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  • 301.
    Julander, Anneli
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för teknik.
    Karlsson, Marie
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap.
    Hagström, Katja
    Ohlson, Carl Göran
    Engwall, Magnus
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap.
    Bryngelsson, Ing-Liss
    Westberg, Håkan
    van Bavel, Bert
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap.
    Polybrominated diphenylethers and thyroid hormone status in human plasma of workers at electronic recycling facilityManuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 302.
    Julander, Anneli
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap.
    Westberg, Håkan
    Engwall, Magnus
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap.
    van Bavel, Bert
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap.
    Distribution of brominated flame retardants in different dust fractions in air from an electronics recycling facilityManuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 303.
    Julander, Anneli
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Akademin för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Westberg, Håkan
    Engwall, Magnus
    Örebro universitet, Akademin för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    van Bavel, Bert
    Örebro universitet, Akademin för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Distribution of brominated flame retardants in different dust fractions in air from an electronics recycling facility2005Inngår i: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 350, nr 1-3, s. 151-160Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Twelve air samples were collected from an electronic recycling facility in Sweden representing three different dust fractions; respirable, total and inhalable dust. Four samples were collected from each fraction. The highest concentration of polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) #209 (ten bromine atoms) was found in the samples from the inhalable dust fraction (ID), which was 10 times higher than for the "total dust" fraction (TD). The concentration ranges were 157.6-208.6; 13.9-16.7; and 2.8-3.3 ng/m3 for inhalable, total and respirable fractions, respectively. The second most abundant PBDE congener was PBDE #183 (seven bromine atoms), followed by the second most abundant substance 1,2-bis(2,4,6-tribromophenoxy)ethane (BTBPE) in all samples. In addition, decabromodiphenyl ethane (DeBDethane) was tentatively identified in five of the samples. Because of the large differences in air concentrations between the three fractions in ID, TD and RD, it is suggested that the inhalable instead of "total dust" fraction should be used to assess air concentrations, in particular for the larger and higher brominated flame retardants (BFRs).

  • 304.
    Juranović Cindrić, Iva
    et al.
    Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Zagreb, Zagreb, Croatia.
    Zeiner, Michaela
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik. Department of Chemistry, BOKU – University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna, Austria.
    Starčević, Ana
    Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Zagreb, Zagreb, Croatia.
    Stingeder, Gerhard
    Department of Chemistry, BOKU – University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna, Austria.
    Metals in pine needles: characterisation of bio-indicators depending on species2019Inngår i: International Journal of Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 1735-1472, E-ISSN 1735-2630, Vol. 16, nr 8, s. 4339-4346Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Air pollution can be studied by appropriate bio-indicators, such as pine needles due to their waxy surface. Metal uptake and accumulation is determined by on growing area, but also on the respective species. Scope of the study was to analyse needles of Pinus densiflora Siebold et Zucc., Pinus nigra Arnold, Pinus sylvestris L., and Pinus thunbergiana Franco for metals and metalloids, namely Aluminum, Arsenic, Boron, Barium, Calcium, Cadmium, Cobalt, Copper, Chromium, Iron, Potassium, Lithium, Magnesium, Manganese, Molybdenum, Sodium, Nickel, Lead, Selenium, Strontium, and Zinc. Quantitation of the analytes was performed using inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry and inductively coupled plasma sector field mass spectrometry after acidic microwave-assisted digestion.

    The obtained data were checked for statistically significant differences. The metal levels differ between the various species, but no general tendency was found for all metals. Since the environmental conditions were the same for all sampled trees, the differences in metal accumulation are supposed to be linked to species of pine tree.

    The diverse accumulation behaviour can be used for treating polluted soil.

  • 305.
    Kais, Britta
    et al.
    Aquatic Ecology and Toxicology Group, Center for Organismal Studies (COS), University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany.
    Schiwy, Sabrina
    Department of Ecosystem Analysis, Institute for Environmental Research, ABBt - Aachen Biology and Biotechnology, Rheinisch-Westfälische Technische Hochschule (RWTH) Aachen University, Aachen, Germany.
    Hollert, Henner
    Department of Ecosystem Analysis, Institute for Environmental Research, ABBt - Aachen Biology and Biotechnology, RWTH Aachen University, Aachen, Germany.
    Keiter, Steffen
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik. Department of Ecosystem Analysis, Institute for Environmental Research, ABBt - Aachen Biology and Biotechnology, RWTH Aachen University, Aachen, Germany.
    Braunbeck, Thomas
    Aquatic Ecology and Toxicology Group, Center for Organismal Studies (COS), University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany.
    In vivo EROD assays with the zebrafish (Danio rerio) as rapid screening tools for the detection of dioxin-like activity2017Inngår i: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 590-591, s. 269-280Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study compares two alternative in vivo approaches for the measurement of ethoxyresorufin-Odeethylase (EROD) activity in zebrafish (Danio rerio) following exposure to acetonic model sediment extracts: (1) the live-imaging EROD assay for the direct detection of EROD induction in individual livers via epifluorescence, and (2) the fish embryo EROD assay in subcellular fractions derived from entire zebrafish embryos after in vivo exposure.

    For toxicity assessment, each sediment extract was tested with the standard fish embryo test (FET). Upon completion of a functioning liver after 72 h, the embryos gave a distinct fluorescent signal in the liver, and a corresponding EROD activity could be detected in the fish embryo EROD assay. The exposure time in the live-imaging EROD assay was reduced to 3 h, which resulted in a stronger, less variable and more sensitive EROD response. Overall, the live-imaging and the fish embryo EROD assays showed the same tendencies and gave comparable results, e.g. a concentration-dependent increase in EROD activity at concentrations one order of magnitude below concentrations producing macroscopically visible abnormalities. At higher concentrations, however, a decrease of EROD activity was observed in either test. Both tests ranked the three model sediment extracts in the same order. Results indicate that both test systems complement each other and together provide a rapid and reliable in vivo tool to investigate the presence of dioxin-like substances in environmental samples.

  • 306.
    Karami, Ali
    et al.
    Department of Aquaculture, Faculty of Agriculture, University Putra Malaysia, Selangor, Malaysia.
    Keiter, Steffen
    Department of Ecosystem Analysis, Institute for Environmental Research (Biology V), RWTH Aachen University, Aachen, Germany.
    Hollert, Henner
    Department of Ecosystem Analysis, Institute for Environmental Research (Biology V), RWTH Aachen University, Aachen, Germany.
    Courtenay, Simon
    Fisheries and Oceans Canada at the Canadian Rivers Institute, Department of Biology, University of New Brunswick, Fredericton NB, Canada.
    Fuzzy logic and adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system for characterization of contaminant exposure through selected biomarkers in African catfish2013Inngår i: Environmental science and pollution research international, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 20, nr 3, s. 1586-1595Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This study represents a first attempt at applying a fuzzy inference system (FIS) and an adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) to the field of aquatic biomonitoring for classification of the dosage and time of benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) injection through selected biomarkers in African catfish (Clarias gariepinus). Fish were injected either intramuscularly (i.m.) or intraperitoneally (i.p.) with BaP. Hepatic glutathione S-transferase (GST) activities, relative visceral fat weights (LSI), and four biliary fluorescent aromatic compounds (FACs) concentrations were used as the inputs in the modeling study. Contradictory rules in FIS and ANFIS models appeared after conversion of bioassay results into human language (rule-based system). A “data trimming”approach was proposed to eliminate the conflicts prior to fuzzification. However, the model produced was relevant only to relatively low exposures to BaP, especially through the i.m. route of exposure. Furthermore, sensitivity analysis was unable to raise the classification rate to an acceptable level. In conclusion, FIS and ANFIS models have limited applications in the field of fish biomarker studies.

  • 307.
    Karlsson, Elin
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Förekomst av polycykliska aromatiska kolväten (PAHer) i vilda och odlade blåmusslor2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    I denna studie har förekomst av Polycykliska aromatiska kolväten (PAHer) i musslor undersökts. Syftet var att undersöka vilka PAHer som förekom, i vilka halter och ifall dessa nivåer överskred gränsvärdena för humankonsumtion. Vissa PAHer är skadliga för människan då de kan ge upphov till cancer. Vilda och odlade musslor jämfördes för att se om innehållet av PAHer skiljde sig åt. Musslor från sex olika provplatser undersöktes. Två prov handplockades vilda utanför Stenungssund, Sverige. Danska vildfångade musslor undersöktes, likaså vildfångade svenska musslor. Även odlade musslor från Irland och odlade musslor från Sverige undersöktes. Resultaten visar att fluoranten, fenantren, pyren, krysen, benzo(e)pyren och benzo(b)fluoranten var de ämnen som förekom i högst halter. Av de alkylerade PAHerna var 2-metylantracen-9,10-dion, 2-metylfenantren, 2-metylkrysen och 1-metylfluoranten vanligast. Halterna av oxy-PAHer var låga, förutom för antracen-9,10-dion, benzo(h)quinolin samt 2-metylantracen-9,10-dion. Utifrån de riktvärden som finns för humankonsumtion överskred inga musslor gränsvärdena. Inga skillnader kunde ses mellan odlade och vilda musslor. Sammanfattningsvis förekommer PAHer i musslor, men inte i sådan halt att musslorna inte är godkända som livsmedel.

  • 308.
    Karlsson, Lovisa
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Release of elements from unprocessed- and processed shale from Kvarntorp: Effect from different pH2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The alum shale of Sweden is a sulphidic black shale which was mined for its contents of alum during the 17th-19th centuries. During the thirst half of the 20th century alum shale from Kvarntorp was pyrolysed for refinement of its organic matter.

    The refuse from the pyrolysis process were deposited in a deposit area which is today known as Kvarntorpshögen. This deposit is still hot due to on-going oxidation of the organic matter, pyrite oxidation and the neutralisation of acid by limestone. This heat generation prevents percolation of water to any greater extent due to evaporation. Once it cools the deposit will be susceptible to extraction.

    Three materials from the Kvarntorp deposit and a block of alum shale were sampled from the Kvarntorp area. These four materials were crushed, sieved and extracted. The extraction experiment was performed at controlled pH which corresponded to dissolution equilibrium of pyrite, carbon dioxide/oxygen, calcite and slaked lime. In the fifth extraction series the material was allowed to set the pH of the water phase. The extraction procedure lasted for 26 days.

    Metal content of the four shale materials were analysed by XRF (including contents of sulphur, phosphorous and chloride) and by digestion followed by ICP-MS analysis. Mineralogy of the four materials and the extraction residues were studied by XRD analysis. Metal concentrations of the aqueous samples were analysed by ICP-MS and concentrations of dissolved organic- and inorganic carbon by TOC. Electrical conductivity and concentrations of sulphate was also analysed in aqueous phases with non-manipulated pH.

    Sulphate and calcium concentrations were highest in aqueous samples from weathered fines indicating the presence of gypsum. Presence of gypsum was also confirmed by XRD. Gypsum indicates weathering since it is a neutralisation product of calcite and the sulphuric acid generated by pyrite oxidation.

    Concentrations of dissolved organic carbon in samples with pH 12.5 were found to be highest from red processed shale and lowest from samples of shale. This indicates different hydrolysis properties or origin of the organic matter in the materials.

    The majority of analysed metals had highest solid solution distribution under acidic, i.e. pH 3.0, conditions. Under these conditions it was samples from the relatively non-weathered shale that had the highest release of metals, with a few exceptions.

    At pH 12.5 high concentrations of V, As and Mo was extracted from almost all four materials. The red processed shale released the highest percentages of its total contents of V, As and Mo under these conditions; 28 %, 55 % and 61 % respectively. The high release of V, As and Mo from red processed shale was most likely a result from the pyrolysis process. The roasting induced the formation of oxides which then easily forms vanadate, arsenate and molybdate when exposed to water.

    Water percolating the Kvarntorp deposit in the future will initially most likely have a near neutral or slightly acidic pH. Lowest concentrations of metals were found in aqueous samples with pH between 5.5-8.5. There is a great risk that the pH of the drainage from the Kvarntorp deposit will in time become acidic due to depletion of buffering capacity. Thus the environmental threat will increase.

  • 309.
    Karlsson, Lovisa
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Water Courses in Kvarntorp: An Evaluation of Water Chemistry from Monitoring Data 1994-20122014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The Kvarntorp area, some 200 km SW of Stockholm, Sweden, is a former mining site for alum shale. Kvarntorpshögen is a refuse dump from the hydrocarbon extraction during 1940-1965. The area is also dotted by abandoned quarries, which most are water filled today. The area is divided into two watersheds; the central and the eastern. Frommestabäcken is the main watercourse flowing out of the central watershed while Frogestabäcken is the corresponding watercourse in the eastern watershed. These two watercourses have been sampled annually since 1994 by consulting companies for the municipality of Kumla. The sampling sites at Ulftorpsbäcken (main inlet to the central watershed) and at the outlet from Serpentindammssystemet (the water treatment system in the central watershed) was added to the sampling program in 1997 and 1996 respectively. Other consulting companies have sampled the groundwater around Kvarntorpshögen (in 2004) and the water in the lake Norrtorpssjön (in 2004), which is an old water filled quarry. The lake Norrtorpssjön has also been sampled as part of a project performed by Örebro University. This thesis is a compilation and evaluation of all this data but the main part will be given focused on seasonal variations.

    Samples have been analysed with regard to the metals Na, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Al, Li, B, As, Cu, Ni, Zn, Co, Cr, Cd, Pb, Mo, Sr and U. Other analysed parameters were tot-N, tot-P, bicarbonate (alkalinity), sulphate, chloride and the parameters pH, electrical conductivity and COD(Mn). Samples of bottom fauna have also been collected in Frommestabäcken.

    Concentration of most metals increased in the surface water while passing the Kvarntorp area. High metal concentrations were found for example in some of the groundwater samples. Such high concentrations were not observed in the samples from Frommestabäcken or Frogestabäcken, indicating for example dilution of metals or immobilisation through precipitation or adsorption. Seasonal effects on the dissolution and precipitation/adsorption of compounds were observed at all annually sampled watercourses. One of these effects was the spring- and autumn circulation of the lake Norrtorpssjön. The lake forms a thermocline during summer which causes higher concentrations of metals beneath the thermocline. During circulation these concentrations mixes throughout the depth profile which affects the amount of elements that is transported from the lake via Frogestabäcken. During winter the highest concentrations of metals are expected near the surface of the lake since the surface is colder than the rest of the water mass. 

  • 310.
    Karlsson, Lovisa
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Karlsson, Stefan
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Allard, Bert
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Sjöberg, Viktor
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Bäckström, Mattias
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Release of metals from unprocessed and processed black shale due to natural weathering2013Inngår i: Annual International Mine Water Association Conference: Reliable Mine Water Technology / [ed] Adrian Brown, Linda Figueroa, Christian Wolkersdorfer, Colorado, USA: IMWA , 2013, s. 391-397Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Black shale was mined and processed for recovery of hydrocarbons in Kvarntorp, some 200 km SW of Stockholm, Sweden, during 1942–66. Remains from the mining period is a deposit with 40 Mm³ of crushed shale residues: Unprocessed 3ne-grained shale as well as processed shale. The deposit is still hot; oxidation of sulphides as well as burning of hydrocarbons are still in progress some 50 years a1er closure. Weathering of the shale leads to releases of metal-rich leachates which will increase with time. The release of metals from pristine shale as well as weathered shale (exposed to the atmosphere for 50 years) and two di2erent processed shale residues have been studied using water of di2erent pH as leaching solution, to simulate extreme pH-variations in environmental waters: 3.0 (determined by oxidation of iron sulphides), 5.5 (bu2ered by carbon dioxide), 8.5 (bu2ered by calcite) and 12.5 (bu2ered by calcium hydroxide). Extraction of cationic elements was substantial (several percent of the total content) for Ca and Mg, as well as Ni, Co and U at pH 3, and very high (up to 50–60 %) for anionic elements (V, Mo, As) at pH 12.5. Especially the high-temperature processed shale would be a potential source for As and Mo at high pH. The pH-dependence of the weathering processes should be considered when future remediation (or metal recovery) processes and strategies are designed.

  • 311.
    Karlsson, Marie
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap.
    Julander, Anneli
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap.
    van Bavel, Bert
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap.
    Air levels of brominated flame retardants in an electronic dismantling facility after a production increaseManuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 312.
    Karlsson, Marie
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap.
    Julander, Anneli
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap.
    van Bavel, Bert
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap.
    Hardell, Lennart
    Levels of brominated flame retardants in blood in relation to levels in household air and dust2007Inngår i: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 33, nr 1, s. 62-69Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Levels of tri- to decabrominated diphenyl ethers (BDEs), 1,2-bis(2,4,6-tribromophenoxy)ethane (BTBPE) and 1,2-bis(pentabromophenyl)ethane (DeBDethane) were determined in air, sedimentary dust and human plasma from five households in Sweden. The levels of the individual BDEs in the plasma samples were in the same order of magnitude as in other studies of the general population in Scandinavia, and varied between non-detectable (< 0.41 ng g− 1 l.w.) to 17 ng g− 1 (l.w.). BDE#28 and #47 were present in all air samples, with mean values of 0.015 and 0.12 ng m− 3, respectively, except for one sample where the BDE#47 concentration was below the limit of detection (< 0.17 ng m− 3). BDE#209 was found in one of the five air samples at a concentration of 0.26 ng m− 3. DeBDethane was also detected in one sample, in which the BDE#209 level was below LOD (< 0.021 ng m− 3), at a level of 0.023 ng m− 3. All the target compounds were found in the sedimentary dust samples at levels from 0.51 to 1600 ng g− 1, the highest concentration representing BDE#209. The most abundant components in plasma, air and dust were BDE#47, #99 and #209. In the plasma samples BDE#207 and #206 were also present at similar concentrations as BDE#47. In the sedimentary dust samples, DeBDethane was also among the most abundant BFRs. A positive relationship was found for the sumBDE concentrations in dust and plasma, although the relationship was strongly dependent on one of the five observations. BFR levels in dust and air were not dependent on the house characteristics such as living area, floor material or number of electronic devices.

  • 313.
    Karlsson, Stefan
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Akademin för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Allard, Bert
    Örebro universitet, Akademin för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Grahn, Evastina
    Örebro universitet, Akademin för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Mobility of Cs and Pu from fallout in boreal lake sediments2009Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 314.
    Karlsson, Stefan
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap.
    Bäckström, Mattias
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap.
    Surface water quality in Bersbo, Sweden: fifteen years after amelioration of sulphidic waste2003Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 315.
    Karlsson, Stefan
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap.
    Grahn, Evastina
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap.
    Düker, Anders
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap.
    Bäckström, Mattias
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap.
    Historical pollution of seldom monitored trace elements in Sweden - Part A: sediment properties and chronological indicators2006Inngår i: Journal of Environmental Monitoring, ISSN 1464-0325, E-ISSN 1464-0333, Vol. 8, nr 7, s. 721-731Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Sediment cores from four small oligotrophic boreal lakes, with minor acidification, in remote regions of central Sweden were used for historical interpretation of their metal content, with focus on Cu, Cd, Pb and Zn in Lake Stensjön, which has the longest sediment record (at least two centuries according to 210Pb dating). Comparison is made with the other three lakes. Major and trace elements in lake water, porewater and the acid-leached (HNO3) solid sediment phase was analysed with ICP-MS. In addition, general lake water chemistry, TOC and principal anions were measured in the aqueous phases. Redistribution processes were interpreted from geochemical modelling. The solid/solution distribution of pe/pH sensitive elements, indicates a minor diagenetic redistribution and the concentration profiles are therefore suitable for chronological evaluation. The ratios of Al, Ti, Sc and V, indicated a qualitative shift of sedimenting material a century ago, which did not have any impact on the retention of trace elements. Lead had a concentration profile, supported by the 206Pb/207Pb ratio, where it was possible to distinguish preindustrial conditions, early industrialisation in Europe, industrialisation in Sweden, and the use of leaded petrol after the Second World War. Cadmium showed a similar concentration pattern. The zinc profile resembled that of cadmium, but with less enrichment. Local lithogenic sources are believed to be quantitatively important. The solid/solution distribution (Kd) was independent of depth for all four elements. The sediment concentrations of copper and zinc are not related to early industrialisation but its concentration has doubled since the Second World War.

  • 316.
    Karlsson, Stefan
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Karlsson, Lovisa
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Allard, Bert
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Sjöberg, Viktor
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Bäckström, Mattias
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Water quality in a black shale mining area: effects of pH and natural organic acids on weathering and subsequent metal releases2014Inngår i: An Interdisciplinary Response to Mine Water Challenges / [ed] Wanghua Sui, Yajun Sun and Changshen Wang, China University of Mining and Techno logy Press , 2014, s. 136-136Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Mining of black shale (alum shale) of Late Cambrium age for the extraction of alum started in the early 17th century in Sweden, and in the late 19th century there was an extensive use of shale, with its high content of organic carbon, as fuel in lime-burning processes. Full-scale recovery of hydrocarbons from shale took place in Kvarntorp during 1942-66, and recovery of uranium in Ranstad during 1965-76. Remains from the historic mining and processing of black shale are some 50 major deposits with processed and unprocessed shale residues, as well as water-filled pits, at the former mining sites. There are also large areas covered with crushed shale, e.g. as road filling material. Studies of the weathering of shale due to exposure to the atmosphere and water with pH within the natural range indicate a high leachability of cationic elements at low pH, as well as anionic elements at high pH. The presence of organic complexing acids of natural origin (microbial exudates and humic acids) may give an enhanced leaching, particularly at pH above 8, when hydroxy-groups would constitute active metal binding sites. Results from studies of weathering and leaching of processed and unprocessed black shale are presented, as well as the effects on the water quality observed at former mining sites and related environmental impact.

  • 317.
    Karlsson, Stefan
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Nilsson, Charlotte
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Berg, Isabelle
    Sjöberg, Viktor
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Avloppsslam som vattenreningsfilter2015Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 318.
    Karlsson, Stefan
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Sjöberg, Viktor
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Allard, Bert
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Impact of humic substances on the transport of metals from a boreal watershed: Time trends and annual variability2015Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 319.
    Karlsson, Stefan
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Sjöberg, Viktor
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Allard, Bert
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Impact of humic substances on uranium mobility in soil: a case study from the Gessenwiese test field2014Inngår i: Uranium - Past and Future Challenges: Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Uranium Mining and Hydrogeology / [ed] Broder J. Merkel, Alireza Arab, Cham: Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2014, s. 239-248Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 320.
    Karlsson, Stefan
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Sjöberg, Viktor
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Allard, Bert
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Metal transport dynamics in a small watershed - Dylta bruk, Sweden2017Inngår i: Bio-geo interactions: basic knowledge to application: 16th Symposium on remediation in Jena “Jenaer Sanierungskolloquium”. Conference proceedings, 2017, s. 23-23Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Metal transport in small streams in boreal catchments is a function of weathering rate, water balance and redistribution mechanisms. Because of these highly dynamic processes long term water quality changes are difficult to determine but needed in order to assess the impact of several local and largescale changes on local water quality.

    The field site is situated at Dyltabruk, some 20 km North of Örebro in South Central Sweden. The 4 km2 catchment has deciduous and coniferous species on a granitic moraine with some 20% ofmires and fens adjacent to the oldest sulphur mine in Sweden. Grab samples were collected weekly since 2006 but more frequent during periods with large changes in water balance. The samples were analysed for general hydrochemical parameters (temperature, electrical conductivity, pH, dissolved organic carbon (DOC), inorganic carbon (IC), fulvic and humic acids and dissolved oxygen), dissolved principal anions, principal and trace metals. Standardized analytical procedures were applied. Temperature, precipitation and other climatic parameters were recorded some 2 km from thesite every 15 minutes.

    The results showed a general concentration pattern where the water balance had the largest single influence. The concentrations had a seasonality inversely related to the ground water level. Inter annual variations of one to two orders of magnitude were observed for group 1 and 2 elements. For transition metals with high affinity to solid matter as well as DOC the variation reached three to four orders of magnitude. Only aluminium and iron had concentrations that occasionally exceeded solubility limits which resulted in a similar inter annual variation.

    During the study period the average annual temperature and precipitation were no different (p 0.05) from the previous ten years but rainfall intensities increased. In a long term perspective the concentrations for all metals except calcium had positive trends. The tendencies remained when normalizing against chloride. The same was found for DOC, nitrate and sulphate. Hence, there is an accelerating loss of most elements that is not limited by weathering. It is uncertain, however, if the positive trends for DOC depend on increased production or a balancing release from the supply in mires and fens. In addition, there is also an indication of increasing inter annual concentration changescwith time. Although not exclusively proven such phenome would occur as a result of increased rainfall intensity. It is therefore likely that the accelerating loss of elements is a result of increased weathering rather than increasing water discharge.

  • 321.
    Karlsson, Stefan
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Sjöberg, Viktor
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Grandin, Anna
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Allard, Bert
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Leaching pattern of metals from historic sulphidic mine waste upon addition of bark compost2013Inngår i: Annual International Mine Water Association Conference: Relialbe Mine Water Technology, Vol.1 / [ed] Brown, Adrian; Figueroa, Linda; Wolkersdorfer, Christian, IMWA & QuarkXPress , 2013, s. 625-632Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 322.
    Karlsson, Stefan
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Sjöberg, Viktor
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Grandin, Anna
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Allard, Bert
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Revegetation of historic acid mine waste with Agrostis capillaris: Impact on leachate composition in pot experiments2012Inngår i: International Mine Water Association Symposium / [ed] McCullough C D; Lund M A; Wyse L, Perth: IMWA & The Expo Group , 2012, s. 489-497Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 323.
    Karlsson, Stefan
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Sjöberg, Viktor
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Ogar, Anna
    Dep. Environ. Sci., Jagellonian University, Krakow, Poland.
    Bäckström, Mattias
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Leachability of Cu, Zn, As, Ba and Pb from refuse in the Zelazny Most tailings dam2014Inngår i: Annual International Mine Water Association Conference: An Interdisciplinary Response to Mine Water Challenges / [ed] Sui, W., Sun, Y. & Wang, C., Xuzhou, China: China University of Mining and Technology Press , 2014, s. 121-125Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to establish plants on any kind of mine waste it is essential to determine its chemical properties, i.e. the potential to release elements. In this study we combine chemical extraction of six different solid metal species (water soluble, ion-exchangeable, carbonate, reducible, oxidizable acid leachable) on tailings from Zelazny Most, Poland. The results show that the plants encounter an environment with circumneutral pH and high availability of Ca, Na, and Cu. During reducing conditions there is also an increasing availability of As, Fe, Pb, and Zn.

  • 324.
    Karlsson, Stefan
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Sjöberg, Viktor
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Pourjabbar, Anahita
    Friedrich Schiller Univ., Jena, Germany.
    Grandin, Anna
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Allard, Bert
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Distribution of rare earth elements and other metals in a stratified acidic pit lake in black shales 45 years after mine closure2012Inngår i: 9th International Conference on Acid Rock Drainage  (ICARD 2012): Ottawa, Canada20-26 May 2012 / [ed] Price WA, Hogan C, Tremblay G, Curran Associates, Inc., 2012, s. 812-821Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 325.
    Karlsson, Stefan
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Wetterholm, Petter
    Structor Miljöteknik AB, Västerås, Sweden.
    Sjöberg, Viktor
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Allard, Bert
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Chemical characterization of metal polluted soils: why and how2014Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 326.
    Karlsson, Therese M.
    et al.
    Department of Marine Sciences, University of Gothenburg, Kristineberg, Fiskebäckskil, Sweden.
    Kärrman, Anna
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Rotander, Anna
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Hassellöv, Martin
    Department of Marine Sciences, University of Gothenburg, Kristineberg, Fiskebäckskil, Sweden.
    Comparison between manta trawl and in situ pump filtration methods, and guidance for visual identification of microplastics in surface waters2020Inngår i: Environmental Science and Pollution Research, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 27, nr 5, s. 5559-5571Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Owing to the development and adoption of a variety of methods for sampling and identifying microplastics, there is now data showing the presence of microplastics in surface waters from all over the world. The difference between the methods, however, hampers comparisons, and to date, most studies are qualitative rather than quantitative. In order to allow for a quantitative comparison of microplastics abundance, it is crucial to understand the differences between sampling methods. Therefore, a manta trawl and an in situ filtering pump were compared during realistic, but controlled, field tests. Identical microplastic analyses of all replicates allowed the differences between the methods with respect to (1) precision, (2) concentrations, and (3) composition to be assessed. The results show that the pump gave higher accuracy with respect to volume than the trawl. The trawl, however, sampled higher concentrations, which appeared to be due to a more efficient sampling of particles on the sea surface microlayer, such as expanded polystyrene and air-filled microspheres. The trawl also sampled a higher volume, which decreased statistical counting uncertainties. A key finding in this study was that, regardless of sampling method, it is critical that a sufficiently high volume is sampled to provide enough particles for statistical evaluation. Due to the patchiness of this type of contaminant, our data indicate that a minimum of 26 particles per sample should be recorded to allow for concentration comparisons and to avoid false null values. The necessary amount of replicates to detect temporal or spatial differences is also discussed. For compositional differences and size distributions, even higher particle counts would be necessary. Quantitative measurements and comparisons would also require an unbiased approach towards both visual and spectroscopic identification. To facilitate the development of such methods, a visual protocol that can be further developed to fit different needs is introduced and discussed. Some of the challenges encountered while using FTIR microspectroscopic particle identification are also critically discussed in relation to specific compositions found.

  • 327.
    Karlsson, Ulrika
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap.
    Environmental levels of thallium: influence of redox properties and anthropogenic sources2006Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Thallium is a highly toxic element that humans are exposed to mainly by consumption of drinking water and vegetables grown in soil with high thallium content but also through inhalation of particles in the air. Thallium is also present in fossil fuels, alloys, and in electronic utilities. The increasing use of the element and emissions from notably energy production has lead to a higher load on the surface of the Earth. This study aims at increasing the knowledge about the behaviour of thallium in aquatic environments. Focus has been on the redox chemistry of thallium in relation to its mobility, which is of great importance because Tl(I) and Tl(III) have very different properties in this respect.

    The relationship between Tl(I) and Tl(III) in surface waters from contaminated and uncontaminated environments was examined by ion chromatography connected on line to ICP-MS (inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry). It was found in controlled systems that even though Tl(III) is thermodynamically unstable under fresh water conditions Tl(I) was oxidised in the presence of light and iron(III). This was also confirmed in field studies. When lake water samples were exposed to light, Tl(I) was oxidised and thallium was lost from the solution. The most likely explanation for this was adsorption of thallium to particle surfaces.

    The concentration of thallium in Swedish lakes and soil were measured. In unpolluted lakes the concentration ranges between 4.5-12 ng/l, the sediment concentration was 0.07-1.46 mg/kg. The anthropogenic load was found to have increased since the end of the Second World War although concentrations above background were found since the early industrialisation. In contaminated areas the concentration in soil ranges from 0.64-88 mg/kg, high concentrations were found in systems with alum shale and in soil exposed to runoff from a lead and zinc enrichment plant.

    The mobilisation of thallium from solid phases in contaminated areas was dependent on pH and about 50% of the leachable content was mobilised already at pH 5-6. Once it had been released to water it was highly mobile. These conditions suggest that in a large part of the Swedish environment a high mobility of thallium can be expected.

    Delarbeid
    1. Historical pollution of seldom monitored trace elements in Sweden: Part B: sediment analysis of silver, antimony, thallium and indium
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Historical pollution of seldom monitored trace elements in Sweden: Part B: sediment analysis of silver, antimony, thallium and indium
    2006 (engelsk)Inngår i: Journal of Environmental Monitoring, ISSN 1464-0325, E-ISSN 1464-0333, Vol. 8, nr 7, s. 732-744Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Sediment cores from four boreal and remote lakes in a south to north transect in central Sweden were analysed for acid leachable silver, antimony, thallium and indium in the solid sediment phase and the corresponding porewater. Dating of the cores was made by their content of acid leachable lead and the 206Pb/207Pb ratio, in one lake also by 210Pb. The impact of diagenesis on element redistribution in the sediments was included and found to be minor except for thallium. The results show lowered concentrations towards the north and most intense accumulation after the Second World War, which is taken as evidence for atmospheric deposition being the primary source. Indium has declining concentrations in recent strata while silver and antimony increase. Thallium has lowered acid-leachable concentrations in recent strata. For all metals the impact of domestic industrialisation as well as the early industrialisation of central Europe is discernible. Only thallium appears to reach a geological background at depths that correspond to the late 18th century. For the other metals elevated levels are concluded.

    HSV kategori
    Forskningsprogram
    Miljövetenskap
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-3053 (URN)10.1039/B601948J (DOI)
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2006-03-09 Laget: 2006-03-09 Sist oppdatert: 2017-12-14bibliografisk kontrollert
    2. Assessing the release of thallium, cadmium, lead, copper and zinc from deposits with mixed wastes: a case study
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Assessing the release of thallium, cadmium, lead, copper and zinc from deposits with mixed wastes: a case study
    (engelsk)Manuskript (Annet vitenskapelig)
    HSV kategori
    Forskningsprogram
    Kemi
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-3054 (URN)
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2006-03-09 Laget: 2006-03-09 Sist oppdatert: 2017-10-18bibliografisk kontrollert
    3. Hydrogeochemical interpretations of a fly ash/municipal sludge covered sulphidic mine waste deposit: a case study of alkaline leachates in an acidic environment
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Hydrogeochemical interpretations of a fly ash/municipal sludge covered sulphidic mine waste deposit: a case study of alkaline leachates in an acidic environment
    (engelsk)Manuskript (Annet vitenskapelig)
    HSV kategori
    Forskningsprogram
    Kemi
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-3055 (URN)
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2006-03-09 Laget: 2006-03-09 Sist oppdatert: 2017-10-18bibliografisk kontrollert
    4. Separation and quantification of Tl(I) and Tl(III) in fresh water samples
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Separation and quantification of Tl(I) and Tl(III) in fresh water samples
    2006 (engelsk)Inngår i: Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part A: Toxic/Hazardous Substances and Environmental Engineering, ISSN 1093-4529, E-ISSN 1532-4117, Vol. 41, nr 7, s. 1155-1167Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The two oxidation states of thallium, Tl(I) and Tl(III), were quantified by IC-ICP-MS using complexation of Tl3+ with DTPA (penta-carboxymethyl-diethylenetriamine) and separation on a cation exchange column according to a modification of the method devised by Coetzee et al. In order to avoid successively lowered separation efficiency and loss of resolution during a run, a gradient elution was made using HCl instead of HNO3. With an ultrasonic nebuliser instead of a V-groove nebuliser the limit of detection for Tl(I) and Tl(III) could be lowered from 25 ng/L and 3.0 ng/L to 9.0 ng/L and 0.7 ng/L, respectively, which is adequate for many fresh water systems. The stability of Tl(III) in acidic solutions was found to be concentration dependent, with an initially high reduction rate of Tl(III). Exposure of the sample to light further increased the reduction rate. Addition of DTPA (0.01 mM) and acid (HNO3, 1%) to a sample with 1 μg/L Tl(III) stabilised the Tl(III) content for at least 48 h. Analysis of field samples showed that only acidification is inadequate to maintain the original distribution of Tl(I) and Tl(III). Internal calibration (standard addition) and correction of the analytical signal (205Tl) with a non-ionic internal standard (11B) yielded almost quantitative recoveries of both Tl(I) and Tl(III). A scheme for field sample preparation is proposed, including sampling, storage and pre-analysis treatment.

    HSV kategori
    Forskningsprogram
    Kemi
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-3056 (URN)10.1080/10934520600655747 (DOI)
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2006-03-09 Laget: 2006-03-09 Sist oppdatert: 2017-12-14bibliografisk kontrollert
    5. The effect of light and iron(II)/iron(III) on the distribution of Tl(I)/Tl(III) in fresh water systems
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>The effect of light and iron(II)/iron(III) on the distribution of Tl(I)/Tl(III) in fresh water systems
    2006 (engelsk)Inngår i: Journal of Environmental Monitoring, ISSN 1464-0325, E-ISSN 1464-0333, Vol. 8, nr 6, s. 634-640Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The distribution of aqueous Tl(I)/Tl(III) as a function of light exposure and solution properties was studied by quantifying the oxidation states after separation with ion chromatography and on-line detection with ICP-MS. Ultraviolet irradiation of aqueous solutions containing 1 μg l−1 Tl(III) and in equilibrium with the atmosphere increases the reduction rate. In systems with photoreduction of Fe(III)(aq) a quantitative oxidation of Tl(I)(aq) was observed, notably at low pH. The process is reversible, as indicated by formation of Tl(I) when the irradiated systems were kept in the dark. In systems with colloidal silica-stabilised ferrihydrite, UV irradiation also leads to oxidation of Tl(I)(aq), but not quantitatively. It is suggested that adsorption of thallium to the ferrihydrite determines the rate of oxidation. Detectable, but not quantitative, oxidation of Tl(I)(aq) took place when natural water samples with 1 μg l−1 Tl(I)(aq) were exposed to either sunlight or UV-light. For these samples, the reduction was not quantitative when they were kept in the dark for 24 h. The results suggest that the light dependent iron cycle in fresh water systems strongly influences the redox state of thallium.

    HSV kategori
    Forskningsprogram
    Kemi
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-3057 (URN)10.1039/B516445A (DOI)
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2006-03-09 Laget: 2006-03-09 Sist oppdatert: 2017-12-14bibliografisk kontrollert
  • 328.
    Karlsson, Ulrika
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap.
    Karlsson, Stefan
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap.
    Düker, Anders
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap.
    The effect of light and iron(II)/iron(III) on the distribution of Tl(I)/Tl(III) in fresh water systems2006Inngår i: Journal of Environmental Monitoring, ISSN 1464-0325, E-ISSN 1464-0333, Vol. 8, nr 6, s. 634-640Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The distribution of aqueous Tl(I)/Tl(III) as a function of light exposure and solution properties was studied by quantifying the oxidation states after separation with ion chromatography and on-line detection with ICP-MS. Ultraviolet irradiation of aqueous solutions containing 1 μg l−1 Tl(III) and in equilibrium with the atmosphere increases the reduction rate. In systems with photoreduction of Fe(III)(aq) a quantitative oxidation of Tl(I)(aq) was observed, notably at low pH. The process is reversible, as indicated by formation of Tl(I) when the irradiated systems were kept in the dark. In systems with colloidal silica-stabilised ferrihydrite, UV irradiation also leads to oxidation of Tl(I)(aq), but not quantitatively. It is suggested that adsorption of thallium to the ferrihydrite determines the rate of oxidation. Detectable, but not quantitative, oxidation of Tl(I)(aq) took place when natural water samples with 1 μg l−1 Tl(I)(aq) were exposed to either sunlight or UV-light. For these samples, the reduction was not quantitative when they were kept in the dark for 24 h. The results suggest that the light dependent iron cycle in fresh water systems strongly influences the redox state of thallium.

  • 329.
    Keiter, Steffen
    et al.
    Department of Zoology, Aquatic Ecology and Toxicology Section, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany.
    Braunbeck, Thomas
    Department of Zoology, Aquatic Ecology and Toxicology Section, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany.
    Heise, Susanne
    Institut für Biogefahrenstoffe und Umwelttoxikologie, Hamburg University of Applied Sciences, Hamburg, Germany.
    Pudenz, Stefan
    Westlakes Scientific Consulting Ltd, Department of Environmental Science, Cumbria, UK.
    Manz, Werner
    German Federal Institute of Hydrology, Koblenz, Germany.
    Hollert, Henner
    Department of Zoology, Aquatic Ecology and Toxicology Section, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany; Department of Ecosystem Analysis, RWTH Aachen University, Aachen, Germany.
    A fuzzy logic-classification of sediments based on data from in vitro biotests2009Inngår i: Journal of Soils and Sediments, ISSN 1439-0108, E-ISSN 1614-7480, Vol. 9, nr 3, s. 168-179Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background, aim, and scope: Ecotoxicological risk assessment of sediments is usually based on a multitude of data obtained from tests with different endpoints. In the present study, a fuzzy logic-based model was developed in order to reduce the complexity of these data sets and to classify sediments on the basis of results from a battery of in vitro biotests.

    Materials and methods: The membership functions were adapted to fit the specific sensitivity and variability of each biotest. For this end, data sets were categorized into three toxicity levels using the box plot and empirical methods. The variability of each biotest was determined to calculatethe range of the gradual membership. In addition, the biotests selected were ranked according to the biological organisation level in order to consider the ecological relevance of the endpoints measured by selected over- or underestimation of the toxicity levels. In the next step of the fuzzy logic model, a rule-base was implemented using if...and...then decisions to arrive at a system of five quality classes.

    Results: The results of the classification of sediments fromthe Rhine and Danube Rivers showed the highest correlation between the biotest results and the fuzzy logical ternative based on the empirical method (i.e. the classification of the data sets into toxicity levels).

    Discussion: Many different classification systems based on biological test systems are depending on respective datasets; therefore, they are difficult to compare with other locations. Furthermore, they don‘t consider the inherent variability of biotests and the ecological relevance of these test systems as well. In order to create a comprehensive risk assessment for sediments, mathematical models should be used which take uncertainties of biotest systems into account, since they are of particular importance for areliable assessment. In the present investigation, the variability and ecological relevance of biotests were incorporated into a classification system based on fuzzy logic. Furthermore, since data from different sites and investigations were used to create membership functions ofthe fuzzy logic, this classification system has the potential to be independent of locations.

    Conclusions: In conclusion, the present fuzzy logic classification model provides an opportunity to integrate expert knowledge as well as acute and mechanism-specific effects for the classification of sediments for an ecotoxicological risk assessment.

    Recommendations and perspectives: In order to achieve amore comprehensive classification, further investigation is needed to incorporate results of chemical analyses and in situ parameters. Furthermore, more discussions are necessary with respect to the relative weight attributed to different ecological and chemical parameters in order too btain a more precise assessment of sediments.

  • 330.
    Keiter, Steffen
    et al.
    University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany.
    Grund, Stefanie
    University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany.
    van Bavel, Bert
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap.
    Hagberg, Jessika
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap.
    Engwall, Magnus
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap.
    Ulrike, Kammann
    Federal Research Centre for Fisheries, Hamburg, Germany.
    Klempt, Martin
    Federal Research Centre for Nutrition and Food, Hamburg, Germany.
    Manz, Werner
    Federal Institute of Hydrology, Koblenz, Germany.
    Olsman, Helena
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap.
    Braunbeck, Thomas
    University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany.
    Hollert, Henner
    RWTH Aachen University, Aachen, Germany .
    Activities and identification of aryl hydrocarbon receptor agonists in sediments from the Danube river2008Inngår i: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry, ISSN 1618-2642, E-ISSN 1618-2650, Vol. 390, nr 8, s. 2009-2019Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This study is a consequence of a distinct fishdecline in the Danube river since the beginning of the 1990s. In contrast to the decline of fish population, former studies have repeatedly documented that the water quality along the Danube river is improving. However, the conclusion of a pilot study in 2002 was that a high hazard potentialis associated with local sediments. The present study documents that sediment samples from the Danube river showed comparatively high aryl hydrocarbon receptor mediated activity in biotests, using the cell lines GPC.2D.Luc, H4IIE(DR-CALUX®) and RTL-W1. The combination of chemical analysis, fractionation techniques and different in vitro tests revealed that priority pollutants could not explain the main induction, even though the concentrations of prioritypolycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were very high (maximum in the tributary Schwarzach, sum of 16 EPAPAHs 26 μg/g). In conclusion, this investigation shows that nonpriority pollutants mainly mediate the high inductionrates. Nevertheless, owing to the effects of PAHs towards fish and the connection between dioxin-like activity andcarcinogenicity, the link between contamination and the fish population decline cannot be ruled out.

  • 331.
    Keiter, Steffen
    et al.
    Institute for Environmental Research (Biology V), Department of Ecosystem Analysis, RWTH Aachen University, Aachen, Germany.
    Peddinghaus, Sabrina
    Institute for Environmental Research (Biology V), Department of Ecosystem Analysis, RWTH Aachen University, Aachen, Germany.
    Feiler, Ute
    German Federal Institute for Hydrology (BfG), Koblenz, Germany.
    von der Goltz, Britta
    Aquatic Ecology and Toxicology Group, Department of Zoology, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany.
    Hafner, Christoph
    Hydrotox GmbH, Freiburg, Germany.
    Ho, Nga Yu
    Institute of Toxicology and Genetics (ITG), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen, Germany.
    Rastegar, Sepand
    Institute of Toxicology and Genetics (ITG), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen, Germany.
    Otte, Jens
    Institute of Toxicology and Genetics (ITG), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen, Germany.
    Ottermanns, Richard
    Research Institute GAIAC, Aachen, Germany.
    Reifferscheid, Georg
    German Federal Institute for Hydrology (BfG), Koblenz, Germany.
    Strähle, Uwe
    Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Institute of Toxicology and Genetics (ITG), Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen, Germany.
    Braunbeck, Thomas
    Aquatic Ecology and Toxicology Group, Department of Zoology, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany.
    Hammers-Wirtz, Monika
    Research Institute GAIAC, Aachen, Germany.
    Hollert, Henner
    Institute for Environmental Research (Biology V), Department of Ecosystem Analysis, RWTH Aachen University, Aachen, Germany.
    DanTox-a novel joint research project using zebrafish (Danio rerio) to identify specific toxicity and molecular modes of action of sediment-bound pollutants2010Inngår i: Journal of Soils and Sediments, ISSN 1439-0108, E-ISSN 1614-7480, Vol. 10, nr 4, s. 714-717Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: The European Water Framework Directive aimsto achieve a good ecological and chemical status in surface water of European rivers by the year 2015. Since sediments and particulate matter act as secondary sources for pollutants, applied sediment toxicology is perceived to play a major rolefor obtaining new knowledge that can contribute to successful attainment of the goal. However, the existing bioassays for sediment toxicity analyses do not provide sufficient data concerning bioavailability of environmental pollutants. In this regard, there is an urgent need to combine sediment contact assays with gene expression analysis to investigate mechanism-specific sediment toxicity.

    Purpose: The aim of the novel joint research project is todevelop a eukaryotic test system, which can be used to investigate the ecotoxicological effects of contaminated sediments on gene expression level (DNA-array and RT-PCR).Current ecotoxicological research customarily involves a battery of bioassays to cover different toxicological endpoints (e.g., teratogenicity, genotoxicity, mutagenicity, Ah-receptor mediated toxicity, neurotoxicity). In contrast, methods that detect alterations in gene expression offer deeper insight by elucidating how chemical exposure and/or environmental challenge affect multiple metabolic pathways leading to these particular kinds of toxic response. Gene expression profiles reflect the way cells and organisms adapt or respond to a changing environment.

    Conclusion: The present project aspires to increase the fundamental molecular and physiological knowledge concerning the mode of action of environmental toxicants in zebrafish (Danio rerio). By working with partners from the academic and research institutions as well as from industry and waterway regulations, the success of this basic research-driven joint project in terms of development and implementation of novel sediment toxicity methods will be realized.

  • 332.
    Keiter, Steffen
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Rastall, Andrew
    University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany.
    Kosmehl, Thomas
    University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany.
    Wurm, Karl
    Gewässerökologisches Labor Starzach, The Eberhard Karls Universität Tübingen, Tübingen, Germany.
    Erdinger, Lothar
    University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany.
    Braunbeck, Thomas
    University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany.
    Hollert, Henner
    University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany.
    Ecotoxicological assessment of sediment, suspended matter andwater samples in the upper danube river: a pilot study in search for the causes for the decline of fish catches2006Inngår i: Environmental science and pollution research international, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 13, nr 5, s. 308-319Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Goals, Scope and Background. Fish populations, especially thoseof the grayling (Thymallus thymallus), have declined over thelast two decades in the upper Danube River between Sigmaringenand Ulm, despite intensive and continuous stocking and improvementof water quality since the 1970s. Similar problems havebeen reported for other rivers, e.g. in Switzerland, Great Britain,the United States and Canada. In order to assess if ecotoxicologicaleffects might be related to the decline in fish catchat the upper Danube River, sediment, suspended matter andwaste water samples from sewage treatment plants were collectedat selected locations and analyzed in a bioanalytical approachusing a battery of bioassays. The results of this pilotstudy will be used to decide if a comprehensive weight-of-evidencestudy is needed.

    Methods. Freeze-dried sediments and suspended particulate matterswere extracted with acetone in a Soxhlet apparatus. Organicpollutants from sewage water were concentrated usingXAD-resins. In order to investigate the ecotoxicological burden,the following bioassays were used: (1) neutral red assaywith RTL-W1 cells (cytotoxicity), (2) comet assay with RTLW1cells (genotoxicity), (3) Arthrobacter globiformis dehydrogenaseassay (toxicity to bacteria), (4) yeast estrogen screen assay(endocrine disruption), (5) fish egg assay with the zebrafish(Danio rerio; embryo toxicity) and (6) Ames test with TA98(mutagenicity).

    Results and Discussion. The results of the in vitro tests elucidateda considerable genotoxic, cytotoxic, mutagenic, bacteriotoxic,embryotoxic and estrogenic burden in the upper DanubeRiver, although with a very inhomogeneous distribution of effects.The samples taken from Riedlingen, for example, inducedlow embryo toxicity, but the second highest 17β-estradiol equivalentconcentration (1.8 ng/L). Using the fish egg assay with nativesediments, a broad range of embryotoxic effects could beelucidated, with clear-cut dose-response relationships for theembryotoxic effects of contaminated sediments. With nativesediments, embryotoxicity was clearly higher than with correspondingpore waters, thus corroborating the view that – atleast for fish eggs – the bioavailability of particle-bound lipophilicsubstances in native sediments is higher than generally assumed. The effect observed most frequently in the fish egg assay was a developmental delay. A comparison of our own results with locationsalong the rivers Rhine and Neckar demonstrated similaror even higher ranges of ecotoxicological burdens in theDanube River.

    Conclusions. The complex pattern of ecotoxicological effectscaused by environmental samples from the Danube River, whenassessed in an in vitro biotest battery using both acute and morespecific endpoints, showed that integration of different endpointsis essential for appropriate hazard assessment. Overall, theecotoxicological hazard potential shown has indeed to be consideredas one potential reason for the decline in fish catches atthe upper Danube River. However, based on the results of thispilot study, it is not possible to elucidate that chemically inducedalterations are responsible for the fish decline.

    Recommendations and Perspectives. In order to confirm the ecologicalrelevance of the in vitro results for the situation in thefield and especially for the decline of the grayling and otherfishes, further integrated investigations are required. For linkingthe weight of evidence obtained by in vitro assays and fishpopulation investigations, the application of additional, morespecific biomarkers (e.g. vitellogenin induction, EROD and micronucleusassay) has been initiated in fish taken from the fieldas well as in situ investigations.

  • 333.
    Keiter, Susanne
    et al.
    Aquatic Ecology and Toxicology Group, Centre for Organismal Studies, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany.
    Burkhard-Medicke, Kathleen
    Department Bioanalytical Ecotoxicology, UFZ-Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research, Leipzig, Germany.
    Wellner, Peggy
    Department Bioanalytical Ecotoxicology, UFZ-Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research, Leipzig, Germany.
    Kais, Britta
    Aquatic Ecology and Toxicology Group, Centre for Organismal Studies, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany.
    Färber, Harald
    Institute for Hygiene and Public Health, University of Bonn, Bonn, Germany.
    Skutlarek, Dirk
    Institute for Hygiene and Public Health, University of Bonn, Bonn, Germany.
    Engwall, Magnus
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Braunbeck, Thomas
    Aquatic Ecology and Toxicology Group, Centre for Organismal Studies, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany.
    Keiter, Steffen
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Luckenback, Till
    Department Bioanalytical Ecotoxicology, UFZ-Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research, Leipzig, Germany.
    Does perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) act as chemosensitizer in zebrafish embryos?2016Inngår i: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 548-549, s. 317-324Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Earlier studies have shown that perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) increases the toxicity of other chemicals by enhancing their uptake by cells and tissues. The present study aimed at testing whether the underlying mechanism of enhanced uptake of chemicals by zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos in the presence of PFOS is by interference of this compound with the cellular efflux transporter Abcb4. Modifications of uptake/clearance and toxicity of two Abcb4 substrates, the fluorescent dye rhodamine B (RhB) and vinblastine, by PFOS were evaluated using 24 and 48. h post-fertilization (hpf) embryos. Upon 90. min exposure of 24. hpf embryos to 1. μM RhB and different PFOS concentrations (3-300. μM) accumulation of RhB in zebrafish was increased by up to 11.9-fold compared to controls, whereas RhB increases in verapamil treatments were 1.7-fold. Co-administration of PFOS and vinblastine in exposures from 0 to 48. hpf resulted in higher vinblastine-caused mortalities in zebrafish embryos indicating increased uptake of this compound. Interference of PFOS with zebrafish Abcb4 activity was further studied using recombinant protein obtained with the baculovirus expression system. PFOS lead to a concentration-dependent decrease of the verapamil-stimulated Abcb4 ATPase activity; at higher PFOS concentrations (250, 500. μM), also the basal ATPase activity was lowered indicating PFOS to be an Abcb4 inhibitor. In exposures of 48. hpf embryos to a very high RhB concentration (200. μM), accumulation of RhB in embryo tissue and adsorption to the chorion were increased in the presence of 50 or 100. μM PFOS. In conclusion, the results indicate that PFOS acts as inhibitor of zebrafish Abcb4; however, the exceptionally large PFOS-caused effect amplitude of RhB accumulation in the 1. μM RhB experiments and the clear PFOS effects in the experiments with 200. μM RhB suggest that an additional mechanism appears to be responsible for the potential of PFOS to enhance uptake of Abcb4 substrates.

  • 334.
    Khalaf, Hazem
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Akademin för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Larsson, Anders
    Örebro universitet, Akademin för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Berg, Håkan
    Örebro universitet, Akademin för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    McCrindle, Robert
    Wellington Laboratories Inc., Research Division, Guelph, Ontario, Canada.
    Arsenault, Gilles
    Wellington Laboratories Inc., Research Division, Guelph, Ontario, Canada.
    Olsson, Per-Erik
    Örebro universitet, Akademin för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Diastereomers of the Brominated Flame Retardant 1,2-dibromo-4-(1,2 dibromoethyl)cyclohexane Induce Androgen Receptor Activation in the HepG2 Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cell Line and the LNCaP Prostate Cancer Cell Line2009Inngår i: Journal of Environmental Health Perspectives, ISSN 0091-6765, E-ISSN 1552-9924, Vol. 117, nr 12, s. 1853-1859Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Reported incidences of prostate cancer and masculinization of animals indicate a release of compounds with androgenic properties into the environment. Large numbers of environmental pollutants have been screened to identify such compounds; however, not until recently was 1,2-dibromo-4-(1,2-dibromoethyl)cyclohex​ane (TBECH) identified as the first potent activator of the human androgen receptor (hAR). TBECH has been found in beluga whales and bird eggs and has also been found to be maternally transferred in zebrafish.

    Objectives: In the present study we investigated interaction energies between TBECH diastereomers (α, β, γ, and δ) and the hAR, and their ability to activate the receptor and induce prostate-specific antigen (PSA) expression in vitro.

    Methods: We performed computational modeling to determine interaction energies between the ligand and the AR ligand-binding site, and measured in vitro competitive binding assays for AR by polarization fluorometry analysis. We used enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays to determine PSA activity in LNCaP and HepG2 cells.

    Results: We found the γ and δ diastereomers to be more potent activators of hAR than the α and β diastereomers, which was confirmed in receptor binding studies. All TBECH diastereomers induced PSA expression in LNCaP cells even though the AR present in these cells is mutated (T877A). Modeling studies of LNCaP AR revealed that TBECH diastereomers bound to the receptor with a closer distance to the key amino acids in the ligand-binding domain, indicating stronger binding to the mutated receptor.

    Conclusions: The present study demonstrates the ability of TBECH to activate the hAR, indicating that it is a potential endocrine disruptor.

  • 335.
    Klintman, Mikael
    et al.
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Boström, Magnus
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för humaniora, utbildnings- och samhällsvetenskap.
    Citizen-consumers2016Inngår i: Research handbook on climate governance / [ed] Karin Bäckstrand, Eva Lövbrand, Edward Elgar Publishing, 2016, s. 309-319Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 336.
    Klánová, Jana
    et al.
    Research Centre for Toxic Compounds in the Environment (RECETOX), Faculty of Science, Masaryk University, Brno, Czech Republic.
    Diamond, Miriam
    Department of Geography, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada.
    Jones, Kevin
    Lancaster Environment Centre, Lancaster University, Lancaster, United Kingdom.
    Lammel, Gerhard
    Research Centre for Toxic Compounds in the Environment (RECETOX), Faculty of Science, Masaryk University, Brno, Czech Republic; Max Planck Institute for Chemistry, Mainz, Germany.
    Lohmann, Rainer
    Graduate School of Oceanography, University of Rhode Island, Narragansett, United States.
    Pirrone, Nicola
    Institute of Atmospheric Pollution Research (CNR-IIA), National Research Council of Italy, Monterotondo Stazione, Rome, Italy.
    Scheringer, Martin
    Institute for Chemical and Bioingeneering, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Zürich, Switzerland.
    Balducci, Catia
    Institute of Atmospheric Pollution Research (CNR-IIA), National Research Council of Italy, Monterotondo Stazione, Rome, Italy.
    Bidleman, Terry
    Chemistry Department, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Bláha, Karel
    Ministry of Environment of the Czech Republic, Praha, Czech Republic.
    Bláha, Ludek
    Research Centre for Toxic Compounds in the Environment (RECETOX), Faculty of Science, Masaryk University, Brno, Czech Republic.
    Booij, Kees
    Royal Netherlands Institute for Sea Research (NIOZ), Ab Texel, The Netherlands.
    Bouwman, Henk
    Department of Zoology, School of Environmental Sciences and Development, North-West University, Potchefstroom, South Africa.
    Breivik, Knut
    Norwegian Institute for Air Research, Kjeller, Norway.
    Eckhardt, Sabine
    Department of Chemistry, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway.
    Fiedler, Heidelore
    United Nations Environment Programme, DTIE/Chemicals Branch, Châtelaine GE, Switzerland.
    Garrigues, Philippe
    Institut des Sciences Moléculaires, UMR 52 55 CNRS, Université de Bordeaux, Bordeaux, France.
    Harner, Tom
    Environment Canada, Science and Technology Branch, Toronto, Canada.
    Holoubek, Ivan
    Research Centre for Toxic Compounds in the Environment (RECETOX), Faculty of Science, Masaryk University, Brno, Czech Republic.
    Hung, Hayley
    Environment Canada, Science and Technology Branch, Toronto, Canada.
    MacLeod, Matthew
    Department of Applied Environmental Science, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Magulova, Katarina
    United Nations Environment Programme, Stockholm Convention Secretariat, Châtelaine GE, Switzerland.
    Mosca, Silvia
    Institute of Atmospheric Pollution Research (CNR-IIA), National Research Council of Italy, Rome, Italy.
    Pistocchi, Alberto
    GECOsistema Srl, Cesena, Italy.
    Simonich, Staci
    Department of Environmental and Molecular Toxicology, Oregon State University, Corvallis, United States.
    Smedes, Foppe
    Deltares, Geo-environmental Research Laboratory, Utrecht, Segrate, Netherlands.
    Stephanou, Euripides
    Environmental Chemical Processes Laboratory, Dept. of Chemistry, University of Crete, Voutes-Heraklion, Greece.
    Sweetman, Andy
    Lancaster Environment Centre, Lancaster University, Bailrigg, Lancaster, United Kingdom.
    Sebková, Katerina
    Ministry of Environment of the Czech Republic, Praha, Czech Republic.
    Venier, Marta
    School of Public and Environmental Affairs, Indiana University, Bloomington, United States.
    Vighi, Marco
    Department of Environmental Sciences, University of Milano Bicocca, Milano, Italy.
    Vrana, Branislav
    Research Centre for Toxic Compounds in the Environment (RECETOX), Faculty of Science, Masaryk University, Brno, Czech Republic.
    Wania, Frank
    Department of Physical and Environmental Sciences, University of Toronto, Scarborough, Toronto, Canada.
    Weber, Roland
    POPs Environmental Consulting, Goeppingen, Germany.
    Weiss, Peter
    Federal Environment Agency, Vienna, Austria.
    Identifying the Research and Infrastructure Needs for the Global Assessment of Hazardous Chemicals Ten Years after Establishing the Stockholm Convention2011Inngår i: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 45, nr 18, s. 7617-7619Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 337. Knudsen, Lisa B.
    et al.
    Borgå, Katrine
    Jørgensen, Even H.
    van Bavel, Bert
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap.
    Schlabach, Martin
    Verreault, Jonathan
    Gabrielsen, Geir W.
    Halogenated organic contaminants and mercury in northern fulmars (Fulmarus glacialis): levels, relationships to dietary descriptors and blood to liver comparison2007Inngår i: Environmental Pollution, ISSN 0269-7491, E-ISSN 1873-6424, Vol. 146, nr 1, s. 25-33Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The northern fulmar (Fulmarus glacialis) is an interesting candidate for the study of patterns and levels of halogenated organic contaminants (HOCs) since they accumulate high levels of certain HOCs. In the present study we characterized a suite of established and novel HOCs in northern fulmars breeding on Bjørnøya in the Norwegian Arctic. A comparison between blood and liver HOC levels was made, and the levels were related to the ratios of heavier to lighter stable isotopes of nitrogen (15)N/(14)N (delta(15)N) and carbon (13)C/(12)C (delta(13)C) in muscle. A significant difference in congener patterns between blood and liver was found. The delta(13)C was not related to HOCs, neither in liver nor in blood. Weak correlations were found between delta(15)N and liver HOC levels. The 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin toxic equivalents (TEQs) in northern fulmars were well above thresholds for reproductive effects in seabirds.

  • 338.
    Koch, Alina
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Kärrman, Anna
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Yeung, Leo W. Y.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Jonsson, Micael
    Department of Ecology and Environmental Science, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Ahrens, Lutz
    Section for Organic Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Department of Aquatic Sciences and Assessment, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), Uppsala, Sweden.
    Wang, Thanh
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Point source characterization of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) and extractable organofluorine (EOF) in freshwater and aquatic invertebrates2019Inngår i: Environmental Science: Processes & Impacts, ISSN 2050-7887, E-ISSN 2050-7895, Vol. 21, nr 11, s. 1887-1898Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Major point sources of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) cause ubiquitous spread of PFASs in the environment. In this study, surface water and aquatic invertebrates at three Swedish sites impacted by PFAS point sources were characterized, using homologue, isomer and extractable organofluorine (EOF) profiling as well as estimation of bioaccumulation factors (BAFs) and mass discharge. Two sites were impacted by fire training (sites A and R) and the third by industrial runoff (site K). Mean Σ25PFASs concentration in water was 1920 ng L-1 at site R (n = 3), which was more than 20- and 10-fold higher than those from sites A and K, respectively. PFOS was the most predominant PFAS in all waters samples, constituting 29-79% of Σ25PFAS concentrations. Several branched isomers were detected and they substantially contributed to concentrations in surface water (e.g. 49-78% of ΣPFOS) and aquatic invertebrates (e.g. 15-28% of ΣPFOS). BAFs in the aquatic invertebrates indicated higher bioaccumulation for long chain PFASs and lower bioaccumulation for branched PFOS isomers compared to linear PFOS. EOF mass balance showed that Σ25target PFASs in water could explain up to 55% of EOF at site R. However, larger proportions of EOF (>92%) remained unknown in water from sites A and K. Mass discharges were for the first time estimated for EOF and revealed that high amounts of EOF (e.g. 8.2 g F day-1 at site A) could be transported by water to recipient water bodies relative to Σ25PFASs (e.g. 0.15 g day-1 at site A). Overall, we showed that composition profiling, BAFs and EOF mass balance can improve the characterization of PFASs around point sources.

  • 339.
    Kosior, Grzegorz
    et al.
    Department of Ecology, Biogeochemistry and Environmental Protection, Wrocław University, Wrocław, Poland.
    Klánová, Jana
    Research Centre for Toxic Compounds in the Environment, Faculty of Science, Masaryk University, Brno, Czech Republic.
    Vankova, Lenka
    Research Centre for Toxic Compounds in the Environment, Faculty of Science, Masaryk University, Brno, Czech Republic.
    Kukucka, Petr
    Research Centre for Toxic Compounds in the Environment, Faculty of Science, Masaryk University, Brno, Czech Republic.
    Chropenová, Maria
    Research Centre for Toxic Compounds in the Environment, Faculty of Science, Masaryk University, Brno, Czech Republic.
    Brudzinska-Kosior, Anna
    Department of Ecology, Biogeochemistry and Environmental Protection, Wrocław University, Wrocław, Poland.
    Samecka-Cymerman, Aleksandra
    Department of Ecology, Biogeochemistry and Environmental Protection, Wrocław University, Wrocław, Poland.
    Kolon, Krzysztof
    Department of Ecology, Biogeochemistry and Environmental Protection, Wrocław University, Wrocław, Poland.
    Kempers, Alexander J.
    Institute for Water and Wetland Research, Department of Environmental Science, Radboud University, Nijmegen, The Netherlands.
    Pleurozium schreberi as an ecological indicator of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in a heavily industrialized urban area2015Inngår i: Ecological Indicators, ISSN 1470-160X, E-ISSN 1872-7034, Vol. 48, s. 492-497Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are toxic contaminants with a persistent character and adverse effects on humans and wildlife. Therefore, the deposition of these chemicals in vegetation must be carefully controlled. Our objective was to determine PBDE concentrations (BDEs 28, 47, 66, 85, 99, 100, 153, 154, 183 and 209) in Pleurozium schreberi collected in a heavily industrialized urban agglomeration. High PBDE concentrations in the moss confirm the presence of active sources of atmospheric pollution in an area tested. The distribution of these xenobiotics was related to the vegetation cover being lower in sites surrounded by forests which indicates that PBDEs may have a tendency to be trapped from the air by tree leaves and needles. Congener profiles in P. schreberi were dominated by BDE 209 which was for 79% (in case of the coke smelter) to 95% (in case of the chemical plant) part of the total PBDE burden in this moss. The principal component and classification analysis classifying the concentration of PBDEs in P. schreberi allowed us to distinguish the pattern of these compounds characteristic for the origin of pollution. P. schreberi may be used as a bioindicator for PBDEs in areas contaminated with these chemicals.

  • 340.
    Kosmehl, Thomas
    et al.
    Aquatic Ecology and Toxicology Group, COS–Center for Organismal Studies, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany.
    Otte, Jens
    Institute of Toxicology and Genetics (ITG), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Karlsruhe, Germany.
    Yang, Lixin
    Institute of Toxicology and Genetics (ITG), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Karlsruhe, Germany.
    Legradi, Jessica
    Institute of Toxicology and Genetics (ITG), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Karlsruhe, Germany.
    Bluhm, Kerstin
    Department of Ecosystem Analysis, Institute for Environmental Research (Biology V), RWTH Aachen University, Aachen, Germany.
    Zinsmeister, Christian
    Institute of Toxicology and Genetics (ITG), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Karlsruhe, Germany.
    Keiter, Steffen
    Department of Ecosystem Analysis, Institute for Environmental Research (Biology V), RWTH Aachen University, Aachen, Germany.
    Reifferscheid, Georg
    German Federal Institute for Hydrology (BfG), Koblenz, Germany.
    Manz, Werner
    Institute of Integrated Natural Sciences, University of Koblenz-Landau, Koblenz, Germany.
    Braunbeck, Thomas
    Aquatic Ecology and Toxicology Group, COS–Center for Organismal Studies, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany.
    Strähle, Uwe
    Institute of Toxicology and Genetics (ITG), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Karlsruhe, Germany.
    Hollert, Henner
    Department of Ecosystem Analysis, Institute for Environmental Research (Biology V), RWTH Aachen University, Aachen, Germany.
    A combined DNA-microarray and mechanism-specific toxicity approach with zebrafish embryos to investigate the pollution of river sediments2012Inngår i: Reproductive Toxicology, ISSN 0890-6238, E-ISSN 1873-1708, Vol. 33, nr 2, s. 245-253Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The zebrafish embryo has repeatedly proved to be a useful model for the analysis of effects by environmental toxicants. This proof-of-concept study was performed to investigate if an approach combining mechanism-specific bioassays with microarray techniques can obtain more in-depth insights into theecotoxicity of complex pollutant mixtures as present, e.g., in sediment extracts. For this end, altered gene expression was compared to data from established bioassays as well as to results from chemical analysis. Mechanism-specific biotests indicated a defined hazard potential of the sediment extracts, and microarray analysis revealed several classes of significantly regulated genes which could be related to the hazard potential. Results indicate that potential classes of contaminants can be assigned to sediment extracts by both classical biomarker genes and corresponding expression profile analyses of known substances. However, it is difficult to distinguish between specific responses and more universal detoxification of the organism.

  • 341.
    Kukucka, Petr
    et al.
    Research Centre for Toxic Compounds in the Environment (RECETOX), Masaryk University, Faculty of Science, Brno, Czech Republ ic.
    Audy, Ondrej
    Research Centre for Toxic Compounds in the Environment (RECETOX), Masaryk University, Faculty of Science, Brno, Czech Republ ic.
    Kohoutek, Jiri
    Research Centre for Toxic Compounds in the Environment (RECETOX), Masaryk University, Faculty of Science, Brno, Czech Republ ic.
    Holt, Eva
    Research Centre for Toxic Compounds in the Environment (RECETOX), Masaryk University, Faculty of Science, Brno, Czech Republ ic.
    Kalábová, Tereza
    Research Centre for Toxic Compounds in the Environment (RECETOX), Masaryk University, Faculty of Science, Brno, Czech Republ ic.
    Holoubek, Ivan
    Research Centre for Toxic Compounds in the Environment (RECETOX), Masaryk University, Faculty of Science, Brno, Czech Republ ic.
    Klánová, Jana
    Research Centre for Toxic Compounds in the Environment (RECETOX), Masaryk University, Faculty of Science, Brno, Czech Republ ic.
    Source identification, spatio-temporal distribution and ecological risk of persistent organic pollutants in sediments from the upper Danube catchment2015Inngår i: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 138, s. 777-783Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Riverine sediments, collected on a monthly basis during a period of one year, from five sites in a mixed land use region of the Czech Republic were analysed for chlorinated and brominated persistent organic pollutants (POPs). The region is located in the upper catchment of the Danube River. The POPs concentrations were as follows: 11-930 pg g(-1) polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDDs/Fs), 170-980 pg g(-1) dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs), 34-13,700 pg g(-1) polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs), 5.7-29,200 pg g(-1) polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDEs) and 0.21-351 ng g(-1) hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDs). Concentrations expressed as toxic equivalents (TEQs), for PCDD/F + dl-PCB + PCN (TEQ(PCDD/F+dla-PCB+PCN)) ranged from 0.37 to 19 pg g(-1). The results revealed a clear spatial separation between sites based on concentration and congener profile. There were also some obvious temporal patterns of selected POPs, which were related to river flow (seasonality) and organic carbon (TOC) of the sediment. Potential sources of POPs include local municipalities (flame retardants), some diffuse sources (PCNs and PCDDs/Fs) and potential point sources (PBDEs). Risk assessment based on risk quotients (RQ) revealed limited to medium ecological risk from PBDEs. TEQ(PCDD/F+dl-PCB+PCN) were low relative to other European rivers, hence the risk to aquatic organisms was considered to be low. PCNs contributed significantly to overall TEQ in several cases.

  • 342.
    Kukucka, Petr
    et al.
    Research Centre for Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology RECETOX, Masaryk University, Brno, Czech Republic.
    Klánová, Jana
    Research Centre for Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology RECETOX, Masaryk University, Brno, Czech Republic.
    Sánka, Milan
    Research Centre for Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology RECETOX, Masaryk University, Brno, Czech Republic.
    Holoubek, Ivan
    Research Centre for Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology RECETOX, Masaryk University, Brno, Czech Republic.
    Soil burdens of persistent organic pollutants - Their levels, fate and risk: Part II. Are there any trends in PCDD/F levels in mountain soils?2009Inngår i: Environmental Pollution, ISSN 0269-7491, E-ISSN 1873-6424, Vol. 157, nr 12, s. 3255-3263Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Good quality data apt for an assessment of temporal trends of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans (PCDDs/Fs) in soils are difficult to obtain since there is a general lack of information on their residues in soils. Variability of soil profiles, non-homogeneity of samples, and often also inconsistency of applied sampling procedures further complicate this problem. To assess spatial and temporal trends of contamination, three soil sampling campaigns have been performed over the period of 12 years at the mountain forest sites in the Czech Republic. Relation between the air, needle and soil contaminations was addressed in addition to time-related variability of soil. It has been confirmed that soil is a good matrix for evaluation of spatial distribution of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) but difficult for establishment of temporal trends. A slow rate of the soil-forming processes and their site-specificity was generally the major source of uncertainties.

  • 343.
    Kukucka, Petr
    et al.
    Research Centre for Toxic Compounds in the Environment, Masaryk University, Brno, Czech Republic.
    Lammel, Gerhard
    Research Centre for Toxic Compounds in the Environment, Brno, Czech Republic; Max Planck Institute for Chemistry, Mainz, Germany.
    Dvorska, Alice
    Research Centre for Toxic Compounds in the Environment, Masaryk University, Brno, Czech Republic.
    Klanova, Jana
    Research Centre for Toxic Compounds in the Environment, Masaryk University, Brno, Czech Republic.
    Möller, Andrea
    Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Maritime Research, Bremerhaven, Germany; [Present address] Aerotec Engineering GmbH, Hamburg, Germany.
    Fries, Elke
    Institute of Environmental Systems Research, University of Osnabrueck, Osnabrueck, Germany.
    Contamination of Antarctic snow by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons dominated by combustion sources in the polar region2010Inngår i: Environmental Chemistry, ISSN 1448-2517, E-ISSN 1449-8979, Vol. 7, nr 6, s. 504-513Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Firn samples attributed to the period between 2002 and 2005 were collected from a snow pit on the Ekstrom Shelf Ice in the Weddell Sea (70 degrees 43.8'S, 8 degrees 25.1'W). Low-volume meltwater samples (5 mL) were extracted by solid-phase microextraction (SPME) and analysed for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The recovery of the analytical method for the 4-6 ring PAHs was low. PAH concentrations in snow were found within the range of 26-197 ng L(-1). The most prevailing substances were determined to be naphthalene, 1- and 2-methylnaphthalene, acenaphthylene, acenaphthene and phenanthrene, with naphthalene accounting for an overall mean of 82% of total PAH. Potential emission sources of PAHs in snow were studied using back-trajectory statistics and available emission data of combustion sources in and around Antarctica. The distance to the sources (ships and research stations) in this region was found to control the snow PAH concentrations. There was no indication for intercontinental transport or marine sources.

  • 344.
    Kumar, Jitender
    et al.
    Molecular Epidemiology and Science for Life Laboratory, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Lind, Monica
    Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Salihovic, Samira
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    van Bavel, Bert
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Ingelsson, Erik
    Molecular Epidemiology and Science for Life Laboratory, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Lind, Lars
    Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Persistent Organic Pollutants and Inflammatory Markers in a Cross-Sectional Study of Elderly Swedish People: The PIVUS Cohort2014Inngår i: Journal of Environmental Health Perspectives, ISSN 0091-6765, E-ISSN 1552-9924, Vol. 122, nr 9, s. 977-983Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are compounds that are generated through various industrial activities and released in the surrounding environment. Different animal studies have shown effects of different POPs on various inflammatory markers.

    OBJECTIVE: Because very few studies have been conducted in humans, we assessed the associations between different POPs and inflammatory markers in a large population-based sample of elderly men and women (all 70 years of age) from Sweden.

    METHODS: This cross-sectional study investigated the concentrations of several polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin, and brominated diphenyl ether congeners and their association with a number of inflammatory markers [vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1), intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1), E-selectin, C-reactive protein (CRP), total leucocyte count, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), monocyte chemotactic protein 1 (MCP-1), and interleukin 6 (IL-6)] in 992 individuals. These individuals were recruited from the Prospective Investigation of the Vasculature in Uppsala Seniors (PIVUS) cohort. We used a total toxic equivalency (TEQ) value that measures toxicological effects with the relative potencies of various POPs.

    RESULTS: Following adjustment for potential confounders, the TEQ value (driven mainly by PCB-126) was significantly associated with levels of ICAM-1 (p < 10(-5)). A similar trend was also observed between sum of PCBs and VCAM-1 (p < 0.001). No significant associations were observed between levels of POPs and other inflammatory markers.

    CONCLUSIONS: TEQ values were associated with levels of ICAM-1, to a lesser degree also with VCAM-1, but not with CRP and several other inflammatory markers. These findings suggest an activation of vascular adhesion molecules by POPs, and particularly by PCB-126.

  • 345.
    Kumar, Jitender
    et al.
    Department of Medical Sciences, Molecular Epidemiology and Science for Life Laboratory, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Lind, P. Monica
    Department of Medical Sciences, Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Salihovic, Samira
    Department of Medical Sciences, Cardiovascular Epidemiology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    van Bavel, Bert
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Ekdahl, Kristina N.
    Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden; Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences, Linnaeus University, Kalmar, Sweden .
    Nilsson, Bo
    Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences, Linnaeus University, Kalmar, Sweden.
    Lind, Lars
    Department of Medical Sciences, Cardiovascular Epidemiology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Ingelsson, Erik
    Department of Medical Sciences, Molecular Epidemiology and Science for Life Laboratory, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Influence of persistent organic pollutants on the complement system in a population-based human sample2014Inngår i: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 71, s. 94-100Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Persistent organic pollutants (POPS) are toxic compounds generated through various industrial activities and have adverse effects on human health. Studies performed in cell cultures and animals have revealed that POPs can alter immune-system functioning. The complement system is part of innate immune system that helps to clear pathogens from the body. We performed a large-scale population-based study to find out associations between summary measures of different POPs and different complement system markers.

    Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 16 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), 3 organochlorine (OC) pesticides, octachloro-p-dibenzodioxin, and 2,2',4,4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-47) were analyzed for their association with levels of protein complement 3 (C3), 3a (C3a), 4 (C4) and C3a/C3 ratio. A total of 992 individuals (all aged 70 years, 50% females) were recruited from the Prospective Investigation of the Vasculature in Uppsala Seniors cohort. Regression analysis adjusting for a variety of confounders was performed to study the associations of different POP exposures (total toxic equivalency value or TEQ and sum of 16 PCBs) with protein complements.

    Results: The TEQ values were found to be positively associated with C3a (beta = 0.07, 95% CI = 0.017-0.131, p = 0.01) and C3a/C3 ratio (beta = 0.07, 95% Cl = 0.015-0.126, p = 0.01) taking possible confounders into account. The association observed was mainly driven by PCB-126.

    Conclusion: In this study involving 992 elderly individuals from the general population, we showed that POPs, mainly PCB-126, were associated with levels of complement system markers indicating that the association of these toxic compounds with downstream disease could be mediated by activation of immune system. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 346.
    Kumar, Jitender
    et al.
    Department of Medical Sciences, Molecular Epidemiology and Science for Life Laboratory, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Lind, P. Monica
    Department of Medical Sciences, Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Salihovic, Samira
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik. Department of Medical Sciences, Cardiovascular Epidemiology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden; MTM Research Centre, School of Science and Technology, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    van Bavel, Bert
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Lind, Lars
    Department of Medical Sciences, Cardiovascular Epidemiology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Ingelsson, Erik
    Department of Medical Sciences, Molecular Epidemiology and Science for Life Laboratory, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Influence of persistent organic pollutants on oxidative stress in population-based samples2014Inngår i: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 114, s. 303-309Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are a large group of chemicals widely used and produced in various industrial applications. Many cell culture/animal studies have shown that POPs can induce oxidative stress. Since such data is lacking in humans, we conducted a large population-based study to analyze associations between POPs and oxidative stress markers. We measured following POPs; 16 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), 5 organochlorine (OC) pesticides, octachlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin, and polybrominated diphenyl ether 47, and oxidative stress markers; homocysteine, reduced [GSH] and oxidized glutathione [GSSG], glutathione ratio [GSSG/GSH], total glutathione, oxidized low-density lipoprotein [ox-LDL], ox-LDL antibodies, conjugated dienes, baseline conjugated dienes of LDL, and total anti-oxidative capacity in plasma samples collected from 992 70-year old individuals (50% women) from the population-based Prospective Investigation of the Vasculature in Uppsala Seniors (PIVUS) cohort. Linear regression analyses were performed to study the associations between oxidative stress markers and summary measures of POPs including the total toxic equivalence (TEQ), sums of PCBs and BC pesticides (main exposures) while adjusting for potential confounders. In multivariable-adjusted analyses, sum of PCBs showed strong associations with ox-LDL (beta = 0.94; P = 2.9 * 10(-6)). Further, sum of PCBs showed association with glutathione-related markers (GSSG: beta = 0.01; P = 6.0 *10(-7); GSSG/GSH: beta = 0.002; P = 9.7 * 10(-10)), although in reverse direction. Other summary measures did not show any significant association with these markers. In our study of elderly individuals from the general population, we show that plasma levels of POPs are associated with markers of increased oxidative stress thereby suggesting that even low dose background exposure to POPs may be involved in oxidative stress. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 347.
    Kumar, Ranjeet
    et al.
    School of Science and Technology, The Life Science Center-Biology, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Pradhan, Ajay
    School of Science and Technology, The Life Science Center-Biology, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Khan, Faisal Ahmad
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Lindström, Pia
    Boliden Mineral AB, Boliden, Sweden.
    Ragnvaldsson, Daniel
    Envix Nord AB, Umeå , Sweden.
    Ivarsson, Per
    ALS Scandinavia AB, Täby, Sweden.
    Olsson, Per-Erik
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Jass, Jana
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Comparative analysis of stress induced gene expression in caenorhabditis elegans following exposure to environmental and lab reconstituted complex metal mixture2015Inngår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 10, nr 7, artikkel-id e0132896Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Metals are essential for many physiological processes and are ubiquitously present in the environment. However, high metal concentrations can be harmful to organisms and lead to physiological stress and diseases. The accumulation of transition metals in the environment due to either natural processes or anthropogenic activities such as mining results in the contamination of water and soil environments. The present study used Caenorhabditis elegans to evaluate gene expression as an indicator of physiological response, following exposure to water collected from three different locations downstream of a Swedish mining site and a lab reconstituted metal mixture. Our results indicated that the reconstituted metal mixture exerted a direct stress response in C. elegans whereas the environmental waters elicited either a diminished or abrogated response. This suggests that it is not sufficient to use the biological effects observed from laboratory mixtures to extrapolate the effects observed in complex aquatic environments and apply this to risk assessment and intervention.

  • 348.
    Kwok, Karen Y.
    et al.
    State Key Laboratory in Marine Pollution, Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong Kowloon, Hong Kong, China; National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba, Japan.
    Taniyasu, Sachi
    National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba, Japan.
    Yeung, Leo W. Y.
    State Key Laboratory in Marine Pollution, Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong Kowloon, Hong Kong, China; National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba, Japan.
    Murphy, Margaret B.
    State Key Laboratory in Marine Pollution, Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong Kowloon, Hong Kong, China.
    Lam, Paul K. S.
    State Key Laboratory in Marine Pollution, Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong Kowloon, Hong Kong, China.
    Horii, Yuichi
    Group of Chemical Substances, Center for Environmental Science in Saitama, Kazo Saitama, Japan.
    Kannan, Kurunthachalam
    Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health, State University of New York at Albany, Albany, United States.
    Petrick, Gert
    Department of Marine Chemistry, Leibniz-Institute of Marine Sciences, Kiel, Germany.
    Sinha, Ravindra K.
    Environmental Biology Laboratory, Department of Zoology, Patna University, Patna, India.
    Yamashita, Nobuyoshi
    Flux of Perfluorinated Chemicals through Wet Deposition in Japan, the United States, And Several Other Countries2010Inngår i: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 44, nr 18, s. 7043-7049Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The widespread distribution of perfluorinated chemicals (PFCs) in different environmental matrices has prompted concern about the sources, fate, and transport of these classes of chemicals. PFCs are present in the atmosphere, but only a few studies have investigated their occurrence in precipitation. In this study, concentrations of 20 PFCs, including C3-C5 short-chain PFCs, were quantified using HPLC-MS/MS in precipitation samples from Japan (n = 31), the United States (n = 12), China (n = 5), India (n = 2), and France (n = 2). Among the PFCs measured, perfluoropropanoic acid (PFPrA) was detected in all of the precipitation samples. Average total PFC concentrations ranged from 1.40 to 18.1 ng/L for the seven cities studied. The greatest total PFC concentrations were detected in Tsukuba, Japan, whereas the lowest concentrations were detected in Patna, India. PFPrA, perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), and perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) were found to be the dominant PFCs in Japanese and U.S. precipitation samples. No observable seasonal trend was found in precipitation samples from two locations in Japan. Annual fluxes of PFCs were estimated for Japan and the U.S. and the evidence for precipitation as an effective scavenger of PFCs in the atmosphere is reported.

  • 349.
    Kärrman, Anna
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Akademin för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Domingo, Jose L.
    Lab Toxicol & Environm Hlth, Univ Rovira & Virgili, Reus Catalonia, Spain.
    Llebaria, Xavier
    Dept Hlth, Hlth Protect Agcy, Barcelona Catalonia, Spain.
    Nadal, Marti
    Lab Toxicol & Environm Hlth, Univ Rovira & Virgili, Reus Catalonia, Spain.
    Bigas, Esther
    Dept Hlth, Hlth Protect Agcy, Barcelona Catalonia, Spain.
    van Bavel, Bert
    Örebro universitet, Akademin för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Lindström, Gunilla
    Örebro universitet, Akademin för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Biomonitoring perfluorinated compounds in Catalonia, Spain: concentrations and trends in human liver and milk samples2010Inngår i: Environmental science and pollution research international, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 17, nr 3, s. 750-758Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) are global environmental pollutants that bioaccumulate in wildlife and humans. Laboratory experiments have revealed toxic effects such as delayed development, humoral suppression, and hepatotoxicity. Although numerous human blood levels have been reported, little is known about distribution in the human body. Knowledge about PFC distribution and accumulation in the human body is crucial to understanding uptake and subsequent effects as well as to conduct risk assessments. The present study reports PFC levels in human liver and breast milk from a general population living in Catalonia, Spain. Liver and milk levels are compared to previously reported levels in blood from the same geographic area as well as to other existing reports on human liver and milk levels in other countries. Human liver (n = 12) and milk (n = 10) samples were collected in 2007 and 2008 in Catalonia, Spain. Liver samples were taken postmortem from six males and six females aged 27-79 years. Milk samples were from healthy primipara women (30-39 years old). Both liver and milk were analyzed by solid-phase extraction and ultra-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Six PFCs were detected in liver, with perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS, 26.6 ng/g wet weight) being the chemical with the highest mean concentration. Other PFCs such as perfluorohexanesulfonate (PFHxS), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), and acids with chain lengths up to C11 were also detected, with mean levels ranging between 0.50 and 1.45 ng/g wet weight. On the other hand, PFOS and PFHxS were the only PFCs detected in human milk, with mean concentrations of 0.12 and 0.04 ng/mL, respectively. While milk concentrations were similar to reported levels from other countries, liver samples contained more PFCs above quantification limits and higher PFOS concentrations compared to the only two other reports found in the literature. Differences between the results of the present study and those concerning previous investigations can be due to declining levels of some PFCs, which have been reported for the USA. The relationship between PFC concentrations in human liver, milk, and blood was assessed using blood concentrations previously determined in Catalonia. Those levels resulted in liver/serum ratios of 1.7:1, 1.4:1, and 2.1:1 for PFOS, perfluorodecanoic acid, and perfluoroundecanoic acid, respectively. Accumulation in liver is suggested for PFOS and the perfluorocarboxylic acids with carbon chain lengths C9, C10, and C11. For PFOA and PFHxS, fivefold and 14-fold higher concentrations, respectively, were seen in serum as compared to liver. The mean concentration of PFOS and PFHxS in milk was only 0.8% and 0.6% of the reported mean serum level, respectively. The results of the present study show that several PFCs could be detected in human liver samples of subjects living in Tarragona. Concerning human milk, the mechanism by which PFCs are transferred from mother's blood to breast milk is still unclear. Considering that PFCs are strongly bound to the protein fraction in blood, the possibility of PFCs entering the milk and accumulating to levels observed in maternal plasma is limited. Interestingly, the potential accumulation difference for PFCs with different chain lengths might be of great importance for risk assessment. Continuing studies on the distribution of different PFCs in human tissue are therefore justified.

  • 350.
    Kärrman, Anna
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Akademin för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Elgh-Dalgren, Kristin
    Örebro universitet, Akademin för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Lafossas, C.
    Örebro universitet, Akademin för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Moskeland, T.
    Environmental levels and distribution of structural isomers of perfluoroalkyl acids after aqueous fire-fighting foam (AFFF) contamination2011Inngår i: Environmental Chemistry, ISSN 1448-2517, E-ISSN 1449-8979, Vol. 8, nr 4, s. 372-380Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The environment (soil, water, sediment, fish, crab and mussel) around a training facility using aqueous film forming foams (AFFFs) was studied with respect to perfluorinated alkyl acids (PFAAs) and 6 : 2 fluorotelomer sulfonate (FTS) and their structural isomers. High levels of many PFAAs and 6 : 2 FTS were detected in soil, seepage water, sediment and fish liver. Structural isomers were found for sulfonates, except PFBuS, and for PFOA. Quantification using authentic standards revealed an isomer pattern of 63% linear PFOS (L-PFOS) and 80% linear PFOA (L-PFOA) in the soil at the contamination site, which indicated a source produced by electrochemical fluorination (ECF). The 6 : 2 FTS was 100% linear in all compartments thus coming from a telomerisation product. Enrichment of the linear structure of PFOS and PFOA in soil was seen with increasing distance from the training centre, and an enrichment of branched isomers for both compounds could be found in the seepage water. Sorption to sediment and accumulation in fish liver led to an enrichment of L-PFOS whereas all PFOA remained in the water body.

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