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  • 351.
    Khaliq, Ali Abdul
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Pecora, Federico
    Saffiotti, Alessandro
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Children playing with robots using stigmergy on a smart floor2016In: 2016 Intl IEEE Conferences on Ubiquitous Intelligence & Computing, Advanced and Trusted Computing, Scalable Computing and Communications, Cloud and Big Data Computing, Internet of People, and Smart World Congress (UIC/ATC/ScalCom/CBDCom/IoP/SmartWorld), Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2016, 1098-1103 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Reliable and safe interaction is essential when humans and robots move in close proximity. In this paper, we present a stigmergic approach where humans interact with robots via a smart floor. Stigmergy has been widely studied in robotic systems, however, HRI has thus far not availed itself of stigmergic solutions. We realize a stigmergic medium via RFID tags embedded in the floor, and use these to enable robot navigation, human tracking, as well as the interaction between robots and humans. The proposed method allows to employ robots with minimal sensing and computation capabilities. The approach relies only on the RFID sensors and the information stored in the tags, and no internal map is required for navigation. We design and implement a prototype game which involves a robot and a child moving together in a shared space. The prototype demonstrates that the approach is reliable and adheres to given safety constraints when human and robot are moving within close proximity of each other.

  • 352.
    Khaliq, Ali Abdul
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Pecora, Federico
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Saffiotti, Alessandro
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Inexpensive, reliable and localization-free navigation using an RFID floor2015In: 2015 European Conference on Mobile Robots (ECMR), New York: IEEE conference proceedings , 2015, 7324204Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Stigmergy is a principle observed in nature, in which animals store in the environment information to be used for communication or navigation. Stigmergy has recently been exploited in robotics: simple robots store a goal distance field in read-write RFID tags embedded in the floor, and later follow the gradient of this field to navigate optimally to that goal. Stigmergic navigation is localization-free, since robots only rely on the values read from the tags and do not need to know their own location. This makes navigation inexpensive (no ranging sensors) and reliable (no localization failures). To make this approach viable in practice, two issues need to be addressed: how to simplify the installation of an RFID floor; and how to follow the field gradient in a reliable way. This paper presents solutions to both problems. The solutions are validated through experiments performed on simulated and on real robots.

  • 353.
    Khaliq, Ali Abdul
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Saffiotti, Alessandro
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Stigmergy at work: Planning and navigation for a service robot on an RFID floor2015In: IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation, IEEE Computer Society, 2015, 1085-1092 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many species in nature store information in the environment to facilitate the performance of tasks and enable cooperation. This principle is known as stigmergy. Stigmergy has been widely studied in robotic systems, but so far mostly in simulation or in laboratory proofs of concept. In this paper, we propose a stigmergic approach to goal-directed navigation that can be used for navigation of a full-scale robotic system in a real apartment. A team of small ePuck robots build a set of navigation maps directly onto an RFID floor, where each map is associated to one predefined goal. The information stored in the floor can then used by a mid-size robot or by a larger domestic robot to perform safe navigation toward the predefined goals. To navigate, robots only rely on the information read from the RFID tags: in particular, they do not need to use an internal map or to perform self-localization. This results in robust and repeatable navigation with minimal hardware and software requirements.

  • 354.
    Khaliq, Ali
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Pashami, Sepideh
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Schaffernicht, Erik
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Lilienthal, Achim J.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Hernandez Bennetts, Victor
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Bringing Artificial Olfaction and Mobile Robotics Closer Together: An Integrated 3D Gas Dispersion Simulator in ROS2015In: Proceedings of the 16th International Symposium on Olfaction and Electronic Noses, 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite recent achievements, the potential of gas-sensitive mobile robots cannot be realized due to the lack of research on fundamental questions. A key limitation is the difficulty to carry out evaluations against ground truth. To test and compare approaches for gas-sensitive robots a truthful gas dispersion simulator is needed. In this paper we present a unified framework to simulate gas dispersion and to evaluate mobile robotics and gas sensing algorithms using ROS. Gas dispersion is modeled as a set of particles affected by diffusion, turbulence, advection and gravity. Wind information is integrated as time snapshots computed with any fluid dynamics computation tool. In addition, response models for devices such as Metal Oxide (MOX) sensors can be integrated in the framework.

  • 355.
    Kiselev, Andrey
    et al.
    Kyoto University, Japan.
    Abdikeev, Niyaz
    Plekhanov Russian Academy of Economics, Moscow, Russia .
    Nishida, Toyoaki
    Kyoto University, Japan.
    Evaluating Humans’ Implicit Attitudes towards an Embodied Conversational Agent2011In: Advances in Neural Networks–ISNN 2011: 8th International Symposium on Neural Networks, ISNN 2011, Guilin, China, May 29–June 1, 2011, Proceedings, Part I, Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2011, -9 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper addresses the problem of evaluating embodied conversational agents in terms of their communicative performance. We show our attempt to evaluate humans’ implicit attitudes towards different kinds of information presenting by embodied conversational agents using the Implicit Association Test (IAT) rather than gathering explicit data using interviewing methods. We conducted an experiment in which we use the method of indirect measurements with the IAT. The conventional procedure and scoring algorithm of the IAT were used in order to discover possible issues and solutions for future experiments. We discuss key differences between the conventional usage of the IAT and using the IAT in our experiment for evaluating embodied conversational agents using unfamiliar information as test data.

  • 356.
    Kiselev, Andrey
    et al.
    Department of Intelligence Science and Technology, Graduate School of Informatics, Kyoto University, Kyota, Japan.
    Hacker, Benjamin Alexander
    Department of Informatics, Munich University of Technology, Munich, Germany.
    Wankerl, Thomas
    Department of Informatics, Munich University of Technology, Munich, Germany.
    Abdikeev, Niyaz
    Plekhanov Russian Academy of Economics, Moscow, Russia.
    Nishida, Toyoaki
    Department of Intelligence Science and Technology, Graduate School of Informatics, Kyoto University, Kyota, Japan.
    Toward incorporating emotions with rationality into a communicative virtual agent2011In: AI & Society: The Journal of Human-Centred Systems and Machine Intelligence, ISSN 0951-5666, E-ISSN 1435-5655, Vol. 26, no 3, 275-289 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper addresses the problem of human–computer interactions when the computer can interpret and express a kind of human-like behavior, offering natural communication. A conceptual framework for incorporating emotions with rationality is proposed. A model of affective social interactions is described. The model utilizes the SAIBA framework, which distinguishes among several stages of processing of information. The SAIBA framework is extended, and a model is realized in human behavior detection, human behavior interpretation, intention planning, attention tracking behavior planning, and behavior realization components. Two models of incorporating emotions with rationality into a virtual artifact are presented. The first one uses an implicit implementation of emotions. The second one has an explicit realization of a three-layered model of emotions, which is highly interconnected with other components of the system. Details of the model with implicit implementation of emotional behavior are shown as well as evaluation methodology and results. Discussions about the extended model of an agent are given in the final part of the paper.

  • 357.
    Kiselev, Andrey
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Kristoffersson, Annica
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Loutfi, Amy
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Combining Semi-autonomous Navigation with Manned Behaviour in a Cooperative Driving System for Mobile Robotic Telepresence2015In: COMPUTER VISION - ECCV 2014 WORKSHOPS, PT IV, Berlin: Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2015, Vol. 8928, 17-28 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents an image-based cooperative driving system for telepresence robot, which allows safe operation in indoor environments and is meant to minimize the burden on novice users operating the robot. The paper focuses on one emerging telepresence robot, namely, mobile remote presence systems for social interaction. Such systems brings new opportunities for applications in healthcare and elderly care by allowing caregivers to communicate with patients and elderly from remote locations. However, using such systems can be a difficult task particularly for caregivers without proper training. The paper presents a first implementation of a vision-based cooperative driving enhancement to a telepresence robot. A preliminary evaluation in the laboratory environment is presented.

  • 358.
    Kiselev, Andrey
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Kristoffersson, Annica
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Loutfi, Amy
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    The Effect of Field of View on Social Interaction in Mobile Robotic Telepresence Systems2014In: Proceedings of the 9th ACM/IEEE International Conference on Human-Robot Interaction (HRI 2014), IEEE conference proceedings, 2014, 214-215 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    One goal of mobile robotic telepresence for social interaction is to design robotic units that are easy to operate for novice users and promote good interaction between people. This paper presents an exploratory study on the effect of camera orientation and field of view on the interaction between a remote and local user. Our findings suggest that limiting the width of the field of view can lead to better interaction quality as it encourages remote users to orient the robot towards local users.

  • 359.
    Kiselev, Andrey
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Kristoffersson, Annica
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Melendez, Francisco
    System Engineering and Automation Department, University of Malaga, Malaga, Spain.
    Galindo, Cipriano
    System Engineering and Automation Department, University of Malaga, Malaga, Spain.
    Loutfi, Amy
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Gonzalez-Jimenez, Javier
    System Engineering and Automation Department, University of Malaga, Malaga, Spain.
    Coradeschi, Silvia
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Evaluation of using semi-autonomy features in mobile robotic telepresence systems2015In: Proceedings of the 2015 7th IEEE International Conference on Cybernetics and Intelligent Systems, CIS 2015 and Robotics, Automation and Mechatronics, RAM 2015, New York, USA: IEEE conference proceedings , 2015, 147-152 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mobile robotic telepresence systems used for social interaction scenarios require that users steer robots in a remote environment. As a consequence, a heavy workload can be put on users if they are unfamiliar with using robotic telepresence units. One way to lessen this workload is to automate certain operations performed during a telepresence session in order to assist remote drivers in navigating the robot in new environments. Such operations include autonomous robot localization and navigation to certain points in the home and automatic docking of the robot to the charging station. In this paper we describe the implementation of such autonomous features along with user evaluation study. The evaluation scenario is focused on the first experience on using the system by novice users. Importantly, that the scenario taken in this study assumed that participants have as little as possible prior information about the system. Four different use-cases were identified from the user behaviour analysis.

  • 360.
    Kiselev, Andrey
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Loutfi, Amy
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Sivakumar, Prasanna Kumar
    SASTRA University.
    Srinivas, Chittaranjan S.
    SASTRA University.
    Robot-human hand-overs in non-anthropomorphic robots2013In: Proceedings of the 8th ACM/IEEE International Conference on Human-Robot Interaction, HRI'13 / [ed] Hideaki Kuzuoka, Vanessa Evers, Michita Imai, Jodi Forlizzi, IEEE Press, 2013, 227-228 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Robots that assist and interact with humans will inevitably require to successfully achieve the task of handing over objects. Whether it is to deliver desired objects for the elderly living in their homes or hand tools to a worker in a factory, the process of robot hand-overs is one worthy study within the human robot interaction community. While the study of object hand-overs have been studied in previous works, these works have mainly considered anthropomorphic robots, that is, robots that appear and move similar to humans. However, recent trends within robotics, and in particular domestic robotics have witnessed an increase in non-anthropomorphic robotic platforms such as moving tables, teleconferencing robots and vacuum cleaners. The study of robot hand-over for nonanthropomorphic robots and in particular the study of what constitute a successful hand-over is at focus in this paper. For the purpose of investigation, the TurtleBot, which is a moving table like device is used in a home environment.

  • 361.
    Kiselev, Andrey
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Mosiello, Giovanni
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology. Roma Tre University.
    Kristoffersson, Annica
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Loutfi, Amy
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Semi-Autonomous Cooperative Driving for Mobile Robotic Telepresence Systems2014In: Proceedings of the 9th ACM/IEEE International Conference on Human-Robot Interaction (HRI 2014), IEEE conference proceedings, 2014, 104-104 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mobile robotic telepresence (MRP) has been introduced to allow communication from remote locations. Modern MRP systems offer rich capabilities for human-human interactions. However, simply driving a telepresence robot can become a burden especially for novice users, leaving no room for interaction at all. In this video we introduce a project which aims to incorporate advanced robotic algorithms into manned telepresence robots in a natural way to allow human-robot cooperation for safe driving. It also shows a very first implementation of cooperative driving based on extracting a safe drivable area in real time using the image stream received from the robot.

  • 362.
    Kiselev, Andrey
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Scherlund, Mårten
    Giraff Technologies AB.
    Kristoffersson, Annica
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Efremova, Natalia
    Plekhanom University.
    Loutfi, Amy
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Auditory immersion with stereo sound in a mobile robotic telepresence system2015In: 10th ACM/IEEE International Conference on Human-Robot Interaction, 2015, ACM Press, 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Auditory immersion plays a significant role in generating a good feeling of presence for users driving a telepresence robot. In this paper, one of the key characteristics of auditory immersion - sound source localization (SSL) - is studied from the perspective of those who operate telepresence robots from remote locations. A prototype which is capable of delivering soundscape to the user through Interaural Time Difference (ITD) and Interaural Level Difference (ILD) using the ORTF stereo recording technique was developed. The prototype was evaluated in an experiment and the results suggest that the developed method is sufficient for sound source localization tasks.

  • 363.
    Klügl, Franziska
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    A validation methodology for agent-based simulations2008In: SAC '08: Proceedings of the 2008 ACM symposium on applied computing (SAC) / [ed] Roger L. Wainwright, Hisham M. Haddad, New York, NY: ACM Press , 2008, 39-43 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Validity forms the basic prerequisite for every simulation model, therefore also for reasonable usage of the agent-based simulation paradigm. However, models based on the multi-agent system metaphor tend to need some particular approaches. In this paper, I propose a process for validating agent-based simulation models that combines face validation, sensitivity analysis, calibration and statistical validation.

  • 364.
    Klügl, Franziska
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Affordance-Based Interaction Design for Agent-Based Simulation Models2015In: Multi-Agent Systems (EUMAS 2014), Springer, 2015, Vol. 8953, 51-66 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    When designing and implementing an Agent-Based Simulation model a major challenge is to formulate the interactions between agents and between agents and their environment. In this contribution we present an approach for capturing agent-environment interactions based on the “affordance” concept. Originated in ecological psychology, affordances represent relations between environmental objects and potential actions that an agent may perform with those objects and thus offer a higher abstraction level for dealing with potential interaction. Our approach has two elements: a methodology for using the affordance concept to identify interactions and secondly, a suggestion for integrating affordances into agents’ decision making. We illustrate our approach indicating an agent-based model of after-earthquake behavior.

  • 365.
    Klügl, Franziska
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Agent-Based Simulation EngineeringManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The history of agent-based models started in the 1970ies with singular yet path-breaking examples such as the Segregation model by T. Schelling [Schelling, 1971]. From end of the 80ies on more and more agent-based models were developed and implemented. However, almost no simulation engineering happened. Due to the relation to social sciences, mostly sociologists and psychologists used the paradigm of simulated humans based on rather complex models of human decision making to model hypotheses and theories about societal dynamics. The resulting models were complex but abstract. The role of empirical embeddedness is still discussed in the area of social simulation. Practioneers from more engineering-oriented domains like traffic simulation or researchers from domains with long simulation background like theoretical biology or engineering found the techniques associated with agent-based simulation interesting, yet not mature enoughto actually apply them.

    Agent-based simulation definitely is a highly valuable tool, especially when studying complex self-organizing systems in many domains. Thus, the question arises, what shows the maturity of a simulation paradigm and how the achievement of a high level of applicability can be brought forward? The answer is basically that engineering-like development and some form of good practice have to be established. In particular, this leads to the following issues that have to be addressed for fostering the development of agent-based models.

    • Deep understanding of the “object”, that means understanding of agent-based models themselvesand what particular feature is useful in what particular context.
    • Development of best practice: Establishing knowledge about how to build an agent-basedmodel efficiently and in a way that costs can be a priori estimated.

    Until now, none of these items is solved in a satisfying way. However, they are necessarily achieved at least partially for improving the broad applicability of agent-based modeling and simulation. Steps leading to the general aim of this book – fostering the applicability of agent-based simulation – can be derived from these considerations.

    A basic prerequisite and therefore first step is collecting specific knowledge about agent-based simulation and the context of its appropriate application. This refers to properties of simulation questions and modeling targets as well as to theoretical and empirical requirements for model design, implementation and usage.

    The second step concerns the development of an agent-based simulation. Although the general process model for developing simulation models, presented in every simulation textbook, can also be applied for agent-based simulation, the problem goes deeper than just using an appropriate specification or implementation language. Agent-based simulations are generative. It is not jus tdescribing what was observed, but finding agent behavior and interactions that produce a particular phenomenon. This idea has several consequences ranging from missing micro-macro links over non-linear models and tendencies to full detail to several levels of validation. Thus, developing methods for bridging the gap between macro-level objectives and appropriate micro-level programs in a systematic and reproducible way is the challenge for agent-based simulation engineering.

    A third step must consider practical application of the theoretical foundations. Basically,learning how to model for simulation possesses the same characteristics as learning how to program software. One might read about language constructs, but how its actually working is only experience-able by doing it. Therefore, a detailed presentation of simulation models and theirconstruction has to be part of a book about simulation engineering.

    Thus, this book sums up experiences in methodological research and application of agent-based simulation, especially in modeling complex and self-organizing systems. This book is a further step towards systematic engineering of agent-based models involving appropriate meta-models, procedures for development, conceptual and technical design and validation of models. It bridges the gap between established techniques related to modeling and simulation and the approaches and requirements for complex agent-based simulation modeling.

  • 366.
    Klügl, Franziska
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    "Engineering" agent-based simulation models?2013In: Agent-oriented software engineering XIII: revised selected papers / [ed] Jörg P. Müller, Massimo Cossentino, Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2013, 179-196 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Multiagent simulation emerges to be one of the "killer applications" of multiagent system technology. For several reasons, there is a serious lack of engineering approaches in developing simulation models, so connecting AOSE with Multiagent Simulation seems to end in a win-win situation. A basic prerequisite is hereby to understand the current state and challenges of developing multiagent simulations. This is the objective of this contribution.

  • 367.
    Klügl, Franziska
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Multi-Agenten-Systeme2013In: Handbuch der Künstlichen Intelligenz / [ed] Günther Görz, Josef Schneeberger and Ute Schmid, Oldenbourg Wissenschaftsverlag GmbH, 2013, 5., 999-1007 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 368.
    Klügl, Franziska
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    SeSAm: visual programming and participatory simulation for agent-based models2009In: Multi-agent systems: simulation and applications / [ed] Adelinde Uhrmacher, Danny Weyns, Boca Raton, Fla: CRC Press, 2009, 477-508 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 369.
    Klügl, Franziska
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Using the affordance concept for model design in agent-based simulation2016In: Annals of Mathematics and Artificial Intelligence, ISSN 1012-2443, E-ISSN 1573-7470, Vol. 78, no 1, 21-44 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    When designing an Agent-Based Simulation Model a central challenge is to formulate the appropriate interactions between agents as well as between agents and their environment. In this contribution we present the idea of capturing agent-environment interactions based on the “affordance” concept. Originating in ecological psychology, affordances represent relations between environmental objects and potential actions that agents may perform using those objects. We assume that explicitly handling affordances based on semantic annotation of entities in simulated space may offer a higher abstraction level for dealing with potential interaction. Our approach has two elements: firstly a methodology for using the affordance concept to identify interactions and secondly a suggestion for integrating affordances into agents’ decision making. We illustrate our approach indicating an agent-based model of after-earthquake behavior.

    The full text will be freely available from 2018-04-01 07:00
  • 370.
    Klügl, Franziska
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Davidsson, Paul
    Malmö University, Malmö, Sweden.
    AMASON: Abstract Meta-model for Agent-based SimulatiON2013In: Multiagent System Technologies / [ed] Matthias Klusch, Matthias Thimm and Marcin Paprzycki, Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2013, 101-114 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The basic prerequisite for methodological advance in Multi-Agent Based Modelling and Simulation is a clear, ideally formally-grounded, concept of our subject. A commonly accepted, implementation-independent meta-model may improve the status of MABS as a scientific field providing a solid foundation that can be used for describing, comparing, analysing, and understanding MABS models. In this contribution, we present an attempt formalizing a general view of MABS models by defining the AMASON meta-model that captures the basic structure and dynamics of a MABS model.

  • 371.
    Klügl, Franziska
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Vizzari, GiuseppeUniversity of Milano-Bicocca, Italy.Vokrinek, JiriCzech Technical University, Prague, Czech Republic.
    Proceedings of the 8th International Workshop on Agents in Traffic and Transportation: Workshop at AAMAS 2014, Paris, May, 5/6th 20142014Conference proceedings (editor) (Refereed)
  • 372.
    Kolkowska, Ella
    et al.
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Kristoffersson, Annica
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Privacy by Design Principles in Design of New Generation Cognitive Assistive Technologies2016In: ICT systems security and privacy protection: 31th IFIP TC 11 International Conference, SEC 2016, Hamburg, Germany, May 30-June 1, 2016, Proceedings / [ed] Jaap-Henk Hoepman & Stefan Katzenbeisser, Springer, 2016, Vol. 471, 384-397 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Today, simple analogue assistive technologies are transformed into complex and sophisticated sensor networks. This raises many new privacy issues that need to be considered. In this paper, we investigate how this new generation of assistive technology incorporates Privacy by Design (PbD) principles. The research is conducted as a case study where we use PbD principles as an analytical lens to investigate the design of the new generation of digitalized assistive technology as well as the users’ privacy preferences that arise in use of this technology in real homes. Based on the findings from the case study, we present guidelines for building in privacy in new generations of assistive technologies and in this way protect the privacy of the people using these technologies.

  • 373.
    Kolkowska, Ella
    et al.
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Nöu, Anneli Avatare
    SICS Swedish ICT, Kista, Sweden.
    Sjölinder, Marie
    SICS Swedish ICT, Kista, Sweden.
    Scandurra, Isabella
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Socio-Technical Challenges in Implementation of Monitoring Technologies in Elderly Care2016In: Human Aspects of IT for the Aged Population: Healthy and Active Aging, ITAP 2016, Proceedings, Part II, Springer, 2016, 45-56 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although new monitoring technologies (MT) supporting aging in place are continuously developed and introduced on the market, attempts to implement these technologies as an integrated part of elderly care often fail. According to the literature, the reason for that may be the prevailing technical focus applied during development and implementation of monitoring technologies in real settings. The aim of this paper was to investigate the socio-technical challenges that arise during implementation of monitoring technologies in elderly care. We used a qualitative case study and semi-structured interviews to investigate socio-technical (S/T) challenges in implementation of monitoring technologies generally and social alarms especially. Based on our findings we suggest a framework for classification of S/T challenges arising during implementation of monitoring technologies in elderly care and in this way this paper contributes to a better understanding of these challenges.

  • 374.
    Konečný, Štefan
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Pecora, Federico
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Saffiotti, Alessandro
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Execution Knowledge for Execution Monitoring: what, why, where and what for?2014In: IEEE/RSJ International Conference On Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS), 2014, 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite the progress made in planning androbotics, autonomous plan execution on a robot remainschallenging. One of the problems is that (classical) plannersuse abstract models which are disconnected from the sensorand actuation information available during execution. Thisconnection is typically created in a non-systematic way by somesystem-specific execution software. In this paper we proposeto explicitly represent Execution Knowledge that encodes theconnection between planning models and the actual actionsand observations for a given physical system. We present anexecution monitoring framework in which Execution Knowl-edge captures the expectations about physical plan execution.A violation of these expectations indicates an execution failure.

  • 375.
    Konečný, Štefan
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Stock, Sebastian
    Osnabrück University, Germany.
    Pecora, Federico
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Saffiotti, Alessandro
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Planning domain + execution semantics: a way towards robust execution?2014In: Qualitative Representations for Robots, AAAI Press , 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Robots are expected to carry out complex plans in real world environments. This requires the robot to track the progress of plan execution and detect failures which may occur. Planners use very abstract world models to generate plans. Additional causal, temporal, categorical knowledge about the execution, which is not included in the planner's model, is often available. Can we use this knowledge to increase robustness of execution and provide early failure detection? We propose to use a dedicated Execution Model to monitor the executed plan based on runtime observations and rich execution knowledge. We show that the combined used of causal, temporal and categorical knowledge allows the robot to detect failures even when the effects of actions are not directly observable. A dedicated Execution model also introduces a degree of modularity, since the platform- and execution-specific knowledge does not need to be encoded into the planner.

  • 376.
    Koshmak, Gregory
    et al.
    Mälardalen Univ, Sch Innovat Design & Engn, Västerås, Sweden.
    Linden, Maria
    Mälardalen Univ, Sch Innovat Design & Engn, Västerås, Sweden.
    Loutfi, Amy
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Dynamic Bayesian Networks for Context-Aware Fall Risk Assessment2014In: Sensors, ISSN 1424-8220, Vol. 14, no 5, 9330-9348 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Fall incidents among the elderly often occur in the home and can cause serious injuries affecting their independent living. This paper presents an approach where data from wearable sensors integrated in a smart home environment is combined using a dynamic Bayesian network. The smart home environment provides contextual data, obtained from environmental sensors, and contributes to assessing a fall risk probability. The evaluation of the developed system is performed through simulation. Each time step is represented by a single user activity and interacts with a fall sensors located on a mobile device. A posterior probability is calculated for each recognized activity or contextual information. The output of the system provides a total risk assessment of falling given a response from the fall sensor.

  • 377.
    Koshmak, Gregory
    et al.
    School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Mälardalen University, Västerås, Sweden.
    Loutfi, Amy
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Linden, Maria
    School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Mälardalen University, Västerås, Sweden.
    Challenges and Issues in Multisensor Fusion Approach for Fall Detection: Review Paper2016In: Journal of Sensors, ISSN 1687-725X, E-ISSN 1687-7268, 6931789Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Emergency situations associated with falls are a serious concern for an aging society. Yet following the recent development within ICT, a significant number of solutions have been proposed to track body movement and detect falls using various sensor technologies, thereby facilitating fall detection and in some cases prevention. A number of recent reviews on fall detection methods using ICT technologies have emerged in the literature and an increasingly popular approach considers combining information from several sensor sources to assess falls. The aim of this paper is to review in detail the subfield of fall detection techniques that explicitly considers the use of multisensor fusion based methods to assess and determine falls. The paper highlights key differences between the single sensor-based approach and a multifusion one. The paper also describes and categorizes the various systems used, provides information on the challenges of a multifusion approach, and finally discusses trends for future work.

  • 378.
    Kramarev, Nikolay
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Development and integration of a control system forflexible grippers2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Various robotic grippers support or even replace human beings on particular tasks, for example, different industrial applications. However, in some cases complex tasks are required and specifications of the industrial gripper should be more advanced. The adjustment for dynamic environment should be done automatically without a human intervention in a control process. The aim of this master’s project was to develop a control software system for given mechanical gripper prototype developed in the AASS research lab. Gripper control program was implemented by using Galil motion control hardware and Galil specific low-level programming language. Gripper was equipped with tactile sensors on fingertips to adjust a grasping behavior for objects with different shapes and sizes. In this thesis the control system for gripper device as well as its integration into the ``intelligent arm´´system was implemented. The ``intelligent arm´´system is an ABB IRB 140 industrial robotic manipulator with IRC5 controller and motion capture system installed in the AASS research lab. Communication between Galil and IRC5 controllers allowed the gripper to be managed by IRC5. On the other hand, gripper could communicate its condition into IRC5 and therefore affect the arm motions.

     

  • 379.
    Kristoffersson, Annica
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Measuring the quality of interaction in mobile robotic telepresence systems using presence, spatial formations  and sociometry2013Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A mobile robotic telepresence (MRP) system is characterized by a video conferencing system which is mounted on a mobile robotic base. The system allows remote pilot users to move the robot around while communicating with local users situated in the robot’s environment. One of the most promising application areas for MRP systems is to deploy them in homes of elderly who are in frequent contact with health care professionals and/or alarm operators. Using MRP systems, elderly can get in immediate contact with these services even without leaving their homes. However, this poses some challenges for the health care professionals and alarm operators. The alarm operators traditionally communicate with their clients using the telephone while the health care professionals see their patients face-to-face with little interference of computer applications. The encounters between health care professionals and patients typically take place at clinics. Neither the health care professionals nor the alarm operators visit the elderly in person. Accordingly, they have no knowledge about the layout of the homes or where the elderly may reside. Thus, the social communication between them and the elderly via MRP systems is more complex than their traditional interaction with elderly.

    This compilation thesis makes a contribution towards understanding how interaction is affected by MRP system embodiment. The work focuses on measuring quality of interaction in MRP systems deployed in domestic settings in elder care. The thesis proposes a set of useful tools for measuring interaction quality. These tools are presence, spatial formations and sociometry. They were selected based on their ability to capture important characteristics for communication via MRP systems, e.g. social communication and mobility, and have been evaluated in experiments with real end-users, that is with alarm operators, health care professionals and elderly. The tools used to conduct the experimental evaluations of MRP systems include video-based evaluations, driving sessions and retrospective interviews. These methods were carefully chosen and take into consideration the organizational background of the participants involved and the challenge of conducting experiments with the aforementioned groups of users.

    List of papers
    1. A review of mobile robotic telepresence
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>A review of mobile robotic telepresence
    2013 (English)In: Advances in Human-Computer Interaction, ISSN 1687-5893, E-ISSN 1687-5907, Vol. 2013, 902316- p.Article, book review (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Mobile Robotic Telepresence (MRP) systems incorporate video conferencing equipment onto mobile robot devices which can be steered from remote locations. These systems, which are primarily used in the context of promoting social interaction between people, are becoming increasingly popular within certain application domains such as health care environments, independent living for the elderly and office environments. In this review, an overview of the various systems, application areas and challenges found in literature concerning mobile robotic telepresence is provided. The survey also proposes a set terminology for the field as there is currently a lack of standard terms for the different concepts related to MRP systems. Further, this review provides an outlook on the various research directions for developing and enhancing mobile robotic telepresence systems per se, as well as evaluating the interaction in laboratory and field settings. Finally, the survey outlines a number of design implications for the future of mobile robotic telepresence systems for social interaction.

    National Category
    Interaction Technologies Computer Science
    Research subject
    Information technology; Computer Science
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-29309 (URN)10.1155/2013/902316 (DOI)2-s2.0-84877272273 (Scopus ID)
    Projects
    ExCITE
    Note

    Advances in Human-Computer InteractionVolume 2013 (2013), Article ID 902316, 17 pages

    Available from: 2013-06-03 Created: 2013-06-03 Last updated: 2017-10-17Bibliographically approved
    2. An exploratory study of health professionals' attitudes about robotic telepresence technology
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>An exploratory study of health professionals' attitudes about robotic telepresence technology
    2011 (English)In: Journal of technology in human services, ISSN 1522-8835, E-ISSN 1522-8991, Vol. 29, no 4, 263-283 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    This article presents the results from a video-based evaluation study of a social robotic telepresence solution for elderly. The evaluated system is a mobile teleoperated robot called Giraff that allows caregivers to virtually enter a home and conduct a natural visit just as if they were physically there. The evaluation focuses on the perspectives from primary healthcare organizations and collects the feedback from different categories of health professionals. The evaluation included 150 participants and yielded unexpected results with respect to the acceptance of the Giraff system. In particular, greater exposure to technology did not necessarily increase acceptance and large variances occurred between the categories of health professionals. In addition to outlining the results, this study provides a number of indications with respect to increasing acceptance for technology for elderly.

    Keyword
    Evaluation, human-robot interaction, organizational perspective
    National Category
    Computer Science
    Research subject
    Information technology; Computer Science
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-23315 (URN)10.1080/15228835.2011.639509 (DOI)2-s2.0-84859363579 (Scopus ID)
    Note

    The final version of this article can be read at http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/pdf/10.1080/15228835.2011.639509

    Available from: 2012-11-08 Created: 2012-06-08 Last updated: 2017-10-02Bibliographically approved
    3. Measuring the quality of interaction in mobile robotic telepresence: a pilot's perspective
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Measuring the quality of interaction in mobile robotic telepresence: a pilot's perspective
    2013 (English)In: International Journal of Social Robotics, ISSN 1875-4791, E-ISSN 1875-4805, Vol. 5, no 1, 89-101 p.Article in journal (Other academic) Published
    Abstract [en]

    This article presents a method for measuring the quality of interaction in social mobile robotic telepresence. The methodology is in part based on Adam Kendon's theory of F-formations. The theory is based on observations of how bodies naturally orient themselves during interaction between people in real life settings. In addition, two presence questionnaires (Temple Presence Inventory and Networked Minds Social Presence Inventory), designed to measure the users' perceptions of others and the environment when experienced through a communication medium are used. The perceived presence and ease of use are correlated to the spatial formations between the robot and an actor. The proposed methodology is validated experimentally on a dataset consisting of interactions between an elder (actor) and 21 different users being trained in piloting a mobile robotic telepresence unit. The evaluation has shown that these tools are suitable for evaluating mobile robotic telepresence and also that correlations between the tools used exist. Further, these results give iportant quidlines on how to improve the interface in order to increase the quality of interaction.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Springer, 2013
    Keyword
    mobile robotic telepresence, F-formations, methodology, presence, telepresence, quality of interaction
    National Category
    Human Computer Interaction Computer Science
    Research subject
    Information technology; Computer Science
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-24238 (URN)10.1007/s12369-012-0166-7 (DOI)000333758400007 ()2-s2.0-84872555676 (Scopus ID)
    Projects
    ExCITE
    Note

    Funding Agency:

    EU under the Ambient Assisted Living Joint Programme

    Available from: 2012-08-06 Created: 2012-08-06 Last updated: 2017-10-18Bibliographically approved
    4. Using retrospective interviews to assess interaction quality in mobile robotic telepresence
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Using retrospective interviews to assess interaction quality in mobile robotic telepresence
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we focus on spatial formations when interacting via mobile robotic telepresence (MRP) systems. Previous research has found that those who used a MRP system to make a remote visit (pilot users) tended to use different spatial formations from what is typical in humanhuman interaction. In this paper, we present the results of a study where a pilot user interacted with ten elderly via a MRP system. Intentional deviations from known accepted spatial formations were made in order to study their effect on interaction quality from the local user perspective. Using a retrospective interviews technique, the elderly commented on the interaction and confirmed the importance of adhering to acceptable spatial configurations. The results show that there is a mismatch between pilot behavior and local user preference and that it is important to evaluate a MRP system from two perspectives, the pilot user’s and the local user’s .

    Keyword
    F-formations, Mobile Robotic Telepresence, MRP systems, Quality of Interaction, Retrospective Interview, Spatial Formations, Spatial Configurations
    National Category
    Human Computer Interaction Computer Science
    Research subject
    Information technology; Computer Science
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-29091 (URN)
    Available from: 2013-05-21 Created: 2013-05-21 Last updated: 2017-10-17Bibliographically approved
    5. Towards measuring quality of interaction in mobile robotic telepresence using sociometric badges.
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Towards measuring quality of interaction in mobile robotic telepresence using sociometric badges.
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The field of mobile robotic telepresence for social communication is in rapid expansion and it is of interest to understand what promotes good interaction. In this paper, we present the results of an experiment where novice users were given a guided tour while maneuvering a mobile robotic telepresence system for the first time. In a previous study, it was found that subjective presence questionnaires and observations of spatial configurations based on Kendon’s F-formations were useful to evaluate quality of interaction in mobile robotic telepresence. In an effort to find more automatized methods to assess the quality of interaction, the study in this paper used the same measures with an addition of objective sociometric measures. Experimental results show that the quantitative analysis of the sociometric data correlates with a number of parameters gathered via qualitative analysis, e.g. different dimensions of presence and observed problems in maneuvering the robot. The implications of this form a basis upon which a methodology for measuring interaction quality can be obtained.

    Keyword
    Mobile Robotic Telepresence, F-formations, Spatial Formations, Presence, Telepresence, Sociometry, Methodology, Quality of Interaction
    National Category
    Human Computer Interaction Computer Science
    Research subject
    Information technology; Computer Science
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-29095 (URN)
    Note

    Now also published as an article:  http://www.degruyter.com/view/j/pjbr.2013.4.issue-1/pjbr-2013-0005/pjbr-2013-0005.xml?format=INT

    Available from: 2013-05-21 Created: 2013-05-21 Last updated: 2017-10-17Bibliographically approved
  • 380.
    Kristoffersson, Annica
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Spatial configuration in communication via a MRP system2012Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 381.
    Kristoffersson, Annica
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Using Presence, Spatial Formations and Sociometry to Measure Interaction Quality in Mobile Robotic Telepresence Systems2014In: Künstliche Intelligenz, ISSN 0933-1875, E-ISSN 1610-1987, ISSN 0933-1875, Vol. 28, no 1, 49-52 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of video mediated communication technologies for interacting is increasing. An extension of these is mobile robotic telepresence (MRP) systems, video conferencing systems mounted on teleoperated mobile robots. The nature of the interaction via an MRP system is more complex than face-to-face interaction and involves not only social communication but also mobility. This research focuses on the use of MRP systems in domestic settings in elder care and contributes to the understanding of how interaction is affected by MRP system embodiment.

  • 382.
    Kristoffersson, Annica
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Almquist, Lena
    Örebro kommun, vård och omsorg.
    Från skrämmande till spännande: framtida utmaningar inom vård och omsorg2012Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 383. Kristoffersson, Annica
    et al.
    Coradeschi, Silvia
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Eklundh, Kerstin Severinson
    KTH.
    Loutfi, Amy
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Towards measuring quality of interaction in mobile robotic telepresence using sociometric badges.Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The field of mobile robotic telepresence for social communication is in rapid expansion and it is of interest to understand what promotes good interaction. In this paper, we present the results of an experiment where novice users were given a guided tour while maneuvering a mobile robotic telepresence system for the first time. In a previous study, it was found that subjective presence questionnaires and observations of spatial configurations based on Kendon’s F-formations were useful to evaluate quality of interaction in mobile robotic telepresence. In an effort to find more automatized methods to assess the quality of interaction, the study in this paper used the same measures with an addition of objective sociometric measures. Experimental results show that the quantitative analysis of the sociometric data correlates with a number of parameters gathered via qualitative analysis, e.g. different dimensions of presence and observed problems in maneuvering the robot. The implications of this form a basis upon which a methodology for measuring interaction quality can be obtained.

  • 384.
    Kristoffersson, Annica
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Coradeschi, Silvia
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Lindén, Maria
    Mälardalen University, Division of Intelligent Sens or Systems, Västerås, Sweden .
    Loutfi, Amy
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Robotic telepresence: a healthcare professionals' perspective2010In: Abstractproceedings from Medicinteknikdagarna 2010, 2010Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 385.
    Kristoffersson, Annica
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Coradeschi, Silvia
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Loutfi, Amy
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    A review of mobile robotic telepresence2013In: Advances in Human-Computer Interaction, ISSN 1687-5893, E-ISSN 1687-5907, Vol. 2013, 902316- p.Article, book review (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mobile Robotic Telepresence (MRP) systems incorporate video conferencing equipment onto mobile robot devices which can be steered from remote locations. These systems, which are primarily used in the context of promoting social interaction between people, are becoming increasingly popular within certain application domains such as health care environments, independent living for the elderly and office environments. In this review, an overview of the various systems, application areas and challenges found in literature concerning mobile robotic telepresence is provided. The survey also proposes a set terminology for the field as there is currently a lack of standard terms for the different concepts related to MRP systems. Further, this review provides an outlook on the various research directions for developing and enhancing mobile robotic telepresence systems per se, as well as evaluating the interaction in laboratory and field settings. Finally, the survey outlines a number of design implications for the future of mobile robotic telepresence systems for social interaction.

  • 386.
    Kristoffersson, Annica
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Coradeschi, Silvia
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Loutfi, Amy
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Towards evaluation of social robotic telepresence based on measures of social and spatial presence2011In: 1st Workshop on Social Robotic Telepresence held at HRI 2011, 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we present data collected at a training session for health care personnel and alarm operators in steering a mobile social robotic telepresence robot for the first time. The purpose of the system is to be used as a communicative tool particularly when interacting with an elderly audience. The results are based on questionnaires which includes questions about experienced social and spatial presence from the Temple Presence Inventory as well as the Networked Minds Social Presence Inventory. Also investigated in this study is how intuitive the system was to use as well as how attentive the users were to what was going on in the environment. Over thirty healthcare personnel and alarm operators participated in the study and the overall results presented in the paper suggest that the two questionnaires are indeed suitable for use also in the social robotic telepresence domain fo rproviding indications on both social and spatial presence.

  • 387.
    Kristoffersson, Annica
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Coradeschi, Silvia
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Loutfi, Amy
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Eklundh, Kerstin Severinson
    KTH.
    Using retrospective interviews to assess interaction quality in mobile robotic telepresenceManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we focus on spatial formations when interacting via mobile robotic telepresence (MRP) systems. Previous research has found that those who used a MRP system to make a remote visit (pilot users) tended to use different spatial formations from what is typical in humanhuman interaction. In this paper, we present the results of a study where a pilot user interacted with ten elderly via a MRP system. Intentional deviations from known accepted spatial formations were made in order to study their effect on interaction quality from the local user perspective. Using a retrospective interviews technique, the elderly commented on the interaction and confirmed the importance of adhering to acceptable spatial configurations. The results show that there is a mismatch between pilot behavior and local user preference and that it is important to evaluate a MRP system from two perspectives, the pilot user’s and the local user’s .

  • 388.
    Kristoffersson, Annica
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Coradeschi, Silvia
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Loutfi, Amy
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Severinson Eklundh, Kerstin
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology.
    An exploratory study of health professionals' attitudes about robotic telepresence technology2011In: Journal of technology in human services, ISSN 1522-8835, E-ISSN 1522-8991, Vol. 29, no 4, 263-283 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article presents the results from a video-based evaluation study of a social robotic telepresence solution for elderly. The evaluated system is a mobile teleoperated robot called Giraff that allows caregivers to virtually enter a home and conduct a natural visit just as if they were physically there. The evaluation focuses on the perspectives from primary healthcare organizations and collects the feedback from different categories of health professionals. The evaluation included 150 participants and yielded unexpected results with respect to the acceptance of the Giraff system. In particular, greater exposure to technology did not necessarily increase acceptance and large variances occurred between the categories of health professionals. In addition to outlining the results, this study provides a number of indications with respect to increasing acceptance for technology for elderly.

  • 389.
    Kristoffersson, Annica
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Coradeschi, Silvia
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Loutfi, Amy
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Severinson Eklundh, Kerstin
    School of Computer Science and Communication, KTH, Stockholm.
    Assessment of interaction quality in mobile robotic telepresence: an elderly perspective2014In: Interaction Studies: Social Behaviour and Communication in Biological and Artificial Systems, ISSN 1572-0373, E-ISSN 1572-0381, Vol. 15, no 2, 343-357 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we focus on spatial formations when interacting via mobile robotic telepresence (MRP) systems. Previous research has found that those who used a MRP system to make a remote visit (pilot users) tended to use different spatial formations from what is typical in human-human interaction. In this paper, we present the results of a study where a pilot user interacted with ten elderly via a MRP system. Intentional deviations from known accepted spatial formations were made in order to study their effect on interaction quality from the local user perspective. Using a retrospective interviews technique, the elderly commented on the interaction and confirmed the importance of adhering to acceptable spatial configurations. The results show that there is a mismatch between pilot user behaviour and local user preference and that it is important to evaluate a MRP system from two perspectives, the pilot user’s and the local user’s.

  • 390.
    Kristoffersson, Annica
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Coradeschi, Silvia
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Severinson Eklundh, Kerstin
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology.
    Loutfi, Amy
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Towards measuring quality of interaction in mobile robotic telepresence using sociometric badges2013In: Paladyn - Journal of Behavioral Robotics, ISSN 2080-9778, E-ISSN 2081-4836, Vol. 4, no 1, 34-48 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The field of mobile robotic telepresence for social communication is in rapid expansion and it is of interest to understand what promotes good interaction. In this paper, we present the results of an experiment where novice users working in health care were given a guided tour while maneuvering a mobile robotic telepresence system for the first time. In a previous study, it was found that subjective presence questionnaires and observations of spatial configurations based on Kendon’s F-formations were useful to evaluate quality of interaction in mobile robotic telepresence. In an effort to find more automated methods to assess the quality of interaction, the study in this paper used the same measures, with the addition of objective sociometric measures. Experimental results show that the quantitative analysis of the sociometric data correlates with a number of parameters gathered via qualitative analysis, e.g. different dimensions of presence and observed problems in maneuvering the robot.

  • 391.
    Kristoffersson, Annica
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Coradeschi, Silvia
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Severinson-Eklundh, Kerstin
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology.
    Loutfi, Amy
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Sense of presence in a robotic telepresence domain2011In: Universal access in human-computer interaction: users diversity, PT 2, Springer, 2011, Vol. 6766, no 6, 479-487 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Robotic telepresence offers a means to connect to a remote location via traditional telepresence with the added value of moving and actuating in that location. Recently, there has been a growing focus on the use of robotic telepresence to enhance social interaction among elderly. However for such technology to be accepted it is likely that the experienced presence when using such a system will be important. In this paper, we present results obtained from a training session with a robotic telepresence system when used for the first time by healthcare personnel. The study was quantitative and based on two standard questionnaires used for presence namely, the Temple Presence Inventory (TPI) and the Networked Minds Social Presence Intentory. The study showed that overall the sense of social richness as perceived by the users was high. The users also had a realistic feeling regarding their spatial presence.

  • 392.
    Kristoffersson, Annica
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Evertsson, Frida
    Örebro Municipality, Smarta Äldre, Örebro, Sweden.
    Loiske, Gun
    Region Örebro County, Smarta Äldre, Örebro, Sweden.
    Stenhem, Helena
    Alfred Nobel Science Park, Smarta Äldre, Örebro, Sweden.
    Ernestam, Ingela
    Alfred Nobel Science Park, Smarta Äldre, Örebro, Sweden.
    Process for demand-driven innovation in Smarta Äldre2016In: Abstractproceedings from Medicinteknikdagarna 2016, 2016Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 393.
    Kristoffersson, Annica
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Kolkowska, Ella
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Ernestam, Ingela
    Alfred Nobel Science Park, Örebro, Sweden.
    Lessons learned on factors to consider in testbedding: Smarta Äldre2016In: Abstractproceedings from Medicinteknikdagarna 2016, 2016Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 394.
    Kristoffersson, Annica
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Kolkowska, Ella
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Loutfi, Amy
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Assessment of Expectations and Needs of a Sensor Network to Promote Elderly’s Sense of Safety and Security2014In: CENTRIC 2014, The Seventh International Conference on Advances in Human-oriented and Personalized Mechanisms, Technologies, and Services, Nice, October 12-16, 2014 / [ed] Lasse Berntzen, Vestfold University College - Tønsberg, Norway; Stephan Böhm, RheinMain University of Applied Sciences - Wiesbaden, Germany, International Academy, Research and Industry Association (IARIA), 2014, 22-28 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many new technologies claiming to support independent living and prolonged possibilities of aging in place have been developed. To support independent living and increase the sense of safety and security both for the elderly themselves and for their relatives, the technologies have to be easily adaptable to match the divergent user’s personal expectations and needs. The study reported in this paper was conducted as seven case studies where a sensor network was deployed in homes of people with a self-perceived memory decline. We describe problems related to adaptive personalization of such technology in real settings and discuss what consequences these problems may have for the elderly people's and their relatives willingness to use the technology. Our results indicate that a lack of sufficient possibilities to adaptive personalization of the system makes it difficult to address individual user's expectations and needs. This, in turn, leads to a decreased trustworthiness of the technology and a risk of unwillingness to use the technology.

  • 395.
    Kristoffersson, Annica
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Kolkowska, Ella
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Loutfi, Amy
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    En metod för mätning av ett sensornätverks inverkan på trygghet: Slutrapport2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Stiftelsen Länsförsäkringsbolagens Forskningsfond finansierar forskningsprojekt som har för avsikt att stärka människors trygghet i sin nuvarande bostad. Detta dokument rapporterar forskning som skett inom ramen för utlysningen ”Tryggt boende”. Projektet som har titeln ”En metod för mätning av ett sensornätverks inverkan på trygghet” innefattar såväl kvalitativ som kvantitativ datainsamling från fem månaders testning av ett sensornätverk i hemmiljöer.

     

    Vi vill tacka forskningsfondens styrelse för förtroendet men också rikta ett varmt tack till vår referensgrupp i vilken Marie Villman (Örebro kommun), Susanne Lidmo (Länsförsäkringar) samt Ingvor Pettersson (Institutionen för Hälsovetenskap och medicin, Örebro universitet). Vi vill tacka Abilia som bistått vid installationer av sensornätverket, Örebro kommuns Minnesmottagning som hjälpt oss hitta testpersoner samt Örebroregionen Science Park som hjälpt oss att sprida information om detta projekt. Slutligen vill vi också tacka våra sju testpersoner med anhöriga som möjliggjort detta projekt.

     

    Slutrapporten är skriven för att kunna läsas av alla intresserade av projektet. För mer ingående information kring forskningsresultaten hänvisas till de forskningspublikationer som är, eller kommer att bli, resultat av studien.

     

    Örebro 2015-03-01

     

    Annica Kristoffersson, tekn dr, Örebro universitet

    Ella Kolkowska, fil dr, Örebro universitet

    Amy Loutfi, tekn dr, docent, lektor, projektledare (Örebro universitet (amy.loutfi@oru.se)

     

  • 396.
    Kristoffersson, Annica
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Lindén, Maria
    Mälardalen University, Västerås, Sweden.
    Understanding users of a future E-care@home system: E-care@home project2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This technical report contains personas based on the authors’ earlier and ongoing research together with literature studies. The original aim of the work presented in this report was to provide the E-care@home research environment with an understanding of who the user of a hypothetical future E-care@home system is. The resulting personas are to be used as a tool to aid other work packages within the E-care@home research environment in their design processes. The project focuses on technological solutions and uses artificial intelligence for creating a semantic interoperability between sensor data, systems and humans. The release of this report is, however, a result of several requests of data and user specifications coming from both researchers and companies, who want to base their work on realistic situations of elderly people.

    Several interviews have been performed with potential end users: with healthcare providers within geriatrics care at a hospital, within home care services, and with more-or-less-healthy elderly people, focusing on frail elderly people who may be in risk of falling, developing malnutrition and/or pressure ulcers, and also their closest relatives and their caregivers.

    In this report, 15 personas are presented. There are five different elderly personas. Two of them live together with their spouses, one of which is presented as a persona. In addition, the report presents the personas of eight healthcare professionals, all of which are involved in Senior Alert risk assessments and prevention of falls, malnutrition and pressure ulcers. Three personas represent different professions working in the home care services, the other five personas work at a geriatrics hospital ward. Finally, one informal caregiver of an elderly, a daughter, is presented as a persona. These hypothetical and archetypical users shed light on a variety of different users that may interact with an E-care@home system, or other IoT technologies in the future.

    It should be acknowledged that the work presented in this technical report has been extracted from one of E-care@home scientific deliverables, MSR5.1b. The original deliverable, that was authored by Mälardalen University, SICS East and Örebro University, features also personas representing elderly multi-morbid users with specialized home healthcare and a number of use cases that pose challenging scenarios that highlight a range of possible interactions with the E-care@home system. 

  • 397.
    Kristoffersson, Annica
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Loutfi, Amy
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Coradeschi, Silvia
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    User-centered evaluation of robotic telepresence for an elderly population2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The goal of our studies is to iteratively refine prototypes of the robot by involving end users in development cycles of the prototype throughout the project. The evaluations will be conducted with the aim of maximizing usability across geographic, demographic and cultural boundaries, as well as diverse home environments and user preferences and attitudes. The project ExCITE focuses on end users’ perspectives when using a robotic telepresence platform, the Giraff. The Giraff system consists of a tiltable screen and web camera mounted on a moveable robotic base that can be teleoperated. Our application area is elder care. We motivate the use of telepresence in elder care as a way to ensure safety, facilitate independent living and enhance social interaction.

  • 398.
    Kristoffersson, Annica
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Severinson Eklundh, Kerstin
    KTH.
    Loutfi, Amy
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    A study of spatial configurations in social robotic telepresence2012In: 2nd Workshop on Social Robotic Telepresence, 2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents tools for measuring the qualityof interaction in social mobile robotic telepresence. Themethodology is in part based on Adam Kendon’s theory of F-formations.The theory is based on observations of how bodiesnaturally orient themselves during interaction between peoplein real life settings. In addition, two presence questionnaires(Temple Presence Inventory and Networked Minds Social PresenceInventory), designed to measure the users’ perceptionsof others and the environment when experienced through acommunication medium were used. The perceived presence andease of use are correlated to the spatial formations between therobot and an actor. Use of the tools is validated experimentallyon a dataset consisting of interactions between an elder (actor)and 21 different users being trained in piloting a mobile robotictelepresence unit. The evaluation has shown that these tools aresuitable for evaluating mobile robotic telepresence and also thatcorrelations between the tools used exist. Further, also from alocal user perspective, the spatial formations have affected theperceived comfort in an interaction.

  • 399.
    Kristoffersson, Annica
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Severinson Eklundh, Kerstin
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Loutfi, Amy
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Measuring the quality of interaction in mobile robotic telepresence: a pilot's perspective2013In: International Journal of Social Robotics, ISSN 1875-4791, E-ISSN 1875-4805, Vol. 5, no 1, 89-101 p.Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This article presents a method for measuring the quality of interaction in social mobile robotic telepresence. The methodology is in part based on Adam Kendon's theory of F-formations. The theory is based on observations of how bodies naturally orient themselves during interaction between people in real life settings. In addition, two presence questionnaires (Temple Presence Inventory and Networked Minds Social Presence Inventory), designed to measure the users' perceptions of others and the environment when experienced through a communication medium are used. The perceived presence and ease of use are correlated to the spatial formations between the robot and an actor. The proposed methodology is validated experimentally on a dataset consisting of interactions between an elder (actor) and 21 different users being trained in piloting a mobile robotic telepresence unit. The evaluation has shown that these tools are suitable for evaluating mobile robotic telepresence and also that correlations between the tools used exist. Further, these results give iportant quidlines on how to improve the interface in order to increase the quality of interaction.

  • 400.
    Krug, Robert
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Optimization-based robot grasp synthesis and motion control2014Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis investigates the questions of where to grasp and how to grasp a given object with an articulated robotic grasping device. To this end, aspects of grasp synthesis and hand motion planning and control are investigated. Grasp synthesis is the process of determining a palm pose with respect to the target object, as well as a hand joint configuration and/or grasp contact points such that a successful grasp execution is allowed. Existing methods tackling the grasp synthesis problem can be categorized in analytical and empirical approaches. Analytical approaches are based on geometric, kinematic and/or dynamic formulations, whereas empirical methods aim at mimicking human strategies.An overarching idea throughout this thesis is to circumvent the curse of dimensionality, which is inherent in high-dimensional planning problems, by incorporating empirical data in analytical approaches. To this end, tools from the field of constrained optimization are used (i) to synthesize grasp families based on available prototype grasps, (ii) to incorporate heuristics capturing human grasp strategies in the grasp synthesis process and (iii) to encode demonstrated grasp motions in primitive motion controllers.The first contribution is related to the computation and analysis of grasp families which are represented as Independent Contact Regions (ICR) on a target object’s surface. To this end, the well-known concept of the Grasp Wrench Space for a single grasp is extended to be applicable for a set of grasps. Applications of ICR include grasp qualification by capturing the robustness of a grasp to position inaccuracies and the visual guidance of a demonstrator in a teleoperating scenario. In the second main contribution of this thesis, it is shown how to reduce the grasp solution space during the synthesis process by accounting for human approach strategies. This is achieved by imposing appropriate constraints to a corresponding optimization problem. A third contribution in this dissertation is made to reactive motion planning. Here, primitive controllers are synthesized by estimating the free parameters of corresponding dynamical systems from multiple demonstrated trajectories. The approach is evaluated on an anthropomorphic robot hand/arm platform. Also, an extension to a Model Predictive Control (MPC) scheme is presented which allows to incorporate state constraints for auxiliary tasks such as obstacle avoidance.

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