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  • 51. Berger, Urs
    et al.
    Kaiser, Mary A.
    Kärrman, Anna
    Örebro universitet, Akademin för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Barber, Jonathan L.
    van Leeuwen, Stefan P. J.
    Recent developments in trace analysis of poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances2011Inngår i: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry, ISSN 1618-2642, E-ISSN 1618-2650, Vol. 400, nr 6, s. 1625-1635Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

     Recent developments, improvements, and trends in the ultra-trace determination of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in environmental and human samples are highlighted and the remaining challenges and uncertainties are outlined and discussed. Understanding the analytical implications of such things as adsorption of PFASs to surfaces, effects of differing matrices, varying PFAS isomer response factors, potential bias effects of sampling, sample preparation, and analysis is critical to measuring highly fluorinated compounds at trace levels. These intricate analytical issues and the potential consequences of ignoring to deal with them correctly are discussed and documented with examples. Isomer-specific analysis and the development of robust multi-chemical methods are identified as topical trends in method development for an ever-increasing number of PFASs of environmental and human interest. Ultimately, the state-of-the-art of current analytical method accuracy is discussed on the basis of results from interlaboratory comparison studies.

  • 52. Bergknut, Magnus
    et al.
    Kucera, Adam
    Frech, Kristina
    Andersson, Erika
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap.
    Engwall, Magnus
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap.
    Rannug, Ulf
    Koci, Vladimir
    Andersson, Patrik L.
    Haglund, Peter
    Tysklind, Mats
    Identification of potentially toxic compounds in complex extracts of environmental samples using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and multivariate data analysis2007Inngår i: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, ISSN 0730-7268, E-ISSN 1552-8618, Vol. 26, nr 2, s. 208-217Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, we examined 31 samples of varying chemical composition, including samples of soils from gasworks, coke production sites, and sites where wood preservatives were heavily used; ash and soot from municipal solid waste incinerators; antiskid sand; and dust from areas with heavy road traffic. The samples were comprehensively chemically characterized, especially their polycyclic aromatic compound contents, using gas chromatography-time-of-flight mass spectrometry, whereas their biological effects were assessed using dehydrogenase activity, root growth (Hordeum vulgare), reproduction of springtails (Folsomia candida), algal growth (Desmodesmus subspicatus), germinability (Sinapis alba), Vibrio fischeri, DR-CALUX, and Ames Salmonella assays. The number of compounds detected in the samples ranged from 123 to 527. Using the multivariate regression technique of partial-least-squares projections to latent structures, it was possible to find individual compounds that exhibited strong correlations with the different biological responses. Some of the results, however, indicate that a broader chemical characterization may be needed to identify all the compounds that may cause the measured biological responses.

  • 53.
    Berglund, Åsa
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Coping with climate change: Social ecological resilience to climate change for smallholding farms in Portland, Jamaica. Analysing the implementation of the pineapple variety MD2.2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    In Portland Jamaica, smallholding farmers are facing major challenges in terms of economic uncertainty and climate change. This study is analyzing a project which aims at increasing farmers ability to adapt to climate change. The objective of the project is to introduce the pineapple variety MD2 for smallholder farmers in Portland Jamaica. The main objective of this study is to investigate which aspects of the project that could increase or decrease buffering capability in the context of social-ecological resilience. The study is conducted during a minor field study during eight weeks in Portland, Jamaica. Data was collected through observation on farms together with semi-structured interviews with farmers and initiators of the project. The results have been analyzed through the theory of social-ecological resilience (Danhofer et al, 2011). Even though there are many aspects which could influence buffering capability, the study outlines some aspects of the implementation of the pineapple variety MD2 that could increase or decrease farmers buffering capability. Aspects which could increase buffering capability are; generating an alternative income and providing and introducing beneficial farming practices which could limit soil erosion on hillside land. Aspects which are threatening to decrease farmers buffering capability are; lack of knowledge and previous experience of the crop variety, usage of chemical means of control and lack of inputs of organic material.

  • 54.
    Binnington, Matthew J
    et al.
    Department of Physical and Environmental Sciences, University of Toronto Scarborough, Toronto, Canada.
    Lei, Ying D
    Department of Physical and Environmental Sciences, University of Toronto Scarborough, Toronto, Canada.
    Pokiak, Lucky
    Tuktoyaktuk Hunters and Trappers Committee, Tuktoyaktuk, Canada.
    Pokiak, James
    Tuktoyaktuk Hunters and Trappers Committee, Tuktoyaktuk, Canada.
    Ostertag, Sonja K
    Freshwater Institute, Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Winnipeg, Canada.
    Loseto, Lisa L
    Freshwater Institute, Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Winnipeg, Canada.
    Chan, Hing M
    Department of Biology, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Canada .
    Yeung, Leo W. Y.
    Department of Chemistry, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada .
    Huang, Haiyong
    Department of Physical and Environmental Sciences, University of Toronto Scarborough, Toronto, Canada .
    Wania, Frank
    Department of Physical and Environmental Sciences, University of Toronto Scarborough, Toronto, Canada .
    Effects of preparation on nutrient and environmental contaminant levels in Arctic beluga whale (Delphinapterus leucas) traditional foods2017Inngår i: Environmental Science: Processes & Impacts, ISSN 2050-7887, E-ISSN 2050-7895, Vol. 19, nr 8, s. 1000-1015Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    For Canadian Arctic indigenous populations, marine mammal (MM) traditional foods (TFs) represent sources of both important nutrients and hazardous environmental contaminants. Food preparation is known to impact the nutrient and environmental contaminant content of processed items, yet the impacts of preparation on indigenous Arctic MM TFs remain poorly characterized. In order to determine how the various processes involved in preparing beluga blubber TFs affect their levels of nutrients and environmental contaminants, we collected blubber samples from 2 male beluga whales, aged 24 and 37 years, captured during the 2014 summer hunting season in Tuktoyaktuk, Northwest Territories, and processed them according to local TF preparation methods. We measured the levels of select nutrients [selenium (Se), polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs)] and contaminants [organochlorine pesticides, perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers, polychlorinated biphenyls, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), mercury (Hg)] in raw and prepared (boiled, roasted, aged) beluga blubber TFs. The impacts of beluga blubber TF preparation methods on nutrient and environmental contaminant levels were inconsistent, as the majority of processes either did not appear to influence concentrations or affected the two belugas differently. However, roasting and ageing beluga blubber consistently impacted certain compounds: roasting blubber increased concentrations of hydrophilic substances (Se and certain PFASs) through solvent depletion and deposited PAHs from cookfire smoke. The solid-liquid phase separation involved in ageing blubber depleted hydrophilic elements (Se, Hg) and some ionogenic PFASs from the lipid-rich liquid oil phase, while PUFA levels appeared to increase, and hydrophobic persistent organic pollutants were retained. Ageing blubber adjacent to in-use smokehouses also resulted in considerable PAH deposition to processed samples. Our findings demonstrated that contaminant concentration differences were greater between the two sets of whale samples, based on age differences, than they were within each set of whale samples, due to variable preparation methods. When considering means to minimize human contaminant exposure while maximizing nutrient intake, consumption of aged liquid from younger male whales would be preferred, based on possible PUFA enhancement and selective depletion of hydrophilic environmental contaminants in this food item.

  • 55.
    Bjurlid, Filip
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Dam, Maria
    Faroe Islands' Environment Agency, Argir, Denmark.
    Hoydal, Katrin
    Faroe Islands' Environment Agency, Argir, Denmark.
    Hagberg, Jessika
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik. Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Occurrence of polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans (PBDD/Fs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in pilot whales (Globicephala melas) caught around the Faroe Islands2018Inngår i: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 195, s. 11-20Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Blubber from Faroese pilot whales (Globicephala melas) was analysed for brominated dioxins PBDD/Fs, with a subset also analysed for chlorinated dioxins, PCDD/Fs. The studied individuals were restricted to juvenile male whales sampled in the Faroe Islands during the period 1997–2013. Among the PBDD/Fs, the furans were predominant, although the relative abundance of various congeners differed between samples. Furans accounted for, on average, 79% of the ∑PBDD/Fs in the samples, with 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpBDF the most abundant congener, found in half of the analysed pilot whales. The concentration range for ∑PBDD/Fs among the samples was 0.080–71 pg/g l.w. (lipid weight), and the sum of toxic equivalents ranged from 0.0039 to 4.7 pg TEQ/g l.w. No relationship was found between PBDD/Fs and PCDD/Fs. In addition, 20 pilot whale samples from the period 2010–2013 were analysed for PBDEs. Several PBDE congeners were found in all of the sampled pilot whales, and at noticeably higher levels than PBDD/Fs and PCDD/Fs. The ∑PBDEs ranged from 140 to 1900 ng/g l.w., with BDE #47 the most abundant congener detected in the samples. Results from the present study were then compared with data from previous studies on pilot wales to investigate temporal trends between 1986 and 2013. The comparison indicated that PBDE concentrations in juvenile males have decreased from 1996 to the latest observations in 2013. No relationship between the concentration levels of PBDD/Fs and PBDEs in the sampled pilot whales could be identified, which indicates possible differences in the metabolism of, or exposure to, PBDEs and PBDD/Fs.

  • 56.
    Bjurlid, Filip
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Kärrman, Anna
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Ricklund, Niklas
    Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden.
    Hagberg, Jessika
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik. Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Faculty of Medicine and Health, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Occurrence of brominated dioxins in a study using various firefighting methods2017Inngår i: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 599-600, s. 1213-1221Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of different firefighting methods influences how fast a fire is extinguished and how fast the temperature drops in the area affected by the fire. These differences may also influence the formation of harmful pollutants during firefighting of an accidental fire. The aim was to study occurrence of brominated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans (PBDD/Fs) in gas and soot during five fire scenarios resembling a small apartment fire and where different firefighting methods were used. Samples of gas and soot were taken both during the buildup of the fire and during the subsequent extinguishing of the fire while using different firefighting methods (nozzle, compressed air foam system, cutting extinguisher) and an extinguishing additive. New containers equipped with identical sets of combustible material were used for the five tests. The use of different firefighting methods and extinguishing additive induced variations in concentration and congener profiles of detected PBDD/Fs. The concentration range of Sigma PBDD/Fs in gas was 4020-18,700 pg/m(3), and in soot 76-4092 pg/m(2). PBDFs were the predominant congeners and 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpBDF was the most abundant congener. Chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans (PCDD/Fs) were also monitored. The PBDD/Fs contributed with in average 97% to the total (PCDD/Fs plus PBDD/Fs) toxic equivalents, in soot and gas. During extinguishing, the shorter time the temperature was around 300 degrees C, the lower occurrence of PBDD/Fs. In the study the firefighting methods showed a difference in how effectively they induced a temperature decrease below 300 degrees C in the fire zone during quenching, where cutting extinguishing using additive and the compressed air foam system showed the fastest drop in temperature.

  • 57.
    Bjurlid, Filip
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Roos, Anna
    Department of Environmental Research and Monitoring, Swedish Museum of Natural History, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ericson Jogsten, Ingrid
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Hagberg, Jessika
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik. Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Temporal trends of PBDD/Fs, PCDD/Fs, PBDEs and PCBs in ringed seals from the Baltic Sea (Pusa hispida botnica) between 1974 and 20152018Inngår i: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 616-617, s. 1374-1383Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Temporal trends in exposure to persistent organic pollutants (POPs) were assessed in 22 pooled samples gathered from 69 individuals of Baltic ringed seal (Pusa hispida botnica) from 1974 to 2015. Samples were analysed for polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans (PBDD/Fs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans (PCDD/Fs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). No previous study has reported on the occurrence of PBDD/Fs in marine mammals in the Baltic Sea. Concentrations of pollutants in Baltic ringed seal, a marine mammal and top predator, can be used as an indicator of pollutants concentrations in the Baltic region.

    Visual inspection of data did not show any temporal trends for PBDD/Fs, while the PCDD/Fs and PCBs showed decreasing concentrations between 1974 and 2015. PBDEs increased until the end of the 1990s and then decreased until the end of the period. ∑ PBDD/Fs ranged from 0.5–52.3 pg/g lipid weight (l.w.) (0.08–4.8 pg TEQ/g l.w.), with 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpBDF contributing on average 61% to ∑ PBDD/Fs. ∑ PCDD/Fs ranged from 103 to 1480 pg/g l.w. (39–784 pg TEQ/g l.w.), with 1,2,3,6,7,8-HxCDD, 1,2,3,7,8-PeCDD and 2,3,4,7,8-PeCDF showing the highest average concentrations. PBDD/F toxic equivalents (TEQ) contributed on average 1.1% to the total (PBDD/F + PCDD/F) TEQ. The ∑ PBDEs concentration range was 18.7–503 ng/g l.w., with BDE #47 the predominant congener. The concentration range for ∑ PCBs was 2.8–40.1 μg/g l.w., with #138 and #153 the most abundant congeners. Visual inspection of the data showed decreasing concentrations for all compound groups except PBDD/Fs. A slight increase in the PBDD/Fs concentrations was observed from 2004 onwards. This observation needs to be investigated further.

  • 58.
    Björkblom, Carina
    et al.
    Laboratory of Aquatic Pathobiology, Åbo Akademi University, Turku, Finland.
    Högfors, Eva
    Laboratory of Aquatic Pathobiology, Åbo Akademi University, Turku, Finland.
    Salste, Lotta
    Laboratory of Organic Chemistry, Åbo Akademi University, Turku, Finland.
    Bergelin, Eija
    Laboratory of Wood and Paper Chemistry, Åbo Akademi University, Turku, Finland.
    Olsson, Per-Erik
    Örebro universitet, Akademin för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Katsiadaki, Ioanna
    Cefas Weymouth Laboratory, Weymouth, United Kingdom.
    Wiklund, Tom
    Laboratory of Aquatic Pathobiology, Åbo Akademi University, Turku, Finland.
    Estrogenic and androgenic effects of municipal wastewater effluent on reproductive endpoint biomarkers in three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus)2009Inngår i: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, ISSN 0730-7268, E-ISSN 1552-8618, Vol. 28, nr 5, s. 1063-1071Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Municipal wastewater treatment plants have been associated with the release of endocrine-disrupting chemicals, which consequently lead to alterations of reproductive function in aquatic organisms. The three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) has quantifiable biomarkers for assessment of both estrogen (vitellogenin) and androgen (spiggin) activity, which makes this species very valuable in the research of endocrine disruption. The estrogenic and androgenic biomarkers were used for evaluating exposure effects of municipal wastewater effluent. We evaluated the effects of 17alpha-ethinylestradiol (EE2), 17alpha-methyltestosterone (MT), and wastewater effluents on induction of vitellogenin and spiggin production, gonadosomatic index, hepatosomatic index, nephrosomatic index, plasma steroid levels, and histopathology. Adult female and male sticklebacks were exposed to 20 ng/L of EE2, 10 microg/L of MT, and wastewater effluent (10, 50, and 80% of original concentration) in a flow-through system for an exposure of one week and an extended exposure of four weeks. Chemical analyses of the steroids were done for verification of exposure concentrations and presence in the used wastewater. Our results show that municipal wastewater effluent exerts estrogenic action on three-spined stickleback as observed by elevated vitellogenin levels in exposed fish, corresponding to the effect seen in fish exposed to EE2. Furthermore, wastewater and EE2 exerted similar histopathological effects on testis of exposed fish. Although domestic effluent is suspected to have a high content of natural androgens, no obvious androgenic effect of wastewater was observed in the present study.

  • 59.
    Björnsdotter, Maria
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Yeung, Leo W. Y.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Kärrman, Anna
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Ericson Jogsten, Ingrid
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Ultra-Short-Chain Perfluoroalkyl Acids Including Trifluoromethane Sulfonic Acid in Water Connected to Known and Suspected Point Sources in Sweden2019Inngår i: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 53, nr 19, s. 11093-11101Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Data presenting the environmental occurrence of ultra-short-chain perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) are scarce and little is known about the potential sources. In this study, ultra-short-chain PFAAs were analyzed in water connected to potential point sources using supercritical fluid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry. Samples (n = 34) were collected in connection with firefighting training sites, landfills, and a hazardous waste management facility. Ultra-short-chain PFAAs were detected in all samples at concentrations up to 84 000 ng/L (∑C1-C3), representing up to 69% of the concentration of 29 per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs). Trifluoroacetic acid (TFA), perfluoropropanoic acid (PFPrA), trifluoromethane sulfonic acid (TFMS), perfluoroethane sulfonic acid (PFEtS), and perfluoropropane sulfonic acid (PFPrS) were detected at concentrations up to 14 000, 53 000, 940, 1700, and 15 000 ng/L, respectively. Principal component analysis suggests that TFA is associated with landfills. PFPrS was associated with samples collected close to the source at all types of sites included in this study. These findings reveal the presence of high concentrations of ultra-short-chain PFAAs released into the environment from various sources and emphasize the large fraction of ultra-short-chain PFAAs to the total concentration of PFASs in water.

  • 60.
    Black, R. R.
    et al.
    National Research Centre for Environmental Toxicology, The University of Queensland, Coopers Plains, Australia.
    Meyer, C. P. (Mick)
    CSIRO Marine and Atmospheric Research, Aspendale, Australia.
    Touati, A.
    ARCADIS Geraghty and Miller Inc, Research Triangle Park NC, USA.
    Gullett, B. K.
    National Risk Management Research Laboratory, US Environment Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park NC, USA.
    Fiedler, Heidelore
    UNEP Chemicals Branch, Châtelaine GE, Switzerland.
    Mueller, J. F.
    National Research Centre for Environmental Toxicology, The University of Queensland, Coopers Plains, Australia.
    Emission factors for PCDD/PCDF and dl-PCB from open burning of biomass2012Inngår i: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 38, nr 1, s. 62-66Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants includes in its aims the minimisation of unintentional releases of polychlorinated dibenzo-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/PCDF) and dioxin like PCB (dl-PCB) to the environment Development and implementation of policies to achieve this aim require accurate national inventories of releases of PCDD/PCDF/dl-PCB. To support this objective, the Conference of Parties established a process to review and update the UNEP Standardized Toolkit for Identification and Quantification of Dioxin and Furan Releases. An assessment of all emission inventories was that for many countries open burning of biomass and waste was identified as the major source of PCDD/PCDF releases. However, the experimental data underpinning the release estimates used were limited in number and, consequently, confidence in the accuracy of the emissions predictions was low. There has been significant progress in measurement technology since the last edition of the Toolkit in 2005. In this paper we reassess published emission factors for release of PCDD/PCDF and dl-PCB to land and air.

    In total, four types of biomass and 111 emission factors were assessed. It was found that there are no systematic differences in emission factors apparent between biomass types or fire classes. The data set is best described by a lognormal distribution. The geometric mean emission factors (EFs) for releases of PCDD/PCDF to air for the four biomass classes used in the Toolkit (sugarcane, cereal crops, forest and savannah/grass) are 1.6 mu g TEQ(t fuel)(-1), 0.49 mu g TEQ(t fuel)(-1), 1.0 mu g TEQ(t fuel)(-1) and 0.4 mu g TEQ(t fuel)(-1), respectively. Corresponding EFs for release of PCDD/PCDF to land are 3.0 ng TEQ (kg ash)(-1), 1.1 ng TEQ (kg ash)(-1), 1.1 ng TEQ (kg ash)(-1) and 0.67 ng TEQ (kg ash)(-1). There are now also sufficient published data available to evaluate EFs for dl-PCB release to air for sugarcane, forest and grass/savannah; these are 0.03 mu g TEQ (t fuel)(-1), 0.09 mu g TEQ (t fuel)(-1) and 0.01 mu g TEQ (t fuel)(-1), respectively. The average EF for dl-PCB release to land is 0.19 ng TEQ (kg ash)(-1). Application of these EFs to national emissions of PCDD/PCDF for global estimates from open burning will lower previous estimates of PCDD/PCDF releases to air and to land by 85% and 90%, respectively. For some countries, the ranking of their major sources will be changed and open burning of biomass will become less significant than previously concluded.

  • 61.
    Black, R. R.
    et al.
    National Research Centre for Environmental Toxicology, University of Queensland, Coopersplains, Australia.
    Meyer, C. P.
    CSIRO Marine and Atmospheric Research, Aspendale Vic, Australia.
    Touati, A.
    ARCADIS Geraghty and Miller, Inc, Research Triangle Park NC, USA.
    Gullett, B. K.
    Office of Research and Development, NRMRL (E343-04), US Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park NC, USA.
    Fiedler, Heidelore
    UNEP/DTIE Chemicals Branch, Châtelaine GE, Switzerland.
    Mueller, J. F.
    National Research Centre for Environmental Toxicology, University of Queensland, Coopersplains, Australia.
    Emissions of PCDD and PCDF from combustion of forest fuels and sugarcane: A comparison between field measurements and simulations in a laboratory burn facility2011Inngår i: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 83, nr 10, s. 1331-1338Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Release of PCDD and PCDF from biomass combustion such as forest and agricultural crop fires has been nominated as an important source for these chemicals despite minimal characterisation. Available emission factors that have been experimentally determined in laboratory and field experiments vary by several orders of magnitude from <0.51 mu g TEQ(t fuel consumed)(-1) to >1001 mu g TEQ(t fuel consumed)(-1). The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of experimental methods on the emission factor.

    A portable field sampler was used to measure PCDD/PCDF emissions from forest fires and the same fuel when burnt over a brick hearth to eliminate potential soil effects. A laboratory burn facility was used to sample emissions from the same fuels. There was very good agreement in emission factors to air (EF(Air)) for forest fuel (Duke Forest, NC) of 0.52 (range: 0.40-0.79), 0.59 (range: 0.18-1.2) and 0.75 (range: 0.27-1.2) mu g TEQ(WHO2005) (t fuel consumed)(-1) for the in-field, over a brick hearth, and burn facility experiments, respectively. Similarly, experiments with sugarcane showed very good agreement with EFAir of 1.1 (range: 0.40-2.2), 1.5 (range: 0.84-2.2) and 1.7 (range: 0.34-4.4) mu g TEQ (t fuel consumed)(-1) for in-field, over a brick hearth, open field and burn facility experiments respectively. Field sampling and laboratory simulations were in good agreement, and no significant changes in emissions of PCDD/PCDF could be attributed to fuel storage and transport to laboratory test facilities.

  • 62.
    Blanc, Mélanie
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Kärrman, Anna
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Kukučka, Petr
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Scherbak, Nikolai
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Keiter, Steffen
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Mixture-specific gene expression in zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos exposed to perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS), perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA) and 3,3′,4,4′,5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB126)2017Inngår i: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 590-591, s. 249-257Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) and 3,3′,4,4′,5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB126) are persistent organic pollutants of high concern because of their environmental persistence, bioaccumulation and toxic properties. Besides, the amphiphilic properties of fluorinated compounds such as PFOS and perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA) suggest a role in increasing cell membrane permeability and solubilizing chemicals. The present study aimed at investigating whether PFOS and PFHxA are capable of modifying the activation of PCB126 toxicity-related pathways. For this purpose, zebrafish embryos were exposed in semi-static conditions to 7.5 μg/L of PCB126 alone, in the presence of 25 mg/L of PFOS, 15.7 mg/L of PFHxA or in the presence of both PFOS and PFHxA. Quantitative PCR was performed on embryos aged from 24 h post fertilization (hpf) to 96 hpf to investigate expression changes of genes involved in metabolism of xenobiotics (ahr2, cyp1a), oxidative stress (gpx1a, tp53), lipids metabolism (acaa2, osbpl1a), and epigenetic mechanisms (dnmt1, dnmt3ba). Cyp1a and ahr2 expression were significantly induced by the presence of PCB126. However, after 72 and 78 h of exposure, induction of cyp1a expression was significantly lower when embryos were co-exposed to PCB126 + PFOS + PFHxA when compared to PCB126-exposed embryos. Significant upregulation of gpx1a occurred after exposure to PCB126 + PFHxA and to PCB126 + PFOS + PFHxA at 30 and 48 hpf. Besides, embryos appeared more sensitive to PCB126 + PFOS + PFHxA at 78 hpf: acaa2 and osbpl1a were significantly downregulated; dnmt1 was significantly upregulated. While presented as environmentally safe, PFHxA demonstrated that it could affect gene expression patterns in zebrafish embryos when combined to PFOS and PCB126, suggesting that such mixture may increase PCB126 toxicity. This is of particular relevance since PFHxA is persistent and still being ejected into the environment. Moreover, it provides additional information as to the importance to integrate mixture effects of chemicals in risk assessment and biomonitoring frameworks.

  • 63.
    Bluhm, Kerstin
    et al.
    Department of Ecosystem Analysis, Institute for Environmental Research, Aachen Biology and Biotechnology, RWTH Aachen University, Aachen, Germany.
    Otte, Jens
    Institute of Toxicology and Genetics, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Karlsruhe, Germany.
    Yang, Lee
    Institute of Toxicology and Genetics, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Karlsruhe, Germany.
    Zinsmeister, Christian
    Institute of Toxicology and Genetics, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Karlsruhe, Germany.
    Legradi, Jessica
    Institute of Toxicology and Genetics, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Karlsruhe, Germany; Institute for Environmental Studies, VU University Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
    Keiter, Steffen
    Department of Ecosystem Analysis, Institute for Environmental Research, Aachen Biology and Biotechnology, RWTH Aachen University, Aachen, Germany.
    Kosmehl, Thomas
    Aquatic Ecology and Toxicology Group, Center for Organismal Studies, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany.
    Braunbeck, Thomas
    Aquatic Ecology and Toxicology Group, Center for Organismal Studies, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany.
    Strähle, Uwe
    Institute of Toxicology and Genetics, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Karlsruhe, Germany.
    Hollert, Henner
    Department of Ecosystem Analysis, Institute for Environmental Research, Aachen Biology and Biotechnology, RWTH Aachen University, Aachen, Germany; School of Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing, China; Key Laboratory of Yangtze River Environment of Education Ministry of China, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai, China; College of Resources and Environmental Science, Chongqing University, Chongqing, China.
    Impacts of Different Exposure Scenarios on Transcript Abundances in Danio rerio Embryos when Investigating the Toxicological Burden of Riverine Sediments2014Inngår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 9, nr 9, artikkel-id e106523Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: Recently, a proof-of-concept study revealed the suitability of transcriptome analyses to obtain and assess changes in the abundance of transcripts in zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos after exposure to organic sediment extracts. The present study investigated changes in the transcript abundance in zebrafish embryos exposed to whole sediment samples and corresponding organic extracts in order to identify the impact of different exposure pathways on sediment toxicity.

    Materials and Methods: Danio rerio embryos were exposed to sublethal concentrations of three sediment samples from the Danube River, Germany. The sediment samples were investigated both as freeze-dried samples and as organic extracts. Silica dust and a process control of the extraction procedure were used as references. After exposure, mRNA was isolated and changes in profiles of gene expression levels were examined by an oligonucleotide microarray. The microarray results were compared with bioassays, chemical analysis of the sediments and profiles of gene expression levels induced by several single substances.

    Results and Discussion: The microarray approach elucidated significant changes in the abundance of transcripts in exposed zebrafish embryos compared to the references. Generally, results could be related to Ah-receptor-mediated effects asconfirmed by bioassays and chemical analysis of dioxin-like contaminants, as well as to exposure to stress-inducing compounds. Furthermore, the results indicated that mixtures of chemicals, as present in sediment and extract samples, result in complex changes of gene expression level profiles difficult to compare with profiles induced by single chemical substances. Specifically, patterns of transcript abundances were less influenced by the chemical composition at the sampling site compared t the method of exposure (sediment/extract). This effect might be related to different bioavailability of chemicals.

    Conclusions: The apparent difference between the exposure scenarios is an important aspect that needs to be addressed when conducting analyses of alterations in the expression level of mRNA.

  • 64.
    Bohlin, P.
    et al.
    Resarch Centre for Toxic Compounds in the Environment (RECETOX), Faculty of Science, Masaryk University, Brno, Czech Republic .
    Audy, O.
    Resarch Centre for Toxic Compounds in the Environment (RECETOX), Faculty of Science, Masaryk University, Brno, Czech Republic .
    Skrdliková, L.
    Resarch Centre for Toxic Compounds in the Environment (RECETOX), Faculty of Science, Masaryk University, Brno, Czech Republic .
    Kukucka, Petr
    Resarch Centre for Toxic Compounds in the Environment (RECETOX), Faculty of Science, Masaryk University, Brno, Czech Republic .
    Pribylová, P.
    Resarch Centre for Toxic Compounds in the Environment (RECETOX), Faculty of Science, Masaryk University, Brno, Czech Republic .
    Prokes, R.
    Resarch Centre for Toxic Compounds in the Environment (RECETOX), Faculty of Science, Masaryk University, Brno, Czech Republic .
    Vojta, S.
    Resarch Centre for Toxic Compounds in the Environment (RECETOX), Faculty of Science, Masaryk University, Brno, Czech Republic .
    Klánová, J.
    Resarch Centre for Toxic Compounds in the Environment (RECETOX), Faculty of Science, Masaryk University, Brno, Czech Republic .
    Outdoor passive air monitoring of semi volatile organic compounds (SVOCs): a critical evaluation of performance and limitations of polyurethane foam (PUF) disks2014Inngår i: Environmental Science: Processes & Impacts, ISSN 2050-7887, E-ISSN 2050-7895, Vol. 16, nr 3, s. 433-444Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The most commonly used passive air sampler (PAS) (i.e. polyurethane foam (PUF) disk) is cheap, versatile, and capable of accumulating compounds present both in gas and particle phases. Its performance for particle associated compounds is however disputable. In this study, twelve sets of triplicate PUF-PAS were deployed outdoors for exposure periods of 1-12 weeks together with continuously operated active samplers, to characterize sampling efficiency and derive sampling rates (R-S) for compounds belonging to 7 SVOC classes (including particle associated compounds). PUF-PAS efficiently and consistently sampled polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and eight novel brominated flame retardant (nBFR) compounds. Low accuracy and lack of sensitivity was observed for most polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/furans PCDD/Fs and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) (under the conditions of this study), with the exception of some congeners which may be used as qualitative markers for their respective classes. Application of compound specific R-S was found crucial for all compounds except PCBs. Sampling efficiency of the particle associated compounds was often low.

  • 65.
    Bohlin, Pernilla
    et al.
    Research Centre for Toxic Compounds in the Environment (RECETOX), Faculty of Science, Masaryk University, Brno, Czech Republic .
    Audy, Ondrej
    Research Centre for Toxic Compounds in the Environment (RECETOX), Faculty of Science, Masaryk University, Brno, Czech Republic .
    Skrdliková, Lenka
    Research Centre for Toxic Compounds in the Environment (RECETOX), Faculty of Science, Masaryk University, Brno, Czech Republic .
    Kukucka, Petr
    Research Centre for Toxic Compounds in the Environment (RECETOX), Faculty of Science, Masaryk University, Brno, Czech Republic .
    Vojta, Simon
    Research Centre for Toxic Compounds in the Environment (RECETOX), Faculty of Science, Masaryk University, Brno, Czech Republic .
    Pribylová, Petra
    Research Centre for Toxic Compounds in the Environment (RECETOX), Faculty of Science, Masaryk University, Brno, Czech Republic .
    Prokes, Roman
    Research Centre for Toxic Compounds in the Environment (RECETOX), Faculty of Science, Masaryk University, Brno, Czech Republic .
    Cupr, Pavel
    Research Centre for Toxic Compounds in the Environment (RECETOX), Faculty of Science, Masaryk University, Brno, Czech Republic .
    Klánová, Jana
    Research Centre for Toxic Compounds in the Environment (RECETOX), Faculty of Science, Masaryk University, Brno, Czech Republic .
    Evaluation and guidelines for using polyurethane foam (PUF) passive air samplers in double-dome chambers to assess semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs) in non-industrial indoor environments2014Inngår i: Environmental Science: Processes & Impacts, ISSN 2050-7887, E-ISSN 2050-7895, Vol. 16, nr 11, s. 2617-2626Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Indoor air pollution has been recognized as an important risk factor for human health, especially in areas where people tend to spend most of their time indoors. Many semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs) have primarily indoor sources and are present in orders of magnitude higher concentrations indoors than outdoors. Despite this, awareness of SVOCs in indoor air and assessment of the link between indoor concentrations and human health have tagged behind those of outdoor air. This is partially related to challenges associated with indoor sampling of SVOCs. Passive air samplers (PASs), which are widely accepted in established outdoor air monitoring networks, have been used to fill the knowledge gaps on indoor SVOCs distribution. However, their applicability for indoor environments and the assessment of human health risks lack sufficient experimental data. To address this issue, we performed an indoor calibration study of polyurethane foam (PUF) PAS deployed in a double-dome chamber, covering both legacy and new SVOC classes. PUF-PAS and a continuous low-volume active air sampler (AAS) were co-deployed for a calibration period of twelve weeks. Based on the results from this evaluation, PUF-PAS in a double-bowl chamber is recommended for indoor sampling and health risk assessment of gas phase SVOCs, including novel brominated flame retardants (nBFR) providing sufficient exposure time is applied. Data for particle associated SVOCs suffered from significant uncertainties caused by low level of detection and low precision in this study. A more open chamber design for indoor studies may allow for higher sampling rates (R-s) and better performance for the particle associated SVOCs.

  • 66.
    Bopp, Stephanie K.
    et al.
    European Commission, Directorate General Joint Research Centre, Directorate F – Health, Consumers and Reference Materials, Ispra, Italy.
    Barouki, Robert
    INSERM UMR-S 1124, Université Paris Descartes, Paris, France.
    Brack, Werner
    Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research – UFZ, Leipzig, Germany.
    Dalla Costa, Silvia
    European Commission, Directorate General Joint Research Centre, Directorate B – Growth and Innovation, Ispra, Italy.
    Dorne, Jean-Lou C. M.
    Scientific Committee and Emerging Risks Unit, European Food Safety Authority (EFSA), Parma, Italy.
    Drakvik, Paula E.
    Swetox, Karolinska Institutet, Unit of Toxicology Sciences, Södertälje, Sweden.
    Faust, Michael
    Faust & Backhaus Environmental Consulting, Bremen, Germany.
    Karjalainen, Tuomo K.
    European Commission, Directorate General Research and Innovation, Directorate E – Health, Brussels, Belgium.
    Kephalopoulos, Stylianos
    European Commission, Directorate General Joint Research Centre, Directorate F – Health, Consumers and Reference Materials, Ispra, Italy.
    van Klaveren, Jacob
    National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), Bilthoven, the Netherland.
    Kolossa-Gehring, Marike
    German Environment Agency, UBA, Berlin, Germany.
    Kortenkamp, Andreas
    Institute for Environment, Health and Societies, Brunel University, Uxbridge, United Kingdom.
    Lebret, Erik
    National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), Bilthoven, the Netherlands; Institute of Risk Assessment Sciences – IRAS, Utrecht University, Utrecht, the Netherlands.
    Lettieri, Teresa
    European Commission, Directorate General Joint Research Centre, Directorate D – Sustainable Resources, Ispra, Italy.
    Nørager, Sofie
    European Commission, Directorate General Research and Innovation, Directorate E – Health, Brussels, Belgium.
    Rüegg, Joelle
    Swetox, Karolinska Institutet, Unit of Toxicology Sciences, Södertälje, Sweden.
    Tarazona, Jose V.
    Pesticides Unit, European Food Safety Authority (EFSA), Parma, Italy.
    Trier, Xenia
    European Environment Agency, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    van de Water, Bob
    Leiden Academic Centre for Drug Research, Leiden University, Leiden, the Netherlands.
    van Gils, Jos
    Deltares, Delft, the Netherlands.
    Bergman, Åke
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik. Swetox, Karolinska Institutet, Unit of Toxicology Sciences, Södertälje, Sweden.
    Current EU research activities on combined exposure to multiple chemicals2018Inngår i: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 120, s. 544-562Artikkel, forskningsoversikt (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Humans and wildlife are exposed to an intractably large number of different combinations of chemicals via food, water, air, consumer products, and other media and sources. This raises concerns about their impact on public and environmental health. The risk assessment of chemicals for regulatory purposes mainly relies on the assessment of individual chemicals. If exposure to multiple chemicals is considered in a legislative framework, it is usually limited to chemicals falling within this framework and co-exposure to chemicals that are covered by a different regulatory framework is often neglected. Methodologies and guidance for assessing risks from combined exposure to multiple chemicals have been developed for different regulatory sectors, however, a harmonised, consistent approach for performing mixture risk assessments and management across different regulatory sectors is lacking. At the time of this publication, several EU research projects are running, funded by the current European Research and Innovation Programme Horizon 2020 or the Seventh Framework Programme. They aim at addressing knowledge gaps and developing methodologies to better assess chemical mixtures, by generating and making available internal and external exposure data, developing models for exposure assessment, developing tools for in silico and in vitro effect assessment to be applied in a tiered framework and for grouping of chemicals, as well as developing joint epidemiological-toxicological approaches for mixture risk assessment and for prioritising mixtures of concern. The projects EDC-MixRisk, EuroMix, EUToxRisk, HBM4EU and SOLUTIONS have started an exchange between the consortia, European Commission Services and EU Agencies, in order to identify where new methodologies have become available and where remaining gaps need to be further addressed. This paper maps how the different projects contribute to the data needs and assessment methodologies and identifies remaining challenges to be further addressed for the assessment of chemical mixtures.

  • 67.
    Boström, Björn
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap.
    Comstedt, Daniel
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap.
    Ekblad, Alf
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap.
    Isotope fractionation and 13C enrichment in soil profiles during the decomposition of soil organic matter2007Inngår i: Oecologia, ISSN 0029-8549, E-ISSN 1432-1939, Vol. 153, nr 1, s. 89-98Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The mechanisms behind the 13C enrichment of organic matter with increasing soil depth in forests are unclear. To determine if 13C discrimination during respiration could contribute to this pattern, we compared d13C signatures of respired CO2 from sieved mineral soil, litter layer and litterfall with measurements of d13C and d15N of mineral soil, litter layer, litterfall, roots and fungal mycelia sampled from a 68-year-old Norway spruce forest stand planted on previously cultivated land. Because the land was subjected to ploughing before establishment of the forest stand, shifts in d13C in the top 20 cm reflect processes that have been active since the beginning of the reforestation process. As 13C-depleted organic matter accumulated in the upper soil, a 1.0 o/oo d13C gradient from –28.5 o/oo in the litter layer to –27.6 o/oo at a depth of 2–6 cm was formed. This can be explained by the 1 o/oo drop in d13C of atmospheric CO2 since the beginning of reforestation together with the mixing of new C (forest) and old C (farmland). However, the isotopic change of the atmospheric CO2 explains only a portion of the additional 1.0& increase in d13C below a depth of 20 cm. The d13C of the respired CO2 was similar to that of the organic matter in the upper soil layers but became increasingly 13C enriched with depth, up to 2.5 o/oo relative to the organic matter. We hypothesise that this 13C enrichment of the CO2 as well as the residual increase in d13C of the organic matter below a soil depth of 20 cm results from the increased contribution of 13C-enriched microbially derived C with depth. Our results suggest that 13C discrimination during microbial respiration does not contribute to the 13C enrichment of organic matter in soils. We therefore recommend that these results should be taken into consideration when natural variations in d13C of respired CO2 are used to separate different components of soil respiration or ecosystem respiration.

  • 68.
    Boström, Magnus
    Department of Life Sciences, Södertörn University, Huddinge, Sweden.
    A Missing Pillar? Challenges in theorizing and practicing social sustainability: introductory article in the special issue2012Inngår i: Sustainability: Science, Practice, & Policy, ISSN 1548-7733, E-ISSN 1548-7733, Vol. 8, nr 1, s. 3-14Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Since publication of the Brundtland Report in 1987, the notion of sustainable developmenthas come to guide the pursuit of environmental reform by both public and private organizations and to facilitate communication among actors from different societal spheres. It is customary to characterize sustainable development in a familiar typology comprising three pillars: environmental, economic, and socialThe relationships among these dimensions are generally assumed to be compatible and mutually supportive. However, previous research has found that when policy makers endorse sustainable development, the social dimension garners less attention and is particularly difficult to realize and operationalize. Recent years though have seen notable efforts among standard setters, planners, and practitioners in various sectors to address the often neglected social aspects of sustainability. Likewise, during the past decade, there have been efforts to develop theoretical frameworks to define and study social sustainability and to empirically investigate it in relation to “sustainability projects,” “sustainability practice,” and “sustainability initiatives.” This introductory article presents the topic and explains some of the challenges of incorporating social sustainability into a broad framework of sustainable development. Also considered is the potential of the social sustainability concept for sustainability projects and planning. This analysis is predicated on the work represented in this special issue and on related initiatives that explicitly discuss the social pillar of sustainable development and its relationship to the other dimensions.

  • 69.
    Boström, Magnus
    stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Environmental Organizations in New Forms of Political Participation: Ecological Modernization and the Making of Voluntary Rules2003Inngår i: Environmental Values, ISSN 0963-2719, E-ISSN 1752-7015, Vol. 12, nr 2, s. 175-193Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Environmental organisations have been active since the early 1960s in putting environmental issues on the political agenda and in strengthening the environmental consciousness of the public. The struggle has been successful in the sense that there is now a strong demand for practical solutions among all kinds of actors. It is, however, difficult for states and political actors to manage environmental problems by traditional forms and instruments, due to the complex character of the problems. Therefore, environmental organisations take their own initiatives to participate in policy-making by developing new forms, within new arenas, with the help of new instruments (voluntary rules or standards). Special attention is paid to the possibilities of identifying and developing constructive roles in relation to other actors and institutions as well as the capacity to organise standardisation projects and to mobilise and make use of power resources such as symbolic capital and knowledge. In order to interpret characteristics and implications (possibilities and limitations) of standardisation strategies, I draw on the ecological modernisation perspective. Empirically, I refer to the role of Swedish environmental organisations in standardisation projects such as eco-labelling

  • 70.
    Boström, Magnus
    et al.
    Department of Life Sciences, Södertörn University, Huddinge, Sweden;.
    Börjeson, Natasja
    Department of Life Sciences, Södertörn University, Huddinge, Sweden;.
    Gilek, Michael
    Department of Life Sciences, Södertörn University, Huddinge, Sweden;.
    Jönsson, Anna Maria
    Media and Communication Studies, Södertörn University, Huddinge, Sweden.
    Karlsson, Mikael
    Department of Life Sciences, Södertörn University, Huddinge, Sweden;.
    Responsible procurement and complex product chains: the case of chemical risks in textiles2012Inngår i: Journal of Environmental Planning and Management, ISSN 0964-0568, E-ISSN 1360-0559, Vol. 55, nr 1, s. 95-111Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this study is to gain insights about the opportunities andchallenges that private and public organisations face regarding the developmentof responsible procurement in a complex and uncertain issue. The paper focuseson chemicals in textiles, and uses a qualitative methodology with semi-structuredinterviews. Key elements of a pro-active, responsible procurement strategy aredefined, including criteria such as using a preventive, systematic, responsive,integrative and reflective approach. The analysis includes the following topics: (1)priorities and knowledge; (2) communicative strategies; (3) policy instruments; (4)monitoring and trust in relation to suppliers. The results show a fairly modestlevel of organisational responsibility, although it is possible to observe an initialpositive development.

  • 71.
    Boström, Magnus
    et al.
    Södertörn University, Huddinge, Sweden.
    Börjeson, Natasja
    Södertörn University, Huddinge, Sweden.
    Gilek, Michael
    Södertörn University, Huddinge, Sweden.
    Jönsson, Anna Maria
    Södertörn University, Huddinge, Sweden.
    Karlsson, Mikael
    Södertörn University, Huddinge, Sweden.
    Towards responsible procurement in relation to chemical risks in textiles?: Findings from an interview study2011Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    In the present study, we ask whether and how different organizations work with sustainable procurement and how this work relates to the complexity of the product chain. We have chosen to focus on chemical risks in relation to textiles – an issue that increasingly is becoming part of the public discourse and a target for journalists. In the case of textiles, the product chain from raw material to consumption often involves a great number of production steps, sub-contractors and users, often on a global scale. Sustainable management of the supply chain would improve health, quality of life, and labour conditions, for instance in the areas and factories in developing countries where production and processing often take place. However, such management faces great difficulties and challenges in terms of capabilities, knowledge, communication, and policy instruments. These difficulties are related to high uncertainties and other problems that in turn are related to the high complexity of global product chains. The objective of the present report is to gain insights into the opportunities and challenges that private and public organizations face regarding the development of responsible procurement in relation to a complex and uncertain issue. The report focuses on chemicals in textiles and uses a qualitative methodology with semi-structured interviews. Key elements of a pro-active, responsible procurement strategy are defined in the report and include criteria such as using a preventive, systematic, responsive, integrative, and reflective approach. The analysis includes the following topics: (i) priorities and knowledge, (ii) communicative strategies, (iii) policy instruments, (iv) monitoring and trust in relation to suppliers. The results show a fairly modest level of organizational responsibility, although it is possible to observe an initial positive development among the cases investigated. The report ends by suggesting a number of topics that require further investigation.

  • 72.
    Boström, Magnus
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för humaniora, utbildnings- och samhällsvetenskap.
    Casula Vifell, Åsa
    Södertörn University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Klintman, Mikael
    Department of Sociology, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Soneryd, Linda
    Department of Sociology and Work Science, Göteborg University, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Tamm Hallström, Kristina
    Score, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Thedvall, Renita
    Score, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Social sustainability requires social sustainability procedural prerequisites for reaching substantive goals2015Inngår i: Nature and Culture, ISSN 1558-6073, E-ISSN 1558-5468, Vol. 10, nr 2, s. 131-156Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The synergies and trade-offs between the various dimensions of sustainable development are attracting a rising scholarly attention. Departing from the scholarly debate, this article focuses on internal relationships within social sustainability. Our key claim is that it is diffi cult to strengthen substantive social sustainability goals unless there are key elements of social sustainability contained in the very procedures intended to work toward sustainability. Our analysis, informed by an organizing perspective, is based on a set of case studies on multi-stakeholder transnational sustainability projects (sustainability standards). This article explores six challenges related to the achievement of such procedures that can facilitate substantive social sustainability. Three of these concern the formulation of standards and policies, and three the implementation of standards and policies. To achieve substantive social sustainability procedures must be set in motion with abilities to take hold of people's concerns, frames, resources, as well as existing relevant institutions and infrastructures.

  • 73.
    Boström, Magnus
    et al.
    Södertörn University College, Huddinge, Sweden.
    Gilek, Michael
    Södertörn University College, Huddinge, Sweden.
    Jönsson, Anna Maria
    Södertörn University College, Huddinge, Sweden.
    Karlsson, Mikael
    Södertörn University College, Huddinge, Sweden.
    IKEA and the Responsible Governance of Supply Chains: IKEA’s work on chemicals in textiles2013Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This report focuses on IKEA’s management and communication surrounding sustainability in general and chemical risks specifically. IKEA’s work is analysed in relation to theoretical concepts around responsibility, supply chain, and governance . The report focuses on IKEA’s visions and organizational structures, its policy instruments to deal with chemical risks, supplier-relations and communication and learning. The study is based on previous scholarly literature, analyses of relevant documents, a field visit at a few of IKEA’s suppliers in southern India, as well as interviews with staff working at IKEA in Sweden. The report focuses on IKEA’s systems and processes for dealing with chemical risks, and not on the implementation of such measures in quantitative terms.

  • 74.
    Boström, Magnus
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för humaniora, utbildnings- och samhällsvetenskap.
    Jönsson, Anna Maria
    School of Culture and Education, Södertörn University, Huddinge, Sweden.
    Lockie, Stewart
    The Cairns Institute, James Cook University, Douglas QLD, Australia.
    Mol, Arthur
    Environmental Policy Group Wageningen University, Wageningen, The Netherlands.
    Oosterveer, Peter
    Environmental Policy Group Wageningen University, Wageningen, The Netherlands.
    Sustainable and responsible supply chain governance: challenges and opportunities2015Inngår i: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 107, s. 1-7Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper introduces the Special Volume on sustainable and responsible supply chain governance. As globalized supply chains cross multiple regulatory borders, the firms involved in these chains come under increasing pressure from consumers, NGOs and governments to accept responsibility for social and environmental matters beyond their immediate organizational boundaries. Governance arrangements for global supply chains are therefore increasingly faced with sustainability requirements of production and consumption. Our primary objectives for this introductory paper are to explore the governance challenges that globalized supply chains and networks face in becoming sustainable and responsible, and thence to identify opportunities for promoting sustainable and responsible governance. In doing so, we draw on 16 articles published in this Special Volume of the Journal of Cleaner Production as well as upon the broader sustainable supply chain governance literature. We argue that the border-crossing nature of global supply chains comes with six major challenges (or gaps) in sustainability governance and that firms and others attempt to address these using a range of tools including eco-labels, codes of conduct, auditing procedures, product information systems, procurement guidelines, and eco-branding. However, these tools are not sufficient, by themselves, to bridge the geographical, informational, communication, compliance, power and legitimacy gaps that challenge sustainable global chains. What else is required? The articles in this Special Volume suggest that coalition and institution building on a broader scale is essential through, for example, the development of inclusive multi-stakeholder coalitions; flexibility to adapt global governance arrangements to local social and ecological contexts of production and consumption; supplementing effective monitoring and enforcement mechanisms with education and other programs to build compliance capacity; and integration of reflexive learning to improve governance arrangements over time.

  • 75.
    Boström, Magnus
    et al.
    Miljövetenskap, Södertörn University, Huddinge, Sweden.
    Rabe, Linn
    Miljövetenskap, Södertörn University, Huddinge, Sweden.
    Rodela, Romina
    Miljövetenskap, Södertörn University, Huddinge, Sweden.
    Environmental Non-Governmental Organizations and Transnational Collaboration in Two Regional Contexts: The Baltic Sea and Adriatic Sea Region2013Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Broadly, this is a study about issues of power relations played out in the context of nature resource management. Specifically, this study looks at procedural justice in the consultant process of establishing marine nature reserves. 

    The concept of sustainable development highlights the importance of equity between and within generations, as a condition to achieve social, economic and ecological sustainability. Participatory governance is framed as contributing to equity ambitions. It can be questioned, however, if multi-stakeholder approaches can deal with uneven power relationships between stakeholders or if existing power relations are reproduced through such processes. In these processes weaker actors may risk getting ignored, neglected, manipulated or even abused. There is still much to understand and to enact regarding what justice and equity might or ought to mean in relation to environmental governance, not the least concerning the way in which power relations are reflected in conflicting discourses about environment and development. The focus of this project, democratic aspects of environmental governance of the Baltic Sea, is especially understudied. By employing the procedural justice concept over time in this novel empirical setting the project aims to develop new understandings and formulations of justice and thereby contribute to the literature on participatory environmental governance, marine governance, nature protection, and environmental justice. 

    The theoretical discussion will be illustrated with empirical material of local and regional marine governance in the Baltic Sea. Since local environmental situations seldom is explained by only local processes, but has to be seen as a product of political economy at local, national, regional and international scales I seek to investigate explanations across spatial and temporal scales. 

    The dissertation will be presented in a form of a compilation thesis. The articles are organized from regional/general/abstract to local/specific/concrete. Articles: 1) Participation and Justice 2) Environmental Non-Governmental Organizations and Transnational Collaboration in two regional contexts: Baltic Sea and Adriatic Sea Region 3) Regional Management vs. Local Justice 4) Procedural Justice in Marine Nature Reserve Establishment 5) Localism and meaning of place.

  • 76.
    Boström, Magnus
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Stockholm, Sverige.
    Sandstedt, Eva
    Är vi på rätt väg?: Studier om miljöfrågans lösning2004Collection/Antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 77.
    Boström, Magnus
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för humaniora, utbildnings- och samhällsvetenskap.
    Uggla, Ylva
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för humaniora, utbildnings- och samhällsvetenskap.
    Hansson, Viktor
    Örebro universitet. Örebro universitet Holding AB .
    Environmental representatives: whom, what, and how are they representing?2018Inngår i: Journal of Environmental Policy and Planning, ISSN 1523-908X, E-ISSN 1522-7200, Vol. 20, nr 1, s. 114-127Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Literature on environment and representation in politics, management, and deliberation has paid little attention on the people involved: environmental representatives. The aim of this paper is to illuminate how environmental representatives in various organizational and professional contexts understand their role as representatives, and how they are shaped by their contexts. The paper argues that it is crucial to learn about the everyday reality of individual representatives to better understand the limitations and possibilities they face. The study is based on 19 interviews with environmental representatives from five organizational and professional contexts: the state, civil society, business, science, and media in Sweden. The paper concludes that some differences in experiences, for example, in freedom and constraint, can be understood in relation to the representatives’organizational and professional affiliation. Other experiences are common: (i) all categories stated the importance of being impartial and well read; (ii) complex layers of affiliation imply that representation requires sensitivity and adjustment between different situations; and (iii) the performative aspects of representation include the representatives’claims-making, others’attributions, and long-term learning of their role. The article contributes an understanding of organizational conditions and the often paradoxical, layered, multifaceted, and cautious representation these individual actors perform.

  • 78.
    Bour, Agathe
    et al.
    Department of Biosciences, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway.
    Haarr, Ane
    Department of Biosciences, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway.
    Keiter, Steffen
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Hylland, Ketil
    Department of Biosciences, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway.
    Environmentally relevant microplastic exposure affects sediment-dwelling bivalves2018Inngår i: Environmental Pollution, ISSN 0269-7491, E-ISSN 1873-6424, Vol. 236, s. 652-660Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Most microplastics are expected to sink and end up in marine sediments. However, very little is known concerning their potential impact on sediment-dwelling organisms. We studied the long-term impact of microplastic exposure on two sediment-dwelling bivalve species. Ennucula tenuis and Abra nitida were exposed to polyethylene microparticles at three concentrations (1; 10 and 25 mg/kg of sediment) for four weeks. Three size classes (4-6; 20-25 and 125-500 mu m) were used to study the influence of size on microplastic ecotoxicity. Microplastic exposure did not affect survival, condition index or burrowing behaviour in either bivalve species. However, significant changes in energy reserves were observed. No changes were observed in protein, carbohydrate or lipid contents in E. tenuis, with the exception of a decrease in lipid content for one condition. However, total energy decreased in a dose-dependent manner for bivalves exposed to the largest particles. To the contrary, no significant changes in total energy were observed for A. nitida, although a significant decrease of protein content was observed for individuals exposed to the largest particles, at all concentrations. Concentration and particle size significantly influenced microplastic impacts on bivalves, the largest particles and higher concentrations leading to more severe effects. Several hypotheses are presented to explain the observed modulation of energy reserves, including the influence of microplastic size and concentration. Our results suggest that long-term exposure to microplastics at environmentally relevant concentrations can impact marine benthic biota.

  • 79.
    Breivik, Knut
    et al.
    Norwegian Institute for Air Research (NILU), Kjeller, Norway.
    Alcock, Ruth
    Environmental Research Solutions, Witherslack, Cumbria, UK.
    Li, Yi-Fan
    Meteorological Service of Canada, Downsview, ON, Canada.
    Bailey, Robert E.
    Bailey Associates, Midland, USA.
    Fiedler, Heidelore
    UNEP Chemicals, Châtelaine (GE), Switzerland.
    Pacyna, Jozef M.
    Norwegian Institute for Air Research (NILU), Kjeller, Norway.
    Primary sources of selected POPs: regional and global scale emission inventories2004Inngår i: Environmental Pollution, ISSN 0269-7491, E-ISSN 1873-6424, Vol. 128, nr 1-2, s. 3-16Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    During the last decade, a number of studies have been devoted to the sources and emissions of Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) at regional and global scales. While significant improvements in knowledge have been achieved for some pesticides, the quantitative understanding of the emission processes and emission patterns for "non-pesticide" POPs are still considered limited. The key issues remaining for the non-pesticide POPs are in part determined by their general source classification. For industrial chemicals, such as the polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), there is considerable uncertainty with respect to the relative importance of atmospheric emissions from various source categories. For PCBs, temperature is discussed as a potential key factor influencing atmospheric emission levels and patterns. When it comes to the unintentional by-products of combustion and industrial processes (PCDD/Fs), there is still a large uncertainty with respect to the relative contribution of emissions from unregulated sources such as backyard barrel burning that requires further consideration and characterisation. For hexachlorobenzene (HCB), the relative importance of primary and secondary atmospheric emissions in controlling current atmospheric concentrations remains one of the key uncertainties. While these and other issues may remain unresolved, knowledge concerning the emissions of POPs is a prerequisite for any attempt to understand and predict the distribution and fate of these chemicals on a regional and global scale as well as to efficiently minimise future environmental burdens.

  • 80.
    Brudzinska-Kosior, Anna
    et al.
    Department of Ecology, Biogeochemistry and Environmental Protection University, Wrocław, Poland.
    Kosior, Grzegorz
    Department of Ecology, Biogeochemistry and Environmental Protection University, Wrocław, Poland.
    Klánová, Jana
    Research Centre for Toxic Compounds in the Environment, Faculty of Science, Masaryk University, Brno, Czech Republic.
    Vanková, Lenka
    Research Centre for Toxic Compounds in the Environment, Faculty of Science, Masaryk University, Brno, Czech Republic.
    Kukucka, Petr
    Research Centre for Toxic Compounds in the Environment, Faculty of Science, Masaryk University, Brno, Czech Republic.
    Chropenová, Maria
    Research Centre for Toxic Compounds in the Environment, Faculty of Science, Masaryk University, Brno, Czech Republic.
    Samecka-Cymerman, Aleksandra
    Department of Ecology, Biogeochemistry and Environmental Protection University, Wrocław, Poland.
    Kolon, Krzysztof
    Department of Ecology, Biogeochemistry and Environmental Protection University, Wrocław, Poland.
    Mróz, Lucyna
    Department of Ecology, Biogeochemistry and Environmental Protection University, Wrocław, Poland.
    Kempers, Alexander J.
    Department of Environmental Science, Radboud University, Nijmegen, The Netherlands.
    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in herbaceous Centaurium erythraea affected by various sources of environmental pollution2015Inngår i: Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part A: Toxic/Hazardous Substances and Environmental Engineering, ISSN 1093-4529, E-ISSN 1532-4117, Vol. 50, nr 13, s. 1369-1375Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are persistent xenobiotics with harmful effects on humans and wildlife. Their levels in the environment and accumulation in biota must be carefully controlled especially in species harvested from wild populations and commonly used as medicines. Our objective has been to determine PBDE concentrations (BDEs 28, 47, 66, 85, 99, 100, 153, 154, 183 and 209) in Centaurium erythraea collected at sites with various levels of environmental pollution. PBDE congener profiles in C. erythraea were dominated by BDE209, which accounted for 47-89% of the total PBDE burden in the plants. Principal Component and Classification Analysis, which classifies the concentration of PBDEs in C. erythraea, allowed us to distinguish the pattern of these compounds characteristic for the origin of pollution: BDEs 28, 47, 66, 85, 99, 100 for lignite and general chemical industry and the vicinity of an expressway and BDEs 183 and 209 for a thermal power plant and ferrochrome smelting industry. Careful selection of sites with C. erythraea for medicinal purposes is necessary as this herb can accumulate PBDEs while growing at polluted sites.

  • 81.
    Brunström, Björn
    et al.
    Dept. of Environmental Toxicology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden .
    Engwall, Magnus
    Dept. of Environmental Toxicology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden .
    Hjelm, Katarina
    Dept. of Environmental Toxicology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden .
    Lindqvist, Lars
    Dept. of Environmental Toxicology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden .
    Zebuhr, Yngve
    Aquatic Chemical Ecotoxicology, Department of Zoology, University of Stockholm, Stockholm, Sweden.
    EROD induction in cultured chick embryo liver: a sensitive bioassay for dioxin-like environmental pollutants1995Inngår i: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, ISSN 0730-7268, E-ISSN 1552-8618, Vol. 14, nr 5, s. 837-842Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A technique for studying 7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) induction in chick embryo liver in vitro was developed. Livers from 8-d-old embryos were cultured in rotating vials at 37 degrees C for 48 h in a medium to which DMSO-dissolved test compounds had been added. This bioassay proved to be highly sensitive to dioxin-like compounds, and its usefulness for assessing the toxic potency of such compounds in environmental samples was demonstrated. Concentration-response curves were determined for 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), 3,3',4,4',5-penlachlorobiphenyl (PCB IUPAC no. 126), 3,3',4,4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl (PCB 77), 2,3,3',4,4'-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB 105), and benzo[k]fluoranthene (BkF). TCDD induced EROD in a concentration-dependent manner, having an EC50 of 5.0 x 10(-12) M. The cultured embryo livers were extremely sensitive to TCDD, and about 30 fg of this compound per liver (2 x 10(-13) M) was enough to significantly induce EROD. The EC50 values obtained for PCBs 126, 77, 105, and BkF were 4,4 x 10(-11) M, 9.2 x 10(-9) M, 1.6 x 10(-8) M, and 6.2 x 10(-7) M, respectively. The maximal induction levels obtained for three different preparations of polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) were less than those of the other compounds tested. When the technical PCN mixture Halowax 1014 was coadministered with TCDD, the induction was lower than that caused by TCDD alone. An organic extract of fly ash from a municipal waste combustion plant was very potent. Considering its contents of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/furans, expressed as TCDD equivalents, the EC50 obtained was close to that for TCDD.

  • 82.
    Bräunig, Jennifer
    et al.
    Queensland Alliance for Environmental Health Sciences (QAEHS), The University of Queensland, Coopers Plains QLD, Australia.
    Baduel, Christine
    Queensland Alliance for Environmental Health Sciences (QAEHS), The University of Queensland, Coopers Plains QLD, Australia.
    Heffernan, Amy
    Queensland Alliance for Environmental Health Sciences (QAEHS), The University of Queensland, Coopers Plains QLD, Australia; The Florey Institute of Neuroscience and Mental Health, The University of Melbourne, Parkville VIC, Australia.
    Rotander, Anna
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik. Queensland Alliance for Environmental Health Sciences (QAEHS), The University of Queensland, Coopers Plains QLD, Australia.
    Donaldson, Eric
    Aviation Medical Specialist, Oakey Qld, Australia.
    Mueller, Jochen F.
    Queensland Alliance for Environmental Health Sciences (QAEHS), The University of Queensland, Coopers Plains QLD, Australia.
    Fate and redistribution of perfluoroalkyl acids through AFFF-impacted groundwater2017Inngår i: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 596, s. 360-368Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Leaching of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) from a local point source, a fire-fighting training area, has led to extensive contamination of a groundwater aquifer which has spread underneath part of a nearby town, Oakey, situated in the State of Queensland, Australia. Groundwater is extracted by residents from privately owned wells for daily activities such as watering livestock and garden beds. The concentration of 10 PFAAs in environmental and biological samples (water, soil, grass, chicken egg yolk, serum of horses, cattle and sheep), as well as human serum was investigated to determine the extent of contamination in the town and discuss fate and redistribution of PFAAs. Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) was the dominant PFAA in all matrices investigated, followed by perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS). PFOS concentrations measured in water ranged between <0.17-14 mu g/L, concentrations of PFHxS measured between <0.07-6 mu g/L. PFAAs were detected in backyards (soil, grass), livestock and chicken egg yolk. Significant differences (p < 0.01) in PFOS and PFHxS concentrations in two groups of cattle were found, one held within the contamination plume, the other in the vicinity but outside of the contamination plume. In human serum PFOS concentrations ranged from 38 to 381 mu g/L, while PFHxS ranged from 39 to 214 mu g/L. Highest PFOS concentrations measured in human serum were >30-fold higher compared to the general Australian population. Through use of contaminated groundwater secondary sources of PFAA contamination are created on private property, leading to further redistribution of contamination and creation of additional human exposure pathways.

  • 83.
    Bräunig, Jennifer
    et al.
    Institute for Environmental Research, RWTH Aachen University, Aachen, Germany; National Research Centre for Environmental Toxicology (Entox), The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia.
    Schiwy, Sabrina
    Institute for Environmental Research, RWTH Aachen University, Aachen, Germany.
    Broedel, Oliver
    Molecular Biotechnology and Functional Genomics, Technical University of Applied Sciences Wildau, Wildau, Germany.
    Müller, Yvonne
    Institute for Environmental Research, RWTH Aachen University, Aachen, Germany.
    Frohme, Marcus
    Molecular Biotechnology and Functional Genomics, Technical University of Applied Sciences Wildau, Wildau, Germany.
    Hollert, Henner
    Institute for Environmental Research, RWTH Aachen University, Aachen, Germany.
    Keiter, Steffen
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik. Institute for Environmental Research, RWTH Aachen University, Aachen, Germany.
    Time-dependent expression and activity of cytochrome P450 1s in early life-stages of the zebrafish (Danio rerio)2015Inngår i: Environmental science and pollution research international, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 22, nr 21, s. 16319-15328Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Zebrafish embryos are being increasingly used as model organisms for the assessment of single substances and complex environmental samples for regulatory purposes.Thus, it is essential to fully understand the xenobiotic metabolism during the different life-stages of early development.The aim of the present study was to determine arylhydrocarbon receptor (AhR)-mediated activity during selected times of early development using qPCR, enzymatic activity through measurement of 7-ethoxyresorufin-Odeethylase(EROD) activity, and protein expression analysis. In the present study, gene expression of cyp1a, cyp1b1, cyp1c1, cyp1c2, and ahr2 as well as EROD activity were investigated up to 120 h postfertilization (hpf) after exposure to either β-naphthoflavone (BNF) or a polycyclic aromatichydrocarbons (PAH)-contaminated sediment extract from Vering Kanal in Hamburg (VK). Protein expression was measured at 72 hpf after exposure to 20 μg/L BNF. Altered proteins were identified by matrix assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) peptide mass fingerprinting. Distinct patterns of basal messenger RNA (mRNA) expressionwere found for each of the cyp1 genes, suggesting specific roles during embryonic development. All transcripts were induced by BNF and VK. ahr2 mRNA expression was significantly upregulated after exposure toVK. All cyp1 genes investigated showed a temporal decline in expression at 72 hpf. The significant decline of Hsp 90β protein at 72 hpf after exposure to BNF may suggest an explanation for the decline of cyp1 genes at this time point as Hsp 90β is of major importance for the functioning of the Ah-receptor. EROD activity measured in embryos was significantly induced after 96 hpf of exposure to BNF or VK. Together, these results demonstrate distinct temporal patterns of cyp1 genes and protein activities in zebrafish embryos as well as show a need to investigate further the xenobiotic biotransformation system during early development of zebrafish.

  • 84.
    Bäckström, Mattias
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap.
    Börjesson, Erika
    SWECO VBB VIAK, SE-61132 Nykoping, Sweden.
    Karlsson, Stefan
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap.
    Diurnal variations of abiotic parameters in a stream, recipient for drainage water in Ranstad, southwest Sweden2002Inngår i: Journal of Environmental Monitoring, ISSN 1464-0325, E-ISSN 1464-0333, Vol. 4, nr 5, s. 772-777Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    During 24 h, water samples were taken for determination of a number of key parameters in a water system containing high concentrations of FeII at circumneutral pH. None of the major constituents (Ca, Mg, Na, K and sulfate) showed diurnal variations, while dissolved oxygen and pH increased during the night. This increase could entirely be explained by the decrease in water temperature. However, the concentration of FeII slightly increased at constant concentration of total Fe during the night, opposite to earlier observations in other systems where the presence of FeII was shown to be controlled by photoreduction. Nocturnal peaks of FeII have also been observed in other systems with high iron concentrations, however, at acidic pH, but without obvious explanation. The mechanisms for this process therefore need further investigation.

  • 85.
    Bäckström, Mattias
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Häller, Sara
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Allard, Bert
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Geochemical processes in a historical alum shale dump, Kvarntorp2011Inngår i: Programme and Abstracts / [ed] Sarala P, Ojala VJ, Porsanger M-L, Vuorimiesyhdistys , 2011, s. 97, 6p CD-Rom-Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 86.
    Bäckström, Mattias
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap.
    Karlsson, Stefan
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap.
    Lifvergren, Thomas
    Estimation of molecular weight distributions of humic substances in sediment pore waters: PLS modelling of field data2001Inngår i: 8th Nordic IHSS symposium on humic substances: characterisation, dynamics, transport and effects, Copenhagen: Royal Veterinary and Agricultural University , 2001, s. 17-21Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 87.
    Bäckström, Mattias
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik. Bergskraft Bergslagen AB, Kopparberg, Sweden.
    Sartz, Lotta
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik. Bergskraft Bergslagen AB, Kopparberg, Sweden.
    Fly ash injection into weathered mine waste2013Inngår i: Annual International Mine Water Association Conference: Reliable Mine Water Technology / [ed] Brown, A.; Figueroa, L. & Wolkersdorfer, Ch., Colorado, USA: IMWA , 2013, s. 513-519Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    By adding alkaline ashes through injection to weathered mine waste pH increased approximately 3 units, trace element was immobilized and flow rate decreased due to formation of hard pans. Reduction in trace element concentrations was around 96.9-99.6 % for copper, 94.7-99.7 % for zinc and 22.9-99.8 % for cadmium. For lead the best reduction was 97.3 % and the worst -393 % (increase). MSWI ashes performed worst with low buffering capacity and increase in vanadium and molybdenum concentrations.

  • 88.
    Bäckström, Mattias
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Akademin för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Sartz, Lotta
    Örebro universitet, Akademin för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Mixing of acid rock drainage with alkaline ash leachates: fate and immobilisation of trace elements2011Inngår i: Water, Air and Soil Pollution, ISSN 0049-6979, E-ISSN 1573-2932, Vol. 222, nr 1-4, s. 377-389Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Acid rock drainage (ARD) from mine waste dumps often contains ferrous iron, sulphate and high concentrations of trace elements detrimental to the environment. Future costs will be enormous if the problem is not treated today. Simple, low maintenance, cost-effective methods for remediation of historical mine sites are therefore desired. In this study several mine waters were mixed with an alkaline ash leachtes in order to study the fate of the trace elements from both the mine waters (Cd, Cu, Pb, Zn, Ni and Co) and the ash leachates (Cr and Mo). It was found that the addition of ash water will precipitate hydrous ferric oxides (HFO) and hydrous aluminium oxides (HAO) and thereby inducing trace element sorption and co precipitation. It is also clear that the composition of the formed HFO/HAO mix determines the efficiency of the sorption for different trace elements. It is apparent that the amount of precipitating iron will determine the effectiveness of the removal of the trace elements. Sorption occurred much earlier (often one pH unit or more) in the system with high iron concentrations compared to the systems with lower iron concentrations. Removal of cadmium and zinc is difficult below pH 8 if the amount of precipitates is low. Using ash for generation of alkaline water may be a problem with regards to chromium and molybdenum. It is, however, possible to avoid problems with molybdenum by keeping the final pH around 7 and chromium(VI) from the ash water will be reduced into chromium(III) and precipitated as the hydroxide in the presence of iron(II) from the mine waters.

    The results imply that it is possible to also use fly ashes in alkaline leach beds in order to neutralize ARD followed by precipitation and sorption of trace elements.

  • 89.
    Bäckström, Mattias
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Sartz, Lotta
    Bergskraft Bergslagen AB, Kopparberg, Sweden.
    Permanent under water storing of weathered mine waste after removal of fine fraction and addition of ash2014Inngår i: An Interdisciplinary Response to Mine Water Challenges / [ed] Sui, W., Sun, Y. & Wang, C., Xuzhou: China University of Mining and Technology Press , 2014, s. 711-714Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Weathered sulphidic mine waste is a major environmental problem. An experiment was performed in order to study water covers for oxidized mine waste. In two experiments oxidized mine waste were covered with water, in one experiment the fine fraction was removed and in one experiment alkaline ash was also added prior to water covering. It was found that removal of the fine fraction decreased pH and increased trace element concentrations. Water covering of the mine waste with and without ash decreased trace element concentrations indicating that co disposing oxidized sulphidic mine waste and ash under water might be a promising remediation method.

  • 90.
    Bäckström, Mattias
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Sartz, Lotta
    Bergskraft Bergslagen AB, Kopparberg, Sweden.
    Uranium leaching from a burning black shale deposit: Present conditions and future scenarios2015Inngår i: Uranium – Past and Future Challenges: Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Uranium Mining and Hydrogeology / [ed] Broder, J; Arab, Alireza, Springer Publishing Company, 2015, s. 47-54Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    During WW2 oil was produced through pyrolysis of alum shale giving rise to waste that was deposited in the open pits and in a waste deposit. The waste deposit still today has significantly elevated temperatures (above 500 °C). Remaining pyrite in the waste material has also led to ARD with elevated trace metal concentrations. The waste deposit is no great environmental problem today but as soon as the waste pile cools off both the volumes of drainage and concentration of uranium will increase significantly.

  • 91.
    Bäckström, Mattias
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Sartz, Lotta
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik. Bergskraft Bergslagen AB, Kumla, Sweden.
    Use of multivariate statistics in order to understand the flow of acid rock drainage from an abandoned mining site2016Inngår i: Journal of Environmental Protection, ISSN 2152-2197, E-ISSN 2152-2219, Vol. 7, nr 3, s. 358-371Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Pathways for acid rock drainage from an abandoned mining site (sulphidic ore) were investigated by analysing ground, seepage and surface waters. It was found that in affected ground and seepage waters pH was lower (average pH 5.0); sulphate higher (average 350 mg/L) and trace element concentrations were significantly increased (4330 μg/L copper and 7700 μg/L zinc) compared to surrounding waters. Multivariate statistics (principal component analysis) were used on the data set. Obtained loading plot showed a clear negative correlation between pH and parameters found at high concentrations, indicating that these parameters are found at the source term (acid rock drainage). Lead was also found in close proximity to iron and turbidity indicating that lead might be associated with particles. The score plot presented almost all samples from high concentrations to low concentrations along the first principal component (explaining 63% of the variation in the data set) indicating that dilution was an important mechanism for the decrease in concentrations as opposed to immobilisation on surfaces along the flowpath. Decrease in fluoride and sulphate along one of the suspected flowpath coincided with an increase in calcium. Through geochemical calculations it was concluded that calcite (CaCO3) dissolved along the flowpath and thus induced precipitation of gypsum (CaSO4) and fluorite (CaF2). Through a combination of PCA and geochemical calculations the most likely flowpaths for contaminated water from the abandoned mining site were presented, making it possible to prevent further negative effects on the surface water.

  • 92.
    Bäckström, Mattias
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Akademin för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Sädbom, Stefan
    Risk assessment of historical mine waste using chemical analysis and ocular mineral/rock classification: a comparison2008Inngår i: ICAM 2008: 9th International Congress for Applied Mineralogy, 2008, s. 85-90Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 93.
    Böttcher, Melanie
    et al.
    Aquatic Ecology and Toxicology Section, Department of Zoology, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany.
    Grund, Stefanie
    Aquatic Ecology and Toxicology Section, Department of Zoology, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany.
    Keiter, Steffen
    Aquatic Ecology and Toxicology Section, Department of Zoology, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany.
    Kosmehl, Thomas
    Aquatic Ecology and Toxicology Section, Department of Zoology, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany.
    Reifferscheid, Georg
    German Federal Institute of Hydrology, Koblenz, Germany.
    Seitz, Nadja
    Aquatic Ecology and Toxicology Section, Department of Zoology, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany.
    Suares Rocha, Paula
    Aquatic Ecology and Toxicology Section, Department of Zoology, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany.
    Hollert, Henner
    Institute for Environmental Research (Biology V), Department for Ecosystem Analysis, RWTH Aachen University, Aachen, Germany.
    Braunbeck, Thomas
    Aquatic Ecology and Toxicology Section, Department of Zoology, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany.
    Comparison of in vitro and in situ genotoxicity in the Danube River by means of the comet assay and the micronucleus test2010Inngår i: Mutation research. Genetic toxicology and environmental mutagenesis, ISSN 1383-5718, E-ISSN 1879-3592, Vol. 700, nr 1-2, s. 11-17Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Genotoxicity can be correlated with adverse reproductive effects or may even result in elevated extinction risk for particular species of an ecosystem. It may thus be a valuable tool for screening of pollution and potential environmental harm. Since many genotoxicants tend to adsorb on to particulate matter, sediments and suspended materials are of particular interest for genotoxicity screening under field conditions. In order to correlate the genotoxic potential of sediments with genetic damage in fish, rainbow-trout liver (RTL-W1) cells were exposed in vitro to acetone extracts of sediments collected at 10 selected sites along the upper Danube River and analyzed in the comet and micronucleus assays. These in vitro results were compared with micronucleus formation in erythrocytes of the European barbel (Barbus barbus) caught int he field. The two in vitro bioassays showed excellent correlation, indicating comparability of genotoxic potentials in vitro. Sampling sites could be clearly differentiated with respect to severity of effects, with Rottenacker as the most heavily contaminated site, Ehingen and Schwarzach as moderately genotoxic,and with the weakest effects in the tributary Lauchert. All other sediment extracts showed intermediate genotoxic or clastogenic effects. In situ, micronucleus formation in barbel erythrocytes indicated severe genotoxicity at Rottenacker, moderate effects at Ehingen, but minor contamination at Riedlingen and Sigmaringen. In situ observations thus showed excellent correlation with corresponding in vitro tests and document the ecological relevance of in vitro studies with sediment extracts. With respect to the ecological status of the Danube River, the results overall indicate a moderate to severe genotoxic potential with a highly differential localization.

  • 94.
    Büchert, A.
    et al.
    Danish Veterinary and Food Administration, Institute of Food Research and Nutrition, Copenhagen, Denmark .
    Cederberg, T.
    Danish Veterinary and Food Administration, Institute of Food Research and Nutrition, Copenhagen, Denmark .
    Dyke, P.
    PD Consulting, Round House Cottage, Lechlade, United Kingdom .
    Fiedler, Heidelore
    UNEP Chemicals, Chatelaine (GE), Switzerland .
    Fürst, P.
    Chemisches Landes- und Staatliches Veteriniiruntersuchungsamt, Münster, Germany .
    Hanberg, A.
    Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Hosseinpour, J.
    Ökometric GmbH, Bayreuth, Germany .
    Hutzinger, O.
    University of Bayreuth, Bayreuth, Germany .
    Kuenen, J. G.
    TU Delft, Department of Biotechnology, Kluyver Laboratory, Delft, The Netherlands .
    Malisch, R.
    Chemisches und Veterinäruntersuchungsamt Freiburg, Freiburg, Germany .
    Needham, L. L.
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Toxicology Branch (F-17), Chamblee, GA, USA .
    Olie, K.
    University of Amsterdam, Dept. of Environmental and Toxicological Chemistry, Amsterdam, The Netherlands .
    Päpke, O.
    ERGO Forschungsgesellschaft mbH, Hamburg, Germany .
    Aranda, J. Rivera
    CID-CSIC, Mass Spectrometry Laboratory, Barcelona, Spain .
    Thanner, G.
    Umweltbundesamt, Wien, Austria .
    Umlauf, G.
    European Commission-JRC Ispra, Environment Institute, Soil and Waste Unit, Ispra (Varese), Italy .
    Vartiainen, T.
    National Public Health Institute, Division of Environmental Health, Kuopio, Finland .
    van Holst, C.
    European Commission - DG Joint Research Centre, Institute for Health and Consumer Protection, Ispra, Italy .
    Dioxin contamination in food: Bayreuth, Germany, from September 28 to October 1, 20002001Inngår i: Environmental science and pollution research international, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 8, nr 2, s. 84-88Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Dioxin and PCB monitoring programs for food and feeding stuff in most countries of the world, including many European Countries are currently inadequate. Better control of food production lines and food processing procedures is needed to minimize entry of dioxin to the food chain and will help to avoid dioxin contamination accidents. This would also improve the ability to trace back a possible contamination to its source. European guidelines for monitoring programs should be established to ensure comparable and meaningful results. These guidelines should define the minimum requirements for the design of monitoring programs, analytical methods, and quality assurance.

    Though data from Northern Europe shows that the general population exposure to dioxin and PCB has decreased during the last ten years these compounds continue to be a risk of accidental contamination of the food chain. The most prominent recent example is the Belgian dioxin contamination of feeding stuff in 1999. The Belgian dioxin contamination was not detected due to dioxin monitoring programs but by their direct biological effects seen in animals. Four other cases of dioxin contamination have been detected in Europe since 1997 due to local monitoring programs. One of them (citrus pulp pellets 1998) was in a much larger scale than the Belgian dioxin contamination.

    The general population's exposure to dioxins and PCBs is still in the same range (1-4 pg WHO-TEQ/kg body weight and day) as the recently revised WHO tolerable daily intake (TDI). There is concern that short-term high level exposure to dioxins, furans, and PCB may cause biological effects on the human fetal development and further research is required.

    Further actions to control sources building on considerable advances already made in many countries may need to be supplemented by measures to prevent direct contamination of feeding stuff or food to reduce general population exposure further.

  • 95.
    Cao, Huiming
    et al.
    Hubei Key Laboratory of Environmental and Health Effects of Persistent Toxic Substances, Jianghan University, Wuhan, P. R. China; Institute of Environment and Health, Jianghan University, Wuhan, P. R. China.
    Zhou, Zhen
    Hubei Key Laboratory of Environmental and Health Effects of Persistent Toxic Substances, Jianghan University, Wuhan, P. R. China; Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Chemical Materials and Devices, Ministry of Education, School of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, Jianghan University, Wuhan, P. R. China.
    Wang, Ling
    Hubei Key Laboratory of Environmental and Health Effects of Persistent Toxic Substances, Jianghan University, Wuhan, P. R. China; Institute of Environment and Health, Jianghan University, Wuhan, P. R. China.
    Liu, Guangliang
    Hubei Key Laboratory of Environmental and Health Effects of Persistent Toxic Substances, Jianghan University, Wuhan, P. R. China; Institute of Environment and Health, Jianghan University, Wuhan, P. R. China.
    Sun, Yuzhen
    Hubei Key Laboratory of Environmental and Health Effects of Persistent Toxic Substances, Jianghan University, Wuhan, P. R. China; Institute of Environment and Health, Jianghan University, Wuhan, P. R. China.
    Wang, Yawei
    Institute of Environment and Health, Jianghan University, Wuhan, P. R. China; State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, P. R. China.
    Wang, Thanh
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Liang, Yong
    Hubei Key Laboratory of Environmental and Health Effects of Persistent Toxic Substances, Jianghan University, Wuhan, P. R. China; Institute of Environment and Health, Jianghan University, Wuhan, P. R. China.
    Screening of Potential PFOS Alternatives To Decrease Liver Bioaccumulation: Experimental and Computational Approaches2019Inngår i: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 53, nr 5, s. 2811-2819Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) is a persistent organic pollutant with significant bioaccumulation potential in liver tissues. Exposure to PFOS could cause increase of liver weight, induce adenomas of the liver, and cause hepatomegaly. Alternatives of PFOS might be designed and synthesized that have significantly lower liver bioaccumulation. In this study, we conducted animal exposure experiments to investigate tissue accumulations of 14 per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances. Correlation analysis demonstrated that accumulation of the compounds in rat liver had strong correlations with their binding affinities of liver fatty acid binding protein (LFABP). Thus, we combined a quantitative structure-activity relationship model with molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to develop computational models to predict the LFABP binding affinities of two newly synthesized alternatives, perfluorodecalin-2-sulfonic acid and N-diperfluorobutanoic acid. The binding characteristics of the PFOS alternatives for LFABP were elaborated to explore how the different structural modifications of molecules influenced the underlying binding mechanisms. Subsequent animal experiments demonstrated that the binding free energy calculations based on the MD simulations provided a good indicator to reflect the relative degree of liver accumulation of the PFOS alternatives in the same exposure doses and durations. Our findings from the combination of experimental exposure and computational model can provide helpful information to design potential alternatives of PFOS with weak LFABP binding capability and low liver accumulation.

  • 96.
    Cao, Zhiguo
    et al.
    POPs Research Center, School of Environment, State Key Joint Laboratory of Environment Simulation and Pollution Control, Tsinghua University, Beijing, China.
    Fiedler, Heidelore
    Chemicals Branch, UNEP/DTIE, Châtelaine GE, Switzerland.
    Wang, Bin
    POPs Research Center, School of Environment, State Key Joint Laboratory of Environment Simulation and Pollution Control, Tsinghua University, Beijing, China.
    Zhang, Tingting
    POPs Research Center, School of Environment, State Key Joint Laboratory of Environment Simulation and Pollution Control, Tsinghua University, Beijing, China.
    Yu, Gang
    POPs Research Center, School of Environment, State Key Joint Laboratory of Environment Simulation and Pollution Control, Tsinghua University, Beijing, China.
    Huang, Jun
    POPs Research Center, School of Environment, State Key Joint Laboratory of Environment Simulation and Pollution Control, Tsinghua University, Beijing, China.
    Deng, Shubo
    POPs Research Center, School of Environment, State Key Joint Laboratory of Environment Simulation and Pollution Control, Tsinghua University, Beijing, China.
    Economic status as a determinant of national PCDD/PCDF releases and implications for PCDD/PCDF reduction2013Inngår i: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 91, nr 3, s. 328-335Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The annual releases of polychlorinated dibenzo-para-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/PCDF) from 68 countries/regions were investigated by correlating quantitative emissions with economic status of the nations. The national dioxin/furan inventories were developed using the PCDD/PCDF Standardized Toolldt, which presents the quantitative releases from ten major source groups to five release vectors. The correlation between intensity of PCDDIPCDF release and economic status was discussed and the influence of economic status on composition of five release vectors and ten source groups was studied. As PCDD/PCDF are mainly released from human activities to environmental matrices, release per person (RpP) and release per unit area (RpA) are defined to reflect release burden (Donor) and contamination burden (Receptor), respectively. Based on these two concepts, International PCDD/PCDF Reduction Burden is characterized by burden quotient (BQ) and a calculation model is established. The numbers of countries/regions with high, moderate and low International PCDD/PCDF Reduction Burden were 19,31 and 18, respectively. The information in this paper can be used for politicians to develop legislations to improve International PCDD/PCDF Reduction.

  • 97.
    Cao, Zhi-Guo
    et al.
    POPs Research Center, School of Environment, Tsinghua University, Beijing, China; State Key Joint Laboratory of Environment Simulation and Pollution Control, Tsinghua University, Beijing, China.
    Yu, Gang
    POPs Research Center, School of Environment, Tsinghua University, Beijing, China.
    Chen, Yong-Shan
    POPs Research Center, School of Environment, Tsinghua University, Beijing, China; State Key Joint Laboratory of Environment Simulation and Pollution Control, Tsinghua University, Beijing, China.
    Cao, Qi-Ming
    POPs Research Center, School of Environment, Tsinghua University, Beijing, China; State Key Joint Laboratory of Environment Simulation and Pollution Control, Tsinghua University, Beijing, China.
    Fiedler, Heidelore
    Chemicals Branch, UNEP/DTIE, United Nations Environment Programme, Châtelaine GE, Switzerland.
    Deng, Shu-Bo
    POPs Research Center, School of Environment, Tsinghua University, Beijing, China; State Key Joint Laboratory of Environment Simulation and Pollution Control, Tsinghua University, Beijing, China.
    Huang, Jun
    POPs Research Center, School of Environment, Tsinghua University, Beijing, China; State Key Joint Laboratory of Environment Simulation and Pollution Control, Tsinghua University, Beijing, China.
    Wang, Bin
    POPs Research Center, School of Environment, Tsinghua University, Beijing, China; State Key Joint Laboratory of Environment Simulation and Pollution Control, Tsinghua University, Beijing, China.
    Particle size: A missing factor in risk assessment of human exposure to toxic chemicals in settled indoor dust2012Inngår i: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 49, s. 24-30Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    For researches on toxic chemicals in settled indoor dust, selection of dust fraction is a critical influencing factor to the accuracy of human exposure risk assessment results. However, analysis of the selection of dust fraction in recent studies revealed that there is no consensus. This study classified and presented researches on distribution of toxic chemicals according to dust particle size and on relationship between dust particle size and human exposure possibility. According to the literature, beyond the fact that there were no consistent conclusions on particle size distribution of adherent fraction, dust with particle size less than 100 mu m should be paid more attention and that larger than 250 mu m is neither adherent nor proper for human exposure risk assessment. Calculation results based on literature data show that with different selections of dust fractions, analytical results of toxic chemicals would vary up to 10-fold, which means that selecting dust fractions arbitrarily will lead to large errors in risk assessment of human exposure to toxic chemicals in settled dust. Taking into account the influence of dust particle size on risk assessment of human exposure to toxic chemicals, a new methodology for risk assessment of human exposure to toxic chemicals in settled indoor dust is proposed and human exposure parameter systems to settled indoor dust are advised to be established at national and regional scales all over the world.

  • 98.
    Carvalho, Raquel N.
    et al.
    Institute for Environment and Sustainability, European Commission-DG Joint Research Centre, Ispra, Italy.
    Arukwe, Augustine
    Norwegian University of Science & Technology, Trondheim, Norway.
    Ait-Aissa, Selim
    National Institute for Industrial Environment and Risks, Verneuil en Halatte, France.
    Bado-Nilles, Anne
    National Institute for Industrial Environment and Risks, Verneuil en Halatte, France; Reims University, Reims, France.
    Balzamo, Stefania
    Istituto Superiore per la Protezione e la Ricerca Ambientale (ISPRA), Rome, Italy.
    Baun, Anders
    Department of Environmental Engineering,Technical University of Denmark, Kgs Lyngby, Denmark.
    Belkin, Shimshon
    Institute of Life Sciences, The Hebrew University, Jerusalem, Israel.
    Blaha, Ludek
    Faculty of Science, RECETOX, Masaryk University, Brno, Czech Republic.
    Brion, Francois
    National Institute for Industrial Environment and Risks, Verneuil en Halatte, France.
    Conti, Daniela
    Istituto Superiore per la Protezione e la Ricerca Ambientale (ISPRA), Rome, Italy.
    Creusot, Nicolas
    National Institute for Industrial Environment and Risks, Verneuil en Halatte, France.
    Essig, Yona
    Analytical and Environmental Sciences Division, King's College, London, UK.
    Ferrero, Valentina E. V.
    European Commission-DG Joint Research Centre, Institute for Environment and Sustainability, Ispra, Italy.
    Flander-Putrle, Vesna
    Marine Biology Station Piran, National Institute of Biology, Ljubljana, Slovenia.
    Furhacker, Maria
    University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna, Austria.
    Grillari-Voglauer, Regina
    University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna, Austria.
    Hogstrand, Christer
    Diabetes and Nutritional Sciences Division, King's College London, London, UK.
    Jonas, Adam
    Faculty of Science, RECETOX, Masaryk University, Brno, Czech Republic.
    Kharlyngdoh, Joubert B.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Loos, Robert
    European Commission-DG Joint Research Centre, Institute for Environment and Sustainability, Ispra, Italy.
    Lundebye, Anne-Katrine
    National Institute of Nutrition and Seafood Research, Bergen, Norway.
    Modig, Carina
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik. Life Science Center, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Olsson, Per-Erik
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik. Life Science Center, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Pillai, Smitha
    University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna, Austria.
    Polak, Natasa
    Analytical and Environmental Sciences Division, King's College, London, UK.
    Potalivo, Monica
    Istituto Superiore per la Protezione e la Ricerca Ambientale (ISPRA), Rome, Italy.
    Sanchez, Wilfried
    National Institute for Industrial Environment and Risks, Verneuil en Halatte, France.
    Schifferli, Andrea
    Swiss Centre for Applied Ecotoxicology, Eawag-EPFL, Dübendorf, Switzerland.
    Schirmer, Kristin
    Swiss Centre for Applied Ecotoxicology, Eawag-EPFL, Dübendorf, Switzerland.
    Sforzini, Susanna
    Department of Environmental and Life Sciences, Universita del Piemonte Orientale Vercelli Novara Alessandria, Alessandria, Italy.
    Sturzenbaum, Stephen R.
    Analytical and Environmental Sciences Division, King's College, London, UK.
    Søfteland, Liv
    National Institute of Nutrition and Seafood Research, Bergen, Norway.
    Turk, Valentina
    Marine Biology Station Piran, National Institute of Biology, Ljubljana, Slovenia.
    Viarengo, Aldo
    Department of Environmental and Life Sciences, Università del Piemonte Orientale Vercelli Novara Alessandria, Alessandria, Italy.
    Werner, Inge
    Swiss Centre for Applied Ecotoxicology, Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology ( Eawag-EPFL), Dübendorf, Switzerland.
    Yagur-Kroll, Sharon
    Institute of Life Sciences, The Hebrew University, Jerusalem, Israel.
    Zounkova, Radka
    Faculty of Science, RECETOX, Masaryk University, Brno, Czech Republic.
    Lettieri, Teresa
    European Commission-DG Joint Research Centre, Institute for Environment and Sustainability, Rome, Italy.
    Mixtures of chemical pollutants at European legislation safety concentrations: how safe are they?2014Inngår i: Toxicological Sciences, ISSN 1096-6080, E-ISSN 1096-0929, Vol. 141, nr 1, s. 218-233Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The risk posed by complex chemical mixtures in the environment to wildlife and humans is increasingly debated, but has been rarely tested under environmentally relevant scenarios. To address this issue, two mixtures of 14 or 19 substances of concern (pesticides, pharmaceuticals, heavy metals, polyaromatic hydrocarbons, a surfactant, and a plasticizer), each present at its safety limit concentration imposed by the European legislation, were prepared and tested for their toxic effects. The effects of the mixtures were assessed in 35 bioassays, based on 11 organisms representing different trophic levels. A consortium of 16 laboratories was involved in performing the bioassays. The mixtures elicited quantifiable toxic effects on some of the test systems employed, including i) changes in marine microbial composition, ii) microalgae toxicity, iii) immobilization in the crustacean Daphnia magna, iv) fish embryo toxicity, v) impaired frog embryo development, and vi) increased expression on oxidative stress-linked reporter genes. Estrogenic activity close to regulatory safety limit concentrations was uncovered by receptor-binding assays. The results highlight the need of precautionary actions on the assessment of chemical mixtures even in cases where individual toxicants are present at seemingly harmless concentrations.

  • 99.
    Chen, Baowei
    et al.
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Wang, Thanh
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    He, Bin
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Yuan, Chungang
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Gao, Erle
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Jiang, Guibin
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Simulate methylation reaction of arsenic(III) with methyl iodide in an aquatic system2006Inngår i: Applied organometallic chemistry, ISSN 0268-2605, E-ISSN 1099-0739, Vol. 20, nr 11, s. 747-753Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The methylation reaction of inorganic arsenic occurring in aquatic systems was studied by HPLC-HGAFS as a method to separate and detect soluble methylarsenic species. Transformation from inorganic arsenic to methylarsenic was essential for major changes in toxicity to organisms. Monomethylarsenic [AsOCH(3)(OH)(2)] was the only product in the methylation reaction of inorganic arsenic(III) with methyl iodide (MeI). This process can be described as an oxidative carbonium-ion transfer, with MeI acting as a methyl donor. From a thermodynamic point of view, the activity of the carbonium ion and pH were the two major influencing factors. The pH dependence of redox potential of As(III) was the reason for the effect of pH on methylation of arsenic. The influences of salinity and concentration of the methyl donor may be explained by their effects on the activity of carbonium. Moreover, kinetics experiments demonstrated that the methylation reaction was first-order for both As(III) and methyl iodide. First-order reaction rates were also calculated at different pH, salinity and MeI, and were found to be in the range 0.0026-0.0123 h(-1). The methylation rate varied largely under different reaction conditions.

  • 100.
    Chen, Baowei
    et al.
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center of Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Wang, Thanh
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center of Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Yin, Yongguang
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center of Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    He, Bin
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center of Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Jiang, Guibin
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center of Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Methylation of inorganic mercury by methylcobalamin in aquatic systems2007Inngår i: Applied organometallic chemistry, ISSN 0268-2605, E-ISSN 1099-0739, Vol. 21, nr 6, s. 462-467Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The methylation of inorganic Hg(II) by methylcobalamin in aquatic systems was studied using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with UV-digestion cold vapor atomic fluorescence spectrometry (HPLC-UV-CV AFS). Monomethylmercury (MMC) could be positively identified as the reaction product in the aqueous solution. The salinity and pH of the aquatic system have great effects on the formation of MMC, because they could change the species of the reactants in the solution. From an electrophile reaction point of view, salinity and pH alter the electron density of the methyl donor and the electrophilicity of metal ion in the reaction system. This methylation of inorganic Hg(II) is shown to be possible even in highly saline solutions, which indicates its importance in aquatic environments. Kinetic experiments showed that the methylation reaction was fast and first-order for Hg(II). The first-order reaction rate was determined to be 0.00612 and 0.000287 min-1 for pH 5.0 and 1.5, respectively. It is suggested that this methylation could occur in the absence of enzymes, in which Hg(II) acts as an electrophile to attack methylcobalamin with a subsequent transfer of carbanion methyl group to the higher oxidized state of Hg(II).

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