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  • 42851.
    Öberg, Christina
    Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    På jakt efter alternativa handledningsformer2006In: Pedagogiska utmaningar i tiden, 2006Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Handledning kan ofta uppfattas som en fokuserad, men också resurskrävande undervisningsform. Förväntningar ställs inte bara på lärarens förmåga att stimulera till egentänkande, men också på att ofta kunna fatta snabba beslut och föra ett projekt framåt. Från studenter kan handledning uppfattas som ett tillfälle att få idéer bekräftade, en möjlighet att ställa specifika frågor och driva den egna lärprocessen framåt, eller som något nödvändigt ont där läraren förväntas vara den som tar initiativ.

    En kritik som därtill ofta riktas mot projekt härrör från grupprocesser och individens syn på sin roll i en gemensam uppgift. Ur lärarperspektivet ställs krav på att stimulera hela gruppen att känna ett gemensamt ansvar, bemöta eventuella gruppinterna konflikter, o s v.

    För att om möjligt komma förbi några av handledningens tillkortakommanden har en projektförberedande seminarieuppgift införts på grundläggande ekonomikurser (industriell ekonomi på ingenjörsutbildningar). Mer specifikt är avsikten med uppgiften att ge studenterna en första orientering och breddad förståelse för det ämne de senare ska fördjupa sig inom. Genom att besvara ett antal frågor och sedan diskutera dessa i tvärgrupper med andra studenter, där varje student individuellt får representera sin grupp, är avsikten att studenterna ska öka sin förmåga att självständigt reflektera och samtidigt lära sig genom att diskutera seminariesvaren med andra studenter.

    Arbetet baseras på studenters utvärdering av projektarbetet och intervjuer med handledare på kurserna. Avsikten med detta papper är att utvärdera om denna seminarieuppgift påverkat det slutliga projektet och kursen som helhet. En avslutande diskussion förs om huruvida denna typ av uppgifter utgör ett komplement till, eller en ersättning för, den traditionella handledningsformen, samt övriga lärdomar från införandet av uppgiften.

  • 42852.
    Öberg, Christina
    Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    På jakt efter alternativa handledningsformer2007In: Pedagogiska utmaningar i tiden: 10:e universitetspedagogiska konferensen vid Linköpings universitet 8-9 november 2006 / [ed] Segerstad, Helene Hård af, Linköping: Linköping University , 2007, p. 61-72Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 42853.
    Öberg, Christina
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Social and economic ties in the freelance and sharing economies2018In: Journal of Small Business and Entrepreneurship, ISSN 0827-6331, E-ISSN 2169-2610, Vol. 30, no 1, p. 77-96Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 42854.
    Öberg, Christina
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Strategic reversal: The network as motive, means and end2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes and discusses strategic reversal in a network context. Strategic reversal here refers to how a company implementsa strategy and, with a lapse of time, decides to undo that strategic change. The paper discusses strategic reversal in terms ofbeing: (i) driven by the network or changes therein; (ii) using the network to accomplish the reversal; and (iii) affecting networkparties. It contrasts this with the initial strategy, and discusses the initial strategy and reversal in terms of company-centric andnetwork-driven strategy. Two case studies illustrate this. The paper concludes that the reversal may be company-centric to as high anextent as the initial strategy. The reversal is not complete in the sense that it does not bring the parties, or their network connections,back to what they were before the initial strategy. For the firms reversing their strategies, new parties need to be invited to direct relationships,while present network parties may inhibit the reversal. These findings contribute to previous research through describingpost-implementation reversal of strategy, and relate it to the network in its formulation, implementation and as affecting its outcome.

  • 42855.
    Öberg, Christina
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Strategic reversal: The network as reason, means and end2014In: The IMP Journal, ISSN 2059-1403, E-ISSN 0809-7259, Vol. 8, no 2, p. 74-83Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AbstractThis paper describes and discusses strategic reversal in a network context. Strategic reversal here refers to how a company implementsa strategy and, with a lapse of time, decides to undo that strategic change. The paper discusses strategic reversal in terms ofbeing: (i) driven by the network or changes therein; (ii) using the network to accomplish the reversal; and (iii) affecting networkparties. It contrasts this with the initial strategy, and discusses the initial strategy and reversal in terms of company-centric andnetwork-driven strategy. Two case studies illustrate this. The paper concludes that the reversal may be company-centric to as high anextent as the initial strategy. The reversal is not complete in the sense that it does not bring the parties, or their network connections,back to what they were before the initial strategy. For the firms reversing their strategies, new parties need to be invited to direct relationships,while present network parties may inhibit the reversal. These findings contribute to previous research through describingpost-implementation reversal of strategy, and relate it to the network in its formulation, implementation and as affecting its outcome.

  • 42856.
    Öberg, Christina
    Department of Management and Engineering, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    The core-customer concept2011In: Service Industries Journal, ISSN 0264-2069, E-ISSN 1743-9507, Vol. 31, no 16, p. 2677-2692Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to define and discuss the core-customer concept. This concept examines how a company develops its operations around a single or only a few customers. The customer steers what products and services the supplier develops, which means that it is the customer that dictates the supplier's operations. The core-customer concept may be one method for designing a company's operations, but the paper also aims to challenge companies to consider how they think about customers. The paper contributes to research on customer value and extended service offerings by indicating a business-development strategy based on the customer rather than the supplier's operations. Building a company around a single customer, requires flexibility and competences in finding collaboration partners or in adjusting the organisation to new requirements. The paper refers to these as secondary/supporting competences, while the core competence upon which the company builds its operation is the customer.

  • 42857.
    Öberg, Christina
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business. The Ratio Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    The dynamics of proximity in multiple-party innovation processes2018In: The IMP Journal, ISSN 2059-1403, E-ISSN 0809-7259, Vol. 12, no 2, p. 296-312Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: Proximity - that is, the closeness of parties - has been increasingly emphasized in studies on innovation networks. The idea of closeness has been discussed in relation to geographic proximity, and has also been referred to as knowledge overlaps and shared understandings between parties. In most of the studies dealing with proximity in relation to innovation networks, a static analysis is pursued. Such an analysis marks how the closeness or distance, often with the conclusion that parties should not be too close or too distant, is measured against innovation outcome at a specific point in time. However, innovation processes would include how parties increasingly converge in their knowledge and understanding, and how they may co-locate their businesses. The purpose of this paper is to discuss proximity in relation to multiple-party innovation processes and their development over time.

    Design/methodology/approach: The empirical part of this paper consists of a single case study on an innovation community and its development process. The development of the innovation community over time, whether and how geographic, knowledge and cognitive proximity is affected, and the outcome in terms of number of innovations, their newness (incremental or radical innovation), and variety are discussed in the paper.

    Findings: Findings indicate how geographic proximity leads to more knowledge overlaps, while it is not a prerequisite for it. Rather, it is in the commitment processes partly connected to cognitive proximity that knowledge increasingly converges, indifferent to the co-location of parties. The speed of such processes, however, is higher if parties co-locate. The commitment processes lead to an increased number of innovations, while these innovations become more and more similar. To avoid increased overlaps of knowledge and thereby maintain the production of a variety of innovations, interaction needs to occur through the introduction of new parties and the termination of previous interaction patterns. This, however, occurs at the cost of commitment, and the knowledge thereby becomes less developed and used in its capacities.

    Originality/value: The paper contributes to previous research through discussing proximity in innovation networks in a processual manner. The link between various proximities and their effect on innovation outcome sheds light on how proximity, as discussed in various literature streams, often relates to similar issues that converge around the issue of commitment.

  • 42858.
    Öberg, Christina
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    The freelance economy and creativity2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 42859.
    Öberg, Christina
    Linköpings universitet.
    The importance of customers in mergers and acquisitions2008Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
  • 42860.
    Öberg, Christina
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    The pros and cons of long-term customer relationships2010In: Customer Relations / [ed] Victoria J. Farkas, Nova Business, Finance and Economics Press , 2010Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 42861.
    Öberg, Christina
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    The role of business networks for innovation2017In: 2017 Summer AMA Conference: Conference Proceedings. Volume 28 / [ed] Kelly L. Haws, Mark B. Houston, Charles H. Noble, American Marketing Association, 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper categorizes characteristics of business networks based on their role to create various types of innovations, and based on the various types’ consequences for the business network.

  • 42862.
    Öberg, Christina
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business. The Ratio Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    The role of business networks for innovation2019In: Journal of Innovation & Knowledge, ISSN 2530-7614, Vol. 4, no 2, p. 124-128Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A business network consists of directly and indirectly connected companies, where social and economicties help to understand these connection. Innovations could be seen to relate to business networks in two ways: they may result from interaction between business partners, or they would need to fit into, or through changes to interaction patterns among various business partners, be fitted into new or current business networks. In the literature on innovation, the incremental, radical, or disruptive characteristics of the innovations are frequently described as degrees of newness. This paper categorizes characteristics of business networks based on their role to create various types of innovations, and based on the various types' consequences for the business network. The empirical part of this paper is based on six case-study examples from interviews performed by the author. The findings suggest links between the type of innovation, and the role of the network and network consequences. The paper contributes to previous research through discussing the role of business networks for various types of innovation. Furthermore, the paper contributes to previous research through indicating the various types of innovations' consequences for the business network. Most previous research on business networks and innovation only concerns itself with how various parties participate in idea generation and co-development of innovations, while the consequences for the business network is not described extensively.

  • 42863.
    Öberg, Christina
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    The role of innovation metrics in innovation systems2017Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 42864.
    Öberg, Christina
    Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    The roles of customers in M&A integration2008Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 42865.
    Öberg, Christina
    Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    The roles of customers in M&A integration2008Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to describe what roles customers play in merger and acquisition (M&A) integration. Based on studies of eight M&As, it is concluded that customers may (i) limit integration intentions, (ii) be reasons for pre-integration reconsiderations, (iii) be used as an argument against integration, (iv) not act according to integration intentions, and (v) actively work against integration. Customers' actual activities, but also how the M&A parties believe that customers will act, impacts the degree of integration. The paper contributes to research on M&A integration through pointing at how customers impact integration realisation. The paper further contributes to research on M&As according to the network approach through highlighting how an M&A is not merely a response or trigger to change, but an embedded event where actions, beliefs and mutuality impact integration realisation.

  • 42866.
    Öberg, Christina
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Transferring acquisition knowledge – sources, directions, and outcomes2017In: Management Research, ISSN 1536-5433, E-ISSN 1558-0946, Vol. 15, no 1, p. 28-46Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose - The literature has described knowledge transfer in terms of how companies advance their merger and acquisition activities through experience. This indicates a knowledge transfer from one acquisition to the next, with the acquiring party being the carrier of such knowledge. The present paper aims to add to this view through pointing out how knowledge on how to acquire and how to integrate, follows also from other parties and their experiences. The paper discusses and classifies sources, directions and outcomes of knowledge transfer on acquisitions from a stakeholder point of view. Focus is on external stakeholders and knowledge is divided between knowledge on acquiring and knowledge on integrating, thus dealing with the pre- and post-merger stages of acquisitions.

    Design/methodology/approach - The paper adopts a multiple case study research design to illustrate its point. While the individual acquisitions are interconnected through the acquirer or acquired party being the same company, indications are that knowledge on how, when and what party to acquire and how to integrate (degree, direction, timing and function) follows from external stakeholders and their previous experiences.

    Findings - The findings suggest that knowledge on acquiring follows from general knowledge on sector levels, while specific parties - including customers, competitors and the acquired party - are the sources of knowledge on integration. Knowledge on acquiring is imitative, while knowledge on integrating rests more on the external stakeholders' failures.

    Originality/value - The paper provides a research design contribution to acquisition studies, as most such studies adopt a quantitative, secondary data approach. The main contribution is though the focus on external stakeholders as sources of knowledge on acquiring and integrating. The previous literature seems to suggest that it is the experience accumulated through the acquirer's previous acquisitions that provides the acquisition knowledge. The paper's perspective, which includes several external stakeholders, provides a rather unique piece of research on stakeholders in mergers and acquisitions.

  • 42867.
    Öberg, Christina
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    University spin-offs and their commercialising through acquisition2016In: International Journal of Globalisation and Small Business, ISSN 1479-3059, E-ISSN 1479-3067, Vol. 8, no 4, p. 413-436Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper discusses commercialisation through the acquisition of university spin-offs and its various outcomes based on resource and capability reconfigurations. The paper takes the university spin-offs perspective on the issue, meaning that it captures what happens with the university spin-off in terms of resource and capability configurations and the potential opening of new development paths as a consequence of the acquisition. Findings point to an increased gap between resources and capability use as the consequence of the acquisition. While resources may be added to the spin-off to fill resource gaps, the university spin-off is not helped but rather constrained in its use of its capabilities, and new capabilities may not be developed or added related to the added resources. Regardless of resource reconfigurations, the only obtained commercialisation is if the acquirer starts buying from the spin-off. The paper contributes to previous research through its focus on acquisitions of university spin-offs, and in its wider sense to literature on the commercialisation of research ideas.

  • 42868.
    Öberg, Christina
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Using network pictures to study inter-organisational encounters2012In: Scandinavian Journal of Management, ISSN 0956-5221, E-ISSN 1873-3387, Vol. 28, no 2, p. 136-148Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes and illustrates how a network picture methodology can create understandings of external parties in mergers and acquisitions (M&As). Recent studies have brought attention to the limited use of qualitative research methods and the overlooked marketing perspective in M&A studies. Network pictures refer to how individual actors in companies perceive their company's business network. The paper develops a protocol and illustrates its use through a single case study. Network pictures are described in terms of actors, resources and activities on a relational level and on a network level. Using such pictures enables the capturing of how M&As are processed by business partners and how external parties' activities impact M&A decisions, knowledge which will contribute to the M&A literature.

  • 42869.
    Öberg, Christina
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Varför minskar antalet idéer från akademin till inkubatorer?2016Report (Refereed)
  • 42870.
    Öberg, Christina
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    What can open innovation learn from IMP?2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 42871.
    Öberg, Christina
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    What creates a collaboration-level identity?2016In: Journal of Business Research, ISSN 0148-2963, E-ISSN 1873-7978, Vol. 69, no 9, p. 3220-3230Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Collaborations of different sorts have increased in importance. In order to make parties work better together and promote the collaboration to others, the development of a shared collaboration-level identity may prove important, but company-level identities may challenge such developments. Identities here reflect shared values for collective entities. This paper sets to explain the establishment of collaboration-level identities through asking what explains whether the collaborating parties and parties external to the collaboration perceive the collaboration as sharing an identity. The study points to how pre-collaboration history reduces the likelihood for collaborating parties and external parties to perceive a collaboration-level identity, and how the more formalized the collaboration, the more probable that parties perceive a shared collaboration-level identity. External parties' perception is dependent on the collaborating parties' representation. The paper contributes to the literature on identity through discussing the possible coexistence of different collective identities, their impact, and antecedents for separate identities.

  • 42872.
    Öberg, Christina
    Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    What happened with the grandiose plans?: Strategic plans and network realities in B2B interaction2010In: Industrial Marketing Management, ISSN 0019-8501, E-ISSN 1873-2062, Vol. 39, p. 963-974Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research concerned with business relationships and organizational levels, respectively, has addressed companies' difficulties in realizing their strategies. Studies of business relationships explain this through actions and reactions among business partners. Organizational studies note gaps between strategic and operational organizational levels in perceptions and goals. This paper combines these perspectives to obtain new insights into why company strategies may not materialize. The purpose of this paper is to describe and discuss how actor bonds on various organizational levels in business relationships affect strategy realization. The paper shows that actors on similar organizational levels representing different companies may actually share more understandings and activities than actors within the same company. The paper contributes to research on dyadic business relationships by highlighting differences in perspectives on various organizational levels, adds insights into research studying organizations by including a business-relationship aspect, and increases understanding of why strategic plans sometimes fail to succeed.

  • 42873.
    Öberg, Christina
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Who owns a customer relationship following a merger or acquisition?2009In: Corporate Ownership & Control, ISSN 1727-9232, E-ISSN 1810-3057, Vol. 6, no 2, p. 212-221Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 42874.
    Öberg, Christina
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Why do customers dissolve their business relationships with the acquired party following an acquisition?2012In: Mergers and acquisitions: The critical role of stakeholders / [ed] Helén Anderson, Virpi Havila, Fredrik Nilsson, New York: Taylor & Francis, 2012, p. 185-202Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 42875.
    Öberg, Christina
    et al.
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Adams, Richard
    University of Exeter, Exeter, United Kingdom.
    Alexander, Allen
    University of Exeter, Exeter, United Kingdom.
    Innovation management capabilities in the creative sector2014In: XXV ISPIM Conference Innovation for sustainable economy and society, The International Society for Professional Innovation Management (ISPIM) , 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The creative sector is increasingly seen as a motor for innovation and new jobs. Still, research focus in the domain remains limited, while it is also suggested how the sector differs from other industries. As with any industrial sector, creative organizations need to renew themselves. Innovation management capabilities denote such abilities. In literature, it is suggested that these abilities are dependent on a number of organizational factors, but these expectedly differ by sector. The purpose of the paper is to synthesize current literature on innovation management capabilities in the creative sector. Findings point to a much more informal, flexible or organic approach to innovation in the creative sector. The heterogeneity of the sector further draws attention to how capabilities may have different characteristics also for different areas of a sector, and only partly be transferable among them.

  • 42876.
    Öberg, Christina
    et al.
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Alexander, Allen
    University of Exeter Business School, Exeter, UK; Peninsula Innovations Ltd, Exeter, UK.
    Knowledge transfer linkages for open innovation2013In: Proceedings of The XXIV ISPIM Conference - Innovating in Global Markets: Challenges for Sustainable Growth Conference, The International Society for Professional Innovation Management (ISPIM) , 2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Open innovation has rendered increased interest both in practice and research. This paper describes and discusses company-to-company linkages for open innovation. It does so based on a literature review that spans over some different research areas. The paper categorises and discusses such linkages in terms of their openness and how they relate to knowledge management. It concludes that openness needs to be considered in different dimensions that also links to different knowledge management outcomes. The paper's contribution consists of how it connects open innovation research to the general management literature, and how it builds a practical understanding of how linkages between firms can be categorised to aid firms to consider which mechanisms they may choose and why.

  • 42877.
    Öberg, Christina
    et al.
    Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Anderson, Helén
    Do Customers Matter in Mergers' & Acquisitions' (Literature)?2002Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 42878.
    Öberg, Christina
    et al.
    Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Brege, Staffan
    Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    What happened with the grandiose plans?: Strategic plans and network realities in B2B interaction2009In: 25th IMP-conference in Marseille, France in 2009, 2009Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The importance of individual actors in business-to-business relationships has been widely acknowledged. Commonly these are referred to in a process-like manner related to division of work in organisational buying, or they are seen as carriers of values and interactions. In marketing, they are rarely described as representatives of various organisational levels. The purpose of the paper is to discuss business relationships on different organisational levels. We specifically target the strategic perspective of top managers vis-à-vis the operational level of a business relationship. We focus on illustrating the differences between these organisational levels in a dyadic relationship and how differences affect the realisation of intended strategies. We illustrate the strategic and operational levels of a business relationship through a single case study that describes the relationship between BT Industries and Volvo Group. We conclude that top managers had far-reaching plans of change that were not materialised as individuals on operational levels continued as previously. Both parties had quite clear views on the business partner's activities, but due to differences in perspectives, this fundamentally meant quite different understanding of the business relationship. The paper contributes to research on dyadic business relationships through highlighting differences in perspectives of actors on various organisational levels. It also contributes to research on organisations and hierarchies through including a business-relationship aspect. Managerially, the paper helps to understand why strategic plans are not always realised in business-to-business settings.

  • 42879.
    Öberg, Christina
    et al.
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Frankelius, Per
    Ekonomi och lönsamhet2015In: Marknadsföring: vetenskap och praktik, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2015, p. 545-574Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 42880.
    Öberg, Christina
    et al.
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business. Leeds university Business School, The university of Leeds, Leeds, UK.
    Graham, Gary
    Leeds university Business School, The university of Leeds, Leeds, UK.
    How smart cities will change supply chain management: a technical viewpoint2016In: Production planning & control (Print), ISSN 0953-7287, E-ISSN 1366-5871, Vol. 27, no 6, p. 529-538Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Smart city initiatives could be expected to radically change the ways businesses are organised. This paper is a first step to understand the role of smart cities in supply chain management, with a specific focus on supplier networks. In this paper, the following question is posed: How will smart cities change supply chain management? Further, a conceptual framework for understanding the important factors that appear to affect the integration of smart city initiatives in the supply chain is developed. Additionally, examples are collected that illustrate the interplay of smart city initiatives with supply chain management. Ultimately, the objective is to identify the key elements driving integration and their influence on supply chain management, as well as provide insights on productive methods for developing, introducing and managing smart city innovation.

  • 42881.
    Öberg, Christina
    et al.
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Graham, Gary
    Business School, Leeds University, Leeds, UK.
    Hennelly, Patrick
    Leeds University, Leeds, United Kingdom.
    Smart cities: A literature review and business network approach discussion on the management of organisations2017In: The IMP Journal, ISSN 2059-1403, E-ISSN 0809-7259, Vol. 11, no 3, p. 468-484Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The smart city idea refers to new ways of organising city functions and urban life, which are believed to move production and consumption from global to local, manufacturing from competitive to collaborative, and business from a shareholder to a multiple-stakeholder point of view. Most previous research has focused on the societal level of smart cities, while less seems to be known about the management of business as part of smart cities. This paper presents a literature review on the state of the art of management research on smart cities. The following research question is addressed: How has previous research captured the management of organisations in smart cities?

    Design/methodology/approach: A literature review using the search term “smart city/cities” in research on business, management and operational management was conducted for the purpose of capturing previous research. Findings were coded based on main ideas, central concepts and theories, thematic content of the articles related to the main ideas underpinning smart cities (digitalization, urbanization, and sustainability as antecedents, and local, collaborative and multiple-stakeholder manufacturing as indicators), and units of analysis.

    Findings: The paper points to how most studies on the management of organisations as part of smart cities focus on sustainability and how digitalisation enables new businesses. Collaborative efforts are emphasised and the theoretical framing is fragmented. Issues related to the organising of business is also not problematised and the business network approach could, as discussed in the paper, provide valuable insights related to the collaborative efforts of organisations and the multiple-stakeholder perspective.

    Originality/value: The paper is the first to capture and present an overview of previous research on the management of business as part of smart cities. Research on smart cities has focused on the policy and societal levels, and so far there is a lack of problematisation on how organisations may act, and potentially change their way of acting, should smart cities become a reality.

  • 42882.
    Öberg, Christina
    et al.
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Graham, Gary
    Leeds university Business School, The university of Leeds, Leeds, United Kingdom.
    Hennelly, Patrick
    University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom.
    Smart cities: a literature review and network approach discussion2016In: IMP Symposium, 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 42883.
    Öberg, Christina
    et al.
    Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Grundström, Christina
    Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Challenges and opportunities in innovative firms’ network development2009Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 42884.
    Öberg, Christina
    et al.
    Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Grundström, Christina
    Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Challenges and opportunities in innovative firms' network development2009In: International Journal of Innovation Management, ISSN 1363-9196, E-ISSN 1757-5877, Vol. 13, no 4, p. 593-613Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to describe and discuss challenges and opportunities related to the development of innovative firms' networks. The paper utilises four case studies based on interviews with representatives of young innovative firms and their present and previous network partners. The findings show that while early network partners often play several roles simultaneously, the roles of both the innovative firm and its network partners become increasingly distinct as the innovative firm develops. Such clarification of roles highlights competition between parties. For the innovative firm, the early phases are marked by innovativeness and problems related to growth and financial issues; later phases may include challenges of dependence, competition, exclusion of actors, decreased innovativeness and less innovative freedom.

  • 42885.
    Öberg, Christina
    et al.
    Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Grundström, Christina
    Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Commercialisation through acquisition?: A literature review2007Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 42886.
    Öberg, Christina
    et al.
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden; University of Exeter, Exter, UK.
    Grundström, Christina
    Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Using relationship distance to maintain innovation capability for university spin-offs2013In: ISPIM Conference – Innovating in Global Markets: Challenges for Sustainable Growth, 2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    University spin-offs are often treated as key to establishing new high-tech ventures. The importance of relationships for such ventures has been extensively emphasised, particularly concerning innovation co-creation commercialisation. But do such establishments really produce value to the spin-off and foster its further development of innovations? This paper argues that distance in relationship is important for the continuous innovativeness of the spin-off, and discusses how such distance impacts the innovation capabilities and co-creation of a university spin-off. The paper presents a longitudinal case study of a Swedish university high-tech spin-off. It points to how horizontal proximity in the supply chain facilitates the development of the core technology but that relationship distance, in the form of geographic and vertical supply-chain distance, positively impacts the innovation capabilities of the spin-off. Supply-chain distance results in knowledge distance (or fit) which facilitates this freedom, yet moderates the co-creative capability between various parties.

  • 42887.
    Öberg, Christina
    et al.
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Grundström, Christina
    Linköping University, Linköping , Sweden.
    Jönsson, Petter
    Inflight Service AB, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Acquisitions and network identity change2011In: European Journal of Marketing, ISSN 0309-0566, E-ISSN 1758-7123, Vol. 45, no 9/10, p. 1470-1500Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The purpose of the paper is to discuss whether or not an acquisition changes the network identity of an acquired firm and, if so, how. This study aims to bring new insights to the corporate marketing field, as it examines corporate identity in the context of how a company is perceived because of its relationships with other firms. The focus of this research is acquired innovative firms.

    Design/methodology/approach: This paper adopts a multiple case study approach. Data on four acquisitions of innovative firms were collected using 41 interviews, which were supplemented with secondary data.

    Findings: Based on the case studies, it can be concluded that the network identity of the acquired firms does change following an acquisition. The acquired firms inherited the acquirers' identity, regardless of whether or not the companies were integrated. Previous, present and potential business partners regarded the innovative firms as being more solvent, but distanced themselves. In addition, some of them regarded the innovative firms as competitors.

    Practical implications: Changes in the way a firm is perceived by its business partners, following an acquisition, will influence the future business operations of the firm. Expected changes to business relationships should ideally be considered part of due diligence. Acquirers need to consider how they can minimise the risks associated with business partners' changed perceptions of acquired firms.

    Originality/value: This paper contributes to the research on identity, through discussion of the consequences of an acquisition for the identity and relationships of a firm. It also contributes to the existing corporate marketing literature, through consideration of perceptions at a network level. Furthermore, this paper contributes to merger and acquisition literature, by highlighting the influence of ownership on relationships with external parties.

  • 42888.
    Öberg, Christina
    et al.
    Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Grundström, Christina
    Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Jönsson, Petter
    Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Acquisitions of innovative firms and their impact on customer access2005Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Traditionally, the literature depicts acquisitions of technology or innovative firms as a means for theacquirer to obtain resources or knowledge. This paper challenges the traditional view. We take theperspective of an innovative firm to ask the question: In what ways does the acquirer affect thecustomer access for the target company? This question is addressed where the acquirer is a companywithin a mature industry, the target is an innovative firm, and when the target’s customers at the sametime are competitors to the acquirer. The discussion takes its point of departure in a literature reviewand a case study. The case study highlights issues of customer access in dimensions of ownershipand integration; issues that are found to be missing in the reviewed literature. As this paper considersthe situation from the target’s perspective it contributes to the literature on acquisitions of innovativefirms. Furthermore, it contributes to the innovation literature through highlighting the influence ofownership on an innovative company in the process of getting customer access.

  • 42889.
    Öberg, Christina
    et al.
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Grundström, Christina
    Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Rosenfall, Thomas
    Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    The role of identity for open-source software innovations2012In: Proceedings of The XXIII ISPIM Conference 2012 Barcelona, ISPIM/ Lappeenranta University of Technology Press , 2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes and discusses the role of identity in open source software (OSS) innovations. It illustrates identities through four case studies that include the perspectives of OSS communities, OSS companies, and users. The paper concludes that the community may either have its primary function to provide an OSS aura to the OSS company, or it may have its focus on attracting developers and thereby contributing to innovativeness of the OSS community. OSS community identitie sare mainly self-reflective on its contributors, but also help to create rules of the community. Since it is the OSS company that communicates identities to external parties, the coherence and closeness between the OSS company and the community are important.

  • 42890.
    Öberg, Christina
    et al.
    Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Henneberg, Stephan C.
    Manchester Business School, The University of Manchester, Manchester, UK.
    Mouzas, Stefanos
    Lancaster University, Management School, UK.
    Changing network pictures: evidence from mergers and acquisitions2007In: Industrial Marketing Management, ISSN 0019-8501, E-ISSN 1873-2062, Vol. 36, no 7, p. 926-940Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A merger or acquisition may cause dramatic changes in a business network, which in turn affect managerial cognition as well as managerial activities. We use the concepts of ‘network pictures’ and ‘networking’ to illustrate and analyse changes in managerial sense-making and networking activities following a merger or acquisition. The paper focuses on acquiring, acquired or merging parties and those companies with which they have direct customer relationships. Based on three case studies comprising seven acquisitions and one merger, we show that following a merger or acquisition managers may need to adapt their previous network pictures in a radical way; these adaptations are, however, not always realized as shifts in network pictures and adjustments in networking activities by all the managers involved. Whereas the merging parties' network pictures and networking activities are largely driven by their perception of customers' needs and developments, it is not certain that the merger or acquisition is enacted accordingly. The paper contributes to a clearer view on the conceptual interdependence of the constructs of network pictures and networking in multi-actor situations and thus it develops a network perspective on mergers and acquisitions.

  • 42891.
    Öberg, Christina
    et al.
    Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Henneberg, Stephan C.
    University of Manchester, UK.
    Mouzas, Stefanos
    Lancaster University, UK.
    Organisational manifestation of network pictures: Concepts and case evidence2007Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study is concerned with how views and perceptions of individual managers manifest themselves in organisational artefacts, such as information systems, processes, operating and strategic plans, or organisational structures. Specifically, we are interested in the inscriptions of the embedding relationships within an inter-organisational network. The concept of ‘organisational network pictures’ is derived from the network marketing literature. Furthermore, a two-dimensional operationalisation is proposed and applied to an in-depth longitudinal case study. Implications and further research are discussed.

  • 42892.
    Öberg, Christina
    et al.
    Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden. .
    Henneberg, Stephan C.
    University of Manchester, UK. .
    Mouzas, Stefanos
    Lancaster University, UK. .
    Organisational manifestation of network pictures: Concepts and case evidence2007Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 42893.
    Öberg, Christina
    et al.
    Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Henneberg, Stephan C.
    University of Manchester, UK.
    Mouzas, Stefanos
    Lancaster University, UK.
    Organizational Inscriptions of Network Pictures: A Meso-Level Analysis2009Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper deals with manifestations of managerial cognition, thus elaborating on a neglected area in business networks and management. While previous studies have concentrated on business networks from entire companies' or individual persons' perspective, this paper operates on a focal company level (meso-level) and is concerned with how interactive sense-making is represented in organizational artifacts, which in turn aim to guide organizational activities. The paper develops and tests a dimensional model of tangible traces of organizational network pictures, which thereby becomes a means to capture managers' interactive sense-making of a company's network. We found manifestation of managerial cognition in the following areas: systems, processes, budgets, strategy, and organization, which in turn influenced the inclusion/exclusion of interaction partners, the interaction mode, and resource allocation.

  • 42894.
    Öberg, Christina
    et al.
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Henneberg, Stephan C.
    Manchester IMP Research Group, Manchester Business School, The University of Manchester, Manchester, UK.
    Mouzas, Stefanos
    Management School, Lancaster University, UK.
    Organizational inscriptions of network pictures: A meso-level analysis2012In: Industrial Marketing Management, ISSN 0019-8501, E-ISSN 1873-2062, Vol. 41, no 8, p. 1270-1283Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper deals with organizational inscriptions of managerial cognitions elaborating on the emerging concept of network pictures. While previous studies on network pictures have concentrated on individual managers' cognitive views of business networks, this study operates on a focal company level (meso-level) and is concerned with how managerial cognitions are manifested in organizational artifacts, which in turn guide business activities. The paper presents a typological model of traces of such inscriptions, which, thereby, becomes a means to capture managers' interactive sense-making of a company's network. We identify organizational inscriptions of managerial cognitions in the areas of strategy, organization, systems, processes, and budgets. Using a comparative-static case study involving mergers and acquisitions of a focal company over time, we exemplify the different organizational inscriptions.

  • 42895.
    Öberg, Christina
    et al.
    Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Henneberg, Stephan
    School of Management, University of Bath, UK.
    Mouzas, Stefanos
    School of Management, University of Bath, UK.
    Changing network pictures: The evidence from mergers and acquisitions2006Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mergers and acquisitions (M&As) may cause dramatic changes ina business network whichin turn affect managerial cognition aswell as managerial activities. We use the concepts of ‘network pictures’ and ‘networking’ to illustrate and analyse changes in managerialsense-makingand networkingactivities following an M&A. The paper focuses on the merging parties and those companieswith which they have direct customerrelationships. Based on three case studies comprising eight M&As, we show that managers may need to adapt theirprevious network pictures in a radical way following an M&A, but that these adaptations are not always realised as shifts in network pictures and adjustments in networking activities byall managers involved. Furthermore, whereas the merging parties’ network pictures and networking activities are largely driven by their perception of customers’ needs anddevelopments, it is not certain that the M&As are enacted accordingly. The paper contributes to the understanding of M&As from a network perspective and to the conceptual interdependence of the constructs of network pictures and networking in a multi-actor situation.

  • 42896.
    Öberg, Christina
    et al.
    Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Henneberg, Stephan
    School of Management, University of Bath, UK.
    Mouzas, Stefanos
    School of Management, University of Bath, UK.
    Changing network pictures: The evidence from mergers and acquisitions2006Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mergers and acquisitions (M&As) may cause dramatic changes ina business network whichin turn affect managerial cognition aswell as managerial activities. We use the concepts of ‘network pictures’ and ‘networking’ to illustrate and analyse changes in managerialsense-makingand networkingactivities following an M&A. The paper focuses on the merging parties and those companieswith which they have direct customerrelationships. Based on three case studies comprising eight M&As, we show that managers may need to adapt theirprevious network pictures in a radical way following an M&A, but that these adaptations are not always realised as shifts in network pictures and adjustments in networking activities byall managers involved. Furthermore, whereas the merging parties’ network pictures and networking activities are largely driven by their perception of customers’ needs anddevelopments, it is not certain that the M&As are enacted accordingly. The paper contributes to the understanding of M&As from a network perspective and to the conceptual interdependence of the constructs of network pictures and networking in a multi-actor situation.

  • 42897.
    Öberg, Christina
    et al.
    Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Holtström, Johan
    Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Are mergers and acquisitions contagious?2006In: Journal of Business Research, ISSN 0148-2963, E-ISSN 1873-7978, Vol. 59, no 12, p. 1267-1275Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In traditional literature on mergers and acquisitions (M&As), the reasons to merge or acquire are largely described as strategies of the merging or acquiring parties. This article suggests that M&As are contextually driven. Based on six case studies, the article pinpoints how M&As among customers lead to M&As among suppliers, and vice versa. The article launches the concept of parallel M&As to describe this phenomenon, and asks the following question: in what ways are M&As among customers and suppliers a driving force for M&As by the other party? Matching, dependence and keeping a power balance are found as key explanations for parallel M&As.

  • 42898.
    Öberg, Christina
    et al.
    Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Holtström, Johan
    Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Are mergers and acquisitions contagious?: Conceptualising Parallel M&As2005Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mapping the number of completed mergers and acquisitions (M&As) over the past few decades wouldproduce a line roughly following the fluctuations of the business cycle. The most recent peak wasmarked by the numerous M&As occurring in the late 1990s and in early 2000 (Bengtsson and Skärvad2001; Weston and Weaver 2001), followed by the recession starting in late 2000 (Sevenius 2003;Lundell 2002; KPMG Corporate Finance 2003; Förvärv & fusioner 2004). Weston and Weaver (2001)describe this development as M&A waves, and refer to the most recent peak of mergers andacquisitions as the fifth M&A wave. Different peaks in the history of M&A have had different foci. In the1960s and 1970s, diversification and the creation of conglomerates were common reasons formerging with or acquiring other companies (Shleifer & Vishny, in Rumelt, Schendel and Teece 1994;Weston and Weaver 2001). In the age of economic globalisation, the M&As of the late 1990s andearly 2000 were more international in scope, involving companies from more than one country; theywere also more focused on bringing intra-industry companies together (Bengtsson and Skärvad 2001;Sevenius 2003). The intra-industry focus on M&As could stand as a description for the concentrationin e.g. the automotive industry and the IT-sector in the late 1990s. But is this all we see?This paper focuses on M&As as a driving force for other M&As. More specifically, our focus is on howM&As among customers lead to M&As among suppliers, and reverse, in a network perspective. Welaunch the concept of parallel M&As to describe this phenomenon. The purpose of this paper is todiscuss parallel M&As, asking: In what ways are M&As among customers and suppliers a driving forcefor M&As? In contrast to the argument in e.g. Halinen, Salmi and Havila (1999) and Havila and Salmi(2000), we argue that M&As are not only a trigger to change, but also a response to change, andfurther, that these changes need not be directly dyadically connected (cf. Hertz 1998; Havila andSalmi 2000), but appear parallel to each other. Contrary to the motives presented in most traditionalM&A literature, this further means challenging M&As as only being the result of strategies within theacquiring company. Instead we point at M&As as contextually driven. Built on the six case studies,matching, dependence and keeping a “power balance” between customers and suppliers are referredto as key explanations for parallel M&As.

  • 42899.
    Öberg, Christina
    et al.
    Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Huge-Brodin, Maria
    Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Björklund, Maria
    Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Allocating environmental effects: a company vis-à-vis a network perspective2009Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Environmental effects have attracted increased interest in the past years. In this paper, we discuss how a company vis-à-vis a network perspective on allocation of environmental effects may lead to quite different decisions by firms. Empirical examples based on four case studies describe logistic solutions and what effects are seen from a single company and a network perspective. It is concluded that if only considering environmental effects from an individual company's perspective, certain aspects are left out. This in turn has consequences for the environment. For society it becomes vital to find the appropriate analysis level for environmental effects, and also to reconsider allocations of environmental effects on company levels as this may actually counteract environmental-friendly intentions.

  • 42900.
    Öberg, Christina
    et al.
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Huge-Brodin, Maria
    Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Björklund, Maria
    Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Applying a network level in environmental impact assessment2012In: Journal of Business Research, ISSN 0148-2963, E-ISSN 1873-7978, Vol. 65, no 2, p. 247-255Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Researchers and society devote increasing interest to environmental impact assessments. The study here discusses and questions current assessment models by relating them to inter-organizational network analyses, and demonstrates that single entities as the basis for environmental impact assessments may not be in the best interests of society. Three case studies focusing on logistical solutions illustrate environmental effects on a single-entity and a network level. The paper concludes that considering environmental impacts on a single-entity level disregards indirect effects, which in turn has consequences for the environment. The paper points to the importance of identifying the appropriate level for analysis of environmental impacts since the single entity as the basis for assessments may undermine environmentally friendly intentions.

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