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  • 301.
    Agborg, Kimberly
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för juridik, psykologi och socialt arbete.
    Bestämmande av rättsligt föräldraskap vid surrogatarrangemang2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
  • 302.
    Agborg, Kimberly
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för juridik, psykologi och socialt arbete.
    Finns det ett behov av en föräldraskapspresumtion?2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
  • 303.
    Age, Lotta
    Örebro universitet, Akademin för juridik, psykologi och socialt arbete.
    Hur uppmärksammas barnen?: -En kvalitativ studie om barnperspektivet i handläggningen, vid en enhet för ekonomiskt bistånd2010Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
  • 304.
    Age, Oskar
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Handelshögskolan vid Örebro Universitet.
    Carlsson, Anna
    Örebro universitet, Handelshögskolan vid Örebro Universitet.
    Larsson-Torri, Emma
    Örebro universitet, Handelshögskolan vid Örebro Universitet.
    Vad motiverar redovisningsval?: En litteraturgenomgång från millenniumskiftet fram till idag2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
  • 305.
    Ageborg, Emma
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för juridik, psykologi och socialt arbete.
    Thorsén, Camilla
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för juridik, psykologi och socialt arbete.
    22 juli 2011, kommer du ihåg den dagen?: Könsskillnader i uppskattning av självförtroende - och event minne för terrorattacken på Utøya, Norge2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
  • 306.
    Agebro, Jessica
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Handelshögskolan vid Örebro Universitet.
    Bergetoft, Fanny
    Örebro universitet, Handelshögskolan vid Örebro Universitet.
    Sponsring av individuella elitidrottare ur ett företagsperspektiv2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
  • 307.
    Ageland, Hannes
    Örebro universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Tillgänglighet för rullstolsburna: Politik, praktik och vardagsliv. En fallstudie i Örebro2007Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna uppsats är att studera hur man i Örebro arbetar med den fysiska tillgängligheten i staden, och vilka erfarenheter detta arbete har gett. Jag utgår från tre frågor. Hur arbetar man politiskt när det gäller tillgänglighet i Örebro? Hur planerar man praktiskt inom Örebro kommun med frågor kring tillgänglighet i staden? Hur ser rullstolsburna på tillgängligheten i Örebro? För att besvara frågorna studerar jag litteratur och gällande lagar som behandlar ämnet tillgänglighet på olika sätt. Jag genomför även tre intervjuer som jag spelar in med en politiker, en tjänsteman samt en person som är rullstolsburen. Dessa inspelade intervjuer skriver jag rent för att kunna analysera i uppsatsen.

    Utifrån min analys och den litteratur jag studerat kommer jag till slut fram till att det i planeringen av Örebro finns ett samarbete mellan politiker, tjänstemän samt handikapporganisationer. Politiskt arbetas det med att ge direktiv till tjänstemän. Praktiskt handlar det om att tillämpa gällande lagstiftning samt genom praktiska demonstrationer visa hur verkligheten ser ut för handikappade. Rullstolsburna ser tillgänglighet som något som sakta men säkert blir bättre, även om det finns mycket som kan förbättras.

  • 308.
    Agendia, Aloysius
    Örebro universitet, Akademin för humaniora, utbildning och samhällsvetenskap.
    Mass Media and corruption in Cameroon: A study of the press coverage of corruption in The Post and Eden2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
  • 309.
    Agerberg, Emma
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Akademin för humaniora, utbildning och samhällsvetenskap.
    Andersson, Hanne
    Örebro universitet, Akademin för humaniora, utbildning och samhällsvetenskap.
    Män för jämställdhet: en fallstudie av en (pro)feministisk mansgrupp år 20102011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
  • 310.
    Agewall, Cecilia
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Handelshögskolan vid Örebro Universitet.
    Sommarström, Julina
    Örebro universitet, Handelshögskolan vid Örebro Universitet.
    Legitimitet som en nyckel till acceptans: En studie om legitimitetsskapande2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
  • 311.
    Aghaie Azghandi, Mohammed Ali
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Ahmad, Omar
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Byggföretagens hantering av fuktsäkerhetsprojektering – med fokus på projektörer2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Fuktskador uppstår vanligtvis på grund av felaktig planering, projektering och utförande under hela byggprocessen. Dessa felaktigheter resulterar i stora åtgärdskostnader som kan minimeras eller till och med elimineras om fuktsäkerhetsarbetet är väl genomförd. Projekteringsskedet är ett viktigt skede, där en noggrann och korrekt genomförd fuktsäkerhetsprojektering är av stor betydelse för det försatta fuktsäkerhetsarbetet under byggprocessen. Projektörernas roll i detta skede är att utföra en fuktsäkerhetsprojektering utifrån de ställda kraven från byggherren.  Syftet med detta examensarbete är att ta reda på projektörernas val av metod vid genomförandet av fuktsäkerhetsprojektering och granska om behovet av eventuell kompetensutveckling, inom fukt, bland projektörerna är nödvändig.     De två metoder som har använts för att uppnå syftet i detta examensarbete är intervjuer och litteraturstudier.  Målgruppen i detta examensarbete är byggföretagen i Sverige. Det som granskas är hur de hanterar fuktsäkerhetsarbetet i projekteringsskedet, med fokus på hur fuktsäkerhetsprojekteringen utförs. Av de aktörer som medverkar i projekteringsskedet riktas all fokus på projektörerna.   Tre av fem projektörer är missnöjda med den egna fuktkompetensen vilket överensstämmer med de fuktsakkunnigas uppfattning om projektörernas fuktkompetens. Under intervjuerna har flera fuktsakkunniga påpekat behovet av ökat fuktkompetens bland projektörerna. Den bristande fuktkompetensen leder till att projektörerna inte kan beakta eller upptäcka eventuella fuktrisker vid fuktsäkerhetsprojekteringen. Metod som 80 % av projektörerna tillämpar vid fuktsäkerhetsprojektering är ByggaF metoden. Projektörerna kunskap om ByggaF är fortfarande låg enligt de fuktsakkunniga och av den anledningen kan projektörerna inte tillämpa ByggaF metoden i sin helhet. Kompetens och erfarenhet är de viktigaste faktorerna som en projektör måste ha med sig, för att kunna beakta och upptäcka vad som är fel krävs det kunskap samt erfarenhet om vad som är rätt.        Utifrån responsen från både byggnadsnämnden och deltagarna, framgår det att en granskning av dokumentationen gällande fuktsäkerhetsarbetet inte, alltid, begärs in av byggnadsnämnden.    Slutsatsen är att projektörer måste införskaffa sig kompetens inom fukt och ByggaF metoden.   

  • 312.
    Aghajani, Moji
    et al.
    Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Curium, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, the Netherlands; Leiden Institute for Brain and Cognition (LIBC), Leiden, the Netherlands; Department of Psychiatry, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam, the Netherlands.
    Colins, Olivier F.
    Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Curium, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, the Netherlands; Leiden Institute for Brain and Cognition (LIBC), Leiden, the Netherlands; School of Law, Psychology, and Social Work, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Klapwijk, Eduard T.
    Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Curium, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, the Netherlands; Leiden Institute for Brain and Cognition (LIBC), Leiden, the Netherlands.
    Veer, Ilya M.
    Division of Mind and Brain Research, Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Charité Universitätsmedizin, Berlin, Germany.
    Andershed, Henrik
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för juridik, psykologi och socialt arbete.
    Popma, Arne
    Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam, the Netherlands; Faculty of Law, Leiden University, Institute of Criminal Law and Criminology, Leiden, the Netherlands.
    van der Wee, Nic J.
    Leiden Institute for Brain and Cognition (LIBC), Leiden, the Netherlands; Department of Psychiatry, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, the Netherlands.
    Vermeiren, Robert R. J. M.
    Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Curium, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, the Netherlands; Leiden Institute for Brain and Cognition (LIBC), Leiden, the Netherlands.
    Dissociable relations between amygdala subregional networks and psychopathy trait dimensions in conduct-disordered juvenile offenders2016Inngår i: Human Brain Mapping, ISSN 1065-9471, E-ISSN 1097-0193, Vol. 37, nr 11, s. 4017-4033Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Psychopathy is a serious psychiatric phenomenon characterized by a pathological constellation of affective (e.g., callous, unemotional), interpersonal (e.g., manipulative, egocentric), and behavioral (e.g., impulsive, irresponsible) personality traits. Though amygdala subregional defects are suggested in psychopathy, the functionality and connectivity of different amygdala subnuclei is typically disregarded in neurocircuit-level analyses of psychopathic personality. Hence, little is known of how amygdala subregional networks may contribute to psychopathy and its underlying trait assemblies in severely antisocial people. We addressed this important issue by uniquely examining the intrinsic functional connectivity of basolateral (BLA) and centromedial (CMA) amygdala networks in relation to affective, interpersonal, and behavioral traits of psychopathy, in conduct-disordered juveniles with a history of serious delinquency (N = 50, mean age = 16.83 ± 1.32). As predicted, amygdalar connectivity profiles exhibited dissociable relations with different traits of psychopathy. Interpersonal psychopathic traits not only related to increased connectivity of BLA and CMA with a corticostriatal network formation accommodating reward processing, but also predicted stronger CMA connectivity with a network of cortical midline structures supporting sociocognitive processes. In contrast, affective psychopathic traits related to diminished CMA connectivity with a frontolimbic network serving salience processing and affective responding. Finally, behavioral psychopathic traits related to heightened BLA connectivity with a frontoparietal cluster implicated in regulatory executive functioning. We suggest that these trait-specific shifts in amygdalar connectivity could be particularly relevant to the psychopathic phenotype, as they may fuel a self-centered, emotionally cold, and behaviorally disinhibited profile.

  • 313.
    Aghanavesi, Somayeh
    et al.
    Department of Computer Engineering, Dalarna University, Borlänge, Sweden.
    Bergquist, Filip
    Department of Pharmacology, Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, Gothenburg University, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Nyholm, Dag
    Department of Neuroscience, Neurology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Senek, Marina
    Department of Neuroscience, Neurology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Memedi, Mevludin
    Örebro universitet, Handelshögskolan vid Örebro Universitet.
    Motion sensor-based assessment of Parkinson's disease motor symptoms during leg agility tests: results from levodopa challenge2019Inngår i: IEEE journal of biomedical and health informatics, ISSN 2168-2194, E-ISSN 2168-2208Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a degenerative, progressive disorder of the central nervous system that mainly affects motor control. The aim of this study was to develop data-driven methods and test their clinimetric properties to detect and quantify PD motor states using motion sensor data from leg agility tests. Nineteen PD patients were recruited in a levodopa single dose challenge study. PD patients performed leg agility tasks while wearing motion sensors on their lower extremities. Clinical evaluation of video recordings was performed by three movement disorder specialists who used four items from the motor section of the Unified PD Rating Scale (UPDRS), the treatment response scale (TRS) and a dyskinesia score. Using the sensor data, spatiotemporal features were calculated and relevant features were selected by feature selection. Machine learning methods like support vector machines (SVM), decision trees and linear regression, using 10-fold cross validation were trained to predict motor states of the patients. SVM showed the best convergence validity with correlation coefficients of 0.81 to TRS, 0.83 to UPDRS #31 (body bradykinesia and hypokinesia), 0.78 to SUMUPDRS (the sum of the UPDRS items: #26-leg agility, #27-arising from chair and #29-gait), and 0.67 to dyskinesia. Additionally, the SVM-based scores had similar test-retest reliability in relation to clinical ratings. The SVM-based scores were less responsive to treatment effects than the clinical scores, particularly with regards to dyskinesia. In conclusion, the results from this study indicate that using motion sensors during leg agility tests may lead to valid and reliable objective measures of PD motor symptoms.

  • 314.
    Aghanavesi, Somayeh
    et al.
    Computer Engineering, School of Technology and Business Studies, Borlänge, Dalarna University, Sweden.
    Bergquist, Filip
    Dept. of Pharmacology, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Nyholm, Dag
    Dept. of Neuroscience, Neurology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Senek, Marina
    Dept. of Neuroscience, Neurology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Memedi, Mevludin
    Örebro universitet, Handelshögskolan vid Örebro Universitet.
    Objective assessment of Parkinson’s disease motor symptoms during leg agility test using motion sensors2018Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Title: Objective assessment of Parkinson’s disease motor symptoms during leg agility test using motion sensors

    Objective: To develop and evaluate machine learning methods for assessment of Parkinson’s disease (PD) motor symptoms using leg agility (LA) data collected with motion sensors during a single dose experiment.

    Background: Nineteen advanced PD patients (Gender: 14 males and 5 females, mean age: 71.4, mean years with PD: 9.7, mean years with levodopa: 9.5) were recruited in a single center, open label, single dose clinical trial in Sweden [1].

    Methods: The patients performed up to 15 LA tasks while wearing motions sensors on their foot ankle. They performed tests at pre-defined time points starting from baseline, at the time they received a morning dose (150% of their levodopa equivalent morning dose), and at follow-up time points until the medication wore off. The patients were video recorded while performing the motor tasks. and three movement disorder experts rated the observed motor symptoms using 4 items from the Unified PD Rating Scale (UPDRS) motor section including UPDRS #26 (leg agility), UPDRS #27 (Arising from chair), UPDRS #29 (Gait), UPDRS #31 (Body Bradykinesia and Hypokinesia), and dyskinesia scale. In addition, they rated the overall mobility of the patients using Treatment Response Scale (TRS), ranging from -3 (very off) to 3 (very dyskinetic). Sensors data were processed and their quantitative measures were used to develop machine learning methods, which mapped them to the mean ratings of the three raters. The quality of measurements of the machine learning methods was assessed by convergence validity, test-retest reliability and sensitivity to treatment.

    Results: Results from the 10-fold cross validation showed good convergent validity of the machine learning methods (Support Vector Machines, SVM) with correlation coefficients of 0.81 for TRS, 0.78 for UPDRS #26, 0.69 for UPDRS #27, 0.78 for UPDRS #29, 0.83 for UPDRS #31, and 0.67 for dyskinesia scale (P<0.001). There were good correlations between scores produced by the methods during the first (baseline) and second tests with coefficients ranging from 0.58 to 0.96, indicating good test-retest reliability. The machine learning methods had lower sensitivity than mean clinical ratings (Figure. 1).

    Conclusions: The presented methodology was able to assess motor symptoms in PD well, comparable to movement disorder experts. The leg agility test did not reflect treatment related changes.

  • 315.
    Aghanavesi, Somayeh
    et al.
    Computer Engineering, School of Technology and Business Studies, Dalarna University, Borlänge, Sweden.
    Filip, Bergquist
    Dept. of Pharmacology, University of Gothenburg, Gothenbrug, Sweden.
    Nyholm, Dag
    Dept. of Neuroscience, Neurology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Senek, Marina
    Dept. of Neuroscience, Neurology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Memedi, Mevludin
    Örebro universitet, Handelshögskolan vid Örebro Universitet.
    Feasibility of a multi-sensor data fusion method for assessment of Parkinson’s disease motor symptoms2018Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Title: Feasibility of a multi-sensor data fusion method for assessment of Parkinson’s disease motor symptoms

    Objective: To assess the feasibility of measuring Parkinson’s disease (PD) motor symptoms with a multi-sensor data fusion method. More specifically, the aim is to assess validity, reliability and sensitivity to treatment of the methods.

    Background: Data from 19 advanced PD patients (Gender: 14 males and 5 females, mean age: 71.4, mean years with PD: 9.7, mean years with levodopa: 9.5) were collected in a single center, open label, single dose clinical trial in Sweden [1].

    Methods: The patients performed leg agility and 2-5 meter straight walking tests while wearing motion sensors on their limbs. They performed the tests at baseline, at the time they received the morning dose, and at pre-specified time points until the medication wore off. While performing the tests the patients were video recorded. The videos were observed by three movement disorder specialists who rated the symptoms using a treatment response scale (TRS), ranging from -3 (very off) to 3 (very dyskinetic). The sensor data consisted of lower limb data during leg agility, upper limb data during walking, and lower limb data during walking. Time series analysis was performed on the raw sensor data extracted from 17 patients to derive a set of quantitative measures, which were then used during machine learning to be mapped to mean ratings of the three raters on the TRS scale. Combinations of data were tested during the machine learning procedure.

    Results: Using data from both tests, the Support Vector Machines (SVM) could predict the motor states of the patients on the TRS scale with a good agreement in relation to the mean ratings of the three raters (correlation coefficient = 0.92, root mean square error = 0.42, p<0.001). Additionally, there was good test-retest reliability of the SVM scores during baseline and second tests with intraclass-correlation coefficient of 0.84. Sensitivity to treatment for SVM was good (Figure 1), indicating its ability to detect changes in motor symptoms. The upper limb data during walking was more informative than lower limb data during walking since SVMs had higher correlation coefficient to mean ratings.  

    Conclusions: The methodology demonstrates good validity, reliability, and sensitivity to treatment. This indicates that it could be useful for individualized optimization of treatments among PD patients, leading to an improvement in health-related quality of life.

  • 316.
    Aghanavesi, Somayeh
    et al.
    School of Technology and Business Studies, Computer Engineering, Dalarna University, Falun, Sweden.
    Memedi, Mevludin
    Örebro universitet, Handelshögskolan vid Örebro Universitet.
    Dougherty, Mark
    School of Technology and Business Studies, Computer Engineering, Dalarna University, Falun, Sweden.
    Nyholm, Dag
    Department of Neuroscience, Neurology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Westin, Jerker
    School of Technology and Business Studies, Computer Engineering, Dalarna University, Falun, Sweden.
    Verification of a Method for Measuring Parkinson’s Disease Related Temporal Irregularity in Spiral Drawings2017Inngår i: Sensors, ISSN 1424-8220, E-ISSN 1424-8220, Vol. 17, nr 10, artikkel-id 2341Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a progressive movement disorder caused by the death of dopamine-producing cells in the midbrain. There is a need for frequent symptom assessment, since the treatment needs to be individualized as the disease progresses. The aim of this paper was to verify and further investigate the clinimetric properties of an entropy-based method for measuring PD-related upper limb temporal irregularities during spiral drawing tasks. More specifically, properties of a temporal irregularity score (TIS) for patients at different stages of PD, and medication time points were investigated. Nineteen PD patients and 22 healthy controls performed repeated spiral drawing tasks on a smartphone. Patients performed the tests before a single levodopa dose and at specific time intervals after the dose was given. Three movement disorder specialists rated videos of the patients based on the unified PD rating scale (UPDRS) and the Dyskinesia scale. Differences in mean TIS between the groups of patients and healthy subjects were assessed. Test-retest reliability of the TIS was measured. The ability of TIS to detect changes from baseline (before medication) to later time points was investigated. Correlations between TIS and clinical rating scores were assessed. The mean TIS was significantly different between healthy subjects and patients in advanced groups (p-value = 0.02). Test-retest reliability of TIS was good with Intra-class Correlation Coefficient of 0.81. When assessing changes in relation to treatment, TIS contained some information to capture changes from Off to On and wearing off effects. However, the correlations between TIS and clinical scores (UPDRS and Dyskinesia) were weak. TIS was able to differentiate spiral drawings drawn by patients in an advanced stage from those drawn by healthy subjects, and TIS had good test-retest reliability. TIS was somewhat responsive to single-dose levodopa treatment. Since TIS is an upper limb high-frequency-based measure, it cannot be detected during clinical assessment.

  • 317.
    Aghanavesi, Somayeh
    et al.
    Computer Engineering, School of Technology and Business Studies, Dalarna University, Borlänge, Sweden.
    Memedi, Mevludin
    Örebro universitet, Handelshögskolan vid Örebro Universitet.
    Westin, Jerker
    Computer Engineering, School of Technology and Business Studies, Dalarna University, Borlänge, Sweden.
    Measuring temporal irregularity in spiral drawings of patients with Parkinson’s disease2017Inngår i: Abstracts of the 21st International Congress of Parkinson's Disease and Movement Disorders, John Wiley & Sons, 2017, Vol. 32, s. s252-s252, artikkel-id 654Konferansepaper (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: The aim of this work is to evaluate clinimetric properties of a method for measuring Parkinson’s disease (PD) upper limb temporal irregularities during spiral drawing tasks.

    Background: Basal ganglia fluctuations of PD patients are associated with motor symptoms and relating them to objective sensor-based measures may facilitate the assessment of temporal irregularities, which could be difficult to be assessed visually. The present study investigated the upper limb temporal irregularity of patients at different stages of PD and medication time points.

    Methods: Nineteen PD patients and 22 healthy controls performed repeated spiral drawing tasks on a smartphone. Patients performed the tests before a single levodopa dose and at specific time intervals after the dose was given. Three movement disorder specialists rated the videos of patients' performance according to six items of UPDRS-III, dyskinesia (Dys), and Treatment Response Scale (TRS). A temporal irregularity score (TIS) was developed using approximate entropy (ApEn) method. Differences in mean TIS between two groups of patients and healthy subjects, and also across four subject groups: early, intermediate, advanced patients and, healthy subjects were assessed. The relative ability of TIS to detect changes from baseline (no medication) to later time points when patients were on medication was assessed. Correlations between TIS and clinical rating scales were assessed by Pearson correlation coefficients and test-retest reliability of TIS was measured by intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC).

    Results: The mean TIS was significantly different between healthy subjects and patients (P<0.0001). When assessing the changes in relation to treatment, clinical-based scores (TRS and Dys) had better responsiveness than TIS. However, the TIS was able to capture changes from Off to On, and the wearing off effects. Correlations between TIS and clinical scales were low indicating poor validity. Test-retest reliability correlation coefficient of the mean TIS was good (ICC=0.67).

    Conclusions: Our study found that TIS was able to differentiate spiral drawings drawn by patients from those drawn by healthy subjects. In addition, TIS could capture changes throughout the levodopa cycle.TIS was weakly correlated to clinical ratings indicating that TIS measures high frequency upper limb temporal irregularities that could be difficult to be detected during clinical observations.

  • 318.
    Aghanavesi, Somayeh
    et al.
    Computer Engineering, School of Technology and Business Studies, Dalarna University, Falun, Sweden.
    Nyholm, Dag
    Dept. of Neuroscience, Neurology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Senek, Marina
    Dept. of Neuroscience, Neurology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Bergquist, Filip
    Dept. of Pharmacology, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Memedi, Mevludin
    Örebro universitet, Handelshögskolan vid Örebro Universitet. Computer Engineering, School of Technology and Business Studies, Dalarna University, Falun, Sweden.
    A smartphone-based system to quantify dexterity in Parkinson's disease patients2017Inngår i: Informatics in Medicine Unlocked, ISSN 2352-9148, Vol. 9, s. 11-17Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives

    The aim of this paper is to investigate whether a smartphone-based system can be used to quantify dexterity in Parkinson's disease (PD). More specifically, the aim was to develop data-driven methods to quantify and characterize dexterity in PD.

    Methods

    Nineteen advanced PD patients and 22 healthy controls participated in a clinical trial in Uppsala, Sweden. The subjects were asked to perform tapping and spiral drawing tests using a smartphone. Patients performed the tests before, and at pre-specified time points after they received 150% of their usual levodopa morning dose. Patients were video recorded and their motor symptoms were assessed by three movement disorder specialists using three Unified PD Rating Scale (UPDRS) motor items from part III, the dyskinesia scoring and the treatment response scale (TRS). The raw tapping and spiral data were processed and analyzed with time series analysis techniques to extract 37 spatiotemporal features. For each of the five scales, separate machine learning models were built and tested by using principal components of the features as predictors and mean ratings of the three specialists as target variables.

    Results

    There were weak to moderate correlations between smartphone-based scores and mean ratings of UPDRS item #23 (0.52; finger tapping), UPDRS #25 (0.47; rapid alternating movements of hands), UPDRS #31 (0.57; body bradykinesia and hypokinesia), sum of the three UPDRS items (0.46), dyskinesia (0.64), and TRS (0.59). When assessing the test-retest reliability of the scores it was found that, in general, the clinical scores had better test-retest reliability than the smartphone-based scores. Only the smartphone-based predicted scores on the TRS and dyskinesia scales had good repeatability with intra-class correlation coefficients of 0.51 and 0.84, respectively. Clinician-based scores had higher effect sizes than smartphone-based scores indicating a better responsiveness in detecting changes in relation to treatment interventions. However, the first principal component of the 37 features was able to capture changes throughout the levodopa cycle and had trends similar to the clinical TRS and dyskinesia scales. Smartphone-based scores differed significantly between patients and healthy controls.

    Conclusions

    Quantifying PD motor symptoms via instrumented, dexterity tests employed in a smartphone is feasible and data from such tests can also be used for measuring treatment-related changes in patients.

  • 319.
    Aginger, Joel
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för humaniora, utbildnings- och samhällsvetenskap.
    Svenska historieläroböckers skildring av kvinnor och män under 1800-talet -En läroboksanalys av historieläroböcker författade åren 1967 och 20112019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
  • 320.
    Agirman, Narsima
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för juridik, psykologi och socialt arbete.
    Far, Elin
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för juridik, psykologi och socialt arbete.
    Hedersrelaterat våld/förtryck Socialarbetarnas egna uplevelser om vilka svårigheter de möter i arbetet med hedersrelaterat våld/förtryck2012Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
  • 321.
    Agneklev, Ulrica
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Hälsoakademin.
    Byström Utterheim, Inga-Lisa
    Örebro universitet, Hälsoakademin.
    Fysisk aktivitet hos personer som fått diagnosen transitorisk ischemisk attack (TIA) - behov av sjukgymnastråd2009Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna studie var att beskriva hur fysiskt aktiva personer som fått diagnosen TIA var. Frågeställningarna rörde vilka aktiviteter studiedeltagarna ägnade sig åt, hur de upplevde sin hälsa, begränsande faktorer, eventuell förändring av aktivitetsvanor, samt om deltagarna fått råd om fysisk aktivitet. Som metod valdes enkätundersökning och 195 enkäter skickades till personer som sökt Universitetssjukhuset Örebro 2007 och fått diagnosen TIA. Resultat: Svarsfrekvensen, efter externt och internt bortfall, blev 74 %. Mer än hälften av de 144 studiedeltagarna var fysiskt aktiva mindre än 30 minuter/dag. Den vanligaste aktiviteten var promenader, vilket 72 % ägnade sig åt. Yngre personer ägnade sig oftare åt tre eller fler aktiviteter jämfört med äldre personer. De deltagare som var regelbundet fysiskt aktiva skattade sin hälsa som god till utmärkt, medan de med stillasittande fritid skattade sin hälsa som någorlunda eller dålig. De mest begränsande faktorerna var sjukdom och smärta. Av studiedeltagarna uppgav 98 personer att de inte fått råd om fysisk aktivitet och hälften av deltagarna hade inte förändrat sina aktivitetsvanor. Slutsats: Studien visar att många personer som fått diagnosen TIA är fysiskt inaktiva. Begränsande faktorer, som, sjukdom, smärta och hög ålder, medför att råd om fysisk aktivitet bör vara individanpassade. Att ge råd om fysisk aktivitet på lämplig nivå, utifrån den enskilde personens förutsättningar är ett centralt kunskapsområde för sjukgymnaster. Därför bör dessa patienter ges möjlighet att träffa sjukgymnast.

  • 322.
    Agnesdotter, Malin
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Pedagogiska institutionen.
    Söderlind, Anette
    Örebro universitet, Pedagogiska institutionen.
    Utomhuspedagogik: pedagogers syn på utomhuspedagogik2006Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Sammanfattning

    Syftet med föreliggande uppsats är att belysa vilken betydelse pedagoger inom förskola och skola anser att utomhuspedagogik har för barns lärande och utveckling.

    Vidare är syftet att orientera om hur och varför pedagoger inom förskola och skola använder utomhuspedagogik. Två olika frågeställningar ligger som till grund för vår uppsats.

    Dessa är:

    Vad anser pedagoger inom förskola och skola om betydelsen av utomhuspedagogik för barns lärande och utveckling?

    Hur använder pedagoger inom förskola och skola utomhuspedagogik och varför?

    För att nå syftet har vi valt att genomföra en kvalitativ intervjustudie. Vi har intervjuat fem olika pedagoger på två olika skolor och två olika förskolor. Dessa förskolor/skolor ligger i Mellansverige och närheten till naturen ser olika ut vid dessa förskolor och skolor.

    Efter genomförda intervjuer kan vi se att pedagogernas syn på utomhuspedagogik är mycket positiv och att de flesta pedagoger använder sig av utomhuspedagogik i någon utsträckning. Pedagogerna anser att utomhuspedagogiken ger barnet en större möjlighet att uppleva med flera sinnen samt att det kan vara bra för barn som är lite oroliga inomhus och behöver röra på sig för att lära. Vi kan även se att förskolorna använder sig av utomhuspedagogik i större utsträckning än vad man gör i skolan.

  • 323.
    Agneson, Henry
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Handelshögskolan vid Örebro Universitet.
    Lundberg, Sara
    Örebro universitet, Handelshögskolan vid Örebro Universitet.
    Von Bothmer, Henrik
    Örebro universitet, Handelshögskolan vid Örebro Universitet.
    Hållbarhetsredovisning i svenska företag - En branschspecifik studie2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
  • 324.
    Agnew, Louise
    et al.
    Division of Physiotherapy, School of Health and Rehabilitation Sciences, University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia.
    Johnston, Venerina
    Division of Physiotherapy, School of Health and Rehabilitation Sciences, University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia.
    Ludvigsson, Maria Landen
    Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden; Rehab Väst, County Council of Östergötland, Motala, Sweden.
    Peterson, Gunnel
    Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden; Centre for Clinical Research Sörmland, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Overmeer, Thomas
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap och medicin. School of Health Care and Social Welfare, Mälardalen University, Västerås, Sweden.
    Johansson, Gun
    Institute of Environmental Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Peolsson, Anneli
    Division of Physiotherapy, School of Health and Rehabilitation Sciences, University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia; Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Factors associated with work ability in patients with chronic whiplash-associated disorder grade II-III: a cross-sectional analysis2015Inngår i: Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine, ISSN 1650-1977, E-ISSN 1651-2081, Vol. 47, nr 6, s. 546-551Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To investigate the factors related to self-perceived work ability in patients with chronic whiplash-associated disorder grades II-III.

    Design: Cross-sectional analysis.

    Patients: A total of 166 working age patients with chronic whiplash-associated disorder.

    Methods: A comprehensive survey collected data on work ability (using the Work Ability Index); demographic, psychosocial, personal, work- and condition-related factors. Forward, stepwise regression modelling was used to assess the factors related to work ability.

    Results: The proportion of patients in each work ability category were as follows: poor (12.7%); moderate (39.8%); good (38.5%); excellent (9%). Seven factors explained 65% (adjusted R-2 = 0.65, p < 0.01) of the variance in work ability. In descending order of strength of association, these factors are: greater neck disability due to pain; reduced self-rated health status and health-related quality of life; increased frequency of concentration problems; poor workplace satisfaction; lower self-efficacy for performing daily tasks; and greater work-related stress.

    Conclusion: Condition-specific and psychosocial factors are associated with self-perceived work ability of individuals with chronic whiplash-associated disorder.

  • 325.
    Agné, Olivia
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för juridik, psykologi och socialt arbete.
    Hansson, Amanda
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för juridik, psykologi och socialt arbete.
    Riskfaktorer till våldsbrott -En systematisk litteraturstudie om sociala riskfaktorer till våldsbrottslighet bland ungdomar 2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Studien är en systematisk litteraturöversikt vars syfte är att med utgångspunkt i tidigare forskning, sammanställa och beskriva den forskning som undersöker sociala riskfaktorer till ungdomars våldsbrottslighet. Detta för att skapa en tydlighet över de sociala riskfaktorerna samt att förstå hur sociala riskfaktorer kan ge utfallet våldsbrottslighet bland ungdomar. Totalt har 15 internationella studier av kvantitativ karaktär inkluderats i litteraturöversikten. All data har sammanställts och strukturerats upp i en tabell. Resultatet har därefter tematiserats utifrån dess nyckelfynd i en tematisk analys. För en fördjupad förståelse har resultatet också analyserats utifrån social inlärningsteori och anknytningsteorin. Resultat visar att de mest frekventa sociala riskfaktorerna finns inom familj- och uppväxt, skola- och umgänge och grannskap. Av dessa kategorier har familj och uppväxt framkommit som den mest betydande sociala riskfaktorn till ungdomars våldsbrottslighet, vilket framförallt avser fysiskt och psykiskt våld, försummelse, sexuella övergrepp eller andra brister i omvårdnaden under barndomen. Detta förklaras genom att individer, som under barndomen, vistats i en utsatt miljö tenderar att observera och efterlikna omgivningens beteende och därmed själv utveckla ett normbrytande och våldsamt beteende i ungdomsåren. Sammanfattningsvis har det framkommit att kontextuella förhållanden har en stor inverkan på utvecklandet av ungdomars våldsbrottslighet. Det har också framkommit att riskfaktorer är komplexa och samspelar på olika nivåer och förstärker effekterna av varandra, vilket medför en svårighet att förutse dess utfall.

  • 326.
    Agovic, Irma
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap och medicin.
    Svensson, Stina
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap och medicin.
    Samverkan genom Barnahus: En undersökning kring arbete med barnmisshandel2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
  • 327.
    Agovic, Sabina
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för humaniora, utbildnings- och samhällsvetenskap.
    Sundin, Gabrielle
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för humaniora, utbildnings- och samhällsvetenskap.
    POLITISKT DELTAGANDE -En kvantitativ studie om resurser, motivation och nätverks effekter på individers politiska deltagande i Sverige2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    This essay studies what affects individual’s political participation in Sweden. Specifically, it

    examines what affects resources, motivation and networks has on individual’s political

    participation and if these effects have a greater or lesser impact during election year compared

    to non- election year. The study applies the civic voluntarism model as theory. According to

    the theory, individuals who are more motivated and have a good access to resources and

    networks participate more in politics. This study relies on a quantitative method completed

    with a logistic regressions analysis and the empirical data used was obtained from SOMinstitute,

    Gothenburg University. Our research concluded that individuals with more access to

    resources, networks and high political motivation are more likely to participate in the politics

    of Sweden. Furthermore, the study revealed that effects of motivation and network has a

    stronger impact on individual’s political participation in Sweden under election year compared

    to non-election year.

  • 328.
    Agrawal, Vikas
    et al.
    IBM Research, , India.
    Archibald, Christopher
    Mississippi State University, Starkville, United States.
    Bhatt, Mehul
    University of Bremen, Bremen, Germany.
    Bui, Hung Hai
    Laboratory for Natural Language Understanding, Sunnyvale CA, United States.
    Cook, Diane J.
    Washington State University, Pullman WA, United States.
    Cortés, Juan
    University of Toulouse, Toulouse, France.
    Geib, Christopher W.
    Drexel University, Philadelphia PA, United States.
    Gogate, Vibhav
    Department of Computer Science, University of Texas, Dallas, United States.
    Guesgen, Hans W.
    Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand.
    Jannach, Dietmar
    Technical university Dortmund, Dortmund, Germany.
    Johanson, Michael
    University of Alberta, Edmonton, Canada.
    Kersting, Kristian
    Fraunhofer-Institut für Intelligente Analyse- und Informationssysteme (IAIS), Sankt Augustin, Germany; The University of Bonn, Bonn, Germany.
    Konidaris, George
    Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Cambridge MA, United States.
    Kotthoff, Lars
    INSIGHT Centre for Data Analytics, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland.
    Michalowski, Martin
    Adventium Labs, Minneapolis MN, United States.
    Natarajan, Sriraam
    Indiana University, Bloomington IN, United States.
    O’Sullivan, Barry
    INSIGHT Centre for Data Analytics, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland.
    Pickett, Marc
    Naval Research Laboratory, Washington DC, United States.
    Podobnik, Vedran
    Telecommunication Department of the Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Computing, University of University of Zagreb, Zagreb, Croatia.
    Poole, David
    Department of Computer Science, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada.
    Shastri, Lokendra
    Infosys, , India.
    Shehu, Amarda
    George Mason University, Washington, United States.
    Sukthankar, Gita
    University of Central Florida, Orlando FL, United States.
    The AAAI-13 Conference Workshops2013Inngår i: The AI Magazine, ISSN 0738-4602, Vol. 34, nr 4, s. 108-115Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The AAAI-13 Workshop Program, a part of the 27th AAAI Conference on Artificial Intelligence, was held Sunday and Monday, July 14-15, 2013, at the Hyatt Regency Bellevue Hotel in Bellevue, Washington, USA. The program included 12 workshops covering a wide range of topics in artificial intelligence, including Activity Context-Aware System Architectures (WS-13-05); Artificial Intelligence and Robotics Methods in Computational Biology (WS-13-06); Combining Constraint Solving with Mining and Learning (WS-13-07); Computer Poker and Imperfect Information (WS-13-08); Expanding the Boundaries of Health Informatics Using Artificial Intelligence (WS-13-09); Intelligent Robotic Systems (WS-13-10); Intelligent Techniques for Web Personalization and Recommendation (WS-13-11); Learning Rich Representations from Low-Level Sensors (WS-13-12); Plan, Activity,, and Intent Recognition (WS-13-13); Space, Time, and Ambient Intelligence (WS-13-14); Trading Agent Design and Analysis (WS-13-15); and Statistical Relational Artificial Intelligence (WS-13-16)

  • 329.
    Agrell, Christina
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskap.
    Larsson, Sofia
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskap.
    Edvardsson, Bo
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskap.
    Beskrivningar av pojkar och flickor i sociala utredningar i LVU-ärenden1997Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet är att undersöka om det finns skillnader i hur pojkar och flickor beskrivs i barnavårdsutredningar. De senaste 26 LVU-fallen från två kammarrätter och sju länsrätter, räknat från den 1 oktober 1997 och bakåt granskades, 13 ärenden med pojkar och 13 med flickor. Uppdelning skedde i miljöfall och beteendefall. Ett flertal skillnader mellan könen kan konstateras. Exempelvis beskrivs pojkar som aggressiva och hotfulla och som en fara för andra. Flickor beskrivs som farliga för sig själva. I miljöfallen beskrivs flickorna som rädda, ledsna och oroliga. I samtliga utredningar förekommer inga eller ytterst få situationsbeskrivningar kopplade till de personbeskrivande orden. 

  • 330.
    Agstam, Mikael
    Örebro universitet, Musikhögskolan.
    Alexanderteknik för emotionellt uttryck i musik: Alexanderteknik som metod för en effektiv spelteknik, och en tillfredsställande musikalisk framställning riktat huvudsakligen till den klassiska gitarristen2009Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    In this essay, I want to achieve an accessible and applicable entrance to Alexander Technique as a method for learning to use the body in such a way as to allow emotional expression in music. It is necessary to see the real need of Alexander Technique for the active musician, and therefore important components of music-making will be presented. These components are presented from an Alexander-perspective in order to produce a clear picture of the method of application.The prerequisite for emotional expression in music is musicians and music listeners with the ability to generate, and respond after emotional impressions. Alexander Technique provides an approach to make it easier for musicians, especially guitarists, to express emotions in a performance situation.After years of practice and obtaining musical knowledge and practical skills at the instrument, it is common that muscle tension and ingrained patterns contribute to limited expression. Muscle tensions arising from pressured situations such as auditions, competitions and concerts. Repetitive movements contribute to this, and lays the foundation for an insufficient technique. It is clear that traditional learning methods need to be complemented with an approach that treats body awareness as an essential part of musical performances. The notion that the use of the body affects mental states is now a truism, and one can see an opening towards new approaches that facilitate learning as well as performance of musical works. The emotional expression is in focus here, and this study deals with musical production based on the philosophy that music should be driven by decisions involving emotional expression.

  • 331.
    Aguado, J. M.
    et al.
    Univ Hosp 12 Octubre, Madrid, Spain.
    Anttila, V. J.
    Univ Helsinki, Helsinki, Finlan; Helsinki Univ Hosp, Helsinki, Finland.
    Galperine, T.
    Hop Claude Huriez, Lille, France.
    Goldenberg, S. D.
    Ctr Clin Infect & Diagnost Res, Guys & St Thomas NHS Fdn Trust, London, England; Kings Coll London, London, England.
    Gwynn, S.
    Triducive Ltd, St Albans, England.
    Jenkins, D.
    Univ Hosp Leicester NHS Trust, Leicester, England.
    Norén, Torbjörn
    Region Örebro län.
    Petrosillo, N.
    Natl Inst Infect Dis, Rome, Italy.
    Seifert, H.
    Inst Med Microbiol Immunol & Hyg, Univ Cologne, Cologne, Germany.
    Stallmach, A.
    Dept Internal Med 4, Univ Klinikum Jena, Jena, Germany.
    Warren, T.
    Triducive Ltd, St Albans, England.
    Wenisch, C.
    Sud Kaiser Franz Josef Spital, Vienna, Austria.
    Highlighting clinical needs in Clostridium difficile infection: the views of European healthcare professionals at the front line2015Inngår i: Journal of Hospital Infection, ISSN 0195-6701, E-ISSN 1532-2939, Vol. 90, nr 2, s. 117-125Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is the leading cause of infectious nosocomial diarrhoea in Europe. Despite increased focus, its incidence and severity are increasing in many European countries. Aim: We developed a series of consensus statements to identify unmet clinical needs in the recognition and management of CDI. Methods: A consortium of European experts prepared a series of 29 statements representing their collective views on the diagnosis and management of CDI in Europe. The statements were grouped into the following six broad themes: diagnosis; definitions of severity; treatment failure, recurrence and its consequences; infection prevention and control interventions; education and antimicrobial stewardship; and National CDI clinical guidance and policy. These statements were reviewed using questionnaires by 1047 clinicians involved in managing CDI, who indicated their level of agreement with each statement. Findings: Levels of agreement exceeded the 66% threshold for consensus for 27 out of 29 statements (93.1%), indicating strong support. Variance between countries and specialties was analysed and showed strong alignment with the overall consensus scores. Conclusion: Based on the consensus scores of the respondent group, recommendations are suggested for the further development of CDI services in order to reduce transmission and recurrence and to ensure that appropriate diagnosis and treatment strategies are applied across all healthcare settings.

  • 332.
    Aguilar-Oddershede, Soledad
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för beteende-, social- och rättsvetenskap.
    Crime Prevention in the EU2006Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Crime prevention became an important Union issue when the Treaty of Amsterdam came into force and created an area of Freedom, Security and Justice (AFSJ). In 1999 the Tampere Conclusions declared the first crime preventive priorities along with the Union’s obligation to protect its citizens. Two years later the European Crime Prevention Network (EUCPN) was established and it was then stated that crime prevention should be based on knowledge and carried out through cooperation and an increased inter-state exchange of information. The Member States have the main responsibility and the work should be carried out by a multidisciplinary approach specialising on certain selected priorities. Successful practices need to be exchanged within the network and evaluation of the preventive work must be done. Despite these and other guidelines, crime preventive work has proven to be problematic. The practical problems are that proven theories are not used in the actual work, the lack of resources and evaluation methods, and too broad priorities which reflects the politicians’ unrealistic ambitions. The theoretical problems, in contrast, are the increased importance for security that collides with basic human rights and the concept of freedom, the lack of consideration for the States’ differences and the idea that States’ providence of security is a source of legitimacy.

  • 333.
    Agélii Genlott, Annika
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Handelshögskolan vid Örebro Universitet.
    Grönlund, Åke
    Örebro universitet, Handelshögskolan vid Örebro Universitet.
    Att lära sig läsa och skriva - i nutid och för framtid2014Inngår i: Interaktiva medier och lärandemiljöer / [ed] Elza Dunkels; Simon Lindgren, Malmö: Gleerups Utbildning AB, 2014, 1, s. 155-166Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 334.
    Agélii Genlott, Annika
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Handelshögskolan vid Örebro Universitet.
    Grönlund, Åke
    Örebro universitet, Handelshögskolan vid Örebro Universitet.
    Closing the gaps: Improving literacy and mathematics by ict-enhanced collaboration2016Inngår i: Computers and education, ISSN 0360-1315, E-ISSN 1873-782X, Vol. 99, s. 68-80Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Literacy and mathematics are necessary skills that for different reasons unfortunately not everybody acquires sufficiently. In OECD countries there is also a gender gap; boys lag behind girls in literacy but often outperform girls in mathematics (OECD, 2012). ICT (Information and communication technologies) may contribute useful tools to address both these problems but in order to effectively create better educational conditions there is yet a need to develop effective methods that combine ICT with key factors for learning. This research contributes to this by measuring effects of the “Write to Learn” (WTL) method. WTL lets children from 1st grade use several ICT tools to write texts and subsequently discuss and refine them together with classmates and teachers using digital real-time formative feedback and assessment. The central learning factor addressed, in mathematics as well as in literacy, is the written communication allowing the learners to interact with peers and teachers. WTL draws on methods from socio-cultural theory, including continuous social interaction and written real-time formative feedback among peers, using shared electronic forums for collaboration, thereby providing social meaning and increased learning of literacy and mathematics, among both boys and girls.

    The study uses quantitative methods and two control groups, one using traditional method (no ICT) and one using technology individually (without integrated social interaction and formative feedback), to compare results from 502 students in grade 3 national tests in mathematics and literacy. WTL yields by far best results; higher average score both in literacy and mathematics, smaller gender gap, and significantly better results for the under-achievers. The ITU method performs worst, which shows that ICT use must be well integrated into the pedagogy to be useful.

  • 335.
    Ahamad, Emmelie
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för juridik, psykologi och socialt arbete.
    Relationsskapande i socialt arbete: Fyra socialarbetares upplevelser av, åsikter om och strategier för att skapa goda relationer till sina klienter vid en daglig verksamhet.2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Sammanfattning

    Det övergripande syftet med denna uppsats är att undersöka hur personal på en daglig verksamhet upplever skapandet av relationer med sina klienter på verksamheten, samt vad personalen beskriver som viktigt i och vilka strategier de använder sig av i skapandet av relationer till sina klienter. I studien genomförs fyra intervjuer med personal på en dagligverksamhet. Resultatet analyserades och strukturerades upp med ett hermeneutiskt förhållningssätt och kvalitativ innehållsanalys, samt belystes därefter utifrån tidigare forskning och teorier i Emotionell Intelligens, att "använda sig själv", Mentalisering och Anknytningsteori. Resultatet visar att personalen uppfattar relationen som en självklar del av deras arbete och en viktig del för utförandet av verksamheten. Relationen bidrar med trygghet, tillit och förtroende hos klienterna, som resultatet visar, utgör vitala delar för att en relation ska kunna skapas. Till hjälp i relationsskapandet använder sig personalen av sig själv som verktyg, personliga egenskaper, professionell arbetslivserfarenhet och individuellt erhållen kunskap kring varje klient. Resultatet bekräftar den forskning och de teorier som användes i studien. I relationskapande krävs det att socialarbetaren är empatisk, har en reflekterande förmåga kring sig själv, sina egna och klienters känslor, samt förmåga att kunna identifiera känslors ursprung och reglera dessa hos sig själv och i sina klienter

  • 336.
    Ahari, Elias
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Eliasson, Erik
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    UNDERSÖKNING AV OMSTÄLLNINGSTIDER OCH VARIATIONER VID KARTONGMASKIN 2: EN FALLSTUDIE PÅ IGGESUND PAPERBOARD AB, IGGESUND2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Iggesunds Bruk tillverkar blekt kartong som används till exklusiva förpackningar. Iggesunds Bruk är en del av Holmenkoncernen och ligger beläget 30 mil norr om Stockholm. Ett strategiskt initiativ har startats på Iggesunds Bruk som avser bland annat att förbättra arbetsmiljö, öka delaktigheten samt öka förmågan att producera kartong av högkvalitet.

    I detta arbete har omställningar samt variationer som förekommer på kartongmaskin 2 (KM2) undersökts. Arbetet har utförts som en kvalitativ fallstudie där intervjuer och observationer har analyserats med teoretiskt stöd. Tidigt i undersökningen visade det sig svårt att fastställa omställningstiderna på KM2. Detta kan härledas till attf inns en osäkerhet angående inrapporteringen, vilket skapar en missvisande bild av omställningsproblematiken. Slutsatsen av detta är att Iggesunds Bruk tydligt bör definiera begreppet "omställning".Det breda produktsortimentet leder också till en rad olika omställningar samt variationer i processen som påverkar produktiviteten negativt. En rekommendation för ett fortsatt arbete är att undersöka om produktsortimentet kan minskas eller möjligheten att köra större produktionsprogram.

  • 337.
    Ahdrian, Micaela
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Handelshögskolan vid Örebro Universitet.
    Nilsson, Annika
    Örebro universitet, Handelshögskolan vid Örebro Universitet.
    Marknadskanalsystemets evolution på den svenska klädmarknaden 1991-2012: En dominant design-analys2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
  • 338.
    Ahinko, Jenny
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för humaniora, utbildnings- och samhällsvetenskap.
    Forsling, Charlotta
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för humaniora, utbildnings- och samhällsvetenskap.
    Medie- och informationskunnighet i specialskolan En kvalitativ intervjustudie kring pedagogers upplevelser av arbetet med digitalisering och källkritik i arbetet med döva och hörselskadade elever2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
  • 339.
    Ahl, Carin
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Hälsoakademin.
    Larsson, Anna
    Örebro universitet, Hälsoakademin.
    Body Mass Index hos 16-åringar under fyra år: Epidemiologisk studie2009Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
  • 340.
    Ahl, Emma
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för humaniora, utbildnings- och samhällsvetenskap.
    Dangerous, hidden and hunted: A multimodal critical discourse analysis of the representation of illegal immigrants in Sweden in the reporting of the terrorist attack in 2017.2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
  • 341.
    Ahl, Emma
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för humaniora, utbildnings- och samhällsvetenskap.
    Konstruktion av könsmönster: -En kvalitativ studie om pedagogers förhållningssätt till barn i förskolan.2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Den här studien är en kvalitativ studie med syfte att undersöka och analysera pedagogernas förhållningssätt i samspelet med barnen och vilken betydelse det kan ha för hur kön konstrueras i förskolans praktik. Metoderna som har använts är deltagande observationer tillsammans med fältanteckningar. Den teoretiska bakgrunden består av det feministiska poststrukturalistiska perspektivet, där dess centrala begrepp sedan används  som analysverktyg.Resultatet pekar på att pedagogernas förhållningssätt skapar diskurser som bidrar till konstruktionen av stereotypa könsmönster. När pedagogerna antar att diskurserna om pojkar och flickor ser olika ut bidrar det även till att pedagogerna bemöter dem på olika sätt. Under dessa observationer uttrycke sig de flesta pedagoger på ett sätt som visar på att de bemötte barnen på olika sätt beroende på om det var en flicka eller pojke.

  • 342.
    Ahl, Emma
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för humaniora, utbildnings- och samhällsvetenskap.
    Svenska helyllepappor på bästa sändningstid: En semiotisk studie av maskuliniteter i Solsidan2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    This essay is about masculinity in the Swedish television series Solsidan. The study therefore is including a discussion about the Swedish gender equality context. To study Solsidan a semiotic tool was used. This was to see the underlying meanings of the representations in the three male characters Alex, Fredde and Ove. Raewyn Connells concept about a range of masculinities in a hierarchy including hegemony, subordination and complicity ones and how these can be seen in different levels, local, regional and global was included. The purpose of this essay is to examine how masculinity is represented in Solsidan, if there are hegemonic ones, and if these can be seen as equal.

    This study came to the result that the characters and their representations are in a somewhat identity crisis between primary two masculinities. One that is more traditional and one that is more modern and family oriented. These do both take the role as a hegemonic role at different levels. The modern and family oriented take a hegemonic role at a regional level since this is the ideal for men that the Swedish politics admire. At a local level thus, there is other more traditional roles that take a hegemonic functioning. The program can be seen as it problematizes that the characters are in these two kinds of masculinities, and also I question if the Swedish state lifts Sweden as a country with men that are equal, but at the local level you can see that this might not always be the case.

  • 343.
    Ahl, Hanna
    et al.
    Skåne University Hospital, Lund, Sweden.
    Eriksson, Mats
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper.
    Norman, Elisabeth
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Sjöström Strand, Annica
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Olsson, Emma
    Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden.
    Bruschettini, Matteo
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Pain scales in clinical trials in newborn infants: a mapping of the evidence2018Annet (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 344.
    Ahl, Ida
    Örebro universitet, Musikhögskolan.
    ”Att de ska få uppleva nånting av det liksom… det är målet”.: En studie om fyra slagverkslärares tankar om didaktiska möjligheter i slagverksundervisning på gymnasiet.2015Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
  • 345.
    Ahl, Rebecka
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper.
    The Association Between Beta-Blockade and Clinical Outcomes in the Context of Surgical and Traumatic Stress2019Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Traumatic injury and major abdominal surgery are areas in general surgery associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality. The overall colorectal cancer surgery mortality rate is around 4%, with that for emergency surgery more than twice as high as for planned. Surgical morbidity varies between 25% and 45%. Around half of trauma patients develop low mood. In one quarter of patients this becomes permanent. Depression is known to impede physical rehabilitation and recovery. The onset of physiological stress, driven by adrenergic hyperactivity following traumatic and surgical injury is hypothesized to contribute to these adverse outcomes. Interest has therefore been sparked into blocking adrenergic receptor activation.

    Papers I and II investigated the role of beta-blocker therapy in preventing post-traumatic depression following severe traumatic brain injury (Paper I) and severe extracranial injury (Paper II). The Karolinska University Hospital Trauma Registry was used to identify patients admitted between 2007 and 2011. In Paper I (n = 545), patients on pre-injury beta-blocker therapy were matched to beta-blocker naïve patients with equivalent injury burden. Results revealed that beta-blocked patients exhibited a 60% reduced risk of needing antidepressant therapy within one year of trauma. In Paper II (n = 596), the lack of beta-blocker use before extracranial trauma was linked to a three-fold increase in the risk of antidepressant initiation.

    Papers III-V explored the role of pre-operative beta-blocker therapy in patients undergoing surgery for colorectal cancer between 2007 and 2016, identified using the nationwide Swedish Colorectal Cancer Registry. Paper III (n = 3,187) identified a 69% reduction in the risk of 30-day mortality in beta-blocked patients. Paper IV (n = 22,337) outlined long-term survival benefits for patients on beta-blocker therapy prior to undergoing elective surgery for colon cancer. Beta-blocked patients showed a risk reduction of 42% for 1-year all-cause mortality and 18% for 5-year cancerspecific mortality. Similarly, patients on beta-blocker therapy who underwent surgery for rectal cancer demonstrated improved survival up to one year after surgery with a risk reduction of 57% and a reduction in anastomotic failure and infectious complications in Paper V (n = 11,966).

    Delarbeid
    1. Does early beta-blockade in isolated severe traumatic brain injury reduce the risk of post traumatic depression?
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Does early beta-blockade in isolated severe traumatic brain injury reduce the risk of post traumatic depression?
    2017 (engelsk)Inngår i: Injury, ISSN 0020-1383, E-ISSN 1879-0267, Vol. 48, nr 1, s. 101-105Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Depressive symptoms occur in approximately half of trauma patients, negatively impacting on functional outcome and quality of life following severe head injury. Pontine noradrenaline has been shown to increase upon trauma and associated beta-adrenergic receptor activation appears to consolidate memory formation of traumatic events. Blocking adrenergic activity reduces physiological stress responses during recall of traumatic memories and impairs memory, implying a potential therapeutic role of beta-blockers. This study examines the effect of pre-admission beta-blockade on post-traumatic depression.

    Methods: All adult trauma patients (>= 18 years) with severe, isolated traumatic brain injury (intracranial Abbreviated Injury Scale score (AIS) >= 3 and extracranial AIS <3) were recruited from the trauma registry of an urban university hospital between 2007 and 2011. Exclusion criteria were in-hospital deaths and prescription of antidepressants up to one year prior to admission. Pre- and post-admission beta-blocker and antidepressant therapy data was requested from the national drugs registry. Post-traumatic depression was defined as the prescription of antidepressants within one year of trauma. Patients with and without pre-admission beta-blockers were matched 1: 1 by age, gender, Glasgow Coma Scale, Injury Severity Score and head AIS. Analysis was carried out using McNemar's and Student's t-test for categorical and continuous data, respectively.

    Results: A total of 545 patients met the study criteria. Of these, 15% (n = 80) were prescribed beta-blockers. After propensity matching, 80 matched pairs were analyzed. 33% (n = 26) of non beta-blocked patients developed post-traumatic depression, compared to only 18% (n = 14) in the beta-blocked group (p = 0.04). There were no significant differences in ICU (mean days: 5.8 (SD 10.5) vs. 5.6 (SD 7.2), p = 0.85) or hospital length of stay (mean days: 21 (SD 21) vs. 21 (SD 20), p = 0.94) between cohorts.

    Conclusion: beta-blockade appears to act prophylactically and significantly reduces the risk of posttraumatic depression in patients suffering from isolated severe traumatic brain injuries. Further prospective randomized studies are warranted to validate this finding.

    sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
    Elsevier, 2017
    Emneord
    Traumatic brain injury, Beta-blockade, Depression
    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-54816 (URN)10.1016/j.injury.2016.10.041 (DOI)000390544600018 ()2-s2.0-85005893752 (Scopus ID)
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2017-01-19 Laget: 2017-01-19 Sist oppdatert: 2019-05-15bibliografisk kontrollert
    2. Corrigendum to "Does early beta-blockade in isolated severe traumatic brain injury reduce the risk of post traumatic depression?": [Injury 48 (2017) 101–105]
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Corrigendum to "Does early beta-blockade in isolated severe traumatic brain injury reduce the risk of post traumatic depression?": [Injury 48 (2017) 101–105]
    2017 (engelsk)Inngår i: Injury, ISSN 0020-1383, E-ISSN 1879-0267, Vol. 48, nr 11, s. 2612-2612Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
    sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
    Elsevier, 2017
    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-62779 (URN)10.1016/j.injury.2017.09.017 (DOI)000414228200042 ()28965685 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85030663249 (Scopus ID)
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2017-11-24 Laget: 2017-11-24 Sist oppdatert: 2019-05-13bibliografisk kontrollert
    3. Does beta-blockade reduce the risk of depression in patients with isolated severe extracranial injuries?
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Does beta-blockade reduce the risk of depression in patients with isolated severe extracranial injuries?
    Vise andre…
    2017 (engelsk)Inngår i: World Journal of Surgery, ISSN 0364-2313, E-ISSN 1432-2323, Vol. 41, nr 7, s. 1801-1806Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Approximately half of trauma patients develop post-traumatic depression. It is suggested that beta-blockade impairs trauma memory recollection, reducing depressive symptoms. This study investigates the effect of early beta-blockade on depression following severe traumatic injuries in patients without significant brain injury.

    METHODS: Patients were identified by retrospectively reviewing the trauma registry at an urban university hospital between 2007 and 2011. Severe extracranial injuries were defined as extracranial injuries with Abbreviated Injury Scale score ≥3, intracranial Abbreviated Injury Scale score <3 and an Injury Severity Score ≥16. In-hospital deaths and patients prescribed antidepressant therapy ≤1 year prior to admission were excluded. Patients were stratified into groups based on pre-admission beta-blocker status. The primary outcome was post-traumatic depression, defined as receiving antidepressants ≤1 year following trauma.

    RESULTS: Five hundred and ninety-six patients met the inclusion criteria with 11.4% prescribed pre-admission beta-blockade. Patients receiving beta-blockers were significantly older (57 ± 18 vs. 42 ± 17 years, p < 0.001) with lower Glasgow Coma Scale score (12 ± 3 vs. 14 ± 2, p < 0.001). The beta-blocked cohort spent significantly longer in hospital (21 ± 20 vs. 15 ± 17 days, p < 0.01) and intensive care (4 ± 7 vs. 3 ± 5 days, p = 0.01). A forward logistic regression model was applied and predicted lack of beta-blockade to be associated with increased risk of depression (OR 2.7, 95% CI 1.1-7.2, p = 0.04). After adjusting for group differences, patients lacking beta-blockers demonstrated an increased risk of depression (AOR 3.3, 95% CI 1.2-8.6, p = 0.02).

    CONCLUSIONS: Pre-admission beta-blockade is associated with a significantly reduced risk of depression following severe traumatic injury. Further investigation is needed to determine the beneficial effects of beta-blockade in these instances.

    sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
    New York: Springer, 2017
    HSV kategori
    Forskningsprogram
    Kirurgi
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-57385 (URN)10.1007/s00268-017-3935-5 (DOI)000403056400020 ()28265730 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85014574094 (Scopus ID)
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2017-05-08 Laget: 2017-05-08 Sist oppdatert: 2019-05-13bibliografisk kontrollert
    4. Effect of beta-blocker therapy on early mortality after emergency colonic cancer surgery
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Effect of beta-blocker therapy on early mortality after emergency colonic cancer surgery
    Vise andre…
    2019 (engelsk)Inngår i: British Journal of Surgery, ISSN 0007-1323, E-ISSN 1365-2168, Vol. 106, nr 4, s. 477-483Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Emergency colorectal cancer surgery is associated with significant mortality. Induced adrenergic hyperactivity is thought to be an important contributor. Downregulating the effects of circulating catecholamines may reduce the risk of adverse outcomes. This study assessed whether regular preoperative beta-blockade reduced mortality after emergency colonic cancer surgery.

    METHODS: This cohort study used the prospectively collected Swedish Colorectal Cancer Registry to recruit all adult patients requiring emergency colonic cancer surgery between 2011 and 2016. Patients were subdivided into those receiving regular beta-blocker therapy before surgery and those who were not (control). Demographics and clinical outcomes were compared. Risk factors for 30-day mortality were evaluated using Poisson regression analysis.

    RESULTS: A total of 3187 patients were included, of whom 685 (21·5 per cent) used regular beta-blocker therapy before surgery. The overall 30-day mortality rate was significantly reduced in the beta-blocker group compared with controls: 3·1 (95 per cent c.i. 1·9 to 4·7) versus 8·6 (7·6 to 9·8) per cent respectively (P < 0·001). Beta-blocker therapy was the only modifiable protective factor identified in multivariable analysis of 30-day all-cause mortality (incidence rate ratio 0·31, 95 per cent c.i. 0·20 to 0·47; P < 0·001) and was associated with a significant reduction in death of cardiovascular, respiratory, sepsis and multiple organ failure origin.

    CONCLUSION: Preoperative beta-blocker therapy may be associated with a reduction in 30-day mortality following emergency colonic cancer surgery.

    sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
    John Wiley & Sons, 2019
    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-69119 (URN)10.1002/bjs.10988 (DOI)000459801800023 ()30259967 (PubMedID)
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2018-10-01 Laget: 2018-10-01 Sist oppdatert: 2019-05-13bibliografisk kontrollert
    5. The Effects of Beta-Blocker Therapy on Mortality After Elective Colon Cancer Surgery
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>The Effects of Beta-Blocker Therapy on Mortality After Elective Colon Cancer Surgery
    Vise andre…
    (engelsk)Manuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-74247 (URN)
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2019-05-13 Laget: 2019-05-13 Sist oppdatert: 2019-05-13bibliografisk kontrollert
    6. β-Blockade in Rectal Cancer Surgery: A Simple Measure of Improving Outcomes
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>β-Blockade in Rectal Cancer Surgery: A Simple Measure of Improving Outcomes
    Vise andre…
    2018 (engelsk)Inngår i: Annals of Surgery, ISSN 0003-4932, E-ISSN 1528-1140Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Epub ahead of print
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: To ascertain whether regular β-blocker exposure can improve short- and long-term outcomes after rectal cancer surgery.

    BACKGROUND: Surgery for rectal cancer is associated with substantial morbidity and mortality. There is increasing evidence to suggest that there is a survival benefit in patients exposed to β-blockers undergoing non-cardiac surgery. Studies investigating the effects on outcomes in patients subjected to surgery for rectal cancer are lacking.

    METHODS: All adult patients undergoing elective abdominal resection for rectal cancer over a 10-year period were recruited from the prospectively collected Swedish Colorectal Cancer Registry. Patients were subdivided according to preoperative β-blocker exposure status. Outcomes of interest were 30-day complications, 30-day cause-specific mortality, and 1-year all-cause mortality. The association between β-blocker use and outcomes were analyzed using Poisson regression model with robust standard errors for 30-day complications and cause-specific mortality. One-year survival was assessed using Cox proportional hazards regression model.

    RESULTS: A total of 11,966 patients were included in the current study, of whom 3513 (29.36%) were exposed to regular preoperative β-blockers. A significant decrease in 30-day mortality was detected (incidence rate ratio = 0.06, 95% confidence interval: 0.03-0.13, P < 0.001). Deaths of cardiovascular nature, respiratory origin, sepsis, and multiorgan failure were significantly lower in β-blocker users, as were the incidences in postoperative infection and anastomotic failure. The β-blocker positive group had significantly better survival up to 1 year postoperatively with a risk reduction of 57% (hazard ratio = 0.43, 95% confidence interval: 0.37-0.52, P < 0.001).

    CONCLUSIONS: Preoperative β-blocker use is strongly associated with improved survival and morbidity after abdominal resection for rectal cancer.

    sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
    Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2018
    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-74248 (URN)10.1097/SLA.0000000000002970 (DOI)30048321 (PubMedID)
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2019-05-13 Laget: 2019-05-13 Sist oppdatert: 2019-05-13bibliografisk kontrollert
  • 346.
    Ahl, Rebecka
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper. Division of Trauma and Emergency Surgery, Department of Surgery, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Barmparas, Galinos
    Division of Acute Care Surgery and Surgical Critical Care, Department of Surgery, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, USA.
    Riddez, Louis
    Division of Trauma and Emergency Surgery, Department of Surgery, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ley, Eric J.
    Division of Acute Care Surgery and Surgical Critical Care, Department of Surgery, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, USA.
    Wallin, Göran
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper. Division of Trauma and Emergency Surgery, Department of Surgery, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden.
    Ljungqvist, Olle
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper. Division of Trauma and Emergency Surgery, Department of Surgery, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden.
    Mohseni, Shahin
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper. Region Örebro län. Division of Trauma and Emergency Surgery, Department of Surgery, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden; Division of Trauma and Emergency Surgery, Department of Surgery, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Does beta-blockade reduce the risk of depression in patients with isolated severe extracranial injuries?2017Inngår i: World Journal of Surgery, ISSN 0364-2313, E-ISSN 1432-2323, Vol. 41, nr 7, s. 1801-1806Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Approximately half of trauma patients develop post-traumatic depression. It is suggested that beta-blockade impairs trauma memory recollection, reducing depressive symptoms. This study investigates the effect of early beta-blockade on depression following severe traumatic injuries in patients without significant brain injury.

    METHODS: Patients were identified by retrospectively reviewing the trauma registry at an urban university hospital between 2007 and 2011. Severe extracranial injuries were defined as extracranial injuries with Abbreviated Injury Scale score ≥3, intracranial Abbreviated Injury Scale score <3 and an Injury Severity Score ≥16. In-hospital deaths and patients prescribed antidepressant therapy ≤1 year prior to admission were excluded. Patients were stratified into groups based on pre-admission beta-blocker status. The primary outcome was post-traumatic depression, defined as receiving antidepressants ≤1 year following trauma.

    RESULTS: Five hundred and ninety-six patients met the inclusion criteria with 11.4% prescribed pre-admission beta-blockade. Patients receiving beta-blockers were significantly older (57 ± 18 vs. 42 ± 17 years, p < 0.001) with lower Glasgow Coma Scale score (12 ± 3 vs. 14 ± 2, p < 0.001). The beta-blocked cohort spent significantly longer in hospital (21 ± 20 vs. 15 ± 17 days, p < 0.01) and intensive care (4 ± 7 vs. 3 ± 5 days, p = 0.01). A forward logistic regression model was applied and predicted lack of beta-blockade to be associated with increased risk of depression (OR 2.7, 95% CI 1.1-7.2, p = 0.04). After adjusting for group differences, patients lacking beta-blockers demonstrated an increased risk of depression (AOR 3.3, 95% CI 1.2-8.6, p = 0.02).

    CONCLUSIONS: Pre-admission beta-blockade is associated with a significantly reduced risk of depression following severe traumatic injury. Further investigation is needed to determine the beneficial effects of beta-blockade in these instances.

  • 347.
    Ahl, Rebecka
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper. Division of Trauma and Emergency Surgery, Department of Surgery, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Lindgren, Rickard
    Region Örebro län. Division of Trauma and Emergency Surgery, Department of Surgery, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden.
    Cao, Yang
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper. Unit of Biostatistics, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Riddez, Louis
    Division of Trauma and Emergency Surgery, Department of Surgery, Karolinska University Hospital, Solna, Sweden.
    Mohseni, Shahin
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper. Region Örebro län. Division of Trauma and Emergency Surgery, Department of Surgery, Orebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden; Division of Trauma and Emergency Surgery, Department of Surgery, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Risk factors for depression following traumatic injury: An epidemiological study from a scandinavian trauma center2017Inngår i: Injury, ISSN 0020-1383, E-ISSN 1879-0267, Vol. 48, nr 5, s. 1082-1087Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    INTRODUCTION: A significant proportion of patients suffer depression following traumatic injuries. Once manifested, major depression is challenging to overcome and its presence risks impairing the potential for physical rehabilitation and functional recovery. Risk stratification for early detection and intervention in these instances is important. This study aims to investigate patient and injury characteristics associated with an increased risk for depression.

    METHODS: All patients with traumatic injuries were recruited from the trauma registry of an urban university hospital between 2007 and 2012. Patient and injury characteristics as well as outcomes were collected for analysis. Patients under the age of eighteen, prescribed antidepressants within one year of admission, in-hospital deaths and deaths within 30days of trauma were excluded. Pre- and post-admission antidepressant data was requested from the national drugs registry. Post-traumatic depression was defined as the prescription of antidepressants within one year of trauma. To isolate independent risk factors for depression a multivariable forward stepwise logistic regression model was deployed.

    RESULTS: A total of 5981 patients met the inclusion criteria of whom 9.2% (n=551) developed post-traumatic depression. The mean age of the cohort was 42 [standard deviation (SD) 18] years and 27.1% (n=1620) were females. The mean injury severity score was 9 (SD 9) with 18.4% (n=1100) of the patients assigned a score of at least 16. Six variables were identified as independent predictors for post-traumatic depression. Factors relating to the patient were female gender and age. Injury-specific variables were penetrating trauma and GCS score of≤8 on admission. Furthermore, intensive care admission and increasing hospital length of stay were predictors of depression.

    CONCLUSION: Several risk factors associated with the development of post-traumatic depression were identified. A better targeted in-hospital screening and patient-centered follow up can be offered taking these risk factors into consideration.

  • 348.
    Ahl, Rebecka
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper. Department of Surgery, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden; School of Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Matthiessen, P.
    School of Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden; Department of Surgery, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden.
    Fang, X.
    Unit of Biostatistics, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Cao, Yang
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper. Region Örebro län. Unit of Biostatistics, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; .
    Sjölin, Gabriel
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper. Department of Surgery.
    Lindgren, R.
    Department of Surgery, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden.
    Ljungqvist, Olle
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper. Department of Molecular Medicine and Surgery, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Mohseni, Shahin
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper. Region Örebro län. Department of Surgery.
    Effect of beta-blocker therapy on early mortality after emergency colonic cancer surgery2019Inngår i: British Journal of Surgery, ISSN 0007-1323, E-ISSN 1365-2168, Vol. 106, nr 4, s. 477-483Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Emergency colorectal cancer surgery is associated with significant mortality. Induced adrenergic hyperactivity is thought to be an important contributor. Downregulating the effects of circulating catecholamines may reduce the risk of adverse outcomes. This study assessed whether regular preoperative beta-blockade reduced mortality after emergency colonic cancer surgery.

    METHODS: This cohort study used the prospectively collected Swedish Colorectal Cancer Registry to recruit all adult patients requiring emergency colonic cancer surgery between 2011 and 2016. Patients were subdivided into those receiving regular beta-blocker therapy before surgery and those who were not (control). Demographics and clinical outcomes were compared. Risk factors for 30-day mortality were evaluated using Poisson regression analysis.

    RESULTS: A total of 3187 patients were included, of whom 685 (21·5 per cent) used regular beta-blocker therapy before surgery. The overall 30-day mortality rate was significantly reduced in the beta-blocker group compared with controls: 3·1 (95 per cent c.i. 1·9 to 4·7) versus 8·6 (7·6 to 9·8) per cent respectively (P < 0·001). Beta-blocker therapy was the only modifiable protective factor identified in multivariable analysis of 30-day all-cause mortality (incidence rate ratio 0·31, 95 per cent c.i. 0·20 to 0·47; P < 0·001) and was associated with a significant reduction in death of cardiovascular, respiratory, sepsis and multiple organ failure origin.

    CONCLUSION: Preoperative beta-blocker therapy may be associated with a reduction in 30-day mortality following emergency colonic cancer surgery.

  • 349.
    Ahl, Rebecka
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper. Department of Surgery, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Matthiessen, Peter
    School of Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden; Division of Colorectal Surgery, Department of Surgery, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden.
    Cao, Yang
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper. Region Örebro län.
    Sjölin, Gabriel
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper. Department of Surgery, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden.
    Ljungqvist, Olle
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper. Department of Surgery, School of Medical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine and Health, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden; Department of Molecular Medicine and Surgery, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Mohseni, Shahin
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper. Region Örebro län. Division of Trauma and Emergency Surgery, Department of Surgery, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden.
    The Relationship Between Severe Complications, Beta-Blocker Therapy and Long-Term Survival Following Emergency Surgery for Colon Cancer2019Inngår i: World Journal of Surgery, ISSN 0364-2313, E-ISSN 1432-2323Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Emergency surgery for colon cancer carries significant morbidity, and studies show more than doubled mortality when comparing elective to emergency surgery. The relationship between postoperative complications and survival has been outlined. Beta-blocker therapy has been linked to improved postoperative outcomes. This study aims to assess the impact of postoperative complications on long-term survival following emergency surgery for colon cancer and to determine whether beta-blockade can reduce complications.

    STUDY DESIGN: This cohort study utilized the prospective Swedish Colorectal Cancer Registry to identify adults undergoing emergency colon cancer surgery between 2011 and 2016. Prescription data for preoperative beta-blocker therapy were collected from the national drug registry. Cox regression was used to evaluate the effect of beta-blocker exposure and complications on 1-year mortality, and Poisson regression was used to evaluate beta-blocker exposure in patients with major complications.

    RESULTS: A total of 3139 patients were included with a mean age of 73.1 [12.4] of which 671 (21.4%) were prescribed beta-blockers prior to surgery. Major complications occurred in 375 (11.9%) patients. Those suffering major complications showed a threefold increase in 1-year mortality (adjusted HR = 3.29; 95% CI 2.75-3.94; p < 0.001). Beta-blocker use was linked to a 60% risk reduction in 1-year mortality (adjusted HR = 0.40; 95% CI 0.26-0.62; p < 0.001) but did not show a statistically significant association with reductions in major complications (adjusted IRR = 0.77; 95% CI 0.59-1.00; p = 0.055).

    CONCLUSION: The development of major complications after emergency colon cancer surgery is associated with increased mortality during one year after surgery. Beta-blocker therapy may protect against postoperative complications.

  • 350.
    Ahl, Rebecka
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper. Department of Surgery, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Matthiessen, Peter
    School of Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden; Department of Surgery, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden.
    Fang, Xin
    Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Cao, Yang
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper. Region Örebro län.
    Sjölin, Gabriel
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper. Department of Surgery, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden.
    Lindgren, Rickard
    Department of Surgery, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden.
    Ljungqvist, Olle
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper. Department of Molecular Medicine and Surgery, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Mohseni, Shahin
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper. Region Örebro län. Department of Surgery.
    β-Blockade in Rectal Cancer Surgery: A Simple Measure of Improving Outcomes2018Inngår i: Annals of Surgery, ISSN 0003-4932, E-ISSN 1528-1140Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: To ascertain whether regular β-blocker exposure can improve short- and long-term outcomes after rectal cancer surgery.

    BACKGROUND: Surgery for rectal cancer is associated with substantial morbidity and mortality. There is increasing evidence to suggest that there is a survival benefit in patients exposed to β-blockers undergoing non-cardiac surgery. Studies investigating the effects on outcomes in patients subjected to surgery for rectal cancer are lacking.

    METHODS: All adult patients undergoing elective abdominal resection for rectal cancer over a 10-year period were recruited from the prospectively collected Swedish Colorectal Cancer Registry. Patients were subdivided according to preoperative β-blocker exposure status. Outcomes of interest were 30-day complications, 30-day cause-specific mortality, and 1-year all-cause mortality. The association between β-blocker use and outcomes were analyzed using Poisson regression model with robust standard errors for 30-day complications and cause-specific mortality. One-year survival was assessed using Cox proportional hazards regression model.

    RESULTS: A total of 11,966 patients were included in the current study, of whom 3513 (29.36%) were exposed to regular preoperative β-blockers. A significant decrease in 30-day mortality was detected (incidence rate ratio = 0.06, 95% confidence interval: 0.03-0.13, P < 0.001). Deaths of cardiovascular nature, respiratory origin, sepsis, and multiorgan failure were significantly lower in β-blocker users, as were the incidences in postoperative infection and anastomotic failure. The β-blocker positive group had significantly better survival up to 1 year postoperatively with a risk reduction of 57% (hazard ratio = 0.43, 95% confidence interval: 0.37-0.52, P < 0.001).

    CONCLUSIONS: Preoperative β-blocker use is strongly associated with improved survival and morbidity after abdominal resection for rectal cancer.

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