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  • 51.
    Jonsson, Inger M.
    et al.
    Örebro University, Department of Restaurant & Culinary Arts. Department of Public Health, Örebro County Council, Sweden, Örebro, Sweden; Nordic School of Public Health, Gothenburg, Sweden .
    Wallin, Anne-Marie
    Department of Public Health, Örebro County Council, Sweden, Örebro, Sweden.
    Hallberg, Lillemor R.-M.
    Nordic School of Public Health, Gothenburg, Sweden .
    Gustafsson, Inga-Britt
    Örebro University, Department of Restaurant & Culinary Arts.
    Choice of food and food traditions in pre-war Bosnia-Herzegovina: focus goup interviews with immigrant women in Sweden2002In: Ethnicity and Health, ISSN 1355-7858, E-ISSN 1465-3419, Vol. 7, no 3, p. 149-161Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: Immigrants in Sweden have on average poorer health than native Swedes, including the risk of nutritional problems. In Sweden's multicultural society there is a need for increased knowledge about eating habits in public health work within health and education. A survey of refugees from Bosnia-Herzegovina living in Sweden was undertaken to describe the choice of food and food traditions in pre-war Bosnia. The purpose was to introduce the subject of food, health and migration into public health work and develop culture-adapted food and health advice.

    Design: Focus-group interviews were undertaken with a total of 20 women refugees from Bosnia-Herzegovina.

    Results: Qualitative data analysis identified a large consumption of bread as a staple food with meat, vegetables, milk, cheese, legumes, egg and fish as additions. Self-sufficiency was noted with milk souring, jam making and the production of sweet fruit drinks. Home made cheese and drying or smoking of meat were common methods of food storage. In child rearing, breast-feeding for 6-8 months was most common. Home made breast milk replacements were made from semolina, rice and 'petit biscuits'.

    Conclusion: Several important factors need to be taken into account when giving culturally adapted food and health advice to Bosnian families, such as encouraging bread, vegetable and legume consumption and giving advice on substituting sweet fruit drinks for natural fruit. One should be conscious of how religious beliefs as well as socio-cultural, historical, ecological, economical and psychological influences may guide food choices.

  • 52.
    Jönsson, Sofie
    et al.
    Örebro University, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Uusitalo, Terhi
    van Bavel, Bert
    Örebro University, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Gustafsson, Inga-Britt
    Örebro University, Department of Restaurant & Culinary Arts.
    Lindström, Gunilla
    Örebro University, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Determination of 2,4,6-trichloroanisole and 2,4,6-tribromoanisole on ng L-1 to pg L-1 levels in wine by soild-phase microextraction and gas chromatography-high-resolution mass spectrometry2006In: Journal of Chromatography A, ISSN 0021-9673, E-ISSN 1873-3778, Vol. 1111, no 1, p. 71-75Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A gas chromatography-high-resolution mass spectrometry (GC-HRMS) method using solid-phase microextraction (SPME) for the determination of 2,4,6-trichloroanisole (TCA) and 2,4,6-tribromoanisole (TBA) in wine at low ng L−1 levels was developed. A robust SPME method was developed by optimizing several different parameters, including type of fiber, salt addition, sample volume, extraction and desorption time. The quantification limit for TCA and TBA in wine was lowered substantially using GC-HRMS in combination with the optimized SPME method and allowed the detection of low analyte concentrations (ng L−1) with good accuracy. Limits of quantification for red wine of 0.3 ng L−1 for TCA and 0.2 ng L−1 for TBA with gas chromatography-negative chemical ionization mass spectrometry and 0.03 ng L−1 for TCA and TBA were achieved using GC-HRMS. The method was applied to 30 wines of which 4 wines were sensorically qualified as cork defected. TCA was found in three of these wines with concentrations in the range 2–25 ng L−1. TBA was not detected in any of the samples.

  • 53.
    Mossberg, Lena
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Hospitality, Culinary Arts & Meal Science.
    Gustafsson, Inga-Britt
    Örebro University, School of Hospitality, Culinary Arts & Meal Science.
    Service: en väg till framgång2008In: Service på restaurang / [ed] Lena Mossberg, Inga-Britt Gustafsson, Lund: Studentlitteratur , 2008, p. 9-15Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

     Att service betyder mycket för att vi som gäster ska få en positiv måltidsupplevelse är väl alla överens om. Det gäller för branschen att förstå de olika delarna i vad som är en måltidsupplevelse och i synnerhet vad service betyder i detta sammanhang. Vi har kort visat FAMM-modellen som visar måltidens fem aspekter varav servicemötet ingår i en av dessa. Att bara peka på att service är viktigt utan att förstå dess innebörd, effekter på lönsamhet och på gästens upplevelse gör att verksamheten har svårt att uppnå en hög och jämn kvalitet. Vid samma restaurangbesök kan gästen komma i kontakt med personal med olika roller och vara inblandade i många servicemöten. Inget möte får gå snett och genomtänkta strategier måste finnas för alla tillfällen. I de följande kapitlen får vi följa olika servicemöten på restaurang som studerats av olika forskare och som förhoppningsvis kan vara till stor nytta för företagare och anställda inom restaurangbranschen, liksom för studenter. Det finns många olika tillvägagångssätt för att studera och mäta servicemöten. Vi har valt olika ansatser och metoder i de olika projekten, som inledningsvis har introducerats men som utvecklas i diskussioner i de följande kapitlen.

  • 54.
    Mossberg, Lena
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Hospitality, Culinary Arts & Meal Science.
    Gustafsson, Inga-BrittÖrebro University, School of Hospitality, Culinary Arts & Meal Science.
    Service på restaurang2008Collection (editor) (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Boken handlar service på restaurang och ingår i ett forskningsprojekt där forskare vid institutionen och två magister studenter studerar olika faser i gästens restaurangbesök- från bokning till betalning. Den första fasen handlar om bokningen och syftet var att belysa restaurangers sätt att bemöta kunden vid telefonbokning, den andra om service vid ankomst med fokus på placering. den tredje om service vid beställning och den fjärde om servitörens beteende vid servering. När det är dags att lämna restaurangen återstår betalning av notan, vilket fokuserar på service vid betalningen. Sist ville vi se om det är vissa speciella servicemöten somär kritiska för gästernas måltidsupplevelser.  Boken är kortare sammanfattningar av studierna och vill man få tillgång till respektive forskningsuppsats så finns de på Studentlitteraturs hemsida: www.studentlitteratur.se/service.

  • 55.
    Nordin, E. E.
    et al.
    Restaurang- och hotellhögskolan - Grythytte akademi, School of Hospitality, Culinary Arts & Meal Science.
    Öström, Åsa
    Örebro University, School of Hospitality, Culinary Arts & Meal Science.
    Gustafsson, Inga-Britt
    Örebro University, School of Hospitality, Culinary Arts & Meal Science.
    Differences in health and taste attitudes among middle age people in Sweden2005In: Culinary arts and sciences V: global and national perspectives / [ed] J.S.A. Edwards, B. Kowrygo, K. Rejman, Bournemouth: The Worshipful Company of Cooks Research Centre at Bornemouth University , 2005, p. 609-609Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 56.
    Nordin, Erika
    et al.
    Restaurang- och hotellhögskolan - Grythytte akademi, School of Hospitality, Culinary Arts & Meal Science.
    Bosander, Fredrik
    Örebro University, School of Hospitality, Culinary Arts & Meal Science.
    Gustafsson, Inga-Britt
    Örebro University, School of Hospitality, Culinary Arts & Meal Science.
    Öström, Åsa
    Örebro University, School of Hospitality, Culinary Arts & Meal Science.
    Sensory evaluation of specific flavours in sauces with various amount of added butter2003In: Culinary arts and sciences IV: global and national perspectives / [ed] John S. A. Edwards, Inga-Britt Gustafsson, Bournemouth: Worshipful Company of Cooks Research Centre at Bournemouth University, UK , 2003, p. 430-439Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 57. Nydahl, M.
    et al.
    Gustafsson, Inga-Britt
    Örebro University, School of Hospitality, Culinary Arts & Meal Science.
    Mohsen, R.
    Becker, W.
    Comparison between optical readable and open-ended weighed food records2009In: Food and Nutrition Research, ISSN 1654-6628, Vol. 53, no 1, p. 1-8Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: A simplified optically readable food record (ORFR) was developed and compared with an openended weighed record (WR). Objective: To compare intake of nutrients and foods using a seven-day ORFR with intake estimated using a seven-day WR. The results from each method were validated against 24-h urine nitrogen excretion and energy intake (EI)/estimated basal metabolic rate (BMR) cut-off values. Design: The study comprised 73 free-living, healthy 70-year-old Swedish men. Dietary data were collected during seven consecutive days, starting either with WR or ORFR. Results: Average intakes of energy and several nutrients were significantly lower when estimated using ORFR than when using WR. However, when adjusted for nutrient density, only a few nutrients were still lower with ORFR. Spearman correlation coefficients between the two methods regarding intakes of energy and energy-yielding nutrients were moderate to high, i.e. 0.4 0.6, while figures for most micro-nutrients were in the range 0.30.5. A large proportion of subjects under-reported their EIs, a higher proportion doing so when using ORFR. Protein intake obtained using ORFR was 31% lower than the values calculated from the 24-h urine nitrogen excretion, and 22% lower than those obtained from WR. Average intakes of milk, cheese and other milk products as well as coffee, tea and alcohol were significantly higher when estimated using ORFR than when using WR, while intakes of vegetables, meat and meat products, fish, bread and cereal products as well as number of sweet foods were significantly lower with ORFR. Conclusions: Based on these results, adjustments of some portion sizes in ORFR are suggested. In view of the advantages of ORFR with respect to lower response burden and rapid processing of data, such adjustments would make ORFR a suitable dietary assessment tool for use in dietary surveys, including larger resourcedemanding epidemiological investigations.

  • 58.
    Nygren, Ingemar Tobias
    et al.
    Örebro University, Department of Restaurant & Culinary Arts.
    Gustafsson, Inga-Britt
    Örebro University, Department of Restaurant & Culinary Arts.
    Haglund, Å.
    Johansson, Lisbeth
    Noble, A. C.
    Flavor changes produced by wine and food interactions: Chardonnay wine and Hollandaise sauce2001In: Journal of sensory studies, ISSN 0887-8250, E-ISSN 1745-459X, Vol. 16, no 5, p. 461-470Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The change in flavor produced by food and wine interactions was explored using descriptive analysis of Hollandaise sauce prepared with two levels of butter and three wines: a Chardonnay which was unoaked, acidified with 1.5 g/L citric acid or aged in oak for one year. To measure the effect of the sauce on wine flavor, the intensity of citrus, buttery, and toasted flavor by mouth and of sourness and bitterness was rated in each wine before and after each sauce was tasted. In a second testing series, lemon, brothy and creamy-butter flavor by mouth and creamy mouthfeel were rated for each sauce before and after tasting each wine. The effect of Hollandaise sauce on wine flavor was greater than the effect of wines on sauce flavor, with the higher fat sauce having a slightly larger effect overall. Sour and bitter flavors of the wines decreased in intensity after Hollandaise sauce was tasted, while the buttery flavor by mouth increased. The toasted flavor decreased significantly in the oaked wine after the sauce had been tasted, while citrus flavor was decreased only for the unoaked wine.

  • 59.
    Nygren, Ingemar Tobias
    et al.
    Örebro University, Department of Restaurant & Culinary Arts.
    Gustafsson, Inga-Britt
    Örebro University, Department of Restaurant & Culinary Arts.
    Johansson, L.
    Perceived flavour changes in white wine after tasting blue mould cheese2002In: Food Service Technology, ISSN 1471-5732, E-ISSN 1471-5740, Vol. 2, no 4, p. 163-171Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The object of this study was to evaluate by descriptive sensory analysis how the sensory perception of dry white wines was affected by prior tasting of blue mould cheese. Trained assessors profiled five commercial white wines before and after tasting each of two blue mould cheeses. The study showed that descriptive sensory analysis could be used to quantify changes in the perception of white wines after the consumption of cheese. For all five wines the main findings were that most of the intensities of perceived flavours and acidity decreased after tasting blue mould cheese.

  • 60.
    Nygren, Ingemar Tobias
    et al.
    Örebro University, Department of Restaurant & Culinary Arts.
    Gustafsson, Inga-Britt
    Örebro University, Department of Restaurant & Culinary Arts.
    Johansson, Lisbeth
    Effects of tasting technique: sequential tasting vs. mixed tasting – on perception of dry white wine and blue mould cheese2003In: Food Service Technology, ISSN 1471-5732, E-ISSN 1471-5740, Vol. 3, no 2, p. 61-69Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The object of this study was to evaluate by means of descriptive sensory analysis the effect of mixed tasting on the perception of dry white wine and blue mould cheese, and to establish whether the tasting technique (sequential vs. mixed tasting) significantly affects this perception. A Swedish blue mould cheese, Bredsjö Blå, and a French blue mould cheese, Roquefort Société, and five commercial types of dry white wine were used. The same panel, selected and trained according to ISO standards, as in Nygren et al. (2002, 2003) carried out the descriptive analyses by means of a mixed tasting technique. The panel scored the same attributes for both cheese and wine as in Nygren et al. (2002, 2003). In general, the original wine attribute scores decreased more by means of mixed tasting technique than by means of sequential, while few changes of the original cheese attribute scores were observed. Overall, mixed tasting gave greater decreasing changes than sequential tasting.

  • 61.
    Nygren, Ingemar Tobias
    et al.
    Örebro University, Department of Restaurant & Culinary Arts.
    Gustafsson, Inga-Britt
    Örebro University, Department of Restaurant & Culinary Arts.
    Johansson, Lisbeth
    Perceived flavour changes in blue mould cheese after tasting white wine2003In: Food Service Technology, ISSN 1471-5732, E-ISSN 1471-5740, Vol. 3, no 3-4, p. 143-150Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The object of this study was to evaluate by descriptive sensory analysis how prior tasting of dry white wine affects the sensory perception of blue mould cheese. Two blue mould cheeses, a Swedish one, Bredsjö Blå (Bredsjö Mjölkfår AB, Sweden), and a French one, Roquefort (Roquefort Société, France), were tasted in combination with five commercial dry white wines. Nine trained assessors assessed the cheeses and the wines in sequential order, with the cheese being assessed before and after tasting the wines. The main findings were that the most pronounced characteristics of the Bredsjö Blå, such as buttery and woolly flavours, and the saltiness and sour taste of the Roquefort, decreased after tasting dry white wine.

  • 62.
    Nygren, Tobias
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Hospitality, Culinary Arts & Meal Science.
    Gustafsson, Inga-Britt
    Örebro University, Department of Restaurant & Culinary Arts.
    Johansson, Lisbeth
    Perceived flavour changes in blue mould cheese after tasting white wine2003In: Culinary arts and sciences IV: global and national perspectives / [ed] John S. A. Edwards, Inga-Britt Gustafsson, Bornemouth: Worshipful Company of Cooks Research Centre at Bournemouth University, UK , 2003, p. 440-448Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 63.
    Nygren, Tobias
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Hospitality, Culinary Arts & Meal Science.
    Gustafsson, Inga-Britt
    Örebro University, School of Hospitality, Culinary Arts & Meal Science.
    Öström, Åsa
    Örebro University, School of Hospitality, Culinary Arts & Meal Science.
    Johansson, L.
    Flavour changes produced by wine and cheeese interactions measured by sensory methodology2001In: Culinary arts and sciences III: global and national perspectives / [ed] John S. A. Edwards, M. M. Hewedi, Bournemouth: Worshipful Company of Cooks Centre for Culinay Research at Bournemouth University , 2001, p. 509-520Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 64.
    Nygren, Tobias
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Hospitality, Culinary Arts & Meal Science.
    Gustafsson, Inga-Britt
    Örebro University, School of Hospitality, Culinary Arts & Meal Science.
    Öström, Åsa
    Risvik, E.
    Preferences for wines and blue mould cheeses in combination2003In: Culinary arts and sciences IV: global and national perspectives / [ed] John S. A. Edwards, Inga-Britt Gustafsson, Bornemouth: Worshipful Company of Cooks Research Centre at Bournemouth University, UK , 2003, p. 460-460Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 65.
    Prim, Mia
    et al.
    Örebro University, Department of Restaurant & Culinary Arts.
    Gustafsson, Inga-Britt
    Örebro University, Department of Restaurant & Culinary Arts.
    Hall, Gunnar
    The appropriateness of ready meals for dinner2007In: Journal of Foodservice, ISSN 1748-0140, Vol. 18, no 6, p. 238-250Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Different meal contexts call for different meal solutions. With the aim of understanding how people reason when choosing what to eat for dinner and how ready meal solutions fit their demands in this meal situation, a focus group study was conducted. Although there is an image of the ideal dinner as being cooked and eaten together with the family, this often conflicts with reality and scarcity of time. The social setting was shown to be of utmost importance in the choice of cooking, place to eat and actual meal. Suggestions were given on how to improve the appropriateness of ready meals for consumption at dinner

  • 66.
    Rapp [Nordin], Erika
    et al.
    Örebro University, Department of Restaurant & Culinary Arts.
    Öström, Åsa
    Örebro University, Department of Restaurant & Culinary Arts.
    Bosander, Fredrik
    Örebro University, School of Hospitality, Culinary Arts & Meal Science.
    Gustafsson, Inga-Britt
    Örebro University, Department of Restaurant & Culinary Arts.
    The sensory effect of butter in culinary sacues2007In: Journal of Foodservice, E-ISSN 1748-0159, Vol. 18, no 1, p. 31-42Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A common belief is that when butter is added to food, a more desired flavour develops and that other flavours are enhanced. The aim of this study was to investigate how different amounts of added butter affected the perceived sensory characteristics of tomato sauce and chicken velouté using sensory analysis. In addition, a preference test was performed for tomato sauce. As more butter was added, the intensity of butter flavour and the viscosity increased, and the other flavour, aroma and taste attributes tested were perceived as being less intense in varying magnitudes. No significant difference was obtained in the preference study, except liking of the appearance among the men who preferred the sauce containing less butter. The results show that a large amount of butter is not always essential, unless it is the flavour and aroma of butter itself that is sought, or if it is necessary to balance the flavour, taste and texture attributes. These results could have a positive health effect for consumers if the use of fat in restaurant kitchens is reduced.

  • 67.
    Rapp [Nordin], Erika
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Hospitality, Culinary Arts & Meal Science.
    Öström, Åsa
    Örebro University, School of Hospitality, Culinary Arts & Meal Science.
    Osika, Walter
    Englund, Anders
    Annett, Judith
    Örebro University, School of Hospitality, Culinary Arts & Meal Science.
    Gustafsson, Inga-Britt
    Örebro University, School of Hospitality, Culinary Arts & Meal Science.
    Preference for full-fat over low-fat foods among individuals suffering from coronary heart disease and healthy controls2009In: Physiology and Behavior, ISSN 0031-9384, E-ISSN 1873-507X, Vol. 98, no 4, p. 489-497Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Dietary behaviour can modify the risks for coronary heart disease (CHD). Dietary fat contributes to the sensory characteristics of many foods, but there are individual differences in liking for regular and reduced fat products. Preference for dietary fat might differ between healthy individuals and those of diagnosed CHD status. Preference for full-fat versus low-fat foods was assessed in a group suffering from CHD (N = 24) and a healthy control group (N = 41). Preferences were evaluated using a series of paired preference tests including 34 food pairs. Further, patterns across fat preference and a range of known risk factors for CHD were examined. The study was conducted in Sweden; March 2004 until May 2006. Overall the full-fat food items were preferred to the low-fat alternatives by both patients and control participants. The pattern of preference responses diverged significantly between patients and controls on only four of the 34 food items, in both directions, why preference related to total fat content per se is not confirmed as differentiating significantly between a group diagnosed with CHD compared to a healthy control group.

  • 68. Rosell, Magdalena
    et al.
    Hellénius, Maj-Lis
    de Faire, Ulf
    Berglund, Lars
    Gustafsson, Inga-Britt
    Örebro University, Department of Restaurant & Culinary Arts.
    Johansson, Gunnar
    Contribution of a manually coded part in an optically readable, precoded sevenday food record for the intake of energy, nutrients and foods2003In: Scandinavian Journal of Nutrition/Næringsforskning, ISSN 1102-6480, E-ISSN 1651-2359, Vol. 47, no 3, p. 123-131Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: This study investigated the contribution of a manually coded part (MP) in a precoded 7 day food record for the intake of energy, nutrients and foods. Design: The dietary intake was assessed in a cross-sectional study using an optically readable precoded 7 day food record. Biological markers for the intakes of protein, sodium and potassium were measured in 24 h urine samples. Underreporters were identified according to the Goldberg cut-off for energy intake:basal metabolic rate. The study setting was an outpatient clinic at Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden. The subjects were 301 healthy men aged 63 years. Results: The MP represented 20% of the energy intake. Intakes recorded as free text were foods commonly eaten between meals, especially in the evening and were, with the exception of fruits, characterized as less healthy. The agreement between using the food record with and without the MP, respectively, was low for energy, carbohydrates, a-tocopherol and vitamin C, and high for retinol, vitamin D and vitamin B12. Underreporters recorded their food intake as free text to a lesser degree than did non-underreporters. When the MP was included in the food record, the percentage of energy from fat and carbohydrates increased and the percentage of energy from protein decreased. The biological markers for protein, sodium and potassium confirmed an improved validity of the dietary data when the MP was included. Conclusions: Inclusion of the food consumption recorded in free text influenced the dietary quality and indicated improved validity of the optically readable precoded food record. To increase the possibility of catching underreporting in dietary surveys, these findings emphasize the importance of the recording/ reporting of between-meal eating. Keywords: biological markers; dietary assessment; in-between meals; precoded food record; underreporting.

  • 69.
    Sjögren, Per
    et al.
    Dept Publ Hlth & Caring Sci, Sect Clin Nutr & Metab, Uppsala Univ, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Becker, Wulf
    Dept Publ Hlth & Caring Sci, Sect Clin Nutr & Metab, Uppsala Univ, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Warensjö, Eva
    Dept Publ Hlth & Caring Sci, Sect Clin Nutr & Metab, Uppsala Univ, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Olsson, Erika
    Dept Publ Hlth & Caring Sci, Sect Clin Nutr & Metab, Uppsala Univ, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Byberg, Liisa
    Uppsala Univ, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Gustafsson, Inga-Britt
    Örebro University, School of Hospitality, Culinary Arts & Meal Science.
    Karlström, Brita
    Dept Publ Hlth & Caring Sci, Sect Clin Nutr & Metab, Uppsala Univ, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Cederholm, Tommy
    Dept Publ Hlth & Caring Sci, Sect Clin Nutr & Metab, Uppsala Univ, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Mediterranean and carbohydrate-restricted diets and mortality among elderly men: a cohort study in Sweden2010In: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, ISSN 0002-9165, E-ISSN 1938-3207, Vol. 92, no 4, p. 967-974Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Comparative studies on dietary patterns and long-term mortality are sparse.

    Objective: The objective was to examine the relations between 10-y mortality and adherence to the World Health Organization dietary guidelines [Healthy Diet Indicator (HDI)], a Mediterranean-like diet, and a carbohydrate-restricted (CR) diet in elderly Swedish men.

    Design: Dietary habits were determined by 7-d dietary records in a population-based longitudinal study of 924 Swedish men (age: 71 ± 1 y). The HDI score (–1 to 8 points), the Mediterranean Diet Score (MDS; 0–8 points), and the CR score (2–20 points) were calculated for each participant. Nonadequate reporters of energy intake were identified (n = 413). Mortality was registered during a median follow-up of 10.2 y. Cox proportional hazards regression, with multivariable adjustments, was used to determine the effects of adherence to each dietary pattern.

    Results: Two hundred fifteen and 88 subjects died of all-cause and cardiovascular disease, respectively. In all individuals, risk relations to mortality for each SD increment in the scores were observed for only MDS, with an adjusted hazard ratio (HR) of 0.83 (95% CI: 0.70, 0.99). Among adequate dietary reporters (n = 511), adjusted HRs for each SD increment in scores were enhanced for MDS (ie, 0.71; 95% CI: 0.55, 0.92) for all-cause mortality and 0.63 (95% CI: 0.42, 0.96) for cardiovascular mortality. Corresponding HRs for CR diet score were 1.19 (95% CI: 0.97, 1.45) for all-cause mortality and 1.44 (95% CI: 1.03, 2.02) for cardiovascular mortality.

    Conclusion: Adherence to a Mediterranean-like dietary pattern reduced mortality, whereas adherence to a CR dietary pattern appeared to increase mortality in elderly Swedish men, especially when only adequate dietary reporters were considered.

  • 70.
    Swahn, Johan
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Hospitality, Culinary Arts & Meal Science.
    Mossberg, Lena
    University of Gothenburg, School of Business, Economics and Law, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Öström, Åsa
    Örebro University, School of Hospitality, Culinary Arts & Meal Science.
    Gustafsson, Inga-Britt
    Örebro University, School of Hospitality, Culinary Arts & Meal Science.
    Different sensory marketing cues affect consumers’ food choice behaviourManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    By combining different methods and theories from sensory analysis and consumer behaviour, we investigated consumer choice of food products in a grocery retail store according to different sensory marketing cues across three observational experiments. Depending on the specific experiment in which they participated, consumers made their choice based on visual appearance, taste, and price; or descriptive labels, taste, and price. When presented with the opportunity to taste the products and examine their prices, the consumers were less likely to change their minds after making their initial choice if this choice was made on the basis of sensory description labels. Consumers were less price sensitive when sensory description labels were used. Our results reveal some practical implications for how to use a sensory language for food products as a marketing tool, and how to combine the research disciplines of sensory analysis and consumer behaviour.

  • 71.
    Swahn, Johan
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Hospitality, Culinary Arts & Meal Science.
    Mossberg, Lena
    School of Business, Economics and Law, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Öström, Åsa
    Örebro University, School of Hospitality, Culinary Arts & Meal Science.
    Gustafsson, Inga-Britt
    Örebro University, School of Hospitality, Culinary Arts & Meal Science.
    Sensory description labels for food affect consumer product choice2012In: European Journal of Marketing, ISSN 0309-0566, E-ISSN 1758-7123, Vol. 46, no 11/12, p. 1628-1646Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose - This observational study set out to investigate the effect of sensory description labels on consumer choice of apples in a grocery retail store.

    Design/methodology/approach - An independent observation study was conducted in a retail grocery store setting. A total of 1623 consumers were observed over a four day period in four different sessions, each using three apple varieties (JONAGOLD, INGRID MARIE, and ELISE). Marketing strategies differed between the sessions as follows: (1) sort name labelling only, (2) sort name and sensory description labelling, (3) sort name and sensory semantic description labelling, and (4) sort name labelling and allowing consumers to taste the apples before choosing.

    Findings - Consumer product choice was affected by the sensory description labels. When only the sort name was given on the label, the consumers tended to choose INGRID MARIE, which has a strong sort name. With the addition of sensory description labels, the consumer choice shifted to ELISE, which had been chosen with a low frequency when only sort name was given, but was chosen with a high frequency when sensory description labelling was used.

    Research limitations/implications - The study was limited to red apples and one national market.

    Practical implications - Practitioners, managers, and marketers may benefit from using proper sensory labelling as a marketing tool for various food products, such as a apples, in a grocery retail store.

    Originality/value - This study shows the importance and value of sensory description label marketing for food products in grocery retail stores. Little attention has previously been paid to the research area within sensory marketing communication concerning the interplay of sensory perception of food and the formulation of marketing labels, or taste marketing. This paper also addresses the possible interaction between the disciplines of sensory and marketing science

  • 72.
    Swahn, Johan
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Hospitality, Culinary Arts & Meal Science.
    Öström, Åsa
    Örebro University, School of Hospitality, Culinary Arts & Meal Science.
    Larsson, Ulf
    Örebro University, School of Hospitality, Culinary Arts & Meal Science.
    Gustafsson, Inga-Britt
    Örebro University, School of Hospitality, Culinary Arts & Meal Science.
    Sensory and semantic language model for red apples2010In: Journal of sensory studies, ISSN 0887-8250, E-ISSN 1745-459X, Vol. 25, no 4, p. 591-615Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study (1) examines the sensory attributes of a large group of red apples and compares consumer perceptions of them with those of a trained sensory panel; and (2) uses a sensory semantic frame classification to analyze the vocabulary used. Descriptive analysis was carried out with the trained panel, while a simplified version of the repertory grid method was used for one-to-one interviews with consumers. The perceptions expressed by the consumers correlated quite well with the terminology used by the trained panel, and the two groups used many identical words when describing the apples' texture, flavor and taste according to partial least squares regression. A sensory semantic frame was constructed based on the vocabulary used by the two groups. The combination of sensory and semantic analysis could be one way of extracting valuable words for use in contexts such as product description for marketing purposes in retail stores.

  • 73.
    Tellström, Richard
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Hospitality, Culinary Arts & Meal Science.
    Gustafsson, Inga-Britt
    Örebro University, School of Hospitality, Culinary Arts & Meal Science.
    Fjellström, Christina
    Food culture as a political tool: meal construction during the Swedish EU chairmanship 20012003In: Culinary arts and sciences IV: global and national perspectives / [ed] John S. A. Edwards, Inga-Britt Gustafsson, Bournemouth: Worshipful Company of Cooks Research Centre at Bournemouth University , 2003, p. 341-352Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 74.
    Tellström, Richard
    et al.
    Örebro University, Department of Restaurant & Culinary Arts.
    Gustafsson, Inga-Britt
    Örebro University, Department of Restaurant & Culinary Arts.
    Fjellström, Christina
    Food culture as a political tool: meal construction during the Swedish EU-chairmanship 20012003In: Food Service Technology, ISSN 1471-5732, E-ISSN 1471-5740, Vol. 3, no 2, p. 89-96Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to analyse how the European Union (EU) ministerial meals during Sweden's EU-chairmanship 2001 were devised, and how the official representatives of Sweden chose to interpret and present a national image based on local and regional food identities. The manufacture of the Swedish culinary profile was compared with the same process during Finland's EU-chairmanship 1999 and Denmark's EU-chairmanship 2002. Sixteen professionals involved in the decision-making process in the three countries were interviewed in 2001 and 2002. The regional food profile chosen in Sweden supported different political goals such as the idea of the production of local food and local economic development. Local and regional food culture had a broad and open definition, but the decisions as to what constituted local and regional food culture as served at the ministerial meals were made at the top political level. The central decision-making process transformed the concept of a typical local and regional food culture into a political tool serving political goals, with the end product presented at different EU-ministerial meals.

  • 75.
    Tellström, Richard
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Hospitality, Culinary Arts & Meal Science.
    Gustafsson, Inga-Britt
    Örebro University, School of Hospitality, Culinary Arts & Meal Science.
    Lindgren, Håkan
    Constructed national food and meal archetypes at international exhibitions from Paris 1867 to Aichi 20052008In: National Identities, ISSN 1460-8944, E-ISSN 1469-9907, Vol. 10, no 3, p. 313-327Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines the selection of food culture objects by the Swedish state for presentation at the international exhibitions (world fairs) of 1851 to 2005, and in particular the methodologies used by Swedish National Exhibition Committees to select representative national food culture to be served in national exhibition arenas. The material used consists of government documents from 1846 to 2000, semi-structured interviews of six civil servants responsible for the joint Scandinavian pavilion at the Aichi International Exhibition in 2005 (Japan), field diary notes and photographs from observations, and exhibition brochures. The process of political selection in creating a representative national food cultural heritage, with the aim of promoting the sale of national produce and a positive reputation abroad, as well as of fostering national pride at home, is delineated. The importance of economic and marketing values in shaping a national cultural form designed as a symbol of the nation is examined, and the question of whose food cultures are selected for inclusion and whose are excluded are addressed.

  • 76.
    Tellström, Richard
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Hospitality, Culinary Arts & Meal Science.
    Gustafsson, Inga-Britt
    Örebro University, School of Hospitality, Culinary Arts & Meal Science.
    Mossberg [Larsson-Mossberg], Lena
    Örebro University, School of Hospitality, Culinary Arts & Meal Science.
    Branding local and regional food culture in Sweden2005In: Culinary arts and sciences V: global and national perspectives / [ed] J.S.A. Edwards, B. Kowrygo, K. Rayman, Bournemoth: The Worshipful Company of Cooks Reserach Centre at Bournemouth University , 2005, p. 469-469Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 77.
    Tellström, Richard
    et al.
    Örebro University, Department of Restaurant & Culinary Arts.
    Gustafsson, Inga-Britt
    Örebro University, Department of Restaurant & Culinary Arts.
    Mossberg, Lena
    Consuming heritage: the use of local food culture in branding2006In: Place Branding, ISSN 1744-070X, Vol. 2, no 2, p. 130-143Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this paper was to examine how specialised food marketing consultants interpret local and regional food culture and locality in branding food products to match consumer ideals. Interview data were collected from eight food marketing consultants. The interviews were conducted in two parts: semi-structured interviews, followed by confrontation with actual 'stimulus products'. The data were analysed using current theories on country-of-origin. Results indicate that an association to an alleged origin in a local or regional food culture is seen as an attractive way to interest the urban consumer in new food product brands. The marketing consultants conceive of local and regional food culture as an invention to reflect urban consumers' ideas of the countryside.

  • 78.
    Tellström, Richard
    et al.
    Örebro University, Department of Restaurant & Culinary Arts.
    Gustafsson, Inga-Britt
    Örebro University, Department of Restaurant & Culinary Arts.
    Mossberg, Lena
    Örebro University, Department of Restaurant & Culinary Arts.
    Local food cultures in the Swedish rural economy2005In: Sociologia Ruralis, ISSN 0038-0199, E-ISSN 1467-9523, Vol. 45, no 4, p. 346-359Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A rising interest in the commercial benefits of locally and regionally connoted food culture for rural development is notable in Sweden. Local and regional food culture is used as a tool both to encourage the rural economy, but also to fulfil urban residents' dreams of an authentic rural idyll. A qualitative study of a government project involving ten rural food businesses was performed to analyse how local food culture was used as a business advantage. The managers were interviewed and their conceptions analysed using company documents, observational notes and photographs. The results revealed that the managers do use food culture to gain a competitive advantage. They produce only those products that signal perceived 'good taste' and those that best reflect urban customers' ideas of rurality. It is also important to satisfy their kitchen staff's demands to work with developing urban food trends, otherwise the managers risk losing skilled staff. Rural customers are of minor day-to-day economic value, except when using the restaurant on festive occasions. But on those occasions, rural customers demand meals prepared in an urban classical style, not the local and regional food culture they eat at home. The most advantageous local and regional food culture for rural development is therefore that which best combines the urban ideal of the countryside, authentic rural products, and the rural ideal of urban classical cuisine.

  • 79. Vessby, B.
    et al.
    Gustafsson, Inga-Britt
    Örebro University, Department of Restaurant & Culinary Arts.
    Tengblad, S.
    Boberg, M.
    Andersson, A.
    Desaturation and elongation of fatty acids and insulin action2002In: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, ISSN 0077-8923, E-ISSN 1749-6632, Vol. 967, p. 183-195Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Insulin resistance is characterized by specific changes of the composition of fatty acids in the serum lipids and in the skeletal muscle membranes. Impaired insulin sensitivity is associated with high proportions of palmitic (16:0) acid and low levels of linoleic (18:2 n-6) acid in serum. In addition, there are apparent changes of the fatty acid desaturase activities, suggesting an increased activity of the Delta9 and Delta6 desaturases and a decreased activity of the Delta5 desaturase. The activity of the fatty acid desaturases is regulated by long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids and insulin and is probably also dependent on the degree of physical activity. A high ratio between arachidonic (20:4 n-6) and dihomo-gamma linolenic (20:3 n-6) acid, as a measure of Delta5 desaturase activity, in the skeletal muscle phospholipids has been related to good insulin sensitivity. Available knowledge seems to indicate that the degree of saturation of the body lipids, and especially the proportion of palmitic acid in the lipid membranes, may be critical for insulin sensitivity. The strong relationships between the Delta5 desaturase activity, a high content of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in the skeletal muscle, and insulin sensitivity may be due to parallel effects of diet and/or physical activity on the fatty acid composition and on insulin sensitivity.

  • 80.
    Vessby, Bengt
    et al.
    Department of Public Health and Carings Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Meatbolism, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Gustafsson, Inga-Britt
    Örebro University, School of Hospitality, Culinary Arts & Meal Science.
    Tengblad, Siv
    Berglund, Lars
    Uppsala Clinical Research Centre, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Indices of fatty acid desaturase activity in healthy human subjects: effects of different types of dietary fat2013In: British Journal of Nutrition, ISSN 0007-1145, E-ISSN 1475-2662, Vol. 110, no 5, p. 871-879Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Delta 9-Desaturase (stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1, SCD-1) regulates the desaturation of SFA, mainly stearic and palmitic, to MUFA. Delta 6-Desaturase (D6D) and Delta 5-desaturase (D5D) are involved in the metabolism of linoleic and alpha-linolenic acid to polyunsaturated metabolites. The objective of the present study was to study the effects of different types of dietary fat on indices of fatty acid desaturase (FADS) activity (evaluated as product: precursor ratios) in plasma and skeletal muscle in human subjects. A high SCD-1 index has been related to obesity and metabolic disorders, while the D5D index is associated with insulin sensitivity. Fatty acid composition of serum and skeletal muscle lipids was analysed by GLC during a randomised, controlled, 3-month dietary intervention in healthy subjects. A comparison of the effects of a diet containing butter fat (SFA, n 17) with a diet containing monounsaturated fat (MUFA, n 17), keeping all other dietary components constant, showed a reduced SCD-1 activity index by 20% on the MUFA diet compared with the SFA diet assessed in serum cholesteryl esters. The D6D and D5D indices remained unaffected. Supplementation with long-chain n-3 fatty acids reduced the SCD-1 index by a similar magnitude while the D6D index decreased and the D5D index increased. It is concluded that changes in the type of fat in the diet affect the indices of FADS activity in serum and skeletal muscle in human subjects. The desaturase activity indices estimated from the serum lipid ester composition are significantly related to corresponding indices studied in skeletal muscle phospholipids.

  • 81.
    Warensjö, Eva
    et al.
    Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism, Department of Public health and Caring sciences, Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Risérus, Ulf
    Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism, Department of Public health and Caring sciences, Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Gustafsson, Inga-Britt
    Örebro University, School of Hospitality, Culinary Arts & Meal Science.
    Mohsen, Rawya
    Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism, Department of Public health and Caring sciences, Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Cederholm, Tommy
    Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism, Department of Public health and Caring sciences, Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Vessby, Bengt
    Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism, Department of Public health and Caring sciences, Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Effects of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids on estimated desaturase activities during a controlled dietary intervention2008In: NMCD. Nutrition Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases, ISSN 0939-4753, E-ISSN 1590-3729, Vol. 18, no 10, p. 683-690Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background and aims

    Direct measurement of desaturase activities are difficult to obtain in humans. Consequently, surrogate measures of desaturase activity (estimated desaturase activities) have been frequently used in observational studies, and estimated Δ9- (or stearoyl-CoA-desaturase (SCD)), Δ6- and Δ5-desaturase activities have been associated with cardiometabolic disease. Data on how the markers of desaturase activities are modified by changes in dietary fat quality are lacking and therefore warrant examination.

    Methods and results

    In a two-period (three weeks) strictly controlled cross-over study, 20 subjects (six women and 14 men) consumed a diet high in saturated fat (SAT-diet) and a rapeseed oil diet (RO-diet), rich in oleic acid (OA), linoleic acid (LA) and α-linolenic acid (ALA). Estimated desaturase activities were calculated as precursor to product FA ratios in serum cholesteryl esters and phospholipids. The estimated SCD [16:1 n-7/16:0] and Δ6-desaturase [20:3 n-6/18:2 n-6] was significantly higher while Δ5-desaturase [20:4 n-6/20:3 n-6] was significantly lower in the SAT-diet (P < 0.001 for all), compared to the RO-diet. The serum proportions of palmitic, stearic, palmitoleic and dihomo-γ-linolenic acids were significantly higher in the SAT-diet while the proportions of LA and ALA were significantly higher in the RO-diet.

    Conclusion

    This is the first study to demonstrate that surrogate measures of desaturase activities change as a consequence of an alteration in dietary fat quality. Both the [16:1/16:0]-ratio and 16:1 seem to reflect changes in saturated fat intake and may be useful markers of saturated fat intake in Western countries.

  • 82.
    Öström, Åsa
    et al.
    Örebro University, Department of Restaurant & Culinary Arts.
    Nygren, Tobias
    Örebro University, Department of Restaurant & Culinary Arts.
    Gustafsson, Inga-Britt
    Örebro University, Department of Restaurant & Culinary Arts.
    Consumer preference for combinations of wine and blue mould cheese influenced by eating and drinking attitudes2005In: Culinary Arts and Sciences: Global and National Perspectives / [ed] Edwards JSA, Kowrygo B, Rejman K, Bornemouth: The Worshipful Company of Cooks Research Centre at Bornemouth University , 2005Conference paper (Other academic)
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