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  • 5301.
    wernius, Malin
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för humaniora, utbildnings- och samhällsvetenskap.
    Niemi, Eva
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för humaniora, utbildnings- och samhällsvetenskap.
    Hur skapas motivation i en organisation?: en studie om hur en organisation motiverar sina medarbetare och hur personalen upplever sin motivation2011Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
  • 5302.
    Wessén, Michelle
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för humaniora, utbildnings- och samhällsvetenskap.
    Wallin, Martina
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för humaniora, utbildnings- och samhällsvetenskap.
    Företagsansvar på internet: En studie av CSR-kommunikation via hemsidor2013Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 5303.
    Westberg, Annelie
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för humaniora, utbildnings- och samhällsvetenskap.
    Hur lärare arbetar med elevers läsutveckling2014Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (yrkesexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
  • 5304.
    Westberg, Gustav
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för humaniora, utbildnings- och samhällsvetenskap.
    Klädsam autenticitet: Om det äkta som resurs och vara2019Ingår i: Sakprosa, ISSN 1502-6000, E-ISSN 1891-5108, Vol. 11, nr 7, s. 1-34Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [sv]

    Den här artikeln handlar om hur föreställningar om ursprungsfolk rekontextualiseras i kommersiella sammanhang. Konkret undersöks hur ett svenskt jeansmärke marknadsför sina jeans som ’autentiska’ och ’samiska’. Artikeln syftar till att utforska autenticitet som diskursiv praktik och att diskutera hur förledet sak- gör det möjligt att inkludera sakprosatexter och andra semiotiska material i analysen av autenticitet. Studien bygger på socialsemiotisk teori och tillämpar proveniens och affordans som analytiska begrepp. Analysen visar hur bl.a. flerspråkighet, ikonografi, tygvikt och materialval realiserar ’samisk’ autenticitet såväl som en kontextspecifik ’global’ jeansautenticitet. Genom att visa hur föreställningar om autenticitet omlokaliseras och återuppfinns, bidrar artikeln till förståelse för den semiotiska process då ursprungsfolk i allmänhet och samer i synnerhet omdefinieras som ekonomisk resurs inom den nya, globala ekonomin.

     

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    Klädsam autenticitet: om det äkta som resurs och vara
  • 5305.
    Westberg, Gustav
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för humaniora, utbildnings- och samhällsvetenskap.
    Årman, Henning
    Department of Child and Youth Studies, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Common sense as extremism: the multi-semiotics of contemporary national socialism2019Ingår i: Critical Discourse Studies, ISSN 1740-5904, E-ISSN 1740-5912, Vol. 16, nr 5, s. 549-568Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper explores how national socialist aesthetics and semiotics are regimented within the Swedish Nazi milieu today. In order to treat fascism as contemporary ideology, the article applies intertextuality and provenance as analytical concepts in the analysis of how Nazism is re-emerging discursively. The analysis contributes unique insights, as the dataset consists of extremist discourse aimed at providing members of the most prominent Swedish Nazi movement with guidance on how to embody and express national socialism in their everyday lives. The analysis reveals that common-sense notions about ‘a natural life’ and mainstream aesthetics concerning an outdoor lifestyle emerge as central expressions of a ‘natural’ and ‘healthy’ embodiment of national socialism. This aesthetic finds its ideological motive in opposition to a ‘sick’ , ‘Jewish’ and ‘parasitical’ way of living. Mainstream notions are thus turned into vehicles for political extremism.

  • 5306.
    Westberg, Johannes
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för humaniora, utbildnings- och samhällsvetenskap.
    15 riktlinjer för den offentliga debatten om skolan2018Ingår i: Skola och samhälle, E-ISSN 2001-6727Artikel i tidskrift (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [sv]

    Svensk skoldebatt är så mycket, och ibland kan det kännas som om den är för mycket. I kontrast till eftertänksamma samtal, där man strävar efter att belysa en fråga ur olika synvinklar i syfte att verkligen förstå den, står debattens ofta hysteriska tonläge där olika aktörer beskylls för olika slags felsteg. För de av oss som verkligen är intresserade av att förstå hur vårt skolväsende fungerar, och har fungerat, kan alltså debattklimatet kännas otillfredsställande. Innan jul formulerade jag därför ett antal riktlinjer för en bättre och mer givande debatt. Som ordet antyder, var deras syfte inte att ifrågasätta, argumentera eller tillbakavisa, utan snarare att presentera en vision för hur skoldebatten skulle kunna föras. Dessa riktlinjer är inte utan blinkningar till några av de debattörer som tar stor plats i skoldebatten. Men de är publicerade i all välmening och med gott humör.

  • 5307.
    Westberg, Johannes
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för humaniora, utbildnings- och samhällsvetenskap.
    A Comparative History from Below?: A Local and Mundane International History of Nineteenth Century Schooling2018Ingår i: Rivista di storia dell’educazione, ISSN 2384-8294, Vol. 5, nr 2, s. 111-132Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In an increasingly globalized world, the nineteenth century expansion of mass schooling can no longer be interpreted merely from within a national framework. As a result, vital efforts have been made to investigate and conceptualize the international and transnational histories of schooling. Using the historiography of nine-teenth century schooling as a starting point, this article presents prospects for how these conceptualizations may be further developed employing the notion of a comparative history “from below.” In this article, this notion indicates an analysis that does not take national or supranational entities as the point of departure, but instead promotes a comparative history based on the local level (school districts, municipalities, townships). Consequently, the focus of investigations will shift from national politics, transnational circulation of educa-tional ideas, and international conferences, to the mundane history of schooling, covering issues such as local funding, local school politics, and the practical, and often non-event-worthy, realities of schooling. Although such investigations do not mainly address the oppressed or the marginalized, a comparative history from be-low implies a focus on the ordinary schoolchildren, parents, and teachers, and their schools. What this article consequently proposes is an international history of schooling that is simultaneously local, and a local history of schooling that is simultaneously international.

  • 5308.
    Westberg, Johannes
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för humaniora, utbildnings- och samhällsvetenskap.
    A comparative history from below?: Social and economic perspectives on the international rise of mass schooling2019Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 5309.
    Westberg, Johannes
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för humaniora, utbildnings- och samhällsvetenskap.
    A conflicted political will to levy local taxes: inequality and local schoolpolitics in Sweden, 1840–19002018Ingår i: Nordic Journal of Studies in Educational Policy, ISSN 2002-0317, Vol. 4, nr 1, s. 3-12Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Through an extensive study of 12 parishes in the Sundsvall region, this article, informed by studies in the economic history of education, examines changes and continuities in local school politics during the period of 1840–1900. Using the Sundsvall region in the northern part of Sweden as its point of departure, this article shows how basic political conflicts shifted when political franchise, tax regulations and the social structure of the region changed during the second half of the nineteenth century. At the end of the investigated period, the basic conflict of school politics was no longer between those who owned land and those who did not but rather between high- and low-income groups. Judging from local school politics, the local elites of the Sundsvall region, in contrast to local elites in the USA, England, Spain and Prussia, focused their attention on school funding. The main conflicts between the social groups not only concerned the distribution of school expenditures but also included issues, such as the location of schools.

  • 5310.
    Westberg, Johannes
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för humaniora, utbildnings- och samhällsvetenskap.
    A jack of all trades?: Rural teachers’ livelihood diversification and the rise of mass schooling in the nineteenth century Sweden2018Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    How did teachers make a living for themselves? The purpose of this paper is to examine rural nineteenth century teachers’ livelihood, and more specifically how teachers survived engaging in livelihood diversification or multiple employment. Drawing inspiration from the new social history of livelihood, and using a wide variety of source materials from nineteenth century Sweden, I will show that far from specializing in teaching, teachers were often engaged in multiple occupations still around 1900. I will show how this common practice was discussed, and how teachers work ranged from the encouraged to activities frowned upon, and even included illegal activities. By doing so, I will be able to shed new light on teaching as a profession and occupational title during the nineteenth century, and contribute to the discussion regarding the social and economic position of teacher. By investigating teachers’ livelihood, I will also be able to examine the role of teachers’ multiple occupations in the expansion of mass schooling during the nineteenth century.

  • 5311.
    Westberg, Johannes
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för humaniora, utbildnings- och samhällsvetenskap.
    A Materialist Turn in Educational History?: The New Social and Economic History of Education2017Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    History of Education is today a flourishing field of research, underpinned by national and international societies, conferences and an increasing number of journals. Although critically minded scholars such as Jurgen Herbst (1999) have lamented historians of education for endlessly repeating the old mantras of class, race and gender, the field has nevertheless exhibited great ingenuity in developing research dealing with topics such as the educational history of the body, material culture, lived experience, social networks, and international and transnational processes of transfer, circulation and diffusion.

    The purpose of this paper is to pay tribute to one of the most promising strands of recent historiographical trends, namely the renewed interest in the social and economic history of education. In this paper, I will trace the development of this strand of research among educationalists, historians and economic historians back to the 1960s, celebrating the seminal work of scholars such as Carl Kaestle, William Marsden, Brian Simon and E. P. Thompson. I will thereafter discuss the theoretical and methodological characteristics of this social and economic history of education, and the opportunities that it presents to both formulate new questions and shed new light on fundamental issues in the historiography of education. To conclude, this paper will honour these pasts efforts by presenting examples of how theoretical perspectives from family history, history of work and wages, and the econometrics of educational expenditure might contribute to a shift towards the social and economic aspects of schooling in, what may be termed, a materialist turn in the field of educational history.

  • 5312.
    Westberg, Johannes
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för humaniora, utbildnings- och samhällsvetenskap.
    A school in constant crisis?: The democratization, decentralization and marketization of schooling in Sweden2018Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 5313.
    Westberg, Johannes
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för humaniora, utbildnings- och samhällsvetenskap.
    Adjusting Swedish gymnastics to the female nature: Discrepancies in the gendering of girl’s physical education in the mid-nineteenth century2018Ingår i: Espacio, Tiempo y Educación, E-ISSN 2340-7263, Vol. 5, nr 1, s. 261-279Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    During the nineteenth century, Swedish gymnastics grew to become one of the main models of physical education in the Western world. The purpose of this article is to explore how Swedish gymnastics was adjusted to the female body and mind in the mid-nineteenth century. Using handbooks published by the Swedish educationalist Anton Santesson as an empirical starting point, this article shows how the relationship between gender and gymnastics was complicated and exhibited significant discrepancies. In part, Swedish gymnastics was marked by a one-sex model of gender differences, which meant that gymnastics was perceived as a method for catering to the deficiencies and weaknesses of the feminine nature, in an attempt to make girls and young women more similar to boys. Swedish gymnastics had, nevertheless, vital elements of a two-sex model, according to which gymnastics was supposed to realise the true feminine nature of girls. Following this line of thought, Santesson claimed that, since gymnastics merely followed the laws of the body, it could not make girls more like boys. Santesson’s vision of gymnastics also included disciplinary mechanisms, such as the partitioning of space, which were gender neutral. Apart from presenting insights into the ambiguous and contradictory notions of gender in Swedish girls’ gymnastics, this article thus also raises questions regarding whether other models of physical education were marked by similar discrepancies during the nineteenth century.

  • 5314.
    Westberg, Johannes
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för humaniora, utbildnings- och samhällsvetenskap.
    Basic Schools in Each and Every Parish: The School Act of 1842 and the Rise of Mass Schooling in Sweden2019Ingår i: School Acts and the Rise of Mass Schooling: Education Policy in the Long Nineteenth Century / [ed] Johannes Westberg, Lukas Boser, Ingrid Brühwiler, Cham: Palgrave Macmillan, 2019, 1, s. 195-222Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The School Act of 1842, revised in 1882 and 1897, organized a decentralized national school system in Sweden, based on about 2,300 parishes. The role of this school act in the rise of schooling in Sweden is fundamental to the Swedish historiography of schooling. This paper examines the precondition, contents and consequences of the school act in order to examine whether it actually was a revolutionary event or merely a confirmation of already pending processes. This paper will thus be able to show how the school act was the result of a lengthy political debate, spanning decades, on popular education and whether it should the provide the population with an minimum of knowledge or form the basis of the knowledge necessary for Swedish citizenship. This tension was also apparent in the formulation of the school act which included formulations on a minimum of instruction. While the education promoted by the school act thus certainly was limited, and did not form a clear break from the previously dominating home instruction, the school act had major consequences in organizational terms, contributing to establishment of schools in the many regions of Sweden where schools previously had been uncommon.

  • 5315.
    Westberg, Johannes
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för humaniora, utbildnings- och samhällsvetenskap.
    Beyond the Educational Visions of the State: The Construction of School Buildings in Rural Nineteenth-Century Sweden2018Ingår i: Making Education: Material School Design and Educational Governance / [ed] Ian Grosvenor, Lisa Rosén Rasmussen, Cham: Springer Publishing Company, 2018, s. 95-117Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    While the architecture, educational ideas and material culture of nineteenth century school buildings have been properly investigated, we know less about the actual processes of designing and building schools. By exploring these processes, this chapter examines how local decision-makers, school designers, builders and workers influenced the dynamics between state governance and school design in Sweden, 1840-1900. The analysis is based on a case study of 66 school building projects in the Sundsvall region, located in northern Sweden.

    In this chapter, I will argue that the local design and building processes fundamentally influenced school design. The school districts' organisation promoted low cost alternatives, diversity among school buildings and caused delays; builders and architects adapted schools to the local sense of aesthetics, hygiene and appropriate temperature for classrooms, and the local needs to accommodate the areas’ school aged children in the planned class-rooms; and, not the least, the morals, organisational skills and know-how of builders and building workers marked the varying quality of the school buildings. In comparison with investigations that focused on national building plans, I will thus be able to present a much more complex image of the relationship between state governance and school design, showing, once again, that what you want is not always what you get.

  • 5316.
    Westberg, Johannes
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för humaniora, utbildnings- och samhällsvetenskap.
    Brokers between teachers and the resources of nature?: The role of family and village in nineteenth century school funding2018Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Particularly in rural areas, nineteenth century school funding relied to a significant degree on payments in-kind, such as grains, hay and fuel. In this respect, studies have shown how Swiss teachers were remunerated in grains, wine, firewood and sometimes bread, salt or salmon in 1800, how French mid-nineteenth century teachers occasionally were granted foodstuffs such as eggs, milk and butter, and how German teachers were presented with grains, wine and loaves of bread. 

    Using a wide range of source materials, including local school district minutes and teacher’s memories, the aim of this paper is to examine the roles of (male) teachers’ families and the local villages in the monetary and non-monetary economy of primary school system of mid-nineteenth century Sweden. Theoretically influenced by the social history of livelihood, and family history, I will analyze the work conducted by teachers’ wives and children to transform in-kind salary into something of value for the teacher and his family. I will also address the efforts of family members, and local villagers to mobilize additional in-kind resources, enabling teachers and their families to make a living our of a meagre teacher salary. Apart from shedding new light on teachers’ salaries, this article will thus also point to the significant roles of the social institutions of family and village, and gender relations, in the funding of nineteenth century school systems.

  • 5317.
    Westberg, Johannes
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för humaniora, utbildnings- och samhällsvetenskap.
    Building Preschools for a Society in Transition: The Sociological, Psychological and Educational Design of Swedish Preschools in the 1970s2017Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 5318.
    Westberg, Johannes
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för humaniora, utbildnings- och samhällsvetenskap.
    Decentralization in a Swedish nineteenth century setting: The role of local school districts in the rise of mass schooling2018Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 5319.
    Westberg, Johannes
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för humaniora, utbildnings- och samhällsvetenskap.
    Designing preschools for an independent and social child: visions of preschool space in the Swedish welfare state2019Ingår i: Early years, ISSN 0957-5146, E-ISSN 1472-4421Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The physical environment in early years education and care is crucial. This paper examines the Swedish government’s vision of preschool design in the welfare state of the 1970s and the conceptions of children and society upon which it was based. Presenting an investigation of reports, booklets, and study materials published by various branches of the central government, this paper analyses an ambitious preschool design intended to provide children with a diverse and stimulating environment that supported their independence and freedom of choice. Unlike similar designs in postwar Europe, this preschool design was not formulated in response to the experiences of the world wars. Inspired by the theories of Piaget and Erikson and based on the rationality of the Swedish welfare state, this preschool design was instead intended to remedy the shortcomings of a perceived anonymous, sterile and barren modern society. In relation to existing research, this paper contributes to the study of the so-called nursery heritage by examining how it was formulated in the setting of the Swedish welfare state. In so doing, the paper also provides ample ground for a continued critical discussion on contemporary strands of neoliberal preschool design.

  • 5320.
    Westberg, Johannes
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för humaniora, utbildnings- och samhällsvetenskap.
    Dorena Caroli: “Day nurseries and childcare in Europe"2018Ingår i: IJHE Bildungsgeschichte, ISSN 2192-4295, Vol. 8, nr 1, s. 98-100Artikel, recension (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 5321.
    Westberg, Johannes
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för humaniora, utbildnings- och samhällsvetenskap.
    Ellen Catharina Moberg: 1874-12-06 — 1955-07-20. Förskolepionjär, barnträdgårdsledare2018Ingår i: Svenskt kvinnobiografiskt lexikon / [ed] Larsson, Lisbeth; Sjöberg, Maria, et al., Göteborg: Göteborgs universitet , 2018Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 5322.
    Westberg, Johannes
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för humaniora, utbildnings- och samhällsvetenskap.
    En förskola för alla?: Rationaliteten bakom den svenska förskolans expansion2017Ingår i: Utbildningens revolutioner: Till studiet av utbildningshistorisk förändring / [ed] Anne Berg, Esbjörn Larsson, Madeleine Michaëlsson, Johannes Westberg & Andreas Åkerlund, Uppsala: Uppsala universitet , 2017, s. 211-232Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 5323.
    Westberg, Johannes
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för humaniora, utbildnings- och samhällsvetenskap.
    Folkskoleseminariets och folkskollärarnas historia2018Konferensbidrag (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 5324.
    Westberg, Johannes
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för humaniora, utbildnings- och samhällsvetenskap.
    Folkskolestadgan 175 år: Vad innebar den?2017Ingår i: Vägval i skolans historia, nr 4, s. 1-7Artikel i tidskrift (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [sv]

    Den 18 juni 1842 signerade kung Karl XIV Johan, i stadgan betecknad som “med Guds Nåde, Sweriges, Norriges, Göthes och Wendes Konung”, Kongl. Maj:ts Nådiga Stadga angående Folkunderwisningen i Riket. Denna stadga, som under 2017 fyllde 175 år, har allt sedan sin tillkomst varit omdiskuterad.

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    Folkskolestadgan 175 år – Vad innebar den?
  • 5325.
    Westberg, Johannes
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för humaniora, utbildnings- och samhällsvetenskap.
    Från natura- till penninghushållning? [From in-kind to monetary payments?]: Den svenska folkskolans finansiering, 1840–1900 [The funding of the Swedish primary school system 1840-1900]2018Ingår i: Historisk Tidskrift (S), ISSN 0345-469X, Vol. 138, nr 4, s. 619-648Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [sv]

    Hur finansierades det framväxande svenska skolväsendet? I denna artikel argumenterar jag för att skolfinansieringen förändrade karaktär under 1800-talets andra hälft. I stället för att i stor utsträckning mobilisera resurser genom naturapersedlar (spannmål, kofoder, ved, m.m.) så baserades skoldistriktens ekonomi vid sekelskiftet 1900 huvudsakligen på penningtransaktioner. Genom att ägna sig åt sådana frågor bidrar också föreliggande artikel till ett perspektivskifte som gör folkskolan till en del av avlöningsformernas, skatternas och prisernas historia.

  • 5326.
    Westberg, Johannes
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för humaniora, utbildnings- och samhällsvetenskap.
    Förskolans historia2019Ingår i: Utbildningshistoria: En introduktion / [ed] Esbjörn Larsson, Johannes Westberg, Lund: Studentlitteratur , 2019, 3, s. 107-126Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 5327.
    Westberg, Johannes
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för humaniora, utbildnings- och samhällsvetenskap.
    Girls’ Gymnastics in the Service of the Nation: Educationalisation, Gender and Swedish Gymnastics in the Mid-Nineteenth Century2017Ingår i: Nordic Journal of Educational History, ISSN 2001-7766, E-ISSN 2001-9076, Vol. 4, nr 2, s. 47-69Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In the nineteenth and early twentieth century, Swedish gymnastics won a large following across the world. Employing the concepts of educationalisation and gender, I will explore how the physical education of girls was conceptualised and justified in the Swedish system during the latter half of the nineteenth century. Focusing on the publications of Anton Santesson (1825–1892), who was one of the main authors on girls’ gymnastics in Sweden, I will show how girls’ gymnastics was conceptualised as a response to a social, cultural and physical crisis, which were perceived as partly stemming from the detrimental effects of education on girls’ bodies and minds. Girls’ gymnastics was thus construed as vital to the future of the Swedish nation. While men and manliness remained fundamental to the strength of the nation, girls’ gymnastics was vital to women’s rearing of boys and thus instrumental to the development of masculinity in men.

  • 5328.
    Westberg, Johannes
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för humaniora, utbildnings- och samhällsvetenskap.
    How did teachers make a living?: The teacher occupation, livelihood diversification and the rise of mass schooling in nineteenth-century Sweden2019Ingår i: History of Education, ISSN 0046-760X, E-ISSN 1464-5130, Vol. 48, nr 1, s. 19-40Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Drawing inspiration from the new social history of livelihood, this article examines how rural nineteenth-century teachers made a living by engaging in livelihood diversification. By using a wide variety of source materials from nineteenth-century Sweden, this article shows that, far from specialising exclusively in teaching, teachers were often engaged in multiple occupations as late as the year 1900, and that teachers’ work ranged from activities that were encouraged to those that were frowned upon or even illegal. As a result, this article sheds new light on teaching as an occupation in the nineteenth century and contributes to the discussion of the social and economic positions of teachers. By investigating how teachers earned their livelihoods, this article also addresses the role of teachers’ multiple occupations in the expansion of mass schooling during the nineteenth century.

  • 5329.
    Westberg, Johannes
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för humaniora, utbildnings- och samhällsvetenskap. Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    How was the rise of mass schooling funded?: The local, national and international history of school finance in Sweden, 1840-19002017Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 5330.
    Westberg, Johannes
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för humaniora, utbildnings- och samhällsvetenskap.
    How were nineteenth-century teachers paid?2019Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 5331.
    Westberg, Johannes
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för humaniora, utbildnings- och samhällsvetenskap.
    In the Name of Froebel: Fundraising for Kindergartens in Sweden, 1890-19452016Ingår i: Kindergarten Narratives on Froebelian Education: Transnational Investigations / [ed] Helen May, Kristen D. Nawrotzki & Larry Prochner, London: Bloomsbury Academic, 2016, s. 67-80Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 5332.
    Westberg, Johannes
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för humaniora, utbildnings- och samhällsvetenskap.
    Maria Elisabeth Moberg: 1877-04-04 — 1948-12-16. Förskolepionjär, barnträdgårdsledare2018Ingår i: Svenskt kvinnobiografiskt lexikon / [ed] Larsson, Lisbeth; Sjöberg, Maria, et al., Göteborg: Göteborgs universitet , 2018Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 5333.
    Westberg, Johannes
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för humaniora, utbildnings- och samhällsvetenskap.
    Montessori educational empire: Cultural Criticism and politics between the wartime Montessori Movement2019Ingår i: Historisk Tidskrift (S), ISSN 0345-469X, Vol. 139, nr 3, s. 630-631Artikel, recension (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 5334.
    Westberg, Johannes
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för humaniora, utbildnings- och samhällsvetenskap.
    Om 1900-talets progressivism, skolpolitik och skola2019Ingår i: Pekpinnar: Historiska perspektiv på utbildning, s. 1-8Artikel, recension (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    Om 1900-talets progressivism, skolpolitik och skola
  • 5335.
    Westberg, Johannes
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för humaniora, utbildnings- och samhällsvetenskap.
    Recension av: Den svenska skolgårdens historia: Skolans utemiljö som pedagogiskt och socialt rum2017Ingår i: Bebyggelsehistorisk tidskrift, ISSN 0349-2834, nr 74, s. 137-139Artikel, recension (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 5336.
    Westberg, Johannes
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för humaniora, utbildnings- och samhällsvetenskap.
    Recension av: Ett hem av solsken: Disa Beijer och barnträdgården som arena för socialt arbete2017Ingår i: Personhistorisk Tidskrift, ISSN 0031-5699, nr 1, s. 80-83Artikel, recension (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 5337.
    Westberg, Johannes
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för humaniora, utbildnings- och samhällsvetenskap.
    Reconstructing long lost classrooms: evidence from scattered and threatened Swedish school museums2019Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 5338.
    Westberg, Johannes
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för humaniora, utbildnings- och samhällsvetenskap.
    Regulating regional variations in primary schooling: the case of state subsidy reform in early twentieth century Sweden2019Ingår i: ISCHE 41 – Spaces and Place of Education – Book of Abstracts / [ed] Luís Grosso Correia and Sara Poças, Porto, Portugal: International Standing Conference for the History of Education & Centre for Research and Intervention in Education of the Faculty of Psychology and Education Sciences of the University of Porto , 2019, s. 450-451Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The historiography of state intervention generally, and the historiography of state subsidies in particular, has indicated that state intervention may have a wide variety of effects on school systems, depending on the kind of intervention and its context. A centralization of the school systems funding and organization have been perceived as resulting in increased regional equality in Massachusetts (Kaestle & Vinovskis, 1980, 199) and France (Grew & Harrigan, 1991, 227). Matching grant formulas have, on the contrary, been said to increase differences between poor and rich school districts, since they allocate funding depending on how much districts spend on their schools (Swanson & King, 1991, 197). Studies have also shown of state grants have been used to increase the funding gap between schools for the white and the African-American communities in the USA (Margo, 1982), and that cost per pupil did not seem to converge after the introduction of payments by results in England and Wales after 1862 (Mitch, 2010).

    This paper examines the efforts to reform and centralize the funding of the Swedish primary school system in the early twentieth century. From the 1870s and onwards, the funds of the Swedish primary schools had been distributed according to a matching grants system. In 1871, previous state subsidies were replaced with a system of matching grants that covered half of school teacher salaries (with a maximum subsidy of 250 SEK per primary school teacher (folkskollärare) and 75 SEK per junior school teacher (småskollärare). In 1875, the grants were made more generous to match two-thirds of teacher salaries with a maximum of 400 SEK for primary school teachers and 125 SEK for junior school teachers. This was later followed by minor adjustments of the maximum level of the subsidies.

    In 1913, this system of matching grants was reformed. After parliamentary debate on raising the level of state subsidies, starting already in 1878, the Swedish parliament decided in 1913 that the state was to cover 90% of teacher minimum salary and all of the add-ons that teacher received after a certain number of years. As a result, the government grants increased from contributing to 30 percent of the local school districts’ revenues in 1910 to 49 percent in 1920 (Westberg 2017).

    By examining available statistical data, and contemporary parliamentary debate, this paper studies the intentions behind this reform, and the impact that this reform had on regional disparity of Swedish schooling in the early twentieth century. As a result, this paper contributes to the historiography of state subsidies, and the literature on the centralization of primary school systems during the end of the nineteenth century in Sweden and elsewhere in the West.

  • 5339.
    Westberg, Johannes
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för humaniora, utbildnings- och samhällsvetenskap.
    Review of: Marcelo Caruso (Ed.): Classroom Struggle: An important contribution2017Ingår i: IJHE Bildungsgeschichte, ISSN 2192-4295, Vol. 7, nr 1, s. 100-102Artikel, recension (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The rise of mass schooling is certainly one of the absolutely fundamental developments of the last three centuries. Today, schooling is a global institution, both as a normative principle and as an organizational reality. The chapters collected in Classroom Struggle explore the early stages of this development through analyses of elementary school teaching in ten countries during the nineteenth century. While each chapter focuses on national or local settings, the volume as a whole accomplishes an international analysis of homogeneity and variation in teaching practices. The book is consequently presented as a contribution to the still rather neglected field of transnational analysis of teaching.

    The book is divided into three parts that contextualizes the history of teaching in slightly different ways. The first part, “Struggling with Political and Economic Contexts”, puts emphasis on the relationship between the societal context and educational reform; the second part, “Struggling for a Rationalized Pattern of Teaching” addresses the efforts of imposing central regulation on instruction; and the third part, “Struggling with Competing Systems of Teaching”, deals with the relationships between different teaching systems. Including ten chapters, an introduction and a postscript, this means that it is an ambitious volume that covers a wide variety of countries, contexts, time-periods and source materials. This is thus a volume that encompasses analyses of competing systems of teaching in Schleswig-Holstein in 1819-1830, an examination of the data gathered by the nation-wide Portuguese extraordinary inspection of 1875, and an analysis of the modernization of instruction in Brazil during the nineteenth century.

  • 5340.
    Westberg, Johannes
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för humaniora, utbildnings- och samhällsvetenskap.
    Review of: Pædagogprofessionens historie og aktualitet. 1 & 22016Ingår i: Nordic Journal of Educational History, ISSN 2001-7766, E-ISSN 2001-9076, Vol. 3, nr 2, s. 64-67Artikel, recension (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 5341.
    Westberg, Johannes
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för humaniora, utbildnings- och samhällsvetenskap. Orebro Univ, Orebro, Sweden..
    Review of: UNESCO's Utopia of Lifelong Learning: An Intellectual History2019Ingår i: Historical Studies in Education, ISSN 0843-5057, Vol. 31, nr 1, s. 143-145Artikel, recension (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 5342.
    Westberg, Johannes
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för humaniora, utbildnings- och samhällsvetenskap.
    Revolution eller reform?: Folkskolestadgan, skolorna och skolhusen2017Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 5343.
    Westberg, Johannes
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för humaniora, utbildnings- och samhällsvetenskap.
    Simple beginnings?: The school act of 1842 and the rise of mass schooling in Sweden2017Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 5344.
    Westberg, Johannes
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för humaniora, utbildnings- och samhällsvetenskap.
    Source materials are not the past: Celebrating historians’ work in archives2018Ingår i: IJHE Bildungsgeschichte, ISSN 2192-4295, Vol. 8, nr 2, s. 208-212Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 5345.
    Westberg, Johannes
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för humaniora, utbildnings- och samhällsvetenskap.
    The Production of Impoverished but Sophisticated Emigrants: Emigration, Human Capital, and Economic Growth in Sweden2019Ingår i: Globalization and the Rise of Mass Education / [ed] Gabriele Cappelli, David Mitch, Cham: Palgrave Macmillan, 2019, s. 193-217Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    In the period between 1850 and 1930, an estimated 1.25 million Swedish citizens emigrated to North America. In this chapter, I examine two dimensions of the relationships between schooling, emigration and economic growth in this context. Firstly, I address the impact that emigration had on Sweden’s comparatively high levels of human capital. Secondly, I discuss the influence that the emigration of this comparatively literate population had on economic growth in Sweden. The results of these investigations indicate that the magnitude of the loss of labor force that the emigration implied, rather than the loss of specific skills, imposed a greater influence on the economic development of Sweden during this time, even though the emigration and re-migration of certain professional groups may have also influenced economic growth.

  • 5346.
    Westberg, Johannes
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för humaniora, utbildnings- och samhällsvetenskap.
    The school act of 1842 and the rise of mass schooling in Sweden2018Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    As the result of a complicated political process, initiated by a royal proposition on February 1, 1840, the school act of 1842 was issued on June 18, 1842, signed by the aged King Karl XIV Johan, born Jean Bernadotte and former Marshal of France.[1] Although targeted by recurrent criticism, continuously revised by circulars and regulations, and two the renewed school acts of 1882 and 1897, the school act nevertheless created the main structure of the Swedish primary school system that lasted throughout the nineteenth century.

    In this paper, I will therefore focus on the school act of 1842 and its preconditions, contents and consequences. I will show how the school act was the result of a lengthy political debate, spanning decades, on popular education, describe the school system that the school acts designed, and discuss the effects of the act, using both existing research on the topic and primary sources

  • 5347.
    Westberg, Johannes
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för humaniora, utbildnings- och samhällsvetenskap.
    The transfer, translation and transformation of the British infant school: the case of nineteenth century Sweden2019Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 5348.
    Westberg, Johannes
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för humaniora, utbildnings- och samhällsvetenskap.
    Utbildning och ekonomi2019Ingår i: Utbildningshistoria: En introduktion / [ed] Esbjörn Larsson, Johannes Westberg, Lund: Studentlitteratur , 2019, 3, s. 481-499Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 5349.
    Westberg, Johannes
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för humaniora, utbildnings- och samhällsvetenskap.
    Vad är utbildningshistoria?: Ett forskningsfälts historia, framtid och relation till pedagogikämnet2017Ingår i: Utbildning och Demokrati, ISSN 1102-6472, E-ISSN 2001-7316, Vol. 26, nr 3, s. 7-37Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    What is the history of education? In this inaugural lecture, I present an overview of the development of this research field on the international as well as national, Swedish level. After delineating the research object of educational history, I begin by sketching the transition from an older tradition of educational history, often labelled history of educational thought, to what is often referred to as the new (or revisionist) history of education. Thereafter, I discuss the state of the art of Swedish educational history at the turn of the millennium within an international context. To conclude, this lecture discusses the relationship between educational history and the discipline of education (pedagogik) in Sweden and provides suggestions for future strands of research.

  • 5350.
    Westberg, Johannes
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för humaniora, utbildnings- och samhällsvetenskap.
    Virtues and vices: Decentralized education systems, centralization and the rise of mass schooling 1840–19402017Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
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