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  • 51.
    Hollert, Henner
    et al.
    Department of Zoology, University of Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 230, Heidelberg, Germany .
    Dürr, M.
    Department of Hygiene, Halle, Germany .
    Olsman, Helena
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Halldin, Krister
    Department of Environmental Toxicology, Uppsala, Sweden .
    van Bavel, Bert
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology. Department of Chemistry, Environmental Chemistry, Umeå, Sweden .
    Brack, W.
    UFZ Centre for Environmental Research Leipzig-Halle, Leipzig, Germany .
    Tysklind, M.
    Department of Environmental Toxicology, Uppsala, Sweden .
    Engwall, Magnus
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Braunbeck, T.
    Department of Hygiene, Halle, Germany .
    Biological and chemical determination of dioxin-like compounds in sediments by means of a sediment triad approach in the catchment area of the River Neckar2002In: Ecotoxicology, ISSN 0963-9292, E-ISSN 1573-3017, Vol. 11, no 5, p. 323-336Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To evaluate the sediment quality of selected sites in the catchment area of the River Neckar, an integrative assessment approach was used to assess the ecological hazard potential of dioxin-like sediment compounds. The approach is based on 7-ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) induction in embryonic chicken liver culture and comprehensive chemical analyses of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (priority PAHs according to the US Environmental Protection Agency). The majority of the sediment extracts exhibited high potencies as EROD-inducers. In one sediment sample, which was influenced by a sewage treatment plant, a very high concentration of 930 ng bioassay 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) equivalents (bio-TEQs)/g organic carbon could be determined. However, in none of the samples, more than 6% of the EROD-inducing potency could be explained by the PAHs analyzed chemically. Thus, non-analyzed compounds with EROD-inducing potency were present in the extracts. A fractionation of sediment samples according to pH allowed to localize the major part of EROD-inducing compounds in the neutral fractions. However, a significant portion of the EROD induction could also be explained by the acidic fractions. Following the concept of the Sediment Quality Triad according to Chapman, in situ alterations of macrozoobenthos were examined. A comparison of the results predicted by the EROD assay and chemical analyses with alterations in situ, as measured by means of the saprobic index and the ecotoxicological index according to Carmargo, revealed a high ecological relevance of the results of bioassays and chemical analyses for major sites.

  • 52. Hollert, Henner
    et al.
    Keiter, Steffen
    Böttcher, Melanie
    Grund, Steffi
    Seitz, Nadja
    Otte, Jens
    Bluhm, Kerstin
    Wurm, Karl
    Hecker, Markus
    Higley, Eric
    Giesy, John
    Takner [Olsman], Helena
    van Bavel, Bert
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Engwall, Magnus
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Reifferscheid, Georg
    Manz, Werner
    Erdinger, Lother
    Schulze, Tobias
    Luebcke-van Varel, Urte
    Kammann, Ulrike
    Schöneberger, René
    Suter, Marc
    Brack, Werner
    Strähle, Uwe
    Braunbeck, Thomas
    Eine Weight-of-Evidence-Studie zur Bewertung der Sedimentbelastung und des Fischrückgangs in der Oberen Donau [Assessing sediments and fish health using a weight-of-evidence approach : in search for the causes of fish decline in the Danube river]2009In: Umweltwissenschaften und Schadstoff-Forschung, ISSN 0934-3504, E-ISSN 1865-5084, Vol. 21, no 3, p. 260-263Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background and aim Despite intensive and continuous stocking and improvement of water quality since the 1970s, fish populations, especially those of the grayling (Thymallus thymallus), have declined over the last two decades in the upper Danube River (Germany). In order to assess 1) possible links between molecular/biochemical responses and ecologically relevant effects, and 2) if ecotoxicological effects might be related to the decline in fish catches in the upper Danube river, sediment samples and fish were collected at different locations and analyzed using a weight-of-evidence (WOE) approach with several lines of evidence. The objective of the presentation is to introduce the conceptual framework and to review results of the ongoing study. As previously addressed by Chapman and Hollert (2006) a variety of lines of evidence can be used in WOE studies. Briefly, 1) a comprehensive battery of acute and mechanism-specific bioassays was used to characterize the ecotoxicological hazard potential. 2) Histopathological investigations and the micronucleus assay with erythrocytes were applied, analyzing in situ parameters. 3) Diversity and abundance of benthic macroinvertebrates and fish as well as 4) persistent organic pollutants, endocrine disrupting substances, limnochemical parameters and the concentration of heavy metals were recorded. To identify organic contaminants a spotential causes of sediment toxicity assays, 5) effect directed analysis was applied. © 2009 Springer-Verlag.

  • 53. Horii, Yuichi
    et al.
    van Bavel, Bert
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Kannan, Kurunthachalam
    Petrick, Gert
    Nachtigall, Kerstin
    Yamashita, Nobuyoshi
    Novel evidence for natural formation of dioxins in ball clay2008In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 70, no 7, p. 1280-1289Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Elevated concentrations of dioxins in ancient ball clay from the Mississippi Embayment suggest natural formation of dioxins in the environment. Evidence for such natural formation in ball clay derives from unique congener profiles in undisturbed ancient clay deposits and from the lack of other anthropogenic contaminants. Here we present novel evidence of natural formation of dioxins based on congener-specific carbon isotopic analysis of octachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (OCDD) in ball clays from the USA and Japan. The analyses were performed using a combination of double-column high performance liquid chromatography clean-up and two-dimensional gas chromatography-isotope ratio mass spectrometry. Elevated concentrations of OCDD found in ball clays from the USA and Japan were isotopically distinguished from the anthropogenic source materials (fly ash and pentachlorophenol) and environmental samples (sediment and soil). The isotopic signatures and the occurrence of OCDD in ancient ball clays deposited in the Tertiary Era provide evidence for the in situ formation of dioxins.

  • 54.
    Johansson, Inger
    et al.
    Örebro University, Department of Natural Sciences.
    van Bavel, Bert
    Örebro University, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Levels and patterns of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in incineration ashes2003In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 311, no 1-3, p. 221-231Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were analysed in weathered bottom ash from municipal solid waste incineration, fly ash from a mixed heating plant and an ash mixture from different kinds of biofuels. Although of different origin and age, all three ashes are evaluated in different small-scale fill applications. The ultimate goal is the usage of these ashes on a larger scale. The samples were Soxhlet extracted and analysed using GC/MS in the full scan mode. The sum of the 16 US EPA PAHs was found to vary from 140 mug/kg up to more than 77 000 mug/kg. Total amounts of PAHs were similar in bottom ash and in fly ash. The concentration in the mixed biofuel ash was more than 10 times higher, and exceeded the generic guidelines for PAHs in soil set by the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency. The patterns of the individual PAHs normalised to the total concentration of PAHs were found to be very similar for all the three ashes. Naphthalene and phenanthrene were the dominating PAHs for all ash samples, but the mixed biofuel ash also contained high levels of fluoranthene and pyrene. (C) 2003 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 55.
    Johansson, Inger
    et al.
    Örebro University, Department of Natural Sciences.
    van Bavel, Bert
    Örebro University, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in weathered bottom ash from incineration of municipal solid waste2003In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 53, no 2, p. 123-128Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were analysed in weathered bottom ash from different municipal solid waste incinerators. The sum of the 16 "USEPA" PAHs was found to vary from 480 to 3590 mug/kg. The amounts of carcinogenic PAHs were between 89 and 438 mug/kg ash. The maximum levels of carcinogenic PAHs exceed the Swedish generic guidelines for sensitive land use. The results showed that the amount of PAHs in fresh and weathered bottom ash are similar, indicating that the PAHs are strongly bound to the ash and only limited amounts are released to'the surroundings. (C) 2003 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 56. Jonsson, Sofia
    et al.
    Persson, Ylva
    Frankki, Sofia
    van Bavel, Bert
    Örebro University, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Lundstedt, Staffan
    Haglund, Peter
    Tysklind, Mats
    Degradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in contaminated soils by Fenton's reagent: a multivariate evaluation of the importance of soil characteristics and PAH properties2007In: Journal of Hazardous Materials, ISSN 0304-3894, E-ISSN 1873-3336, Vol. 149, no 1, p. 86-96Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, we investigated how the chemical degradability of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in aged soil samples from various contaminated sites is influenced by soil characteristics and by PAH physico-chemical properties. The results were evaluated using the multivariate statistical tool, partial least squares projections to latent structures (PLS). The PAH-contaminated soil samples were characterised (by pH, conductivity, organic matter content, oxide content, particle size, specific surface area, and the time elapsed since the contamination events, i.e. age), and subjected to relatively mild, slurry-phase Fenton's reaction conditions. In general, low molecular weight PAHs were degraded to a greater extent than large, highly hydrophobic variants. Anthracene, benzo(a)pyrene, and pyrene were more susceptible to degradation than other, structurally similar, PAHs; an effect attributed to the known susceptibility of these compounds to reactions with hydroxyl radicals. The presence of organic matter and the specific surface area of the soil were clearly negatively correlated with the degradation of bi- and tri-cyclic PAHs, whereas the amount of degraded organic matter correlated positively with the degradation of PAHs with five or six fused rings. This was explained by enhanced availability of the larger PAHs, which were released from the organic matter as it degraded. Our study shows that sorption of PAHs is influenced by a combination of soil characteristics and physico-chemical properties of individual PAHs. Multivariate statistical tools have great potential for assessing the relative importance of these parameters.

  • 57.
    Julander, Anneli
    et al.
    Örebro University, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Karlsson, Marie
    Örebro University, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Hagström, K.
    Örebro University, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Ohlson, C.-G.
    Engwall, Magnus
    Örebro University, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Bryngelsson, I.-L.
    Westberg, Håkan
    Örebro University, Department of Natural Sciences.
    van Bavel, Bert
    Örebro University, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers: plasma levels and thyroid status of workers at an electronic recycling facility2005In: International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, ISSN 0340-0131, E-ISSN 1432-1246, Vol. 78, no 7, p. 584-592Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: Personnel working with electronic dismantling are exposed to polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), which in animal studies have been shown to alter thyroid homeostasis. The aim of this longitudinal study was to measure plasma level of PBDEs in workers at an electronic recycling facility and to relate these to the workers’ thyroid status. Methods: PBDEs and three thyroid hormones: triiodothyronine (T3), thyroxin (T4) and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) were repeatedly analysed in plasma from 11 workers during a period of 1.5 years.Results: Plasma levels of PBDEs at start of employment were <0.5–9.1 pmol/g lipid weight (l.w.). The most common congener was PBDE #47 (median 2.8 pmol/g l.w.), followed by PBDE #153 (median 1.7 pmol/g l.w.), and PBDE #183 had a median value of <0.19 pmol/g l.w. After dismantling the corresponding median concentrations were: 3.7, 1.7 and 1.2 pmol/g l.w., respectively. These differences in PBDE levels were not statistically significant. PBDE #28 showed a statistically significantly higher concentration after dismantling than at start of employment (P=0.016), although at low concentrations (start 0.11 pmol/g l.w. and dismantling 0.26 pmol/g l.w.). All measured levels of thyroid hormones (T3, T4 and TSH) were within the normal physiological range. Statistically significant positive correlations were found between T3 and #183 in a worker, between T4 and both #28 and #100 in another worker and also between TSH and #99 and #154 in two workers. Conclusions: The workers’ plasma levels of PBDEs fluctuated during the study period. Due to small changes in thyroid hormone levels it was concluded that no relevant changes were present in relation to PBDE exposure within the workers participating in this study.

  • 58.
    Julander, Anneli
    et al.
    Örebro University, Department of Technology.
    Karlsson, Marie
    Örebro University, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Hagström, Katja
    Ohlson, Carl Göran
    Engwall, Magnus
    Örebro University, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Bryngelsson, Ing-Liss
    Westberg, Håkan
    van Bavel, Bert
    Örebro University, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Polybrominated diphenylethers and thyroid hormone status in human plasma of workers at electronic recycling facilityManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 59.
    Julander, Anneli
    et al.
    Örebro University, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Westberg, Håkan
    Engwall, Magnus
    Örebro University, Department of Natural Sciences.
    van Bavel, Bert
    Örebro University, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Distribution of brominated flame retardants in different dust fractions in air from an electronics recycling facilityManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 60.
    Julander, Anneli
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Westberg, Håkan
    Engwall, Magnus
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    van Bavel, Bert
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Distribution of brominated flame retardants in different dust fractions in air from an electronics recycling facility2005In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 350, no 1-3, p. 151-160Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Twelve air samples were collected from an electronic recycling facility in Sweden representing three different dust fractions; respirable, total and inhalable dust. Four samples were collected from each fraction. The highest concentration of polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) #209 (ten bromine atoms) was found in the samples from the inhalable dust fraction (ID), which was 10 times higher than for the "total dust" fraction (TD). The concentration ranges were 157.6-208.6; 13.9-16.7; and 2.8-3.3 ng/m3 for inhalable, total and respirable fractions, respectively. The second most abundant PBDE congener was PBDE #183 (seven bromine atoms), followed by the second most abundant substance 1,2-bis(2,4,6-tribromophenoxy)ethane (BTBPE) in all samples. In addition, decabromodiphenyl ethane (DeBDethane) was tentatively identified in five of the samples. Because of the large differences in air concentrations between the three fractions in ID, TD and RD, it is suggested that the inhalable instead of "total dust" fraction should be used to assess air concentrations, in particular for the larger and higher brominated flame retardants (BFRs).

  • 61.
    Järnberg, Ulf
    et al.
    Department of Applied Environmental Science, ITM, Stockholm University.
    Holmström, Katrin
    Department of Applied Environmental Science, ITM, Stockholm University.
    van Bavel, Bert
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Kärrman, Anna
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Perfluoroalkylated acids and related compounds (PFAS) in the Swedish environment2007Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    The perfluoroalkylated substances have gained increased attention among scientists and regulators during the last few years. In particular, perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and similar perfluorinated alkylated acids are regarded as the most stable end products of various perfluoroalkylated substances and have been shown to be extremely stable, bioconcentrate and biomagnify and have several toxicological effects. The industrial chemistry of perfluoroalkylated substances is extremely diverse and includes almost all chemical functionalities from simple pure alkanes to complex co-polymers. Major usage of perfluoroalkylated products is related to polymeric compounds and the dominant release to the environment is from primary and secondary production plants which are lacking in the Nordic countries. The occurrence of elevated concentrations of perfluoroalkylated acids in Sweden is strongly related to urbanized areas and the most likely path into the aquatic environment is through sewage water, although atmospheric input is also possible via more volatile precursor compounds. Up to 40 times elevated concentrations were found in biota from urban areas compared to unpolluted areas. Lake Mälaren and lower parts of the river Helge å are examples of aqueous environments clearly contaminated by PFOS. One of several potential point sources in Sweden has been screened for PFOS. A firefighting training site was found to release PFOS to the local aqueous environment (wetland) where μg/l concentrations where found. Long chain (more than 8 C for sulfonates and 10 C or more for carboxylates) perfluoroalkylated acids are readily taken up by biota in aqueous environments and reach very high concentrations in predators at high trophic levels of aquatic food webs. Baltic guillemot egg showed an increasing trend in PFOS concentration from 20-30 ng/g by the end of sixties to more than 600 ng/g at present. Freshwater otter from various locations in Sweden showed concentrations similar to guillemot eggs and Baltic grey seal has extreme values up to ten times higher (21 μg/g sum of all acids 6-14 C, PFOS alone:11μg/g). Human exposure, as described by Swedish human blood levels, appears to be similar to most other countries. No extreme values were encountered which would indicate occupational exposure. An excessive consumption of freshwater fish may contribute to an increased exposure, but this could not be clearly verified. Occupational settings where exposure to precursor compounds can take place are present in Sweden and should be included in future studies. Industrial use of textile and leather impregnating formulations result in elevated concentrations of perfluorocarboylates in effluent water from sewage treatment plants. The relation between effluent and biota concentrations for an aquatic environment with this type of activity needs to be further described in particular for perfluoroalkyl carboxylates which are currently being discharged in Sweden. Exposure routes and distribution behavior are yet not completely described for many PFAS, in particular their precursors. Environmental levels, human levels and human exposure data are lacking for a wide variety of PFAS discussed in this report

    Download full text (pdf)
    Perfluoroalkylated acids and related compounds (PFAS) in the Swedish environment
  • 62.
    Jönsson, Sofie
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Eriksson, Leif A
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    van Bavel, Bert
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Multivariate characterisation and quantitative structure-property relationship modelling of nitroaromatic compounds2008In: Analytica Chimica Acta, ISSN 0003-2670, E-ISSN 1873-4324, Vol. 621, no 2, p. 155-162Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A multivariate model to characterise nitroaromatics and related compounds based on molecular descriptors was calculated. Descriptors were collected from literature and through empirical, semi-empirical and density functional theory-based calculations. Principal components were used to describe the distribution of the compounds in a multidimensional space. Four components described 76% of the variation in the dataset. PC1 separated the compounds due to molecular weight, PC2 separated the different isomers, PC3 arranged the compounds according to different functional groups such as nitrobenzoic acids, nitrobenzenes, nitrotoluenes and nitroesters and PC4 differentiated the compounds containing chlorine from other compounds. Quantitative structure-property relationship models were calculated using partial least squares (PLS) projection to latent structures to predict gas chromatographic (GC) retention times and the distribution between the water phase and air using solid-phase microextraction (SPME). GC retention time was found to be dependent on the presence of polar amine groups, electronic descriptors including highest occupied molecular orbital, dipole moments and the melting point. The model of GC retention time was good, but the precision was not precise enough for practical use. An important environmental parameter was measured using SPME, the distribution between headspace (air) and the water phase. This parameter was mainly dependent on Henry's law constant, vapour pressure, logP, content of hydroxyl groups and atmospheric OH rate constant. The predictive capacity of the model substantially improved when recalculating a model using these five descriptors only.

  • 63.
    Jönsson, Sofie
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Eriksson, Leif A.
    van Bavel, Bert
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Multivariate characterisation of nitroaromatic compoundsManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 64.
    Jönsson, Sofie
    et al.
    Örebro University, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Gustavsson, Lillemor
    Örebro University, Department of Natural Sciences.
    van Bavel, Bert
    Örebro University, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Analysis of nitroaromatic compounds in complex samples using solid-phase microextraction and isotope dilution quantification gas chromatography-electron-capture negative ionisation mass spectrometry2007In: Journal of Chromatography A, ISSN 0021-9673, E-ISSN 1873-3778, Vol. 1164, no 1-2, p. 65-73Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A solid-phase microextraction (SPME) method using gas chromatography–electron-capture negative ionisation mass spectrometry (GC–ECNI-MS) and isotope dilution quantification for the analysis of nitroaromatic compounds in complex, water based samples has been optimised. For ionisation, ECNI was the most sensitive and selective method. SPME was compared to solid-phase extraction (SPE) and found to be more sensitive for these small volume samples. LODs were in the range 0.02–38 ng L−1 for SPME and 6–184 ng L−1 for SPE, respectively. The SPME method was applied on samples in the ng L−1 level from artificial reed beds treated with sludge containing residues from explosives and pharmaceuticals.

  • 65.
    Jönsson, Sofie
    et al.
    Örebro University, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Hagberg, Jessika
    Örebro University, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Lahoutifard, N.
    van Bavel, Bert
    Örebro University, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Microextraction by packed sorbent: a new technique for the analysis of small brominated and chlorinated aromatic compounds2008In: Organohalogen Compounds, 2008, Vol. 70, p. 2200-2203Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 66.
    Jönsson, Sofie
    et al.
    Örebro University, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Hagberg, Jessika
    Örebro University, Department of Natural Sciences.
    van Bavel, Bert
    Örebro University, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Determination of 2,4,6-trichloroanisole and 2,4,6-tribromoanisole in wine using microextraction in packed syringe and gas chromatography mass spectrometryManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 67.
    Jönsson, Sofie
    et al.
    Örebro University, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Hagberg, Jessika
    Örebro University, Department of Natural Sciences.
    van Bavel, Bert
    Örebro University, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Determination of 2,4,6-trichloroanisole and 2,4,6-tribromoanisole in wine using microextraction in packed syringe and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry2008In: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, ISSN 0021-8561, E-ISSN 1520-5118, Vol. 56, no 13, p. 4962-4967Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A selective and fast method for the quantitative determination of 2,4,6-trichloroanisole (TCA) and 2,4,6-tribromoanisole (TBA) in wine was developed. Microextraction in packed syringe (MEPS) was optimized for the extraction and preconcentration of the analytes using extremely small volume samples (0.1-1 mL). For GC-EI-MS, the limit of detection (LOD) for red and white wine was in the range 0.17-0.49 mu g L-1 for TCA and TBA. In addition to GC-EI-MS both GC-NCI-MS and GC-HRMS were used to further improve both selectivity and sensitivity. The lowest LODs were achieved using GC-HRMS in the El mode. In red and white wine samples the LODs were between 0.22-0.75 ng L-1 for TCA and TBA. The reproducibility and linearity for the GC-HRMS method was good, with RSD-values of 4-10% for spiked red wine samples at 1 ng L-1 and linearity with R-2 > 0.962 over a concentration range of 1 to 100 ng L-1.

  • 68.
    Jönsson, Sofie
    et al.
    Örebro University, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Uusitalo, Terhi
    van Bavel, Bert
    Örebro University, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Gustafsson, Inga-Britt
    Örebro University, Department of Restaurant & Culinary Arts.
    Lindström, Gunilla
    Örebro University, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Determination of 2,4,6-trichloroanisole and 2,4,6-tribromoanisole on ng L-1 to pg L-1 levels in wine by soild-phase microextraction and gas chromatography-high-resolution mass spectrometry2006In: Journal of Chromatography A, ISSN 0021-9673, E-ISSN 1873-3778, Vol. 1111, no 1, p. 71-75Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A gas chromatography-high-resolution mass spectrometry (GC-HRMS) method using solid-phase microextraction (SPME) for the determination of 2,4,6-trichloroanisole (TCA) and 2,4,6-tribromoanisole (TBA) in wine at low ng L−1 levels was developed. A robust SPME method was developed by optimizing several different parameters, including type of fiber, salt addition, sample volume, extraction and desorption time. The quantification limit for TCA and TBA in wine was lowered substantially using GC-HRMS in combination with the optimized SPME method and allowed the detection of low analyte concentrations (ng L−1) with good accuracy. Limits of quantification for red wine of 0.3 ng L−1 for TCA and 0.2 ng L−1 for TBA with gas chromatography-negative chemical ionization mass spectrometry and 0.03 ng L−1 for TCA and TBA were achieved using GC-HRMS. The method was applied to 30 wines of which 4 wines were sensorically qualified as cork defected. TCA was found in three of these wines with concentrations in the range 2–25 ng L−1. TBA was not detected in any of the samples.

  • 69.
    Karlsson, Marie
    et al.
    Örebro University, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Ericson, I.
    van Bavel, Bert
    Örebro University, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Jensen, J.-K.
    Dam, M.
    Levels of brominated flame retardants in Northern Fulmar (Fulmarus glacialis) eggs from the Faroe Islands2006In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 367, no 2-3, p. 840-846Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Eggs from Northern Fulmars (Fulmarus glacialis) were sampled in the Faroe Islands. The content of the brominated flame retardants tri- to decabromodiphenyl ethers (BDEs) and 1,2-bis(2,4,6-tribromophenoxy)ethane (BTBPE) were determined in nine samples in concentrations ranging from non-detectable to 7 ng g− 1(l.w.). The BDE levels were similar as in an earlier study of BDE levels in the fulmar eggs from the Faroe Islands but 10–1000 times lower compared to studies of eggs from seabirds and birds of prey from Europe. The two hexaBDEs #153 and #154 were the most abundant congeners, which represented around 50% of the total mean BDE concentration. The levels of BDE #209 were below the limit of detection (1.24 ng g− 1 l.w.) except for one sample, which showed a concentration of 7.18 ng g− 1 l.w. BTBPE was detected in eight samples and the mean level was 0.11 ng g− 1 l.w. This concentration was 150 times lower than the average total BDE concentration (including BDEs #28, #47, #100, #99, #154, #153, #183, #209). BTBPE has only been detected once before in biota. Also other bromo-containing compounds were detected in the fulmar eggs. One group identified was the polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs), but because of the absence of reference standards in the lab, these could not be quantified.

  • 70.
    Karlsson, Marie
    et al.
    Örebro University, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Julander, Anneli
    Örebro University, Department of Natural Sciences.
    van Bavel, Bert
    Örebro University, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Air levels of brominated flame retardants in an electronic dismantling facility after a production increaseManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 71.
    Karlsson, Marie
    et al.
    Örebro University, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Julander, Anneli
    Örebro University, Department of Natural Sciences.
    van Bavel, Bert
    Örebro University, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Hardell, Lennart
    Levels of brominated flame retardants in blood in relation to levels in household air and dust2007In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 33, no 1, p. 62-69Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Levels of tri- to decabrominated diphenyl ethers (BDEs), 1,2-bis(2,4,6-tribromophenoxy)ethane (BTBPE) and 1,2-bis(pentabromophenyl)ethane (DeBDethane) were determined in air, sedimentary dust and human plasma from five households in Sweden. The levels of the individual BDEs in the plasma samples were in the same order of magnitude as in other studies of the general population in Scandinavia, and varied between non-detectable (< 0.41 ng g− 1 l.w.) to 17 ng g− 1 (l.w.). BDE#28 and #47 were present in all air samples, with mean values of 0.015 and 0.12 ng m− 3, respectively, except for one sample where the BDE#47 concentration was below the limit of detection (< 0.17 ng m− 3). BDE#209 was found in one of the five air samples at a concentration of 0.26 ng m− 3. DeBDethane was also detected in one sample, in which the BDE#209 level was below LOD (< 0.021 ng m− 3), at a level of 0.023 ng m− 3. All the target compounds were found in the sedimentary dust samples at levels from 0.51 to 1600 ng g− 1, the highest concentration representing BDE#209. The most abundant components in plasma, air and dust were BDE#47, #99 and #209. In the plasma samples BDE#207 and #206 were also present at similar concentrations as BDE#47. In the sedimentary dust samples, DeBDethane was also among the most abundant BFRs. A positive relationship was found for the sumBDE concentrations in dust and plasma, although the relationship was strongly dependent on one of the five observations. BFR levels in dust and air were not dependent on the house characteristics such as living area, floor material or number of electronic devices.

  • 72.
    Karlsson, Marie
    et al.
    Örebro University, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Julander, Anneli
    Örebro University, Department of Natural Sciences.
    van Bavel, Bert
    Örebro University, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Lindström, Gunilla
    Örebro University, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Solid-phase extraction of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in human plasma: comparison with an open column extraction method2005In: Chromatographia, ISSN 0009-5893, E-ISSN 1612-1112, Vol. 61, no 1-2, p. 67-73Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A solid phase extraction (SPE) method in combination with silica gel cleanup to analyse tri-to heptabrominated diphenyl ethers in human plasma was validated. All congeners showed recoveries over 70% except for BDE #183, which showed recoveries around 45%. The method was tested on 21 individual plasma samples which were extracted with both the SPE method and an open column extraction method using Hydromatrix. Method detection limits were of the same order of magnitude for both methods, ranging from 0.0076 to 0.13 ng g−1 (l.w.) depending on the congener. The SPE extraction method meets the demand for a faster, less solvent-and sample-demanding method with lower contamination risk due to fewer steps compared to the open column extraction.

  • 73.
    Karlsson, Therese M.
    et al.
    School of Science and Technology, University of Örebro, Örebro, Sweden; Department of Marine Sciences, Sven Loven Research Centre, University of Gothenburg, Fiskebäckskil, Sweden .
    Grahn, Hans
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology. Corpus Data & Image Analysis AB, Stockholm, Sweden.
    van Bavel, Bert
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology. Norwegian Institute for Water Resaerch, Oslo, Norway.
    Geladi, Paul
    Corpus Data & Image Analysis AB, Stockholm, Sweden; Forest Biomaterials and Technology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden.
    Hyperspectral imaging and data analysis for detecting and determining plastic contamination in seawater filtrates2016In: Journal of Near Infrared Spectroscopy, ISSN 0967-0335, E-ISSN 1751-6552, Vol. 24, no 2, p. 141-149Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    One possible way of monitoring plastic particles in sea water is by imaging spectroscopic measurements on filtrates. The idea is that filters from seawater sampling can be imaged in many wavelengths and that a multivariate data analysis can give information on (1) spatial location of plastic material on the filter and (2) composition of the plastic materials. This paper reports on simulated samples, with spiked reference plastic particles and real seawater filtrates containing microplastic pollutants. These real samples were previously identified through visual examination in a microscope. The samples were imaged using three different imaging systems. The different wavelength ranges were 375-970 nm, 960-1662 nm and 1000-2500 nm. Data files from all three imaging systems were analysed by hyperspectral image analysis. The method using the wavelength span 1000-2500 nm was shown to be the most applicable to this specific type of samples and gave a 100% particle recognition on reference plastic, above 300 mu m, and an 84% pixel recognition on household polyethylene plastic. When applied to environmental samples the technique showed an increase in identified particles compared with visual investigations. These initial tests indicate a potential underestimation of microplastics in environmental samples. This is the first study to demonstrate that hyperspectral imaging techniques can be used to study microplastics down to 300 mu m, which is a common size limit used in microplastic surveys.

  • 74. Keiter, Steffen
    et al.
    Grund, Stefanie
    van Bavel, Bert
    Örebro University, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Hagberg, Jessika
    Örebro University, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Engwall, Magnus
    Örebro University, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Kammann, Ulrike
    Klempt, Martin
    Manz, Werner
    Olsman Takner, Helena
    Örebro University, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Braunbeck, Thomas
    Hollert, Henner
    Activities and identification of aryl hydrocarbon receptor agonists in sediments from the Danube river2008In: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry, ISSN 1618-2642, E-ISSN 1618-2650, Vol. 390, no 8, p. 2009-2019Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study is a consequence of a distinct fish decline in the Danube river since the beginning of the 1990s. In contrast to the decline of fish population, former studies have repeatedly documented that the water quality along the Danube river is improving. However, the conclusion of a pilot study in 2002 was that a high hazard potential is associated with local sediments. The present study documents that sediment samples from the Danube river showed comparatively high aryl hydrocarbon receptor mediated activity in biotests, using the cell lines GPC.2D.Luc, H4IIE (DR-CALUX®) and RTL-W1. The combination of chemical analysis, fractionation techniques and different in vitro tests revealed that priority pollutants could not explain the main induction, even though the concentrations of priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were very high (maximum in the tributary Schwarzach, sum of 16 EPA PAHs 26 μg/g). In conclusion, this investigation shows that nonpriority pollutants mainly mediate the high induction rates. Nevertheless, owing to the effects of PAHs towards fish and the connection between dioxin-like activity and carcinogenicity, the link between contamination and the fish population decline cannot be ruled out.

  • 75.
    Keiter, Steffen
    et al.
    University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany.
    Grund, Stefanie
    University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany.
    van Bavel, Bert
    Örebro University, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Hagberg, Jessika
    Örebro University, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Engwall, Magnus
    Örebro University, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Ulrike, Kammann
    Federal Research Centre for Fisheries, Hamburg, Germany.
    Klempt, Martin
    Federal Research Centre for Nutrition and Food, Hamburg, Germany.
    Manz, Werner
    Federal Institute of Hydrology, Koblenz, Germany.
    Olsman, Helena
    Örebro University, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Braunbeck, Thomas
    University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany.
    Hollert, Henner
    RWTH Aachen University, Aachen, Germany .
    Activities and identification of aryl hydrocarbon receptor agonists in sediments from the Danube river2008In: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry, ISSN 1618-2642, E-ISSN 1618-2650, Vol. 390, no 8, p. 2009-2019Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study is a consequence of a distinct fishdecline in the Danube river since the beginning of the 1990s. In contrast to the decline of fish population, former studies have repeatedly documented that the water quality along the Danube river is improving. However, the conclusion of a pilot study in 2002 was that a high hazard potentialis associated with local sediments. The present study documents that sediment samples from the Danube river showed comparatively high aryl hydrocarbon receptor mediated activity in biotests, using the cell lines GPC.2D.Luc, H4IIE(DR-CALUX®) and RTL-W1. The combination of chemical analysis, fractionation techniques and different in vitro tests revealed that priority pollutants could not explain the main induction, even though the concentrations of prioritypolycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were very high (maximum in the tributary Schwarzach, sum of 16 EPAPAHs 26 μg/g). In conclusion, this investigation shows that nonpriority pollutants mainly mediate the high inductionrates. Nevertheless, owing to the effects of PAHs towards fish and the connection between dioxin-like activity andcarcinogenicity, the link between contamination and the fish population decline cannot be ruled out.

  • 76. Knudsen, Lisa B.
    et al.
    Borgå, Katrine
    Jørgensen, Even H.
    van Bavel, Bert
    Örebro University, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Schlabach, Martin
    Verreault, Jonathan
    Gabrielsen, Geir W.
    Halogenated organic contaminants and mercury in northern fulmars (Fulmarus glacialis): levels, relationships to dietary descriptors and blood to liver comparison2007In: Environmental Pollution, ISSN 0269-7491, E-ISSN 1873-6424, Vol. 146, no 1, p. 25-33Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The northern fulmar (Fulmarus glacialis) is an interesting candidate for the study of patterns and levels of halogenated organic contaminants (HOCs) since they accumulate high levels of certain HOCs. In the present study we characterized a suite of established and novel HOCs in northern fulmars breeding on Bjørnøya in the Norwegian Arctic. A comparison between blood and liver HOC levels was made, and the levels were related to the ratios of heavier to lighter stable isotopes of nitrogen (15)N/(14)N (delta(15)N) and carbon (13)C/(12)C (delta(13)C) in muscle. A significant difference in congener patterns between blood and liver was found. The delta(13)C was not related to HOCs, neither in liver nor in blood. Weak correlations were found between delta(15)N and liver HOC levels. The 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin toxic equivalents (TEQs) in northern fulmars were well above thresholds for reproductive effects in seabirds.

  • 77.
    Kumar, Jitender
    et al.
    Department of Medical Sciences, Molecular Epidemiology and Science for Life Laboratory, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Lind, Lars
    Department of Medical Sciences, Cardiovascular Epidemiology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Salihovic, Samira
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    van Bavel, Bert
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Ingelsson, Erik
    Department of Medical Sciences, Molecular Epidemiology and Science for Life Laboratory, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Lind, P. Monica
    Department of Medical Sciences, Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Uppsala University, Akademiska sjukhuset, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Persistent organic pollutants and liver dysfunction biomarkers in a population-based human sample of men and women2014In: Environmental Research, ISSN 0013-9351, E-ISSN 1096-0953, Vol. 134, p. 251-256Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background and objective: Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are stable organic compounds generated through different industrial activities. Liver is involved in the metabolism of POPs, and hence exposure to POPs may interfere with liver function. Although a few studies have shown adverse effects of POPs on liver function, large-scale studies involving humans are lacking. We performed this large population-based cross-sectional study to assess the associations between different POPs and liver dysfunction biomarkers.

    Methods: A total of 992 individuals (all aged 70 years, 50% males) were recruited as part of Prospective Investigation of the Vasculature in Uppsala Seniors (PIVUS) cohort. The total toxic equivalency (TEQ) value was calculated for seven mono-ortho and two non-ortho substituted polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and octachloro-p-dibenzodioxin (OCDD) to assess their toxicological effects. The association of TEQ values, summary measures of 16 PCBs (sum of PCBs) and three organochlorine pesticides (sum of OC pesticides) with liver dysfunction biomarkers (bilirubin; alkaline phosphatase, ALP; alanine amino-transferase, ALT; and gamma-glutamyltransferase, GGT) was analyzed utilizing linear regression analysis.

    Results: The mono-ortho PCB TEQ values were found to be significantly positively associated with bilirubin (beta=0.71, P=0.008), while sum of OC pesticide concentrations was negatively associated with ALP (beta= -0.02, P=0.002) after adjusting for various potential confounders. When analyzed individually, a number of different POPs were associated with ALP, ALT and bilirubin. No such association with GGT was observed.

    Conclusion: Various POPs including PCBs, OCDD and pesticides were associated with the liver dysfunction biomarkers bilirubin, ALT and ALP, suggesting adverse effects on liver function from these environmental pollutants. (C) 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  • 78.
    Kumar, Jitender
    et al.
    Molecular Epidemiology and Science for Life Laboratory, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Lind, Monica
    Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Salihovic, Samira
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    van Bavel, Bert
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Ingelsson, Erik
    Molecular Epidemiology and Science for Life Laboratory, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Lind, Lars
    Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Persistent Organic Pollutants and Inflammatory Markers in a Cross-Sectional Study of Elderly Swedish People: The PIVUS Cohort2014In: Journal of Environmental Health Perspectives, ISSN 0091-6765, E-ISSN 1552-9924, Vol. 122, no 9, p. 977-983Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are compounds that are generated through various industrial activities and released in the surrounding environment. Different animal studies have shown effects of different POPs on various inflammatory markers.

    OBJECTIVE: Because very few studies have been conducted in humans, we assessed the associations between different POPs and inflammatory markers in a large population-based sample of elderly men and women (all 70 years of age) from Sweden.

    METHODS: This cross-sectional study investigated the concentrations of several polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin, and brominated diphenyl ether congeners and their association with a number of inflammatory markers [vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1), intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1), E-selectin, C-reactive protein (CRP), total leucocyte count, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), monocyte chemotactic protein 1 (MCP-1), and interleukin 6 (IL-6)] in 992 individuals. These individuals were recruited from the Prospective Investigation of the Vasculature in Uppsala Seniors (PIVUS) cohort. We used a total toxic equivalency (TEQ) value that measures toxicological effects with the relative potencies of various POPs.

    RESULTS: Following adjustment for potential confounders, the TEQ value (driven mainly by PCB-126) was significantly associated with levels of ICAM-1 (p < 10(-5)). A similar trend was also observed between sum of PCBs and VCAM-1 (p < 0.001). No significant associations were observed between levels of POPs and other inflammatory markers.

    CONCLUSIONS: TEQ values were associated with levels of ICAM-1, to a lesser degree also with VCAM-1, but not with CRP and several other inflammatory markers. These findings suggest an activation of vascular adhesion molecules by POPs, and particularly by PCB-126.

  • 79.
    Kumar, Jitender
    et al.
    Department of Medical Sciences, Molecular Epidemiology and Science for Life Laboratory, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Lind, P. Monica
    Department of Medical Sciences, Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Salihovic, Samira
    Department of Medical Sciences, Cardiovascular Epidemiology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    van Bavel, Bert
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Ekdahl, Kristina N.
    Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden; Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences, Linnaeus University, Kalmar, Sweden .
    Nilsson, Bo
    Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences, Linnaeus University, Kalmar, Sweden.
    Lind, Lars
    Department of Medical Sciences, Cardiovascular Epidemiology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Ingelsson, Erik
    Department of Medical Sciences, Molecular Epidemiology and Science for Life Laboratory, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Influence of persistent organic pollutants on the complement system in a population-based human sample2014In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 71, p. 94-100Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Persistent organic pollutants (POPS) are toxic compounds generated through various industrial activities and have adverse effects on human health. Studies performed in cell cultures and animals have revealed that POPs can alter immune-system functioning. The complement system is part of innate immune system that helps to clear pathogens from the body. We performed a large-scale population-based study to find out associations between summary measures of different POPs and different complement system markers.

    Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 16 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), 3 organochlorine (OC) pesticides, octachloro-p-dibenzodioxin, and 2,2',4,4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-47) were analyzed for their association with levels of protein complement 3 (C3), 3a (C3a), 4 (C4) and C3a/C3 ratio. A total of 992 individuals (all aged 70 years, 50% females) were recruited from the Prospective Investigation of the Vasculature in Uppsala Seniors cohort. Regression analysis adjusting for a variety of confounders was performed to study the associations of different POP exposures (total toxic equivalency value or TEQ and sum of 16 PCBs) with protein complements.

    Results: The TEQ values were found to be positively associated with C3a (beta = 0.07, 95% CI = 0.017-0.131, p = 0.01) and C3a/C3 ratio (beta = 0.07, 95% Cl = 0.015-0.126, p = 0.01) taking possible confounders into account. The association observed was mainly driven by PCB-126.

    Conclusion: In this study involving 992 elderly individuals from the general population, we showed that POPs, mainly PCB-126, were associated with levels of complement system markers indicating that the association of these toxic compounds with downstream disease could be mediated by activation of immune system. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 80.
    Kumar, Jitender
    et al.
    Department of Medical Sciences, Molecular Epidemiology and Science for Life Laboratory, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Lind, P. Monica
    Department of Medical Sciences, Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Salihovic, Samira
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology. Department of Medical Sciences, Cardiovascular Epidemiology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden; MTM Research Centre, School of Science and Technology, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    van Bavel, Bert
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Lind, Lars
    Department of Medical Sciences, Cardiovascular Epidemiology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Ingelsson, Erik
    Department of Medical Sciences, Molecular Epidemiology and Science for Life Laboratory, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Influence of persistent organic pollutants on oxidative stress in population-based samples2014In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 114, p. 303-309Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are a large group of chemicals widely used and produced in various industrial applications. Many cell culture/animal studies have shown that POPs can induce oxidative stress. Since such data is lacking in humans, we conducted a large population-based study to analyze associations between POPs and oxidative stress markers. We measured following POPs; 16 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), 5 organochlorine (OC) pesticides, octachlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin, and polybrominated diphenyl ether 47, and oxidative stress markers; homocysteine, reduced [GSH] and oxidized glutathione [GSSG], glutathione ratio [GSSG/GSH], total glutathione, oxidized low-density lipoprotein [ox-LDL], ox-LDL antibodies, conjugated dienes, baseline conjugated dienes of LDL, and total anti-oxidative capacity in plasma samples collected from 992 70-year old individuals (50% women) from the population-based Prospective Investigation of the Vasculature in Uppsala Seniors (PIVUS) cohort. Linear regression analyses were performed to study the associations between oxidative stress markers and summary measures of POPs including the total toxic equivalence (TEQ), sums of PCBs and BC pesticides (main exposures) while adjusting for potential confounders. In multivariable-adjusted analyses, sum of PCBs showed strong associations with ox-LDL (beta = 0.94; P = 2.9 * 10(-6)). Further, sum of PCBs showed association with glutathione-related markers (GSSG: beta = 0.01; P = 6.0 *10(-7); GSSG/GSH: beta = 0.002; P = 9.7 * 10(-10)), although in reverse direction. Other summary measures did not show any significant association with these markers. In our study of elderly individuals from the general population, we show that plasma levels of POPs are associated with markers of increased oxidative stress thereby suggesting that even low dose background exposure to POPs may be involved in oxidative stress. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 81.
    Kärrman, Anna
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Domingo, Jose L.
    Lab Toxicol & Environm Hlth, Univ Rovira & Virgili, Reus Catalonia, Spain.
    Llebaria, Xavier
    Dept Hlth, Hlth Protect Agcy, Barcelona Catalonia, Spain.
    Nadal, Marti
    Lab Toxicol & Environm Hlth, Univ Rovira & Virgili, Reus Catalonia, Spain.
    Bigas, Esther
    Dept Hlth, Hlth Protect Agcy, Barcelona Catalonia, Spain.
    van Bavel, Bert
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Lindström, Gunilla
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Biomonitoring perfluorinated compounds in Catalonia, Spain: concentrations and trends in human liver and milk samples2010In: Environmental science and pollution research international, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 17, no 3, p. 750-758Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) are global environmental pollutants that bioaccumulate in wildlife and humans. Laboratory experiments have revealed toxic effects such as delayed development, humoral suppression, and hepatotoxicity. Although numerous human blood levels have been reported, little is known about distribution in the human body. Knowledge about PFC distribution and accumulation in the human body is crucial to understanding uptake and subsequent effects as well as to conduct risk assessments. The present study reports PFC levels in human liver and breast milk from a general population living in Catalonia, Spain. Liver and milk levels are compared to previously reported levels in blood from the same geographic area as well as to other existing reports on human liver and milk levels in other countries. Human liver (n = 12) and milk (n = 10) samples were collected in 2007 and 2008 in Catalonia, Spain. Liver samples were taken postmortem from six males and six females aged 27-79 years. Milk samples were from healthy primipara women (30-39 years old). Both liver and milk were analyzed by solid-phase extraction and ultra-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Six PFCs were detected in liver, with perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS, 26.6 ng/g wet weight) being the chemical with the highest mean concentration. Other PFCs such as perfluorohexanesulfonate (PFHxS), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), and acids with chain lengths up to C11 were also detected, with mean levels ranging between 0.50 and 1.45 ng/g wet weight. On the other hand, PFOS and PFHxS were the only PFCs detected in human milk, with mean concentrations of 0.12 and 0.04 ng/mL, respectively. While milk concentrations were similar to reported levels from other countries, liver samples contained more PFCs above quantification limits and higher PFOS concentrations compared to the only two other reports found in the literature. Differences between the results of the present study and those concerning previous investigations can be due to declining levels of some PFCs, which have been reported for the USA. The relationship between PFC concentrations in human liver, milk, and blood was assessed using blood concentrations previously determined in Catalonia. Those levels resulted in liver/serum ratios of 1.7:1, 1.4:1, and 2.1:1 for PFOS, perfluorodecanoic acid, and perfluoroundecanoic acid, respectively. Accumulation in liver is suggested for PFOS and the perfluorocarboxylic acids with carbon chain lengths C9, C10, and C11. For PFOA and PFHxS, fivefold and 14-fold higher concentrations, respectively, were seen in serum as compared to liver. The mean concentration of PFOS and PFHxS in milk was only 0.8% and 0.6% of the reported mean serum level, respectively. The results of the present study show that several PFCs could be detected in human liver samples of subjects living in Tarragona. Concerning human milk, the mechanism by which PFCs are transferred from mother's blood to breast milk is still unclear. Considering that PFCs are strongly bound to the protein fraction in blood, the possibility of PFCs entering the milk and accumulating to levels observed in maternal plasma is limited. Interestingly, the potential accumulation difference for PFCs with different chain lengths might be of great importance for risk assessment. Continuing studies on the distribution of different PFCs in human tissue are therefore justified.

  • 82.
    Kärrman, Anna
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Ericson Jogsten, Ingrid
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Davies, J.
    van Bavel, Bert
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Holsen, A H.
    Laugesen, J.
    Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances in effluents from hazardous waste treatment facilities2014In: Organohalogen Compounds, ISSN 1026-4892, Vol. 76Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 83.
    Kärrman, Anna
    et al.
    Örebro University, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Ericson Jogsten, Ingrid
    Örebro University, Department of Natural Sciences.
    van Bavel, Bert
    Örebro University, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Darnerud, Per Ola
    Aune, Marie
    Glynn, Anders
    Lignell, Sanna
    Lindström, Gunilla
    Örebro University, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Exposure of perfluorinated chemicals through lactation: levels of matched human milk and serum and a temporal trend, 1996-2004, in Sweden2007In: Environmental Health Perspectives, ISSN 0091-6765, Vol. 115, no 2, p. 226-230Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Only limited data exist on lactation as an exposure source of persistent perfluorinated chemicals (PFCs) for children.Objectives We studied occurrence and levels of PFCs in human milk in relation to maternal serum together with the temporal trend in milk levels between 1996 and 2004 in Sweden. Matched, individual human milk and serum samples from 12 primiparous women in Sweden were analyzed together with composite milk samples (25–90 women/year) from 1996 to 2004.Results Eight PFCs were detected in the serum samples, and five of them were also above the detection limits in the milk samples. Perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorohexanesulfonate (PFHxS) were detected in all milk samples at mean concentrations of 0.201 ng/mL and 0.085 ng/mL, respectively. Perfluorooctanesulfonamide (PFOSA), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), and perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) were detected less frequently.Discussion The total PFC concentration in maternal serum was 32 ng/mL, and the corresponding milk concentration was 0.34 ng/mL. The PFOS milk level was on average 1% of the corresponding serum level. There was a strong association between increasing serum concentration and increasing milk concentration for PFOS (r2 = 0.7) and PFHxS (r2 = 0.8). PFOS and PFHxS levels in composite milk samples were relatively unchanged between 1996 and 2004, with a total variation of 20 and 32% coefficient of variation, respectively.Conclusion The calculated total amount of PFCs transferred by lactation to a breast-fed infant in this study was approximately 200 ng/day. Lactation is a considerable source of exposure for infants, and reference concentrations for hazard assessments are needed.

  • 84.
    Kärrman, Anna
    et al.
    Örebro University, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Langlois, Ingrid
    van Bavel, Bert
    Örebro University, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Lindström, Gunilla
    Örebro University, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Oehme, Michael
    Analysis of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) isomers: identification and pattern in human blood from Sweden, the United Kingdom and AustraliaManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 85.
    Kärrman, Anna
    et al.
    Örebro University, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Langlois, Ingrid
    van Bavel, Bert
    Örebro University, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Lindström, Gunilla
    Örebro University, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Oehme, Michael
    Identification and pattern of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) isomers in human serum and plasma2007In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 33, no 6, p. 782-788Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Human serum and plasma from Sweden (n=17), the United Kingdom (the UK) (n=13) and Australia (n=40) were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. The objective was to identify different perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) isomers. Similar isomer patterns typical for the electrochemical fluorination (ECF) process were found for all samples. The linear PFOS (L-PFOS) was the major isomer found (58-70%) followed by the monosubstituted PFOS isomers 1/6-CF(3)-PFOS (18-22%) and 3/4/5-CF(3)-PFOS (13-18%). Disubstituted isomers were also detected. The percentage of L-PFOS found in the serum and plasma samples was lower compared to a standard PFOS product (76-79%). The pattern of PFOS isomers in human serum and plasma may be suggestive concerning potential isomeric discrimination since PFOS is only produced by ECF. Possibilities for such isomer discrimination are discussed. Significant higher content of L-PFOS (68%) in Swedish samples compared to Australia and the UK (59%) was also found, which may suggest differences in exposure sources for humans.

  • 86.
    Kärrman, Anna
    et al.
    Örebro University, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Mueller, Jochen F.
    van Bavel, Bert
    Örebro University, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Harden, Fiona
    Toms, Leisa-Maree L.
    Lindström, Gunilla
    Örebro University, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Levels of 12 perfluorinated chemicals in pooled Australian serum, collected 2002-2003, in relation to age, gender, and region2006In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 40, no 12, p. 3742-3748Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Pooled serum samples from 3802 Australian residents were analyzed for four perfluoroalkylsulfonates, seven perfluoroalkylcarboxylates, and perfluorooctanesulfonamide (PFOSA). Serum was collected from men and women of five different age groups and from rural and urban regions in Australia. The highest mean concentration was obtained for perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS, 20.8 ng/mL) followed by perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA, 7.6 ng/mL), perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS, 6.2 ng/mL), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA, 1.1 ng/mL), and PFOSA (0.71 ng/mL). Additional four PFCs were detected in 5-18% of the samples at concentrations near the detection limits (0.1-0.5 ng/mL). An increase in PFOS concentration with increasing age in both regions and genders was observed. The male pool levels of some of the age groups compared to females were higherfor PFOS, PFOA, and PFHxS. In contrast, PFNA concentrations were higher in the female pools. No substantial difference was found in levels of PFCs between the urban and rural regions. The levels are equal or higher than previously reported serum levels in Europe and Asia but lower compared to the U.S.A. These results suggest that emissions from production in the Northern Hemisphere are of less importance for human exposure.

  • 87.
    Kärrman, Anna
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Parera, J
    Abalos, M
    Van Bavel, Bert
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Abad, E
    Assessing and controlling sample contamination: analytical techniques for scientists2012In: Comprehensive sampling and sample preparation / [ed] Janusz Pawliszyn, Oxford UK: Elsevier, 2012, 1, p. 51-64Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 88.
    Kärrman, Anna
    et al.
    Örebro University, Department of Natural Sciences.
    van Bavel, Bert
    Örebro University, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Järnberg, Ulf
    Hardell, Lennart
    Lindström, Gunilla
    Örebro University, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Development of a solid-phase extraction-HPLC/Single quadrupole MS method for quantification of perfluorochemicals in whole blood2005In: Analytical Chemistry, ISSN 0003-2700, E-ISSN 1520-6882, Vol. 77, no 3, p. 864-870Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A method for the determination of perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) simultaneously with 10 closely related perfluorochemicals (PFCs) in human whole blood was developed and validated. PFOS and PFOA are used in various applications, for example, as surfactants and plastic additives, and are subject to environmental and health research due to their persistence. The main part of the data on PFCs in human blood is from serum samples, analyzed mainly by ion pair extraction followed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and negative electrospray (ESI) tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). The analytical method developed here is suitable for human whole blood and involves solid-phase extraction (SPE) and HPLC negative electrospray single quadrupole mass spectrometry (HPLC/ES-MS). A whole blood aliquot was treated with formic acid and extracted on a octadecyl (C18) SPE column. The PFCs were isolated with methanol, and quantification was performed using single quadrupole mass spectrometry and perfluoroheptanoic acid as internal standard. Validation was performed in the range 0.3-194 ng/mL with recovery between 64 and 112% and limit of detection in the 0.1-0.5 ng/mL range for 11 of the 12 PFCs studied. We applied this method to 20 whole blood samples collected in 1997-2000 from the Swedish population in the ages 24-72. Eleven of the 12 PFCs were detected, and they were quantitatively and qualitatively confirmed using triple quadrupole LC/MS/MS analysis. PFOS, perfluorooctanesulfonamide, perfluorohexanesulfonate, PFOA and perfluorononanoic acid were quantified in all samples. In addition, perfluorohexanoic acid, perfluorodecanoic acid, perfluorodecanesulfonate, perfluoroundecanoic acid, perfluorododecanoic acid, and perfluorotetradecanoic acid were detected in some samples. This study shows that SPE and single quadrupole MS can be applied for extraction and quantification of PFCs in human whole blood, resulting in selectivity and low detection limits.

  • 89.
    Kärrman, Anna
    et al.
    Örebro University, Department of Natural Sciences.
    van Bavel, Bert
    Örebro University, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Järnberg, Ulf
    Hardell, Lennart
    Lindström, Gunilla
    Örebro University, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Perfluorinated chemicals in relation to other persistent organic pollutants in human blood2006In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 64, no 9, p. 1582-1591Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to evaluate blood levels of some perfluorinated chemicals (PFCs) and compare them to current levels of classical persistent organic pollutants (POPs) whole blood samples from Sweden were analyzed with respect to 12 PFCs, 37 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), p,p'-dichlorodiphenyl-dichloroethylene (DDE), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), six chlordanes and three polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). The median concentration, on whole blood basis, of the sum of PFCs was 20-50 times higher compared to the sum of PCBs and p,p'-DDE, 300-450 times higher than HCB, sum of chlordanes and sum of PBDEs. Estimations of the total body amount of PFCs and lipophilic POPs point at similar body burdens. While levels of for example PCBs and PBDEs are normalized to the lipid content of blood, there is no such general procedure for PFCs in blood. The distributions of a number of perfluorinated compounds between whole blood and plasma were therefore studied. Plasma concentrations were higher than whole blood concentrations for four perfluoroalkylated acids with plasma/whole blood ratios between 1.1 and 1.4, whereas the ratio for perflurooctanesulfonamide (PFOSA) was considerably lower (0.2). This suggests that the comparison of levels of PFCs determined in plasma with levels determined in whole blood should be made with caution. We also conclude that Swedish residents are exposed to a large number of PFCs to the same extent as in USA, Japan, Colombia and the few other countries from which data is available today.

  • 90.
    La Merrill, Michele A.
    et al.
    Department of Environmental Toxicology, University of California, Davis CA, USA.
    Lind, P. Monica
    Department of Medical Sciences, Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Salihovic, Samira
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology. Department of Medical Sciences, Molecular Epidemiology and Science for Life Laboratory, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden; Norwegian Institute for Water Research (NIVA), Oslo, Norway.
    van Bavel, Bert
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology. Norwegian Institute for Water Research (NIVA), Oslo, Norway.
    Lind, Lars
    Department of Medical Sciences, Cardiovascular Epidemiology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    The association between p,p'-DDE levels and left ventricular mass is mainly mediated by obesity2018In: Environmental Research, ISSN 0013-9351, E-ISSN 1096-0953, Vol. 160, p. 541-546Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The pesticide metabolite p,p'-DDE has been associated with left ventricular (LV) mass and known risk factors for LV hypertrophy in humans and in experimental models. We hypothesized that the associations of p,p'-DDE with LV hypertrophy risk factors, namely elevated glucose, adiposity and hypertension, mediate the association of p,p'-DDE with LV mass.

    METHODS: p,p'-DDE was measured in plasma from 70-year-old subjects (n = 988) of the Prospective Study of the Vasculature in Uppsala Seniors (PIVUS). When these subjects were 70-, 75- and 80- years old, LV characteristics were measured by echocardiography, while fasting glucose, body mass index (BMI) and blood pressure were assessed with standard clinical techniques.

    RESULTS: We found that p,p'-DDE levels were associated with increased fasting glucose, BMI, hypertension and LV mass in separate models adjusted for sex. Structural equation modeling revealed that the association between p,p'-DDE and LV mass was almost entirely mediated by BMI (70%), and also by hypertension (19%).

    CONCLUSION: The obesogenic effect of p,p'-DDE is a major determinant responsible for the association of p,p'-DDE with LV mass.

  • 91. Lacayo Romero, Martha
    et al.
    Terrazas, Enrique
    van Bavel, Bert
    Örebro University, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Mattiasson, Bo
    Degradation of toxaphene by Bjerkandera sp. strain BOL13 using waste biomass as a cosubstrate2006In: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, ISSN 0175-7598, E-ISSN 1432-0614, Vol. 71, no 4, p. 549-554Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The white-rot fungus Bjerkandera sp. strain BOL13 was capable of degrading toxaphene when supplied with wood chips, wheat husk or cane molasses as cosubstrates in batch culture experiments. Approximately 85% of toxaphene was removed when wheat husk was the main substrate. The production of lignin peroxidase was only stimulated when wheat husk was present in the liquid medium. Although xylanase was always detected, wheat husk supported the highest xylanase production. A negligible amount of beta-glucosidase and cellulase were found in the batch culture medium. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of toxaphene degradation by white-rot fungi.

  • 92. Lacayo-Romero, Martha
    et al.
    Quillaguamán, Jorge
    van Bavel, Bert
    Örebro University, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Mattiasson, Bo
    A toxaphene-degrading bacterium related to Enterobacter cloacae, strain D1 isolated from aged contaminated soil in Nicaragua2005In: Systematic and Applied Microbiology, ISSN 0723-2020, E-ISSN 1618-0984, Vol. 28, no 7, p. 632-639Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Enterobacter sp. strain D1 is a facultative anaerobic, Gram-negative heterotrophic bacterium isolated from toxaphene-contaminated soil. This organism was identified and characterized through phylogenetic and taxonomic studies. Based on 16S rDNA analysis, the strain D1 was clustered closely with the species Enterobacter cloacae subsp. dissolvens (LMG 2683) and E. cloacae (ATCC 13047T). Strain D1 resembled these E. cloacae strains with respect to various biochemical and nutritional characteristics, but also exhibited differences. Moreover, strain D1 is able to grow and survive with toxaphene supplied in the medium in the range 3-96 mg/L. Amongst the chemical components of toxaphene, octachlorocamphenes, nonachlorobornanes and decachlorobornanes were seen to be rapidly metabolized, although levels of hexachlorocamphenes and heptachlorobornanes were found to be slowly degraded, and subsequently accumulated during the last stage of the cultivation.

  • 93. Lacayo-Romero, Martha
    et al.
    van Bavel, Bert
    Örebro University, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Mattiasson, Bo
    Degradation of toxaphene in aged and freshly contaminated soil2006In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 63, no 4, p. 609-615Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Degradation of toxaphene in soil from both newly contaminated (from Sweden) and aged spills (from Nicaragua) were studied. The newly contaminated soil contained approximately 11 mg kg(-1) toxaphene while the aged Nicaraguan soil contained approximately 100 mg kg(-1). Degradation was studied in anaerobic bioreactors, some of which were supplied with lactic acid and others with Triton X-114. In this study we found that the lower isomers Parlar 11, 12 were degraded while the concentration of isomer Parlar 15 increased. This supported an earlier evaluation which indicated that less chlorinated isomers are formed from more heavily isomers. Lactic acid when added to the soil, interfere with the degradation of toxaphene. Lactic acid was added; several isomers appeared to degrade rather slowly in newly contaminated Swedish soil. The Swedish soil, without any external carbon source, showed the slowest degradation rate of all the compounds studied. When Triton X-114 at 0.4 mM was added, the degradation rate of the compounds increased. This study illustrates that biodegradation of toxaphene is a complex process and several parameters have to be taken into consideration. Degradation of persistent pollutants in the environment using biotechnology is dependent on bioavailability, carbon sources and formation of metabolites.

  • 94.
    Lal, Vincent
    et al.
    Institute of Applied Sciences, University of the South Pacific, Suva, Fiji.
    Aalbersberg, William
    Institute of Applied Sciences, University of the South Pacific, Suva, Fiji.
    Fiedler, Heidelore
    United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) Chemicals Branch, Geneva, Switzerland.
    van Bavel, Bert
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    de Boer, Jacob
    Institute for Environmental Studies, Vrije University, Amsterdam, Netherlands.
    Capacity building for persistent organic pollutant (POP) analysis in the Pacific and POP trends in the Pacific Islands2013In: TrAC. Trends in analytical chemistry, ISSN 0165-9936, E-ISSN 1879-3142, Vol. 46, p. 173-177Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article gives an overview of activities relating to the establishment of a regional center of excellence for testing persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in the Pacific Island Region. It highlights the areas of analytical procedures that needed improvement to perform trace-level POP testing in human-breast milk. It describes the actions taken by the POP expert group of the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) Chemicals during inspection visits and in setting up analytical procedures and proficiency tests to achieve acceptable levels of results for testing POPs regionally. It also describes results of early studies on POPs in human-breast milk in several Pacific Island countries, which generally show relatively low levels.

  • 95. Lal, V.V.
    et al.
    Aalbersberg, W.G.
    Fiedler, Heidelore
    United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) Chemicals Branch, Châtelaine GE, Switzerland.
    de Boer, J.
    van Bavel, Bert
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    POPs in developing countries: human milk analysis at Pacific reference laboratory in Fiji Islands2011In: Organohalogen Compounds, ISSN 1026-4892, Vol. 73, p. 789-791Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 96.
    Lampa, Erik
    et al.
    Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Lind, Lars
    Department of Medicine, Uppsala University, University Hospital, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Hermansson, Anna Bornefalk
    Uppsala Clinical Research Center, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Salihovic, Samira
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    van Bavel, Bert
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Lind, P. Monica
    Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    An investigation of the co-variation in circulating levels of a large number of environmental contaminants2012In: Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology, ISSN 1559-0631, E-ISSN 1559-064X, Vol. 22, no 5, p. 476-482Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We are daily exposed to many different environmental contaminants. Mixtures of these contaminants could act together to induce more pronounced effects than the sum of the individual contaminants. To evaluate the effects of such mixtures, it is of importance to assess the co-variance amongst the contaminants. Thirty-seven environmental contaminants representing different classes were measured in blood samples from 1016 individuals aged 70 years. Hierarchical cluster analysis and principal component analysis were used to assess the co-variation among the contaminants. Within each identified cluster, possible marker contaminants were sought for. We validated our findings using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2003--2004 study. Two large clusters could be identified, one representing low/medium chlorinated polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) (<= 6 chlorine atoms), as well as two pesticides and one representing medium/high chlorinated PCBs (>= 6 chlorine atoms). PCBs 118 and 153 could be used as markers for the low/medium chlorinated cluster and PCBs 170 and 209 could be used as markers for the medium/high chlorinated cluster. This pattern was similar to data from the NHANES study. Apart from the PCBs, little co-variation was seen among the contaminants. Thus, a large number of chemicals have to be measured to adequately identify mixtures of environmental contaminants.

  • 97.
    Lampa, Erik
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Lind, Lars
    Dept. of Medicine, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Salihovic, Samira
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    van Bavel, Bert
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Lind, P. Monica
    Occupt and Environ Med, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Mixtures of environmental contaminants and the metabolic syndrome2012In: Toxicology Letters, ISSN 0378-4274, E-ISSN 1879-3169, Vol. 211, no Supplement, p. S35-, article id OS1-2Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 98.
    Larsson, Maria
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Hagberg, Jessika
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Rotander, Anna
    van Bavel, Bert
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Engwall, Magnus
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Chemical and bioanalytical characterisation of PAHs in risk assessment of remediated PAH-contaminated soilsManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are common contaminants in soil at former industrial areas; and in Sweden, some of the most contaminated sites are being remediated. Generic guideline values for soil use after so-called successful remediation actions of PAHcontaminated soil are based on the 16 EPA priority pollutants, which only constitute a small part of the complex cocktail of toxicants in many contaminated soils. The aim of the study was to elucidate if the actual toxicological risks of soil samples from successful remediation projects could be reflected by chemical determination of these PAHs. We compared chemical analysis (GC-MS) and bioassay analysis (H4IIE-luc) of a number of remediated PAH-contaminated soils. The H4IIE-luc bioassay is an aryl hydrocarbon (Ah) receptor-based assay that detects compounds that activate the Ah receptor, one important mechanism for PAH toxicity. Comparison of the results showed that the bioassay-determined toxicity in the remediated soil samples could only be explained to a minor extent by the concentrations of the 16 priority PAHs. The current risk assessment method for PAH-contaminated soil in use in Sweden along with other countries, based on chemical analysis of selected PAHs, is missing toxicologically relevant PAHs and other similar substances. It is therefore reasonable to include bioassays in risk assessment and in the classification of remediated PAH-contaminated soils. This could minimise environmental and human health risks and enable greater safety in subsequent reuse of remediated soils. 

  • 99.
    Larsson, Maria
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Hagberg, Jessika
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Rotander, Anna
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    van Bavel, Bert
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Engwall, Magnus
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Chemical and bioanalytical characterisation of PAHs in risk assessment of remediated PAH-contaminated soils2013In: Environmental science and pollution research international, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 20, no 12, p. 8511-8520Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are common contaminants in soil at former industrial areas; and in Sweden, some of the most contaminated sites are being remediated. Generic guideline values for soil use after so-called successful remediation actions of PAH-contaminated soil are based on the 16 EPA priority pollutants, which only constitute a small part of the complex cocktail of toxicants in many contaminated soils. The aim of the study was to elucidate if the actual toxicological risks of soil samples from successful remediation projects could be reflected by chemical determination of these PAHs. We compared chemical analysis (GC-MS) and bioassay analysis (H4IIE-luc) of a number of remediated PAH-contaminated soils. The H4IIE-luc bioassay is an aryl hydrocarbon (Ah) receptor-based assay that detects compounds that activate the Ah receptor, one important mechanism for PAH toxicity. Comparison of the results showed that the bioassay-determined toxicity in the remediated soil samples could only be explained to a minor extent by the concentrations of the 16 priority PAHs. The current risk assessment method for PAH-contaminated soil in use in Sweden along with other countries, based on chemical analysis of selected PAHs, is missing toxicologically relevant PAHs and other similar substances. It is therefore reasonable to include bioassays in risk assessment and in the classification of remediated PAH-contaminated soils. This could minimise environmental and human health risks and enable greater safety in subsequent reuse of remediated soils.

  • 100.
    Lee, Duk-Hee
    et al.
    Kyungpook National University, Daegu, Republic of Korea.
    Lind, Lars
    Uppsala University Hospital, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Jacobs, David R., Jr.
    University of Minnesota, Minneapolis MN, United States; University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway .
    Salihovic, Samira
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    van Bavel, Bert
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Lind, P. Monica
    Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Associations of persistent organic pollutants with abdominal obesity in the elderly: The Prospective Investigation of the Vasculature in Uppsala Seniors (PIVUS) study2012In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 40, p. 170-178Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: In animal experiments, persistent organic pollutants (POPs) have induced visceral obesity. To address this possibility in humans, we evaluated associations between POPs and abdominal obesity both cross-sectionally and prospectively.

    Methods: Twenty-one plasma POPs (16 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners, 3 organochlorine (OC) pesticides, 1 brominated diphenyl ether (BDE), and 1 dioxin) were measured at baseline in 970 participants aged 70 years of the Prospective Investigation of the Vasculature in Uppsala Seniors (PIVUS), with prospective analyses in 511 participants re-examined after 5 years. Abdominal obesity was defined by an increased waist circumference.

    Results: In the cross-sectional analyses, concentrations of the less chlorinated PCBs, OC pesticides such as p,p'-DDE and dioxin had adjusted odds ratios of 2 to 3 for abdominal obesity. Many relations had inverted U-shapes rather than being linear, particularly in women. In contrast, concentrations of highly chlorinated PCBs were strongly inversely associated with abdominal obesity. In a single model including summary measures of the less chlorinated PCBs, highly chlorinated PCBs, and OC pesticides, both the positive associations and inverse associations strengthened. Similar but somewhat weaker associations were seen between POPs and risk of development of abdominal obesity in the prospective analyses.

    Conclusion: Using both a cross-sectional and a prospective design, low-dose exposure to less chlorinated PCBs, p,p'-DDE, and dioxin, were associated with existence or development of abdominal obesity, while highly chlorinated PCBs had an opposite association in an elderly population, despite the previous observation of higher incident diabetes associated with these same PCBs.

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