the generation of organicacids is depending on several processes and mechanismsthat need to be further investigated.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Berlin, Germany: Springer, 2008
    Keywords
    Bioremediation, Citric acid, Fungi, Lead, Organic acids, Oxalic acid
    National Category
    Natural Sciences Environmental Sciences
    Research subject
    Environmental Chemistry
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-11843 (URN)10.1007/s11270-009-0067-z (DOI)000272851000016 ()2-s2.0-75049083063 (Scopus ID)
    Available from: 2010-09-15 Created: 2010-09-15 Last updated: 2017-12-12Bibliographically approved
    4. Quantitative analysis of soluble exudates produced by ectomycorrhizal roots as a response to ambient and elevated CO2
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Quantitative analysis of soluble exudates produced by ectomycorrhizal roots as a response to ambient and elevated CO2
    2009 (English)In: Soil Biology and Biochemistry, ISSN 0038-0717, E-ISSN 1879-3428, Vol. 41, no 6, p. 1111-1116Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Despite its potential impact on soil carbon flow, few studies have attempted to quantify the effects of elevated carbon dioxide (CO2) on production of exudates by mycorrhizal plants. In this study we quantified low molecular weight (LMW) organic compounds exuded by non-mycorrhizal (NM) and ectomycorrhizal (ECM) plants in relation to exposure to elevated CO2. Scots pine seedlings, either colonized by one of eight different ECM fungi or non-mycorrhizal (NM), were exposed to either ambient (350 ppm) or elevated (700 ppm) concentrations of CO2. Exudation of LMW organic acids (LMWOAs), amino acids, dissolved monosaccharides and total dissolved organic carbon (DOC) was determined and exudation rates were calculated per g root and fungal dry mass. CO2 had a significant impact on exudation. Under elevated CO2, exudation of total LMWOAs increased by 120–160%, amino acids by 250%, dissolved monosaccharides by 130–270% and DOC by 180–220% compared to ambient CO2 treatment. Net CO2 assimilation rates increased significantly by 41–47% for seedlings exposed to elevated CO2. Exuded C calculated as a percentage of assimilated CO2 increased by 41–88% in the elevated CO2 treatment compared to ambient CO2 treatment.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Amsterdam: Elsevier, 2009
    Keywords
    Ectomycorrhiza, Elevated carbon dioxide, Exudation, Glucosamine, LMWOAs, Pinus sylvestris
    National Category
    Natural Sciences Environmental Sciences
    Research subject
    Environmental Chemistry
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-11845 (URN)10.1016/j.soilbio.2009.02.016 (DOI)000266942900011 ()2-s2.0-67349288511 (Scopus ID)
    Available from: 2010-09-15 Created: 2010-09-15 Last updated: 2017-12-12Bibliographically approved
    5. Elevated CO2 and nitrogen influence exudation of soluble organic compounds by ectomycorrhizal root systems
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Elevated CO2 and nitrogen influence exudation of soluble organic compounds by ectomycorrhizal root systems
    2010 (English)In: FEMS Microbiology Ecology, ISSN 0168-6496, E-ISSN 1574-6941, Vol. 71, no 2, p. 186-196Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Root and mycelial exudation contributes significantly to soil carbon (C) fluxes, and is likely to be altered by an elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration and nitrogen (N) deposition. We quantified soluble, low-molecular-weight (LMW) organic compounds exuded by ectomycorrhizal plants grown under ambient (360 p.p.m.) or elevated (710 p.p.m.) CO2 concentrations and with different N sources. Scots pine seedlings, colonized by one of five different ectomycorrhizal or nonmycorrhizal fungi, received 70 μM N, either as NH4Cl or as alanine, in a liquid growth medium. Exudation of LMW organic acids (LMWOAs), dissolved monosaccharides and total dissolved organic carbon were determined. Both N and CO2 had a significant impact on exudation, especially of LMWOAs. Exudation of LMWOAs was negatively affected by inorganic N and decreased by 30–85% compared with the organic N treatment, irrespective of the CO2 treatment. Elevated CO2 had a clear impact on the production of individual LMWOAs, although with very contrasting effects depending on which N source was supplied.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Hoboken, USA: Wiley-Blackwell, 2010
    Keywords
    Global change, carbon cycling; oxalate, Pinus sylvestris, organic nitrogen, LMWOAs
    National Category
    Natural Sciences Environmental Sciences
    Research subject
    Environmental Chemistry
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-11846 (URN)10.1111/j.1574-6941.2009.00795.x (DOI)000273065000002 ()19889031 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-73049118299 (Scopus ID)
    Available from: 2010-09-15 Created: 2010-09-15 Last updated: 2018-04-19Bibliographically approved
    6. Autotrophic and heterotrophic soil respiration: the effects of non-mycorrhizal and mycorrhizal seedlings under elevated CO2
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Autotrophic and heterotrophic soil respiration: the effects of non-mycorrhizal and mycorrhizal seedlings under elevated CO2
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    National Category
    Natural Sciences Environmental Sciences
    Research subject
    Environmental Chemistry
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-11847 (URN)
    Available from: 2010-09-15 Created: 2010-09-15 Last updated: 2017-10-18Bibliographically approved
  • 286.
    Johansson, Emma M.
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Fransson, Petra M. A.
    Department of Forest Mycology and Pathology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Ekblad, Alf
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    van Hees, Patrick A. W.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Autotrophic and heterotrophic soil respiration: the effects of non-mycorrhizal and mycorrhizal seedlings under elevated CO2Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 287.
    Johansson, Emma M.
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Fransson, Petra M. A.
    Department of Forest Mycology and Pathology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Finlay, Roger D.
    Department of Forest Mycology and Pathology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    van Hees, Patrick A. W.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Quantitative analysis of root and ectomycorrhizal exudates as a response to Pb, Cd and As stress2008In: Plant and Soil, ISSN 0032-079X, E-ISSN 1573-5036, Vol. 313, no 1-2, p. 39-54Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We examined exudation of low molecular weight (LMW) organic compounds of ectomycorrhizal (ECM) and non-mycorrhizal (NM) seedlings in relation to metals. Scots pine seedlings, either colonized by one of six different ECM fungi or NM, were grown in Petri dishes containing glass beads and liquid growth medium and exposed to elevated concentrations of Pb, Cd and As. Exudation of LMW organic compounds (LMW organic acids (LMWOAs), amino acids and dissolved monosaccharides) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) was determined qualitatively and quantitatively and exudation rates were calculated. Metals had a significant impact on exudation, especially of oxalate. For Pb and Cd treatments, exudation of oxalate and total LMWOAs generally increased by 15–45% compared to nutrient controls. Production of amino acids, dissolved monosaccharides and DOC was not significantly stimulated by exposure to metals; however, there were non-significant trends towards increased exudation. Finally, exudation generally increased in the presence of mycorrhizal seedlings compared to NM seedlings. The results suggest that ECM fungi may reduce the toxicity of metals to plants through significant increases in the production of organic chelators. Axenic conditions are required to assess the full potential for production of these molecules but their overall significance in soil ecosystems needs to be determined using additional experiments under more ecologically realistic conditions.

  • 288.
    Johansson, Emma M.
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Fransson, Petra M. A.
    Department of Forest Mycology and Pathology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Finlay, Roger D.
    van Hees, Patrick A. W.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Quantitative analysis of soluble exudates produced by ectomycorrhizal roots as a response to ambient and elevated CO22009In: Soil Biology and Biochemistry, ISSN 0038-0717, E-ISSN 1879-3428, Vol. 41, no 6, p. 1111-1116Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite its potential impact on soil carbon flow, few studies have attempted to quantify the effects of elevated carbon dioxide (CO2) on production of exudates by mycorrhizal plants. In this study we quantified low molecular weight (LMW) organic compounds exuded by non-mycorrhizal (NM) and ectomycorrhizal (ECM) plants in relation to exposure to elevated CO2. Scots pine seedlings, either colonized by one of eight different ECM fungi or non-mycorrhizal (NM), were exposed to either ambient (350 ppm) or elevated (700 ppm) concentrations of CO2. Exudation of LMW organic acids (LMWOAs), amino acids, dissolved monosaccharides and total dissolved organic carbon (DOC) was determined and exudation rates were calculated per g root and fungal dry mass. CO2 had a significant impact on exudation. Under elevated CO2, exudation of total LMWOAs increased by 120–160%, amino acids by 250%, dissolved monosaccharides by 130–270% and DOC by 180–220% compared to ambient CO2 treatment. Net CO2 assimilation rates increased significantly by 41–47% for seedlings exposed to elevated CO2. Exuded C calculated as a percentage of assimilated CO2 increased by 41–88% in the elevated CO2 treatment compared to ambient CO2 treatment.

  • 289.
    Johansson, Mathilda
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Quorn eller baljväxter? Vilket alternativ är bäst för hälsan och miljön2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Alla behöver vi mat för att överleva och detta sätter sina spår inte minst på klimatet och vi har alla ett gemensamt ansvar för att bland annat minska växthusgasutsläppen genom det vi äter. Ett miljösmart matval kan innebära att minska mängden kött och i stället ersätta det med andra proteinkällor som tillexempel baljväxter och Quorn. Baljväxter tillhör familjen ärtväxter och Quorn är gjort på jordmögelsvampen Fusarium venenatum som odlas i stora tankar och sedan blandas med äggvita. Syftet med studien är att undersöka hur konsumtionen av Quorn och baljväxter påverkar miljön och människors hälsa. Detta för att ta reda på vilket alternativen som är bäst ur ett hälso- och miljöperspektiv, då det gäller att ersätta animaliska livsmedel inom den offentliga sektorn i Motala kommun. Studien bygger på en narrativ litteraturgenomgång med ett systematiskt tillvägagångssätt vid granskningen av litteraturen. Resultaten av studien visar att en kost innehållande Quorn eller baljväxter kan sänka kolesterolhalten i blodet med 13 respektive 8,3 procent, samt förhindra efterföljande sjukdomar. Det visar även att kött innehåller mer protein än både Quorn och baljväxter men att de i stället är rika på bland annat fibrer som ger en längre mättnadskänsla. Då produktionen av de olika livsmedlen undersöktes visade resultaten att baljväxter kräver fyra gånger mindre mark och släpper ut mindre växthusgaser än Quorn som har ett relativt högt klimatavtryck. En av slutsatserna lyder att det tycks vara svårt att fastställa om Quorn eller baljväxter är det bäst köttsubstitutet, för när det kommer till hälsan är de båda livsmedlen väldigt lika men ur kilmat- och miljösynpunkt är slutsatsen att baljväxter är bättre. För att kunna säkerställa dessa slutsatser krävs en mer omfattande studie samt mer forskning på området.

  • 290.
    Johansson, Petra
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Fermenteringens inverkan på fytathalten i fullkornssurdeg2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Inledning: Surdegsbrödet kom till Centraleuropa för cirka 5000 år sedan och har traditionellt sett bakats på fullkornsmjöl. Under 1900-talets gång har bröd bakat på bagerijäst och siktat mjöl kommit att dominera marknaden, men intresset för traditionella fermenteringsmetoder och fullkornsmjöl har på senare tid ökat. Fullkornsvetemjöl innehåller alla delar av sädeskornet och det är i skalet som de högsta halterna av fytinsyra återfinns. Fytinsyra är den vanligaste lagringsformen för metaller i spannmål. När fytinsyra kommer i kontakt med vatten sker en protolys och den ändrar då form till en anjon och kallas då fytat som är en stark komplexbildare till ett flertal katjoner. Människor kan inte producera enzymet fytas som kan bryta ner fytat, vilket resulterar i att metallerna inte blir biotillgängliga för kroppen. Vid brödjäsning kan fytat brytas ner av mjölets egna fytas eller av mikrobiellt fytas. Syfte: Studiens syfte är att klargöra om surdegsjäsning är en effektivare fermenteringsmetod än jästjäsning för att minska fytathalterna i fullkornsbröd. Det undersöks även om det finns någon samvariation mellan fytathalterna och halterna av Ca, Fe, Cd och Pb för att ta reda på om fytathalten skulle kunna ha betydelse för metallernas biotillgänglighet. Metod: Fytatet extraherades ur degen för att sedan elueras genom anjonbytare, därefter mättes fytathalterna genom spektrofotometri. Metallhalterna analyserades med ICP-MS. Resultat: Resultaten visade på att surdegjäsning hade en effektivare minskning av fytat än jästjäsning. Surdegarna hade inga signifikanta skillnader mellan fytathalterna eller fytatminskning. Järn visade signifikant minskning över tid och samvariation med fytathalterna. Slutsats: Surdegsjäsning är effektivare fermenteringsmetod än jästjäsning om man vill minska fytathalterna, och surdegsjäsning i 21 timmar minimerar fytathalterna i degen. Järn hade samvariation med fytat, vilket tyder på att förtäring av surdegsbröd som jäst i 21 timmar skulle kunna bidra till järnintaget.

  • 291.
    Johansson, Sebastian
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Rödlistade bin i Stockholms stad: Kommunala, privata och ideella bevarandemöjligheter2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Antalet biarter i Sverige har minskat i takt med avvecklingen av det småskaliga jordbruket och en tredjedel av alla kända biarter i Sverige är idag rödlistade. Samtidigt har städer visat sig kunna vara lämpliga livsmiljöer för bin. Under sommaren 2015 gjordes fynd av två sårbara arter i Stockholm, släntsmalbi och svartpälsbi, och Länsstyrelsen i Stockholm menar att att det har varit brist på artspecifika åtgärder för rödlistade bin. Syftet med denna studie var därför att undersöka vad kommunala, privata och ideella verksamheter gör, och skulle kunna göra, för att bevara släntsmalbiet och svartpälsbiet i Stockholms stad. Fem kvalitativa intervjuer genomfördes med verksamheter som låg i närheten av fynd och som på något sätt hade möjlighet att påverka bins livsmiljöer. Studien visade att kännedomen var liten om förekomsten av rödlistade bin i verksamheter utan inriktning mot bin. Samtliga verksamheter skulle också kunna göra mer, och ville göra mer, för att bevara arterna i närområdet. Tillgången på näringsväxter i Stockholms stad upplevdes som god. De viktigaste åtgärderna att därför troligen att bevara och återskapa lämpliga boplatser och livmiljöer för bin, i form av exempelvis sandiga slänter eller bibäddar och i stadens planering med hjälp av kommunens nya habitatnätverk för pollinatörer. Eftersom olika typer av verksamheter hade olika typer av kunskaper och begränsningar, skulle samarbeten kunna möjliggöra fler typer av bevarandeåtgärder. Majoriteten av de intervjuade var öppna för någon form av samarbete i bevarandet av rödlistade bin.

  • 292. Jonsson, Sofia
    et al.
    Persson, Ylva
    Frankki, Sofia
    van Bavel, Bert
    Örebro University, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Lundstedt, Staffan
    Haglund, Peter
    Tysklind, Mats
    Degradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in contaminated soils by Fenton's reagent: a multivariate evaluation of the importance of soil characteristics and PAH properties2007In: Journal of Hazardous Materials, ISSN 0304-3894, E-ISSN 1873-3336, Vol. 149, no 1, p. 86-96Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, we investigated how the chemical degradability of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in aged soil samples from various contaminated sites is influenced by soil characteristics and by PAH physico-chemical properties. The results were evaluated using the multivariate statistical tool, partial least squares projections to latent structures (PLS). The PAH-contaminated soil samples were characterised (by pH, conductivity, organic matter content, oxide content, particle size, specific surface area, and the time elapsed since the contamination events, i.e. age), and subjected to relatively mild, slurry-phase Fenton's reaction conditions. In general, low molecular weight PAHs were degraded to a greater extent than large, highly hydrophobic variants. Anthracene, benzo(a)pyrene, and pyrene were more susceptible to degradation than other, structurally similar, PAHs; an effect attributed to the known susceptibility of these compounds to reactions with hydroxyl radicals. The presence of organic matter and the specific surface area of the soil were clearly negatively correlated with the degradation of bi- and tri-cyclic PAHs, whereas the amount of degraded organic matter correlated positively with the degradation of PAHs with five or six fused rings. This was explained by enhanced availability of the larger PAHs, which were released from the organic matter as it degraded. Our study shows that sorption of PAHs is influenced by a combination of soil characteristics and physico-chemical properties of individual PAHs. Multivariate statistical tools have great potential for assessing the relative importance of these parameters.

  • 293.
    Joudan, Shira
    et al.
    Department of Chemistry, University of Toronto, Toronto ON, Canada.
    Yeung, Leo W. Y.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology. Department of Chemistry, University of Toronto, Toronto ON, Canada.
    Mabury, Scott A
    Department of Chemistry, University of Toronto, Toronto ON, Canada.
    Biological cleavage of the C-P bond in perfluoroalkyl phosphinic acids in male Sprague-Dawley rats and the formation of persistent and reactive metabolites2017In: Journal of Environmental Health Perspectives, ISSN 0091-6765, E-ISSN 1552-9924, Vol. 125, no 11, article id 117001Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Perfluoroalkyl phosphinic acids (PFPiAs) have been detected in humans, wildlife, and various environmental matrices. These compounds have been used with perfluoroalkyl phosphonic acids (PFPAs) as surfactants in consumer products and as nonfoaming additives in pesticide formulations. Unlike the structurally related perfluoroalkyl sulfonic and carboxylic acids, little is known about the biological fate of PFPiAs.

    OBJECTIVES: We determined the biotransformation products of PFPiAs and some pharmacokinetic parameters in a rat model.

    METHODS: Male Sprague-Dawley rats received an oral gavage dose of either C6/C8PFPiA, C8/C8PFPiA, or C8PFPA. Blood was sampled over time, and livers were harvested upon sacrifice. Analytes were quantified using ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry or gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    RESULTS: PFPiAs were metabolized to the corresponding PFPAs and 1H-perfluoroalkanes (1H-PFAs), with 70% and 75% biotransformation 2 wk after a single bolus dose for C6/C8PFPiA and C8/C8PFPiA, respectively. This is the first reported cleavage of a C-P bond in mammals, and the first attempt, with a single-dose exposure, to characterize the degradation of any perfluoroalkyl acid. Elimination half-lives were 1.9±0.5 and 2.8±0.8 days for C6/C8PFPiA and C8/C8PFPiA, respectively, and 0.95±0.17 days for C8PFPA. Although elimination half-lives were not determined for 1H-PFAs, concentrations were higher than the corresponding PFPAs 48 h after rats were dosed with PFPiAs, suggestive of slower elimination.

    CONCLUSIONS: PFPiAs were metabolized in Sprague-Dawley rats to form persistent PFPAs as well as 1H-PFAs, which contain a labile hydrogen that may undergo further metabolism. These results in rats produced preliminary findings of the pharmacokinetics and metabolism of PFPiAs, which should be further investigated in humans. If there is a parallel between the disposition of these chemicals in humans and rats, then humans with detectable amounts of PFPiAs in their blood may be undergoing continuous exposure.

  • 294.
    Julander, Anneli
    et al.
    Örebro University, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Karlsson, Marie
    Örebro University, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Hagström, K.
    Örebro University, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Ohlson, C.-G.
    Engwall, Magnus
    Örebro University, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Bryngelsson, I.-L.
    Westberg, Håkan
    Örebro University, Department of Natural Sciences.
    van Bavel, Bert
    Örebro University, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers: plasma levels and thyroid status of workers at an electronic recycling facility2005In: International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, ISSN 0340-0131, E-ISSN 1432-1246, Vol. 78, no 7, p. 584-592Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: Personnel working with electronic dismantling are exposed to polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), which in animal studies have been shown to alter thyroid homeostasis. The aim of this longitudinal study was to measure plasma level of PBDEs in workers at an electronic recycling facility and to relate these to the workers’ thyroid status. Methods: PBDEs and three thyroid hormones: triiodothyronine (T3), thyroxin (T4) and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) were repeatedly analysed in plasma from 11 workers during a period of 1.5 years.Results: Plasma levels of PBDEs at start of employment were <0.5–9.1 pmol/g lipid weight (l.w.). The most common congener was PBDE #47 (median 2.8 pmol/g l.w.), followed by PBDE #153 (median 1.7 pmol/g l.w.), and PBDE #183 had a median value of <0.19 pmol/g l.w. After dismantling the corresponding median concentrations were: 3.7, 1.7 and 1.2 pmol/g l.w., respectively. These differences in PBDE levels were not statistically significant. PBDE #28 showed a statistically significantly higher concentration after dismantling than at start of employment (P=0.016), although at low concentrations (start 0.11 pmol/g l.w. and dismantling 0.26 pmol/g l.w.). All measured levels of thyroid hormones (T3, T4 and TSH) were within the normal physiological range. Statistically significant positive correlations were found between T3 and #183 in a worker, between T4 and both #28 and #100 in another worker and also between TSH and #99 and #154 in two workers. Conclusions: The workers’ plasma levels of PBDEs fluctuated during the study period. Due to small changes in thyroid hormone levels it was concluded that no relevant changes were present in relation to PBDE exposure within the workers participating in this study.

  • 295.
    Julander, Anneli
    et al.
    Örebro University, Department of Technology.
    Karlsson, Marie
    Örebro University, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Hagström, Katja
    Ohlson, Carl Göran
    Engwall, Magnus
    Örebro University, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Bryngelsson, Ing-Liss
    Westberg, Håkan
    van Bavel, Bert
    Örebro University, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Polybrominated diphenylethers and thyroid hormone status in human plasma of workers at electronic recycling facilityManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 296.
    Julander, Anneli
    et al.
    Örebro University, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Westberg, Håkan
    Engwall, Magnus
    Örebro University, Department of Natural Sciences.
    van Bavel, Bert
    Örebro University, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Distribution of brominated flame retardants in different dust fractions in air from an electronics recycling facilityManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 297.
    Julander, Anneli
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Westberg, Håkan
    Engwall, Magnus
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    van Bavel, Bert
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Distribution of brominated flame retardants in different dust fractions in air from an electronics recycling facility2005In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 350, no 1-3, p. 151-160Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Twelve air samples were collected from an electronic recycling facility in Sweden representing three different dust fractions; respirable, total and inhalable dust. Four samples were collected from each fraction. The highest concentration of polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) #209 (ten bromine atoms) was found in the samples from the inhalable dust fraction (ID), which was 10 times higher than for the "total dust" fraction (TD). The concentration ranges were 157.6-208.6; 13.9-16.7; and 2.8-3.3 ng/m3 for inhalable, total and respirable fractions, respectively. The second most abundant PBDE congener was PBDE #183 (seven bromine atoms), followed by the second most abundant substance 1,2-bis(2,4,6-tribromophenoxy)ethane (BTBPE) in all samples. In addition, decabromodiphenyl ethane (DeBDethane) was tentatively identified in five of the samples. Because of the large differences in air concentrations between the three fractions in ID, TD and RD, it is suggested that the inhalable instead of "total dust" fraction should be used to assess air concentrations, in particular for the larger and higher brominated flame retardants (BFRs).

  • 298.
    Juranović Cindrić, Iva
    et al.
    Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Zagreb, Zagreb, Croatia.
    Zeiner, Michaela
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology. Department of Chemistry, BOKU – University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna, Austria.
    Starčević, Ana
    Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Zagreb, Zagreb, Croatia.
    Stingeder, Gerhard
    Department of Chemistry, BOKU – University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna, Austria.
    Metals in pine needles: characterisation of bio-indicators depending on species2019In: International Journal of Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 1735-1472, E-ISSN 1735-2630, Vol. 16, no 8, p. 4339-4346Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Air pollution can be studied by appropriate bio-indicators, such as pine needles due to their waxy surface. Metal uptake and accumulation is determined by on growing area, but also on the respective species. Scope of the study was to analyse needles of Pinus densiflora Siebold et Zucc., Pinus nigra Arnold, Pinus sylvestris L., and Pinus thunbergiana Franco for metals and metalloids, namely Aluminum, Arsenic, Boron, Barium, Calcium, Cadmium, Cobalt, Copper, Chromium, Iron, Potassium, Lithium, Magnesium, Manganese, Molybdenum, Sodium, Nickel, Lead, Selenium, Strontium, and Zinc. Quantitation of the analytes was performed using inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry and inductively coupled plasma sector field mass spectrometry after acidic microwave-assisted digestion.

    The obtained data were checked for statistically significant differences. The metal levels differ between the various species, but no general tendency was found for all metals. Since the environmental conditions were the same for all sampled trees, the differences in metal accumulation are supposed to be linked to species of pine tree.

    The diverse accumulation behaviour can be used for treating polluted soil.

  • 299.
    Kais, Britta
    et al.
    Aquatic Ecology and Toxicology Group, Center for Organismal Studies (COS), University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany.
    Schiwy, Sabrina
    Department of Ecosystem Analysis, Institute for Environmental Research, ABBt - Aachen Biology and Biotechnology, Rheinisch-Westfälische Technische Hochschule (RWTH) Aachen University, Aachen, Germany.
    Hollert, Henner
    Department of Ecosystem Analysis, Institute for Environmental Research, ABBt - Aachen Biology and Biotechnology, RWTH Aachen University, Aachen, Germany.
    Keiter, Steffen
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology. Department of Ecosystem Analysis, Institute for Environmental Research, ABBt - Aachen Biology and Biotechnology, RWTH Aachen University, Aachen, Germany.
    Braunbeck, Thomas
    Aquatic Ecology and Toxicology Group, Center for Organismal Studies (COS), University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany.
    In vivo EROD assays with the zebrafish (Danio rerio) as rapid screening tools for the detection of dioxin-like activity2017In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 590-591, p. 269-280Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study compares two alternative in vivo approaches for the measurement of ethoxyresorufin-Odeethylase (EROD) activity in zebrafish (Danio rerio) following exposure to acetonic model sediment extracts: (1) the live-imaging EROD assay for the direct detection of EROD induction in individual livers via epifluorescence, and (2) the fish embryo EROD assay in subcellular fractions derived from entire zebrafish embryos after in vivo exposure.

    For toxicity assessment, each sediment extract was tested with the standard fish embryo test (FET). Upon completion of a functioning liver after 72 h, the embryos gave a distinct fluorescent signal in the liver, and a corresponding EROD activity could be detected in the fish embryo EROD assay. The exposure time in the live-imaging EROD assay was reduced to 3 h, which resulted in a stronger, less variable and more sensitive EROD response. Overall, the live-imaging and the fish embryo EROD assays showed the same tendencies and gave comparable results, e.g. a concentration-dependent increase in EROD activity at concentrations one order of magnitude below concentrations producing macroscopically visible abnormalities. At higher concentrations, however, a decrease of EROD activity was observed in either test. Both tests ranked the three model sediment extracts in the same order. Results indicate that both test systems complement each other and together provide a rapid and reliable in vivo tool to investigate the presence of dioxin-like substances in environmental samples.

  • 300.
    Karami, Ali
    et al.
    Department of Aquaculture, Faculty of Agriculture, University Putra Malaysia, Selangor, Malaysia.
    Keiter, Steffen
    Department of Ecosystem Analysis, Institute for Environmental Research (Biology V), RWTH Aachen University, Aachen, Germany.
    Hollert, Henner
    Department of Ecosystem Analysis, Institute for Environmental Research (Biology V), RWTH Aachen University, Aachen, Germany.
    Courtenay, Simon
    Fisheries and Oceans Canada at the Canadian Rivers Institute, Department of Biology, University of New Brunswick, Fredericton NB, Canada.
    Fuzzy logic and adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system for characterization of contaminant exposure through selected biomarkers in African catfish2013In: Environmental science and pollution research international, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 20, no 3, p. 1586-1595Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study represents a first attempt at applying a fuzzy inference system (FIS) and an adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) to the field of aquatic biomonitoring for classification of the dosage and time of benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) injection through selected biomarkers in African catfish (Clarias gariepinus). Fish were injected either intramuscularly (i.m.) or intraperitoneally (i.p.) with BaP. Hepatic glutathione S-transferase (GST) activities, relative visceral fat weights (LSI), and four biliary fluorescent aromatic compounds (FACs) concentrations were used as the inputs in the modeling study. Contradictory rules in FIS and ANFIS models appeared after conversion of bioassay results into human language (rule-based system). A “data trimming”approach was proposed to eliminate the conflicts prior to fuzzification. However, the model produced was relevant only to relatively low exposures to BaP, especially through the i.m. route of exposure. Furthermore, sensitivity analysis was unable to raise the classification rate to an acceptable level. In conclusion, FIS and ANFIS models have limited applications in the field of fish biomarker studies.

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