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  • 651.
    Wang, Yawei
    et al.
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Yang, Ruiqiang
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Wang, Thanh
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Zhang, Qinghua
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Li, Yingming
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Jiang, Guibin
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Assessment of polychlorinated biphenyls and polybrominated diphenyl ethers in Tibetan butter.2010Inngår i: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 78, nr 6, s. 772-777Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The Tibetan plateau is considered a potential cold trap for persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and plays an important role in the global long-range transport of these compounds. This present work surveyed the concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in Tibetan butter samples collected from different prefectures in Tibet autonomous region (TAR). summation operator(25)PCB concentrations ranged from 137 to 2518 pg g(-1) with a mean value 519 pg g(-1), which were far lower than those in the butter from other regions in the world. The highest level was found in butter from Sichuan province, which is located to the east of the Tibetan plateau and the lowest value was in samples from southeast TAR. The average concentration of summation Sigma(12)PBDE was 125 pg g(-1). The sample with highest and lowest summation Sigma(12)PBDE concentration (955 and 18.0 pg g(-1)) was from the south and southeast part of the plateau, respectively. Back trajectory model implied that the sources of these two groups of POPs were by atmospheric deposition in south, whereas the western plateau was mainly influenced by the tropical monsoon from south Asia. Air currents from Sichuan and Gansu province are further responsible for the atmospheric transport of PCBs and PBDEs to the eastern and northern side of the plateau. Local air concentrations of summation Sigma(5)PCBs predicted using air-milk transfer factor were at the lower end of published global levels.

  • 652.
    Wang, Yawei
    et al.
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085, China; RCEES; ,,,.
    Zhao, Chunyan
    Department of Chemistry, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000, China.
    Ma, Weiping
    Department of Chemistry, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000, China.
    Liu, Hanxia
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085, China; RCEES; ,,,.
    Wang, Thanh
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085, China; RCEES; ,,,.
    Jiang, Guibin
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085, China; RCEES; ,,,.
    Quantitative structure-activity relationship for prediction of the toxicity of polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congeners2006Inngår i: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 64, nr 4, s. 515-524Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Levels of Polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDEs) are increasing in the environment due to their use as flame retardants. The similarities of structure to polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners suggest that they may share similar toxicological properties, such as hepatic enzyme induction. In this work, quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) models were constructed based on 406 descriptors for the logarithm of toxicology index (aryl hydrocarbon receptor relative binding affinities, AhR, I) of 18 PBDE congeners. The method used for building model is the Heuristic method, which is included in comprehensive descriptors for structural and statistical analysis (CODESSA) software. The best regression model involved four descriptors, which were related to the conformational changes, atomic reactivity, molecular electrostatic field, and non-uniformity of mass distribution in a molecule of PBDEs, etc. The high square of the correlation coefficient R(2)(0.903) showed the model was satisfactory.

  • 653.
    Wang, Yuan
    et al.
    State Key Laboratory in Marine Pollution, Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong SAR, China; Jiangsu Academy of Environmental Science, Nanjing, China.
    Lam, James C. W.
    State Key Laboratory in Marine Pollution, Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University Hong Kong, Hong Kong SAR, China.
    So, M. K.
    State Key Laboratory in Marine Pollution, Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong SAR, China.
    Yeung, Leo W. Y.
    State Key Laboratory in Marine Pollution, Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong SAR, China.
    Cai, Zongwei
    Dioxin Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, Hong Kong Baptist University, Hong Kong SAR, China.
    Hung, Craig L. H.
    State Key Laboratory in Marine Pollution, Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong SAR, China.
    Lam, Paul K. S.
    State Key Laboratory in Marine Pollution, Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong SAR, China.
    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in waterbird eggs of Hong Kong, China2012Inngår i: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 86, nr 3, s. 242-247Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Concentrations of PCDD/Fs, PCBs and PBDEs were measured in 56 egg samples collected from waterbirds of different species (Great Egret, Little Egret, Night Heron and Chinese Pond Heron) from different regions of Hong Kong (Ho Sheung Heung, Mai Po Village and Mai Po Lung Village) during 2000 and 2006. Dominance of 2,3,4,7,8-PeCDF indicates a signature associated with commercial usage of PCBs. Although no significant variations were observed within- and between-site in the levels of PCDD/Fs, coplanar PCBs and PBDEs, the concentrations of coplanar PCBs were much higher than PCDD/Fs. Similarity in composition profiles of PCDD/F and coplanar PCBs from different egretries is possibly associated with non-point sources of these contaminants to Hong Kong. Predominant accumulation of BDE-47, BDE-99 and BDE-100 suggested the penta-BDE technical mixtures usage in Hong Kong and its vicinity. Toxic equivalency and Monte Carlo simulation technique showed potential risks on waterbirds due to their exposure to PCDD/Fs.

  • 654.
    Wang, Yuan
    et al.
    Jiangsu Academy of Environmental Science, Nanjing, China.
    Murphy, Margaret B.
    State Key Laboratory in Marine Pollution, Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Hong Kong, China .
    Lam, James C. W.
    State Key Laboratory in Marine Pollution, Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China.
    Jiao, Liping
    Third Institute of Oceanography, State Oceanic Administration, Xiamen, China; Key Laboratory of Global Change and Marine-Atmospheric Chemistry, State Oceanic Administration, Xiamen Fijian, China.
    Wong, Captain C. L.
    Yeung, Leo W. Y.
    State Key Laboratory in Marine Pollution, Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China.
    Lam, Paul K. S.
    State Key Laboratory in Marine Pollution, Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China.
    Polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides in local waterbird eggs from Hong Kong: Risk assessment to local waterbirds2011Inngår i: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 83, nr 7, s. 891-896Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The contamination status of the marine environment in Hong Kong was studied by measuring concentrations of organochlorine (OC) pollutants (i.e., hexachlorobenzene, aldrin, dieldrin, endrin, mirex, total heptachlor, total chlordane, total DDTs, total PCBs, and total toxaphenes) in the eggs of selected waterbird species from different locations around the city: Little Egret (Egretta garzetta) and Chinese Pond Heron (Ardeola bacchus) from Mai Po Village, Great Egret (Ardea alba) and Black-crowned Night Heron (Nycticorax nycticorax) from A Chau, and Chinese Pond Heron (A. bacchus) from Ho Sheung Heung. The mean concentrations of total PCBs and total DDTs ranged from 191-11100ngg-1 lipid and 453-49000ngg-1 lipid, respectively. Recent exposure of waterbirds to technical chlordane was found in Hong Kong. The risk characterization demonstrated potential risks to birds associated with exposure to DDE, which was found to cause a reduction in survival of young in Hong Kong Ardeids based on the endpoint in the risk assessment.

  • 655.
    Wang, Yuan
    et al.
    Centre for Coastal Pollution and Conservation, Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong; National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 16-1 Onogawa, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan.
    Yeung, Leo W. Y.
    Centre for Coastal Pollution and Conservation, Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong; National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 16-1 Onogawa, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan.
    Taniyasu, Sachi
    National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 16-1 Onogawa, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan.
    Yamashita, Nobuyoshi
    National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 16-1 Onogawa, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan.
    Lam, James C. W.
    Centre for Coastal Pollution and Conservation, Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong.
    Lam, Paul K. S.
    Centre for Coastal Pollution and Conservation, Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong.
    Perfluorooctane Sulfonate and Other Fluorochemicals in Waterbird Eggs from South China2008Inngår i: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 42, nr 21, s. 8146-8151Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    To our knowledge, this is the first study reporting concentrations of perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) in waterbird eggs in South China. Concentrations of 11 PFCs (PFOS, PFHxS, PFBS, PFOSA, PFDoDA, PFUnDA, PFDA, PFNA, PFOA, PFHpA, PFHxA) were measured in night heron, great egret, and little egret eggs from South China (Hong Kong, Xiamen, Quanzhou). PFOS was found to be the dominant PFC in the waterbird eggs. Total concentrations of the 11 PFCs in waterbird eggs ranged from 27.0 ng/g ww (great egret from Hong Kong) to 160 ng/g ww (night heron from Quanzhou). Significant differences in PFOS concentrations were found among species, but not among locations. The composition profiles of the individual PFCs among egg samples were generally similar. Positive correlations were found between PFOS and some of the PFCAs in the egg samples from Hong Kong. Concentrations of some of the PFCs were significantly correlated with total PCB concentrations reported in a previous study in the night heron egg samples, but not in the great egret samples. Preliminary risk assessment suggests that there is no immediate risk of a reduction in offspring survival in waterbirds in South China due to PFOS, but more information is needed on the potential effects of PFCs in waterbirds.

  • 656.
    Wei, S.
    et al.
    Centre for Coastal Pollution and Conservation, Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong, SAR, Hong Kong.
    Wang, Y.
    Centre for Coastal Pollution and Conservation, Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong, SAR, Hong Kong.
    Lam, James C. W.
    Centre for Coastal Pollution and Conservation, Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong, SAR, Hong Kong.
    Zheng, Gene J.
    Centre for Coastal Pollution and Conservation, Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong, SAR, Hong Kong.
    So, M. K.
    Centre for Coastal Pollution and Conservation, Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong, SAR, Hong Kong.
    Yueng, Leo W. Y.
    Centre for Coastal Pollution and Conservation, Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong, SAR, Hong Kong.
    Horii, Y.
    National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 16-1 Onogawa, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan.
    Chen, L. Q.
    Key Laboratory of Marine Atmospheric Chemistry and Global Change, Third Institute of Oceanography, SOA, Xiamen, China.
    Yu, Hongxia
    State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resources, School of the Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing, China.
    Yamashita, N.
    National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 16-1 Onogawa, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan.
    Lam, Paul K. S.
    Centre for Coastal Pollution and Conservation, Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong, SAR, Hong Kong.
    Historical trends of organic pollutants in sediment cores from Hong Kong2008Inngår i: Marine Pollution Bulletin, ISSN 0025-326X, E-ISSN 1879-3363, Vol. 57, nr 6-12, s. 758-766Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent studies have indicated the occurrence of a wide range of trace organic contaminants, including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in the Hong Kong environment. These contaminants are potentially harmful to ecological systems, particularly in coastal areas. In this study, two sediment cores (4 m) were collected from southern waters of Hong Kong in 2004 to study the historical trends, distribution patterns, and potential sources of trace organic contaminants. DDTs (p,p′-DDT, o,p′-DDT, p,p′-DDD, o,p′-DDD and p,p′-DDE), hexachlorohexanes (HCHs) (α and γ), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), and PCBs were detected in the samples, whereas other target compounds were all below detection limits. Many OCPs have not been produced or used for many years due to toxicological or environmental concerns and PCB use is prohibited in Hong Kong. However, some compounds were still detectable in recent years, and were found to be widely distributed in the environment, likely because of pollutant inputs from the highly industrialized Pearl River Delta region. These results provide important information on current and historical contamination in Hong Kong, and help to reconstruct the pollution history of these trace organic pollutants in Hong Kong coastal waters.

  • 657.
    Weiner, Barbara
    et al.
    Department of Chemistry, University of Toronto, Toronto ON, Canada; Department of Environmental Engineering, Helmholtz-Centre for Environmental Research, Leipzig, Germany.
    Yeung, Leo W. Y.
    Department of Chemistry, University of Toronto, Toronto ON, Canada.
    Marchington, Erin B.
    Department of Chemistry, University of Toronto, Toronto ON, Canada.
    D'Agostino, Lisa A.
    Department of Chemistry, University of Toronto, Toronto ON, Canada.
    Mabury, Scott A.
    Department of Chemistry, University of Toronto, Toronto ON, Canada.
    Organic fluorine content in aqueous film forming foams (AFFFs) and biodegradation of the foam component 6: 2 fluorotelomermercaptoalkylamido sulfonate (6: 2 FTSAS)2013Inngår i: Environmental Chemistry, ISSN 1448-2517, E-ISSN 1449-8979, Vol. 10, nr 6, s. 486-493Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Environmental context Total organofluorine and known fluorosurfactants were quantified in 11 aqueous film forming foams (AFFFs) used to extinguish fires in Ontario, Canada, and one commercial AFFF product. By comparing the concentrations of known fluorosurfactants with the total organofluorine, less than 10% of the fluorosurfactants were identified in half of the samples. Our biodegradation experiment with one of the fluorosurfactants using waste-water treatment plant sludge showed that it was a potential source of perfluoroalkyl carboxylates, which are persistent in the environment. Abstract Eleven aqueous film forming foam (AFFF) samples that were used to extinguish fires in Ontario, Canada, and one commercial product, were analysed using a variety of analytical techniques to obtain structural information and quantities of organofluorine and known perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs). The NMR spectra of the foams distinguished the fluorosurfactants that were synthesised by either electrochemical fluorination or telomerisation. Total organofluorine content was quantified using total organofluorine-combustion ion chromatography (TOF-CIC), which revealed that the samples contained from 475 to 18000gFmL-1. The common AFFF component 6:2 fluorotelomermercaptoalkylamido sulfonate (FTSAS) was quantified by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) together with perfluoroalkane sulfonates (PFSAs), perfluoroalkyl carboxylates (PFCAs) and fluorotelomer sulfonates (FTSAs); in five samples, 6:2 FTSAS was present in concentrations greater than 1000gmL-1. By comparing the concentrations of these quantifiable fluorochemicals with the total organofluorine content, it was evident that in half of the AFFF samples, less than 10% of the fluorochemicals were identified; in two of the samples, perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) accounted for ∼50% of the total organofluorine content. Our degradation experiment with 6:2 FTSAS using waste-water treatment plant sludge showed that 6:2 FTSAS was a potential source of FTSAs, fluorotelomer alcohols and PFCAs in the environment.

  • 658.
    Westman, Ola
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Development of bioassays for risk assessment of PAHs and PFASs in the environment2013Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Delarbeid
    1. Perfluorooctane sulfonate increases β-oxidation of palmitic acid in chicken liver
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Perfluorooctane sulfonate increases β-oxidation of palmitic acid in chicken liver
    2012 (engelsk)Inngår i: Environmental science and pollution research international, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 19, nr 5, s. 1859-1863Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) belongs to a group of chemicals called perfluoroalkyl acids that have been extensively used in various applications such as stain and oil resistant treatments for fabrics, fire-fighting foams, and insecticides. These chemicals present an environmental and health risk being present in many samples both in wildlife and humans. In this study, we investigate the effect of PFOS on fatty acid β-oxidation in developing chicken embryos.

    Methods: Fertilized chicken eggs were exposed in ovo to PFOS at day 4 of incubation. On day 10, the eggs were dissected and livers were incubated in vitro with (3)H-palmitic acid for 2 h. The media were collected, and after clean up, the amount of tritiated water was measured with liquid scintillation counting to determine the rate of palmitic acid β-oxidation.

    Results: PFOS was found to induce fatty acid β-oxidation at doses starting from a lowest observed effect level (LOEL) of 0.1 μg/g egg weight. Maximum induction of 77 % compared to control was seen at 0.3 μg/g.

    Conclusions: The administered doses in which effects are seen are around and even lower than the levels that can be found in wild populations of birds. General population human levels are a factor of two to three times lower than the LOEL value of this study. The environmental contamination of PFOS therefore presents a possibility of effects in wild populations of birds.

    sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
    Heidelberg, Germany: Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2012
    Emneord
    Perfluorooctane sulfonate, PFOS, exposure, chicken, palmitic acid, β-oxidation, tritium
    HSV kategori
    Forskningsprogram
    Biologi; Biomedicinsk laboratorievetenskap
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-24853 (URN)10.1007/s11356-012-0869-1 (DOI)000305884600053 ()22441698 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-84863225035 (Scopus ID)
    Forskningsfinansiär
    Swedish Research Council Formas
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2012-08-23 Laget: 2012-08-23 Sist oppdatert: 2017-12-07bibliografisk kontrollert
    2. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) reduce hepatic beta-oxidation of fatty acids in chick embryos
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) reduce hepatic beta-oxidation of fatty acids in chick embryos
    Vise andre…
    2013 (engelsk)Inngår i: Environmental science and pollution research international, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 20, nr 3, s. 1881-1888Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are widespread fused-ring contaminants formed during incomplete combustion of almost all kind of organic materials from both natural and anthropogenic sources. Some PAHs have been shown to be carcinogenic to humans, and a wide range of PAHs are found in wildlife all around the globe including avian species. The purpose of this project was to assess the effects of a standard mixture of 16 PAHs (United States Environmental Protection Agency) on the hepatic fatty acid beta-oxidation in chicken embryos (Gallus gallus domesticus) exposed in ovo. The hepatic beta-oxidation was measured using a tritium release assay with [9,10-H-3]-palmitic acid (16:0) as substrate. Treated groups were divided into groups of 0.05, 0.1, 0.3, 0.5, and 0.8 mg PAHs/kg egg weight. The hepatic beta-oxidation was reduced after exposure in ovo to the 16 PAHs mixture compared to control. The mechanisms causing reduced fatty acid oxidation in the present study are unclear, however may be due to deficient membrane structure, the functionality of enzymes controlling the rate of fatty acid entering into the mitochondria, or complex pathways connected to endocrine disruption. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time a PAH-caused reduction of hepatic beta-oxidation of fatty acids in avian embryos has been observed. The implication of this finding on risk assessment of PAH exposure in avian wildlife remains to be determined.

    HSV kategori
    Forskningsprogram
    Miljövetenskap; Biologi
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-29081 (URN)10.1007/s11356-012-1418-7 (DOI)000315442500065 ()23274806 (PubMedID)
    Prosjekter
    SOILTOX
    Forskningsfinansiär
    Knowledge Foundation
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2013-05-21 Laget: 2013-05-21 Sist oppdatert: 2018-05-17bibliografisk kontrollert
    3. An oxygenated metabolite of benzo[a]pyrene increases hepatic β-oxidation of fatty acids in chick embryos
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>An oxygenated metabolite of benzo[a]pyrene increases hepatic β-oxidation of fatty acids in chick embryos
    Vise andre…
    (engelsk)Manuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
    HSV kategori
    Forskningsprogram
    Biologi; Miljövetenskap
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-33946 (URN)
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2014-02-26 Laget: 2014-02-26 Sist oppdatert: 2017-10-17bibliografisk kontrollert
    4. Comparative study and characterization of mutagenicity and AhR-agonistic potency of contaminated soil, remediated soil, urban city soil and rural soil
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Comparative study and characterization of mutagenicity and AhR-agonistic potency of contaminated soil, remediated soil, urban city soil and rural soil
    (engelsk)Manuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Current risk assessment of PAH-contaminated soils is usually based on chemical analysis of a small number of PAHs. The use of effect-based methods for risk assessment would yield results covering more of the effect of all the chemicals in the soil. To put such effect based data into context we tested a relative approach in which effects of contaminated soil were compared to clean rural and urban soils. This concept of relative risk assessment was tested by studying the mutagenic and AhR-agonistic potency of contaminated soil and urban soil compared to farm soil from selected ecological farms. A set of 21 soil samples was collected: 11 PAH-contaminated samples (collected in collaboration with three Swedish remediation companies), 5 urban samples (collected in Swedish cities) and 5 soil samples from ecological farms. The urban and rural samples were collected at the surface (0-10 cm deep), the contaminated samples were collected from piles during remediation (100-200 cm deep). To evaluate the toxicants in the soil sample, lipophilic sample extracts were tested in two different assays; (i) the Ames Fluctuation Assay (AFA) mutant strains TA98 and TA100 of Salmonella typhimurium with and without a metabolic activation system (rat-liver homogenate S9) to determine the mutagenic potential of the soil samples and (ii) the cell mechanism-specific H4IIE-luc assay to determine the Ahreceptor (AhR) activating potency of the soil extracts. The results showed clear mutagenicity, both direct and indirect, in one of the PAH-contaminated samples and three other PAH samples also demonstrated some mutagenic activity. The extracts from urban city soil showed mutagenicity in three of the 5 samples, while none of the ecological farm samples had mutagenic extracts. The bio-TEQ values were very high for all remediated samples and elevated in one urban sample. Bio-TEQ values were low in the ecological farm extracts. These findings demonstrate that the present investigation scheme using two different bioassays to determine the mutagenic potential and the Ah receptor activating potency of soil extracts is a suitable method for testing toxic properties of soil extracts. The concept of relative risk assessment using background samples from rural and urban areas and effect based testing shows promise for further development.

    Emneord
    contaminated soil; genotoxicity; AhR-inducing; bioassay, toxicity
    HSV kategori
    Forskningsprogram
    Biologi
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-33947 (URN)
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2014-02-26 Laget: 2014-02-26 Sist oppdatert: 2017-10-17bibliografisk kontrollert
  • 659.
    Westman, Ola
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Nordén, Marcus
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Larsson, Maria
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Venizelos, Nikolaos
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Hollert, Henner
    RWTH Aachen University, Aachen, Germany.
    Engwall, Magnus
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Reduced beta-oxidation in avian following exposure of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons2012Inngår i: Toxicology Letters, ISSN 0378-4274, E-ISSN 1879-3169, Vol. 211, nr Supplement, s. s86-s87Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 660.
    Wijnhoven, Trudy M A
    et al.
    Division of Noncommunicable Diseases and Life-Course, WHO Regional Office for Europe, Copenhagen, Denmark .
    van Raaij, Joop M A
    Centre for Nutrition, Prevention and Health Services, National Institute for Public Health and the Environment, Bilthoven, The Netherlands; Division of Human Nutrition, Wageningen University, Wageningen, The Netherlands .
    Sjöberg, Agneta
    Department of Food and Nutrition and Sport Science, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Eldin, Nazih
    Health Promotion Department, Health Service Executive, Railway Street, Navan, Ireland; National Nutrition Surveillance Centre, School of Public Health, Physiotherapy & Population Science, University College Dublin, Dublin, Ireland .
    Yngve, Agneta
    Örebro universitet, Restaurang- och hotellhögskolan.
    Kunešová, Marie
    Obesity Management Centre, Institute of Endocrinology, Prague, Czech Republic .
    Starc, Gregor
    Faculty of Sport, University of Ljubljana, Ljubljana, Slovenia .
    Rito, Ana I
    National Health Institute Doutor Ricardo Jorge, Lisbon, Portugal.
    Duleva, Vesselka
    Department of Food and Nutrition, National Centre of Public Health and Analyses, Sofia, Bulgaria .
    Hassapidou, Maria
    Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, Alexander Technological Educational Institute of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, Greece .
    Martos, Eva
    National Institute for Food and Nutrition Science, Budapest, Hungary .
    Pudule, Iveta
    Centre for Disease Prevention and Control, Riga, Latvia.
    Petrauskiene, Ausra
    Department of Preventive Medicine, Lithuanian University of Health Sciences, Kaunas, Lithuania .
    Sant'Angelo, Victoria Farrugia
    Primary Health Care Department, Valletta, Malta .
    Hovengen, Ragnhild
    Department of Health Statistics, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Oslo, Norway.
    Breda, João
    Division of Noncommunicable Diseases and Life-Course, WHO Regional Office for Europe, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    WHO European Childhood Obesity Surveillance Initiative: School Nutrition Environment and Body Mass Index in Primary Schools2014Inngår i: International journal of environmental research and public health, ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 11, nr 11, s. 11261-11285Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Schools are important settings for the promotion of a healthy diet and sufficient physical activity and thus overweight prevention.

    Objective: To assess differences in school nutrition environment and body mass index (BMI) in primary schools between and within 12 European countries.

    Methods: Data from the World Health Organization (WHO) European Childhood Obesity Surveillance Initiative (COSI) were used (1831 and 2045 schools in 2007/2008 and 2009/2010, respectively). School personnel provided information on 18 school environmental characteristics on nutrition and physical activity. A school nutrition environment score was calculated using five nutrition-related characteristics whereby higher scores correspond to higher support for a healthy school nutrition environment. Trained field workers measured children's weight and height; BMI-for-age (BMI/A) Z-scores were computed using the 2007 WHO growth reference and, for each school, the mean of the children's BMI/A Z-scores was calculated.

    Results: Large between-country differences were found in the availability of food items on the premises (e.g., fresh fruit could be obtained in 12%-95% of schools) and school nutrition environment scores (range: 0.30-0.93). Low-score countries (Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Greece, Hungary, Latvia and Lithuania) graded less than three characteristics as supportive. High-score (≥0.70) countries were Ireland, Malta, Norway, Portugal, Slovenia and Sweden. The combined absence of cold drinks containing sugar, sweet snacks and salted snacks were more observed in high-score countries than in low-score countries. Largest within-country school nutrition environment scores were found in Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Greece, Hungary, Latvia and Lithuania. All country-level BMI/A Z-scores were positive (range: 0.20-1.02), indicating higher BMI values than the 2007 WHO growth reference. With the exception of Norway and Sweden, a country-specific association between the school nutrition environment score and the school BMI/A Z-score was not observed.

    Conclusions: Some European countries have implemented more school policies that are supportive to a healthy nutrition environment than others. However, most countries with low school nutrition environment scores also host schools with supportive school environment policies, suggesting that a uniform school policy to tackle the "unhealthy" school nutrition environment has not been implemented at the same level throughout a country and may underline the need for harmonized school policies.

  • 661. Wolkers, H.
    et al.
    Lydersen, C.
    Kovacs, K. M.
    Burkow, I.
    van Bavel, Bert
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap.
    Accumulation, metabolism, and food-chain transfer of chlorinated and brominated contaminants in subadult white whales (Delphinapterus leucas) and narwhals (Monodon monoceros) from Svalbard, Norway2006Inngår i: Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, ISSN 0090-4341, E-ISSN 1432-0703, Vol. 50, nr 1, s. 69-78Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The concentrations and patterns of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), chlorinated pesticides, and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were studied in white whales (Delphinapterus leucas) and narwhals (Monodon monoceros) from Svalbard, Norway. In addition, their main food items were included in the study. In the whales, a broad range of pollutants was found in relatively high concentrations. PCBs and pesticides were approximately 3000 and 8000 ng/g lipid, respectively, for white whales and three times higher for narwhals. PBDEs 47 were approximately 70 ng/g lipid for white whales and 170 ng/g lipid for narwhals. Compared with other marine mammals from the same area, contaminant levels are among the highest levels ever measured. These high levels are likely in part because of a decreased capacity to metabolize contaminants. Metabolic indices indicated that most compounds accumulate to the same degree in white whales and narwhals, but for some toxaphenes and chlordanes, narwhals might have a decreased metabolism and consequently a higher accumulation. The three-times-higher contaminant levels in blubber of narwhals was further explained by substantially higher contaminant levels in their more benthic diet. The high levels and broad pattern of accumulating pollutants make white whales and narwhals excellent indicators for a wide range of contaminants in the Arctic.

  • 662. Wolkers, Hans
    et al.
    Hammill, Mike O.
    van Bavel, Bert
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap.
    Tissue-specific accumulation and lactational transfer of polychlorinated biphenyls, chlorinated pesticides, and brominated flame retardants in hooded seals (Cistophora cristata) from the Gulf of St. Lawrence: applications for monitoring.2006Inngår i: Environmental Pollution, ISSN 0269-7491, E-ISSN 1873-6424, Vol. 142, nr 3, s. 476-486Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Accumulation and mother-pup transfer of halogenated organic contaminants was studied in hooded seal tissues from eastern Canada. Blubber polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) and total pesticide concentrations were relatively high, possibly due to their high trophic level and demersal feeding habits. Blood plasma showed the lowest contaminant concentrations compared to blubber and liver, possibly due to a lower affinity of these compounds to lipoproteins in blood plasma. Total contaminant body burden correlated well with blubber, liver, and milk contaminants, but not with blood plasma contaminants, indicating that blood plasma might be less suitable to monitor contaminants in hooded seals. Lactational transfer favored less lipophilic contaminants and was associated with relatively high blood plasma PCB and polybrominated diphenyl ether concentrations in females. Despite lactational transfer, females did not show significantly lower blubber contaminant concentrations or burdens than males. This might be caused by their low blubber, and thus contaminant, loss during lactation compared to other species.

  • 663. Wolkers, Hans
    et al.
    Krafft, Bjørn A.
    van Bavel, Bert
    Örebro universitet, Akademin för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Helgason, Lisa B.
    Lydersen, Christian
    Kovacs, Kit M.
    Biomarker responses and decreasing contaminant levels in ringed seals (Pusa hispida) from Svalbard, Norway2008Inngår i: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, ISSN 1528-7394, E-ISSN 1087-2620, Vol. 71, nr 15, s. 1009-1018Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Blubber was analyzed for a wide range of contaminants from five sub-adult and eight adult male ringed seals sampled in 2004, namely, for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), toxaphenes, chlordanes, dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE), and polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDEs). Contaminant levels were compared to previously sampled animals from the same area, as well as data from literature for other arctic wildlife species from a wide variety of locations. Ringed seals sampled in 2004 showed 50-90% lower levels of legacy contaminants such as PCBs and chlorinated pesticides compared to animals sampled in 1996 of similar age (14 sub-adults and 7 adult males), indicating that the decline of chlorinated contaminants observed during the 1990s in a variety of arctic wildlife species is continuing into the 21st century. The results also indicated that PBDE declined in ringed seals; levels in 2004 were about 70-80% lower than in animals sampled in 1998. This is one of the first observations of reduced exposure to these compounds and might be a first indication that restrictions of production and use of these contaminants have resulted in lower exposures in the Arctic. The PCB pattern shifted toward the less chlorinated (i.e., less persistent) PCBs, especially in adult ringed seals, possibly as a result of reduced overall contaminant exposures and a consequently lower cytochrome P-450 (CYP) induction, which results in a slower metabolism of less persistent PCBs. The overall effect would be relative increases in the lower chlorinated PCBs and a relative decreases in the higher chlorinated PCB. Possibly due to low exposure and consequent low induction levels, ethoxyresorufin O-deethylation (EROD) activity proved to be a poor biomarker for contaminant exposure in ringed seals in the present study. The close negative correlation (r(2) = 70.9%)between EROD activity and percent blubber indicates that CYP might respond to increased bioavailability of the contaminant mixtures when they are mobilized from blubber during periods of reduced food intake.

  • 664. Wolkers, Hans
    et al.
    van Bavel, Bert
    Örebro universitet, Akademin för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Ericson (Jogsten), Ingrid
    Örebro universitet, Akademin för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Skoglund, Eli
    Kovacs, Kit M.
    Lydersen, Christian
    Congener-specific accumulation and patterns of chlorinated and brominated contaminants in adult male walruses from Svalbard, Norway: indications for individual-specific prey selection2006Inngår i: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 370, nr 1, s. 70-79Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Blubber samples from 17 adult, male walruses were sampled in eastern Svalbard and analyzed for chlorinated and brominated contaminants. A wide range of contaminants were detected, including PCBs (mean 2000; 95% range 1165-4005 ng/g lipid), DDE (mean 100: 95% range 50-310) ng/g lipid), chlordanes (mean 2500; 95% range 1347-5009) ng/g lipid, toxaphenes (mean 80; 95% range 51-132 ng/g lipid) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) (mean 15 ng/g; 95% range 9-27 ng/g lipid). PCB and DDE levels were substantially lower than those of animals sampled 10 year earlier in this area, confirming a decreasing trend for these compounds in the Arctic. However, compared to other recently sampled marine mammals from Svalbard, walruses showed relatively high PCB and chlordane levels although they had lower levels of DDE, toxaphenes, and PBDEs, possibly due to species- and location-specific differences in exposure and metabolism. The range in contaminant levels found within the sample group was vast, despite the fact that the animals investigated were all adult males from the same location. The PCB pattern in highly contaminated animals was different from that in animals with low levels of contamination, with relatively more persistent PCBs in the highly contaminated group. This suggests that the more contaminated animals were feeding at higher trophic levels; possibly targeting seals in addition to mollusks as their prey. This suggestion was reinforced by the fatty acid profiles of the inner blubber layer of walruses with low versus high contaminant levels, which suggested different diets for the two groups.

  • 665.
    Wu, Yuan
    et al.
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China; School of Earth and Space Sciences, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, China; Department of Public Health, Anhui Medical University, Hefei, China.
    Zhou, Qunfang
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Li, Hongcheng
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Liu, Wei
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Wang, Thanh
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Jiang, Guibin
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Effects of silver nanoparticles on the development and histopathology biomarkers of Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes) using the partial-life test2010Inngår i: Aquatic Toxicology, ISSN 0166-445X, E-ISSN 1879-1514, Vol. 100, nr 2, s. 160-167Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have emerged as an important class of nanomaterials and are currently used in a wide range of industrial and commercial applications. This has caused increasing concern about their effects on the environment and to human health. Using Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes) at early-life stages as experimental models, the developmental toxicity of silver nanoparticles was investigated following exposure to 100-1000 μg/L homogeneously dispersed AgNPs for 70 days, and developmental endpoints were evaluated by microscopy during embryonic, larval and juvenile stages of development in medaka. Meanwhile, histopathological changes in the larval eye were evaluated. Retarded development and reduced pigmentation were observed in the treated embryos by AgNPs at high concentrations (≥ 400 μg/L). Maximum width of the optic tectum, as an indicator of midbrain development, decreased significantly in a dose-related manner. Furthermore, silver nanoparticles exposure at all concentrations induced a variety of morphological malformations such as edema, spinal abnormalities, finfold abnormalities, heart malformations and eye defects. Histopathological observations also confirmed the occurrence of abnormal eye development induced by AgNPs. The data showed non-linear or U-shaped dose-response patterns for growth retardation at 5 days of postfertilization, as well as the incidence of abnormalities. Preliminary results suggested that the developmental process of medaka may be affected by exposure to silver nanoparticles. Morphological abnormalities in early-life stages of medaka showed the potential developmental toxicities of silver nanoparticles. Further research should be focused on the mechanisms of developmental toxicity in fish exposed to silver nanoparticles.

  • 666. Wölz, Jan
    et al.
    Engwall, Magnus
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap.
    Maletz, Sibylle
    Olsman Takner, Helena
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap.
    van Bavel, Bert
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap.
    Kammann, Ulrike
    Klempt, Martin
    Weber, Roland
    Braunbeck, Thomas
    Hollert, Henner
    Changes in toxicity and Ah receptor agonist activity of suspended particulate matter during flood events at the rivers Neckar and Rhine - a mass balance approach using in vitro methods and chemical analysis2008Inngår i: Environmental science and pollution research international, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 15, nr 7, s. 536-553Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background, aim, and scope  As a consequence of flood events, runoff and remobilized sediments may cause an increase of ecotoxicologically relevant effects from contaminant reservoirs. Aquatic and terrestrial organisms as well as cattle and areas of settlement are exposed to dislocated contaminants during and after flood events. In this study, the impacts of two flood events triggered by intense rain at the rivers Neckar and Rhine (Southern Germany) were studied. Effects in correlation to flood flow were assessed at the river Neckar using samples collected at frequent intervals. River Rhine suspended particulate matter (SPM) was sampled over a longer period at normal flow and during a flood event. Three cell lines (H4L1.1c4, GPC.2D.Luc, RTL-W1) were used to compare Ah receptor agonist activity in different biotest systems. Multilayer fractionation was performed to identify causative compounds, focusing on persistent organic contaminants. Materials and methods  Native water and SPM of flood events were collected at the river Neckar and at the monitoring station (Rheinguetestation, Worms, Germany) of the river Rhine. Water samples were XAD-extracted. SPM were freeze-dried and Soxhlet-extracted using acetone and finally dissolved in dimethyl sulfoxide. Resulting crude extracts were analyzed for cytotoxicity with the neutral red assay. Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) agonist activity was measured in a set of biological test systems (DR-CALUX, GPC.2D, and ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) assay) and different cell lines. In addition, crude extracts were fractionated using a combined method of multilayer (sequence of acidified silica layers) and carbon fractionation. Fractions from the multilayer fractionation contained persistent organic compounds (polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and some polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAHs)); fractions from the carbon fractionation were separated into a PCDD/F and a PCB fraction. Dioxin-like activity of multilayer and carbon fractions was determined in the EROD assay and expressed as biological toxicity equivalency concentrations of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (bio-TEQs). The calculation of chemical equivalency concentrations (chem-TEQs) and comparison to bio-TEQ values allowed the determination of the contribution of the analyzed persistent compounds to the total biological effects measured. Results  Soluble compounds in native and extracted water samples resulted in no or minor activity in the toxicity tests, respectively. Filter residues of native water caused increased AhR-mediated activity at the peak of the flood. Activities of SPM of the river Neckar correlated well with the flow rate indicating a flood-dependent increase of toxicity culminating at the peak of flow. River Rhine SPM showed a decrease of activity regarding an SPM sample of the flood event compared to a long-term sample. Excellent correlations with AhR agonistic activity were determined for DR-CALUX and EROD assay, while the GPC.2D assay did not correlate with both other biotests. The activity of persistent dioxin-like acting compounds in multilayer and carbon fractionated PCDD/F and PCB fractions was low if compared to corresponding crude extracts. The congener pattern of PCDD/F revealed that the contaminations mainly originated from products and productions of the chlorine and organochlorine industries. Discussion  Native and extracted water samples could be shown to contain little or no cytotoxic or AhR agonistic compounds. In contrast, particle-bound compounds were shown to be the relevant effect-causing fraction, as indicated by the activities of filter residues of native water and SPM. Compounds other than fractionated persistent PCBs and PCDD/Fs were more relevant to explain AhR-mediated activities of crude flood SPM at both rivers assessed. Biologically detected activities could at least in part be traced back to chemically analyzed and quantified compounds. Conclusions  The calculation of the portion of persistent PCBs and PCDD/Fs in multilayer fractions causing the high inductions in the EROD assay in combination with chemical analysis provides a suitable tool to assess dioxin-like activity of persistent compounds in SPM sampled over the course of flood events. Depending on the catchment area and annual course of flood events, end points may either indicate an increase or a decrease of activity. In order to determine the ecological hazard potential of mobilized contaminants during flood events, the focus should be set on particle-bound pollutants. Furthermore, PCDD/Fs and PCBs, commonly expected to be the most relevant pollutants in river systems, could be shown to contribute only to a minor portion of the overall AhR-mediated activity. However, they might be most relevant for human exposure when considering persistence and bioaccumulation–biomagnification in the food chain. Recommendations and perspectives  As a consequence of climate change, flood events will increase in frequency and intensity at least in some regions such as Central Europe. Thus, it is crucial to identify the potential hazard of (re-)mobilized contaminants from reservoirs dislocated via floods and threatening especially aquatic organisms and cattle grazing in flood plains. Since other less persistent compounds seem to be more relevant to explain AhR-mediated activities in flood SPM, nonconventional PAHs and more polar compounds also need to be considered for risk assessment. Effect-directed analysis using broad-range fractionation methods taking into account compounds from polar to nonpolar should be applied for identification of pollutants causing biological effects, thus integrating biological and chemical parameters.

  • 667.
    Xu, Lin
    et al.
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, People's Republic of China.
    Shi, Yali
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, People's Republic of China.
    Wang, Thanh
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, People's Republic of China.
    Dong, Zhirong
    Clinical Laboratory, Yantai Municipal, Laiyang Central Hospital, Laiyang, People's Republic of China.
    Su, Weiping
    Clinical Laboratory, Yantai Municipal, Laiyang Central Hospital, Laiyang, People's Republic of China.
    Cai, Yaqi
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, People's Republic of China.
    Methyl siloxanes in environmental matrices around a siloxane production facility, and their distribution and elimination in plasma of exposed population2012Inngår i: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 46, nr 21, s. 11718-26Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, we systematically investigated methyl siloxanes (D4-D6, L3-L16) exposure to workers from and residents living near a siloxanes manufacturing facility by measuring their concentrations in both environmental matrices (air, dust/soil, n = 62) and human plasma samples (n = 201). For the seventeen target compounds, the average concentrations in indoor matrixes from six workshops of the facility ranged from 0.6 μg/m(3) to 2.7 mg/m(3) in air samples and from 0.36 μg/g to 1.16 mg/g in dust samples, which were 3-5 orders of magnitudes higher than those levels at the reference zone. In plasma samples from the current workers in six workshops and residents living near the facility, the average concentrations of methyl siloxanes were 5.61-451 and 4.56-13.5 ng/g, respectively, which were 1-2 magnitudes higher than those in the reference group. Plasma methyl siloxanes concentrations of people from different workshops were positively correlated with their exposure levels, indicating that high occupational exposure in siloxane production process elevated human plasma concentrations. However, there was no significant correlation between human plasma concentrations with their duration of occupation. These methyl siloxanes were eliminated from human plasma with half-lives ranging from 2.34 to 9.64 days, which increased with the increasing number of Si-O bonds for most analogues.

  • 668.
    Yang, Ruiqiang
    et al.
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental ChemState Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Bejing, China; Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Bejing, Chinaistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 2871, Beijing, 100085, China.
    Wang, Yawei
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Bejing, China; Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Bejing, China.
    Li, An
    School of Public Health, University of Illinois, Chicago IL, USA.
    Zhang, Qinghua
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Bejing, China; Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Bejing, China.
    Jing, Chuanyong
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Bejing, China; Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Bejing, China.
    Wang, Thanh
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Bejing, China; Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Bejing, China.
    Wang, Pu
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Bejing, China; Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Bejing, China.
    Li, Yingming
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Bejing, China; Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Bejing, China.
    Jiang, Guibin
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Bejing, China; Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Bejing, China.
    Organochlorine pesticides and PCBs in fish from lakes of the Tibetan Plateau and the implications2010Inngår i: Environmental Pollution, ISSN 0269-7491, E-ISSN 1873-6424, Vol. 158, nr 6, s. 2310-6Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    High mountains may play significant roles in the global transport of persistent organic pollutants (POPs). This work aims to investigate the levels, patterns and distribution of semi-volatile organochlorine pollutants and to improve the understanding of the long-range atmospheric transport and fate of contaminants on the Tibetan Plateau. A total of 60 fish samples were collected from eight lakes located between 2813 and 4718 m above sea level across the Plateau. Concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) including dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and its metabolites (DDTs), hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) were measured in fish muscle. The results showed that concentrations of DDT, HCH and HCB were comparable to or lower than those found in remote mountains of Europe, Canada and US, while PCB concentrations in fish were, on average, about 4-150 times lower on Tibet than at other mountain areas. The transport and fate of contaminants in the Plateau are significantly influenced by the unique climatological and meteorological conditions, particularly by the summer Indian monsoon and winter westerly jet stream.

  • 669.
    Yang, Weijin
    et al.
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Fu, Jianjie
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Wang, Thanh
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Liu, Hanxia
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Wang, Yawei
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Zhou, Qunfang
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Jiang, Guibin
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Alterations of endogenous metabolites in urine of rats exposed to decabromodiphenyl ether using metabonomic approaches2014Inngår i: Journal of Environmental Sciences(China), ISSN 1001-0742, E-ISSN 1878-7320, Vol. 26, nr 4, s. 900-908Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    There is large usage of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) especially for decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-209, Deca-BDE) in controlling the risks of fire. The toxicological effects of PBDEs are worth being concerned about. Female SD rats were daily gavaged with BDE-209 ether at the dose of 100 mg/kg for 20 days. Histological observation was performed for the screening of the target organs for BDE-209 exposure. The distribution and metabolism of PBDEs in the exposed main organs were evidenced by HRGC-HRMS. Alterations of the endogenous metabolite concentrations in urine were investigated using metabonomic approaches based on (1)H NMR spectrum. Histopathological changes including serious edema in kidney, hepatocellular spotty necrosis and perivasculitis in liver indicated that BDE-209 caused potential influences on endogenous metabolism in the exposed liver and the kidney. BDE-209 was found to be highly accumulated in lipid, ovary, kidney and liver after 20 days' exposure. Occurrence of other lower brominated PBDEs in the rats demonstrated that reductive debromination process happened in vivo. Hydroxylated and methoxylated-BDEs, as metabolism products, were also detected in the rat tissues. A total of 12 different endogenous metabolites showed obvious alterations in urine from the exposed rats, indicating the disturbance of the corresponding internal biochemical processes induced by BDE-209 exposure. These findings in vivo suggested the potential health risk might be of concern due to the toxicological effects of BDE-209 as a ubiquitous compound in the environment.

  • 670.
    Yeung, L. W. Y.
    et al.
    Centre for Coastal Pollution and Conservation, Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon Tong, Hong Kong SAR, Hong Kong; National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Onogawa 16-1, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan.
    Miyake, Y.
    National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Onogawa 16-1, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan.
    Wang, Y.
    Centre for Coastal Pollution and Conservation, Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon Tong, Hong Kong SAR, Hong Kong: National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Onogawa 16-1, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan.
    Taniyasu, S.
    National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Onogawa 16-1, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan.
    Yamashita, N.
    National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Onogawa 16-1, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan.
    Lam, P. K. S.
    Centre for Coastal Pollution and Conservation, Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon Tong, Hong Kong SAR, Hong Kong.
    Total fluorine, extractable organic fluorine, perfluorooctane sulfonate and other related fluorochemicals in liver of Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins (Sousa chinensis) and finless porpoises (Neophocaena phocaenoides) from South China2009Inngår i: Environmental Pollution, ISSN 0269-7491, E-ISSN 1873-6424, Vol. 157, nr 1, s. 17-23Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The concentrations of 10 PFCs (perfluorinated compounds: PFOS, PFHxS, PFOSA, N-EtFOSA, PFDoDA, PFUnDA, PFDA, PFNA, PFOA, and PFHpA) were measured in liver samples of Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins (Sousa chinensis) (n = 10) and finless porpoises (Neophocaena phocaenoides) (n = 10) stranded in Hong Kong between 2003 and 2007. PFOS was the dominant PFC in the tissues at concentrations ranging at 26-693 ng/g ww in dolphins and 51.3-262 ng/g ww in porpoises. A newly developed combustion ion chromatography for fluorine was applied to measure total fluorine (TF) and extractable organic fluorine (EOF) in these liver samples to understand PFC contamination using the concept of mass balance analysis. Comparisons between the amounts of known PFCs and EOF in the livers showed that a large proportion (∼70%) of the organic fluorine in both species is of unknown origin. These investigations are critical for a comprehensive assessment of the risks of these compounds to humans and other receptors.

  • 671.
    Yeung, L W Y
    et al.
    Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong.
    So, M K
    Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong.
    Jiang, G B
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Taniyasu, S
    Environmental Measurement Group, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Onogawa 16-1, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan.
    Yamashita, N
    Environmental Measurement Group, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Onogawa 16-1, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan.
    Song, M Y
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Wu, Y N
    National Institute of Nutrition and Food Safety, Chinese Center for Diseases Control and Prevention, Beijing, China.
    Li, J G
    National Institute of Nutrition and Food Safety, Chinese Center for Diseases Control and Prevention, Beijing, China.
    Giesy, J P
    Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong; Zoology Department, National Food Safety and Toxicology Center and Center for Integrative Toxicology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI, United States.
    Guruge, K S
    Toxico-Biochemistry Section, National Institute of Animal Health, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan.
    Lam, P K S
    Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong.
    Perfluorooctanesulfonate and related fluorochemicals in human blood samples from China2006Inngår i: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 40, nr 3, s. 715-720Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Perfluorooctanesulfonylfluoride (POSF)-based compounds have been manufactured and used in a variety of industrial applications. These compounds degrade to perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) which is regarded as a persistent end-stage metabolite and is found to accumulate in tissues of humans and wildlife. PFOS, perfluorohexanesulfonate (PFHxS), perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), and perfluorooctanesulfonamide (PFOSA) have been found in human sera from the United States. In this study, concentrations of PFHxS, perfluorobutanesulfonate (PFBS), PFOS, perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA), PFOA, perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA), perfluoroundecanoic acid (PFUnDA), perfluorododecanoic acid (PFDoDA), and PFOSA were measured in 85 samples of whole human blood collected from nine cities (eight provinces) in China, including Shenyang (Liaoning), Beijing (Hebei), Zhengzhou (Henan), Jintan (Jiangsu), Wuhan (Hubei), Zhoushan (Zhejiang), Guiyang (Guizhou), Xiamen (Fujian), and Fuzhou (Fujian). Among the 10 perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) measured, PFOS was the predominant compound. The mean concentration of PFOS was greatest in samples collected from Shenyang (79.2 ng/mL) and least in samples from Jintan (3.72 ng/mL). PFHxS was the next most abundant perfluorochemical in the samples. No age-related differences in the concentrations of PFOA, PFOS, PFOSA, and PFHxS were observed. Gender-related differences were found, with males higher for PFOS and PFHxS, and females higher in PFUnOA. Concentrations of PFHxS were positively correlated with those of PFOS, while concentrations of PFNA, PFOA, and PFUnOA were positively correlated with those of PFOA. There were differences in the concentration profiles (percentage composition) of various PFCs in the samples among the nine cities.

  • 672.
    Yeung, Leo W. Y.
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik. Department of Chemistry, University of Toronto, Toronto ON, Canada.
    Dassuncao, Clifton
    Harvard John A. Paulson School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Harvard University, Cambridge MA, United States.
    Mabury, Scott
    Department of Chemistry, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada.
    Sunderland, Elsie M
    Harvard John A. Paulson School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Harvard University, Cambridge MA, United States.
    Zhang, Xianming
    Harvard John A. Paulson School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Harvard University, Cambridge MA, United States.
    Lohmann, Rainer
    Graduate School of Oceanography, University of Rhode Island, Narragansett RI, United States.
    Vertical Profiles, Sources, and Transport of PFASs in the Arctic Ocean2017Inngår i: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 51, nr 12, s. 6735-6744Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The relative importance of atmospheric versus oceanic transport for poly- and perfluorinated alkyl substances (PFASs) reaching the Arctic Ocean is not well understood. Vertical profiles from the Central Arctic Ocean and shelf water, snow and meltwater samples were collected in 2012; 13 PFASs (C6-C12 PFCAs; C6, 8, 10 PFSAs; MeFOSAA and EtFOSAA; and FOSA) were routinely detected (range: <5-343 pg/L). PFASs were only detectable above 150 m depth in the polar mixed layer (PML) and halocline. Enhanced concentrations were observed in snow and meltpond samples, implying atmospheric deposition as an important source of PFASs. Model results suggested atmospheric inputs to account for 34-59% (∼11-19 pg/L) of measured PFOA concentrations in the PML (mean 32 ± 15 pg/L). Modeled surface and halocline measurements for PFOS based on North Atlantic inflow (11-36 pg/L) agreed with measurements (mean, 17, range <5-41 pg/L). Modeled deep water concentrations below 200 m (5-15 pg/L) were slightly higher than measurements (<5 pg/L), suggesting the lower bound of PFAS emissions estimates from wastewater and rivers may provide the best estimate of inputs to the Arctic. Despite low concentrations in deep water, this reservoir is expected to contain most of the PFOS mass in the Arctic (63-180 Mg) and is projected to continue increasing to 2038.

  • 673.
    Yeung, Leo W. Y.
    et al.
    State Key Laboratory in Marine Pollution, Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon Tong, Hong Kong; National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba, Japan.
    De Silva, Amila O.
    Aquatic Contaminants Research Division, Environment Canada, Burlington ON, Canada.
    Loi, Eva I. H.
    State Key Laboratory in Marine Pollution, Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon Tong, Hong Kong.
    Marvin, Chris H.
    Aquatic Contaminants Research Division, Environment Canada, Burlington ON, Canada.
    Taniyasu, Sachi
    National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba, Japan.
    Yamashita, Nobuyoshi
    National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba, Japan.
    Mabury, Scott A.
    Department of Chemistry, University of Toronto, Toronto ON, Canada.
    Muir, Derek C. G.
    Aquatic Contaminants Research Division, Environment Canada, Burlington ON, Canada.
    Lam, Paul K. S.
    State Key Laboratory in Marine Pollution, Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon Tong, Hong Kong.
    Perfluoroalkyl substances and extractable organic fluorine in surface sediments and cores from Lake Ontario2013Inngår i: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 59, s. 389-397Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Fourteen perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) including short-chain perfluorocarboxylates (PFCAs, C4-C6) and perfluoroalkane sulfonates (PFSAs, C4 and C6) were measured in surface sediment samples from 26 stations collected in 2008 and sediment core samples from three stations (Niagara, Mississauga, and Rochester basins) collected in 2006 in Lake Ontario. Perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS), perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), perfluorononanoate (PFNA), perfluorodecanoate (PFDA), and perfluoroundecanoate (PFUnDA) were detected in all 26 surface sediment samples, whereas perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS), perfluorooctane sulfonamide (FOSA), perfluorododecanoate (PFDoDA) and perfluorobutanoate (PFBA) were detected in over 70% of the surface sediment samples. PFOS was detected in all of the sediment core samples (range: 0.492-30.1ngg-1 d.w.) over the period 1952-2005. The C8 to C11 PFCAs, FOSA, and PFBA increased in early 1970s. An overall increasing trend in sediment PFAS concentrations/fluxes from older to more recently deposited sediments was evident in the three sediment cores. The known PFCAs and PFSAs accounted for 2-44% of the anionic fraction of the extractable organic fluorine in surface sediment, suggesting that a large proportion of fluorine in this fraction remained unknown. Sediment core samples collected from Niagara basin showed an increase in unidentified organic fluorine in recent years (1995-2006). These results suggest that the use and manufacture of fluorinated organic compounds other than known PFCAs and PFSAs has diversified and increased.

  • 674.
    Yeung, Leo W. Y.
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Eriksson, Ulrika
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Tidstrend av oidentifierade poly- och perfluorerade alkylämnen i slam från reningsverk i Sverige2017Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The aims of this investigation are 1) to study spatial variation in PFAS discharge by measuring PFAS in sludge samples collected from four wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs: Öhn - Umeå, Bergkvara - Torsås, Henriksdal – Stockholm, and Gässlösa - Borås); 2) to evaluate the amount of unidentified PFAS, if any, in the sludge samples by measuring total organofluorine (TOF) in the samples; 3) to study the temporal discharge and pattern of PFASs by measuring different PFASs in archived sludge samples from two WWTPs (Henriksdal and Gässlösa); and 4) to evaluate temporal changes of the amount of unidentified PFAS, if any, by measuring the amount of TOF in the archived samples from these two WWTPs. Levels of TOF and PFAS are reported for sludge samples from the four WWTPs collected in 2015; temporal analyses of TOF and PFASs were conducted on sludge samples from two WWTPs collected between 2004 and 2015.

    Different classes of PFASs including PFCAs, PFSAs, FTSAs, FTCAs, diPAPs, FOSAs/FOSEs, diSAmPAP, FOSAAs, PFPAs and PFPiAs were detected in the sludge samples. The levels of TOF and unidentified PFAS were shown to more related to types of industries connected to the WWTPs, not necessarily related to number of people served in that area and the scale of WWTP. Quantifiable PFAS only accounted for 5 to 11% of the TOF in samples collected in 2015 indicating that 89-95% of the measured organofluorine in the samples was unidentified. TOF levels from Gässlösa were approximately 1.6 – 17.7 times higher than those of Henriksdal in corresponding year. The proportion of quantifiable PFAS to TOF decreased from 21% in 2004 to 11% in 2015 in samples from Henriksdal; at the same time increasing levels of unidentified PFAS was also observed between 2012 and 2015

    Syftet med denna studie var 1) att studera geografiska variationer i utsläpp av PFASs genom att mäta PFAS i slamprover från fyra olika reningsverk (Öhn - Umeå, Bergkvara - Torsås, Henriksdal – Stockholm och Gässlösa - Borås); 2) att utvärdera om slammet innehåller oidientifierade PFASs och i sådana fall kvantifiera mängden av dessa; 3) att studera hur profilen av PFAS-ämnen förändras över tid genom att mäta olika PFAS-ämnen i arkiverade slamprover från två reningsverk (Henriksdal och Gässlösa); och 4) att bestämma andelen oidentifierade PFAS genom att mäta totalhalten organiskt fluor (TOF) i de arkiverade proverna från Henriksdal och Gässlösa.

    I denna studie rapporteras halterna av TOF och PFAS i slamprover från de fyra ovan nämnda reningsverken insamlade under 2015; vidare rapporteras en tidstrendsstudie utförd för TOF och PFAS i slamprover från Henriksdal mellan 2004 och 2015. Ett flertal PFAS-klasser detekterades i proverna; PFCAs, PFSAs, FTSAs, FTCAs, diPAPs, FOSAs/FOSEs, diSAmPAP, FOSAAs, PFPAs och PFPiAs. Halterna av oidentifierade PFASs visade sig vara relaterade främst till typ av industriell verksamhet i anslutning till reningsverket, snarare än antalet personer anslutna till och storlek på reningsverken. Identifierade PFAS-halter utgjorde endast 5 - 11% av TOF i proverna insamlade under 2015, vilket indikerade att 89 - 95% av TOF var oidentifierade ämnen. Halten TOF i slamproverna från Gässlösa var uppskattningsvis 1.6 – 17.7 gånger högre än TOF i slamprover från Henriksdal motsvarande år. Andelen identifierade PFAS-halter i förhållande till TOF minskade från 21% under 2004 till 11% under 2015 i slamprover från Henriksdal, ökade halter av oidentiferade PFASs observerades också mellan 2012 och 2015.

  • 675.
    Yeung, Leo W. Y.
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Eriksson, Ulrika
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Kärrman, Anna
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Pilotstudie avseende oidentifierade poly- och perfluorerade alkylämnen i slam och avloppsvatten från reningsverk i Sverige2016Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna studie var att studera totalhalten av PFASs samt andelen okända, hittills ännu ej identifierade PFAS-ämnen i vatten och slam från svenska reningsverk genom att analysera totalt organiskt fluor (TOF) och kvantifierbara PFAS-ämnen. Studien syftar till att kartlägga omfattningen av kända och okända PFAS-ämnen, både dem som är i omlopp och används i produkter i samhället, och dem som släpps ut i miljön. Avloppsvatten (ingående och utgående) och slam provtogs under 2015 och 2016 vid tre olika reningsverk; Gässlösa (Borås), Henriksdal (Stockholm) och Öhn (Umeå). I denna rapport redovisas halter av TOF och PFAS-ämnen i slam från 2016 och ingående och utgående avloppsvatten från 2015 och 2016. Flera olika PFAS-klasser detekterades i slam och avloppsvatten; PFCAs, PFSAs, FTSAs, FTCAs, FTUCAs, FOSAs, FOSAAs, diPAPs, PFPAs och PFPiAs. De neutrala och/eller katjoniska PFAS-ämnena i ingående och utgående vatten var ej identiferbara, medan 79-95% av de anjoniska PFAS-ämnen var okända, ej identiferbara ämnen. I slamproverna ´var en betydande del (42-82%) okända ämnen.

    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the this investigation are 1) to measure the amount and proportion of unidentified PFASs had been used in daily life by analyzing total organofluorine (TOF) and quantifiable PFASs in influent samples; and 2) to measure the amount and proportion of unidentified PFASs released into the environment by analyzing TOF and quantifiable PFASs in effluent samples and sludge samples from municipal waste water treatment plants. Sewage (influent and effluent) and sludge were collected in 2015 and 2016 from three wastewater treatment plants (Gässlösa (Borås), Henriksdal (Stockholm) and Öhn (Umeå)). Levels of TOF and PFAS in sludge from 2016 and filtered effluent and influent samples from 2015 and 2016 are reported. Different classes of PFASs including PFCAs, PFSAs, FTSAs, FTCAs, diPAPs, FTUCAs, FOSAs, FOSAAs, PFPAs and PFPiAs were detected in sewage and sludge samples. For influent and effluent samples, all detectable neutral and/or cationic PFASs remained unidentified; for the anionic fraction, 79-94% of the TOF were unidentified. For sludge samples, a significant proportion (42-82%) of total anionic organofluorine remained unidentified

  • 676.
    Yeung, Leo W. Y.
    et al.
    Pathology and Pathophysiology Research Division, National Institute of Animal Health, National Agriculture and Food Research Organization, Tsukuba, Japan; Potential Pollutants Group, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Tsukuba, Japan; Department of Chemistry, University of Toronto, Toronto ON, Canada.
    Guruge, Keerthi S.
    Pathology and Pathophysiology Research Division, National Institute of Animal Health, National Agriculture and Food Research Organization, Tsukuba, Japan.
    Taniyasu, Sachi
    Potential Pollutants Group, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Tsukuba, Japan.
    Yamashita, Nobuyoshi
    Potential Pollutants Group, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Tsukuba, Japan.
    Angus, Peter W.
    Department of Medicine, Austin Health, The University of Melbourne, Heidelberg VIC, Australia; Victorian Liver Transplant Unit, Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Austin Health, Heidelberg VIC, Australia; Department of Medicine, Austin Health, University of Melbourne, Heidelberg VIC, Australia.
    Herath, Chandana B.
    Department of Medicine, Austin Health, The University of Melbourne, Heidelberg VIC, Australia.
    Profiles of perfluoroalkyl substances in the liver and serum of patients with liver cancer and cirrhosis in Australia2013Inngår i: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, ISSN 0147-6513, E-ISSN 1090-2414, Vol. 96, s. 139-146Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The present cross-sectional study investigated 12 perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in serum (n=79) and liver (n=66) samples from patients who had undergone liver transplantation for a range of conditions, such as hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), cirrhosis due to chronic hepatitis C viral infection (HCV), both HCC and HCV, amyloidosis or acute liver failure. PFAS data from patients were compared to those in control serum (n=25) samples from liver donors with no known liver disease and to those in control liver (n=9) tissues collected during liver resection surgery. All samples showed detectable PFOS (serum: 0.621-126. ng/mL; liver: 0.375-42.5. ng/g wet wt) and PFOA (serum: 0.437-45.5. ng/mL; liver: 0.101-2.25. ng/g wet wt) concentrations. In general, in paired serum and liver samples, serum had higher PFOS, PFHxS, PFDA, PFNA, and PFOA concentrations than those in explanted livers from patients. These findings also suggest that pathological changes in diseased livers alter the distribution of PFASs between liver and serum. The results from control serum (2007-2008) suggested that PFOS, PFHxS, PFOA, and PFNA concentrations were lower than those previously reported from Australia for 2002-2003, and 2006-2007. The present study demonstrates, for the first time, the detection and comparison of a range of PFASs in the liver of patients with liver cancer and/or liver cirrhosis.

  • 677.
    Yeung, Leo W. Y.
    et al.
    Safety Research Team, National Institute of Animal Health, Kannondai 3-1-5, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan; Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon, Hong Kong.
    Guruge, Keerthi S.
    Safety Research Team, National Institute of Animal Health, Kannondai 3-1-5, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan.
    Yamanaka, Noriko
    Safety Research Team, National Institute of Animal Health, Kannondai 3-1-5, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan.
    Miyazaki, Shigeru
    Safety Research Team, National Institute of Animal Health, Kannondai 3-1-5, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan.
    Lam, Paul K. S.
    Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon, Hong Kong.
    Differential expression of chicken hepatic genes responsive to PFOA and PFOS2007Inngår i: Toxicology, ISSN 0300-483X, E-ISSN 1879-3185, Vol. 237, nr 1-3, s. 111-125Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The effects of PFOS and PFOA on the gene expression patterns of chickens that were exposed to either PFOS or PFOA at low doses were investigated with the use of microarray techniques. Twelve Genechip Chicken Genome Arrays were used to study hepatic gene expression in 6-week-old chickens (Gallus gallus) that were exposed to either PFOA (0.1, 0.5, or 5 mg/mL), PFOS (0.02 or 0.1 mg/mL), or a saline vehicle control (0.9% NaCl in Milli-Q water) via subcutaneous implantation of a 2 mL osmotic pump for 4 weeks or for 4 weeks with a further 4 weeks of depuration. Over 240 and 480 genes were significantly affected by PFOS after 4 weeks of exposure and after 4 weeks of exposure with a further 4 weeks of depuration, respectively and over 290 and 320 genes were significantly affected by PFOA, correspondingly. For PFOS, the genes that were affected after 4 weeks of exposure were mainly related to the transport of electrons and oxygen, and the metabolism of lipids and fatty acids; while the genes that were affected after 4 weeks of exposure with a further 4 weeks of depuration were mainly related to the transport of electrons and ions, and protein amino acid phosphorylation and proteolysis. For PFOA, the genes that were affected after 4 weeks of exposure were related to the transport of ions, lipids, and electrons and cytochromes; while the genes that were affected after 4 weeks of exposure with a further 4 weeks of depuration were related to protein amino acid phosphorylation and proteolysis, the transport of ions, and the metabolism of fatty acids and lipids. The results also showed that the gene expression patterns between chickens that were treated with PFOS and those that were treated with PFOA were different, which points to the importance of the separate evaluation of the toxicities of PFOS and PFOA. Specifically, the gene expressions of CYP8B and NOV were studied.

  • 678.
    Yeung, Leo W. Y.
    et al.
    Safety Research Team, National Institute of Animal Health, Kannondai 3-1-5, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan; Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon, Hong Kong; National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Onogawa 16-1, Tsukuba, Japan.
    Loi, Eva I. H.
    Safety Research Team, National Institute of Animal Health, Kannondai 3-1-5, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan; Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon, Hong Kong.
    Wong, Vicky Y. Y.
    Safety Research Team, National Institute of Animal Health, Kannondai 3-1-5, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan; Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon, Hong Kong.
    Guruge, Keerthi S.
    Safety Research Team, National Institute of Animal Health, Kannondai 3-1-5, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan.
    Yamanaka, Noriko
    Safety Research Team, National Institute of Animal Health, Kannondai 3-1-5, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan.
    Tanimura, Nobuhiko
    Safety Research Team, National Institute of Animal Health, Kannondai 3-1-5, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan.
    Hasegawa, Jun
    Safety Research Team, National Institute of Animal Health, Kannondai 3-1-5, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan.
    Yamashita, Nobuyoshi
    Miyazaki, Shigeru
    Safety Research Team, National Institute of Animal Health, Kannondai 3-1-5, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan.
    Lam, Paul K. S.
    Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon, Hong Kong.
    Biochemical Responses and Accumulation Properties of Long-Chain Perfluorinated Compounds (PFOS/PFDA/PFOA) in Juvenile Chickens (Gallus gallus)2009Inngår i: Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, ISSN 0090-4341, E-ISSN 1432-0703, Vol. 57, nr 2, s. 377-386Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    One-day-old male chickens were exposed via oral gavage to mixtures of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), and perfluorodecanoate (PFDA) at either a low dose (0.1 mg/kg body weight [b.w.]) or a high dose (1.0 mg/kg b.w.), or a saline/ethanol vehicle control, three times a week for 3 weeks. After 3 weeks of exposure, half of the chicks were sacrificed and the other half were allowed to depurate for a further 3 weeks. No dose-dependent statistically significant differences in body/organ weights were observed among treatment and control groups after 3 weeks of exposure or after three 3 of depuration. Neither 15 histological nor 14 measured plasma biochemical parameters were significantly different in chicks from the exposed groups and vehicle controls. PFOS, PFDA, and PFOA concentrations in blood/liver/kidney samples were measured throughout the exposure and depuration periods at different time intervals. PFOS and PFDA accumulated at much higher concentrations than PFOA during the experimental periods. Interestingly, PFOS and PFDA accumulation patterns in the blood were similar during the exposure and depuration periods. The half-lives for each PFC at the 0.1 and 1.0 mg/kg doses were, respectively, approximately 15 and 17 days for PFOS, 11 and 16 days for PFDA, and 3.9 and 3.9 days for PFOA. PFDA accumulation in organs was greater than or similar to that of PFOS: the liver was the main target during exposure and the blood was the main reservoir during depuration. These results indicate that exposure to a 1.0-mg mixture of PFOS/PFDA/PFOA/kg b.w. has no adverse effect on juvenile chickens.

  • 679.
    Yeung, Leo W. Y.
    et al.
    Department of Chemistry, University of Toronto, Toronto ON, Canada.
    Mabury, Scott A.
    Department of Chemistry, University of Toronto, Toronto ON, Canada.
    Are humans exposed to increasing amounts of unidentified organofluorine?2016Inngår i: Environmental Chemistry, ISSN 1448-2517, E-ISSN 1449-8979, Vol. 13, nr 1, s. 102-110Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Samples of human plasma (n=122) from two German cities (collected in 1982-2009, excluding 1994) and whole blood (n=47) from seven Chinese cities (collected in 2004) were analysed for 52 polyfluoroalkyl/perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) using LC-MS/MS. Quantifiable PFASs included some newly identified and commercially available chemicals PFPAs, PFPiAs, FTSAs, PAPs and di-SAmPAP, metabolites of fluorotelomer-based products (FTCAs/FTUCAs), PFCAs, PFSAs, FASAs and FOSAAs. The blood samples were also analysed for extractable organofluorine (EOF) using total organofluorine combustion ion chromatography (TOF-CIC). Seven more PFASs (C7 and C10 PFSAs, FOSAA, MeFOSAA, EtFOSAA, C13 PFCA and 8 : 2 FTSA) were detected in the Chinese samples than had been previously reported. For the German samples, PFHpS, FOSA, MeFOSA, EtFOSA, FTSAs (6 : 2, 8 : 2), PFPAs (C6, C8) and PFPiAs (C6/C6, C6/C8, C8/C8) were additional chemicals identified that were not measured in the earlier studies. Those newly identified and commercially available PFASs were either at trace levels (pg mL-1) or not detected. A mass balance of fluorine between quantifiable PFAS and EOF in the Chinese samples indicated quantifiable PFASs accounted for 31-86% of EOF. For the German samples, the quantifiable PFAS accounted for 52-100% and 57-100% of EOF in Münster and Halle samples respectively. After the year 2000, an increasing amount and proportion of unidentified organofluorine were observed in Munster samples. The increasing trend of unidentified organofluorine in plasma samples suggested humans are being exposed to new and unidentified fluorinated products.

  • 680.
    Yeung, Leo W. Y.
    et al.
    Department of Chemistry, University of Toronto, Toronto ON, Canada.
    Mabury, Scott A.
    Department of Chemistry, University of Toronto, Toronto ON, Canada.
    Bioconcentration of Aqueous Film-Forming Foam (AFFF) in Juvenile Rainbow Trout (Oncorhyncus mykiss)2013Inngår i: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 47, nr 21, s. 12505-12513Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This work investigated the bioconcentration of PFASs in juvenile rainbow trout by exposing the fish in separate tanks under flow-through conditions to water continuously spiked with either of the AFFFs FC-203CF light water AFFF 3% (3M) or Niagara 1-3 (Angus Fire); a nonspiked tank served as the control. Three fish in each tank were collected after 1, 3, 6, and 11 days of exposure, and 3, 7, 14, and 25 days of depuration. Liver and carcass homogenate samples were analyzed for 20 PFASs using LC-MS/MS. PFDS, PFOS, PFHxS, and EtFOSAA were detected in fish exposed to the 3M foam, while 6:2 and 8:2 FTSASs, 6:2 and 8:2 FTSAs, 5:3 and 7:3 FTCAs were measured in fish exposed to Angus Fire foam. Bioconcentration factors and rate constants for uptake and depuration were calculated. Total and extractable organofluorine were measured in the fish samples. After fish were exposed to AFFFs, not only known PFASs but also other unknown organofluorines were bioconcentrated. Compared to the control group, significantly greater amounts (at least 10-fold) and proportion of unidentified PFASs were found in both liver and carcass homogenate ranging from ∼50% in 3M foam up to 95% in the Angus Fire foam at the end of exposure.

  • 681.
    Yeung, Leo W. Y.
    et al.
    National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 16-1 Onogawa, Tsukuba, Japan; Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong, People’s Republic of China.
    Miyake, Byuichi
    National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 16-1 Onogawa, Tsukuba, Japan.
    Li, Peng
    National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 16-1 Onogawa, Tsukuba, Japan.
    Taniyasu, Sachi
    National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 16-1 Onogawa, Tsukuba, Japan.
    Kannan, Kurunthachalam
    cWadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health and Department of Environmental Health Sciences, State University of New York at Albany, New York, USA.
    Guruge, Keerthi S.
    Safety Research Team, National Institute of Animal Health, Kannondai 3-1-5, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan.
    Lam, Paul K. S.
    Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong, People’s Republic of China.
    Yamashita, Nobuyoshi
    National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 16-1 Onogawa, Tsukuba, Japan.
    Comparison of total fluorine, extractable organic fluorine and perfluorinated compounds in the blood of wild and pefluorooctanoate (PFOA)-exposed rats: Evidence for the presence of other organofluorine compounds2009Inngår i: Analytica Chimica Acta, ISSN 0003-2670, E-ISSN 1873-4324, Vol. 635, nr 1, s. 108-114Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The widespread occurrence and environmental persistence of perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) received worldwide attention recently. Exhaustive analysis of all fluorinated compounds in an environmental sample can be daunting because of the constraints in the availability of analytical standards and extraction methods. Combustion ion chromatographic technique for trace fluorine analysis was used to assess the concentrations of known PFCs (e.g., PFOS, PFOA) and total fluorine (TF) in the blood of wild rats collected from Japan. The technique was further validated using tissues from PFOA-exposed rats. Six PFCs (PFOS, PFOSA, PFUnDA, PFDA, PFNA, and PFOA) were detected in all of the wild rat blood samples. Concentrations of extractable organic fluorine (EOF) in fraction 1 (Fr1; MTBE extraction) of wild rats ranged 60.9-134 ng F mL-1, while those in fraction 2 (Fr2; hexane) were below LOQ (32 ng F mL-1); TF concentrations in the blood of wild rats ranged from 59.9-192 ng F mL-1. The contribution of known PFCs in EOF-Fr1 (MTBE) varied from 9% to 89% (56% on average), and known PFC concentrations in TF content were less than 25%. In contrast, TF concentrations in the blood of PFOA-exposed rats ranged from 46900 to 111000 ng F mL-1, with PFOA contributing over 90% of TF. A comparison of results from the samples analyzed in this study and the literature revealed three distinct groups with PFOA/known PFC and TF levels (i.e., wild rats and general population, occupationally exposed workers, and PFOA-exposed laboratory rats). The mass balance analysis of the different forms of fluorine in blood suggested the presence of other forms of organic fluorine in addition to known PFCs.

  • 682.
    Yeung, Leo W. Y.
    et al.
    Centre for Coastal Pollution and Conservation, Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong SAR, People’s Republic of China.
    Miyake, Yuichi
    National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, 16-1 Onogawa, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan.
    Taniyasu, Sachi
    National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, 16-1 Onogawa, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan.
    Wang, Yuan
    Centre for Coastal Pollution and Conservation, Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong SAR, People’s Republic of China.
    Yu, Hongxia
    State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resources, School of the Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing, People’s Republic of China.
    So, M. K.
    Centre for Coastal Pollution and Conservation, Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong SAR, People’s Republic of China.
    Jiang, Guibin
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, People’s Republic of China.
    Wu, Yongning
    Center for Diseases Control and Prevention, Beijing, People’s Republic of China.
    Li, Jingguang
    Center for Diseases Control and Prevention, Beijing, People’s Republic of China .
    Giesy, John P.
    Centre for Coastal Pollution and Conservation, Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong SAR, People’s Republic of China; State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resources, School of the Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing, People’s Republic of China; Department of Veterinary Biomedical Sciences, Toxicology Centre, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada; Zoology Department, National Food Safety and Toxicology Center, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan, United States.
    Yamashita, Nobuyosh
    National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, 16-1 Onogawa, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan.
    Lam, Paul K. S.
    Centre for Coastal Pollution and Conservation, Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong SAR, People’s Republic of China.
    Perfluorinated Compounds and Total and Extractable Organic Fluorine in Human Blood Samples from China2008Inngår i: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 42, nr 21, s. 8140-8145Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    An improved extraction (ion pairing) and cleanup (ENVI-carb and solid phase extraction) method was developed for analysis of perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) in human whole blood samples from China. Ten PFCs including PFOS, PFHxS, PFOSA, PFDoDA, PFUnDA, PFDA, PFNA, PFOA, PFHpA, and PFHxA were detected in the blood samples (n = 30) from five cities (Jintan, Nanjing, Guiyang, Beijing, and Shenyang). PFOS was found to be the dominant PFC ranging from 0.446-83.1 ng/mL. Total fluorine (TF) and extractable organic fluorine (EOF) also were measured in the blood samples using combustion ion chromatography for fluorine. Analysis of known PFCs and extractable organic fluorine showed that known PFCs could account for >70% of EOF in samples from Beijing, Shenyang, and Guiyang, whereas known PFCs could only account for similar to 30% of EOF in samples from Jintan. Results of the present study indicated the presence of substantial amounts of unidentified organic fluorine in human blood samples from Jintan. Characterization and identification of these unidentified fluorinated compounds will be instructive.

  • 683.
    Yeung, Leo W. Y.
    et al.
    Department of Chemistry, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada.
    Robinson, Shona J.
    Department of Chemistry, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada.
    Koschorreck, Jan
    Umweltbundesamt, Dessau-Roßlau, Germany.
    Mabury, Scott A.
    Department of Chemistry, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada.
    Part I. A Temporal Study of PFCAs and Their Precursors in Human Plasma from Two German Cities 1982-20092013Inngår i: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 47, nr 8, s. 3865-3874Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A total of 420 human plasma samples from two cities (Halle and Münster, Germany), collected between 1982 and 2009, were analyzed for a suite of PFCAs (C6−C12) and selected PFCA precursors (4:2-, 4:2/6:2-, 6:2-, 6:2/8:2-, 8:2-, 8:2/10:2-, and 10:2-diPAPs). PFCAs (C7−C11 and C13) were detected in over 80% of the samples (<0.005−39.4 ng/mL), while C12 PFCA was detected in fewer than 10% of the samples. In a range of 10−46% of the samples, 4:2-, 4:2/6:2-, 6:2, and 8:2-diPAPs were identified at concentrations of <0.0002−0.687 ng/mL; fewer than 10% of the samples had detectable 10:2-diPAP. Temporal trends (2000−2009) showed increasing concentrations of PFNA, PFDA, and PFUnDA, whereas PFOA concentrations were decreasing. Calculated population halving time for PFOA varied between 8.2−14.5 years, which contrasts to the generally accepted value of 3.8 years. This suggests an ongoing or additional exposure to PFOA or one of its precursor compounds. DiPAPs, known to metabolize rapidly to PFCAs, were detected in a significant number of samples and at concentrations that have not declined significantly over the past half-decade. The evidence suggests they have contributed to the continued presence of the longer chain PFCAs and perhaps contribute to the slow decline of PFOA.

  • 684.
    Yeung, Leo W. Y.
    et al.
    Department of Chemistry, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada.
    Robinson, Shona J.
    Department of Chemistry, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada.
    Koschorreck, Jan
    Umweltbundesamt, Dessau-Roßlau, Germany.
    Mabury, Scott A.
    Department of Chemistry, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada.
    Part II. A Temporal Study of PFOS and Its Precursors in Human Plasma from Two German Cities in 1982-20092013Inngår i: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 47, nr 8, s. 3875-3882Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A total of 420 human plasma from two cities (Halle and Münster, Germany) collected between 1982 and 2009, were analyzed for a suite of PFSAs (C4, C6, C8, C10) and selected PFOS precursors (MeFOSAA, EtFOSAA, FOSAA, di-SAmPAP). Among these target analytes, only di- SAmPAP was used in consumer products. PFSAs (C6 and C8), MeFOSAA, EtFOSAA, and FOSAA were detected in over 95% of the samples (<0.0011−116.0 ng/mL), PFDS was detected in approximately 40% of the samples (<0.005−0.0998 ng/mL), and di-SAmPAP was detected in 17% of the samples (<0.005−0.0137 ng/mL). Significant positive correlations were found between PFOS and PFHxS, MeFOSAA, EtFOSAA, and FOSAA. Temporal trends of decreasing concentration were identified for PFOS, MeFOSAA, EtFOSAA, and FOSAA, but not for PFHxS. Di-SAmPAP, a common food-contact paper surfactant and expected PFOS precursor, was detected infrequently (25% in samples prior to 2000) in samples before 2006. Population halving times of PFOS, MeFOSAA, EtFOSAA, and FOSAA were estimated. The observed reduction of these chemicals over time in human plasma is presumably related to the phase-out of POSF-based products beginning in 2000. The detection of di-SAmPAP in human sera is significant because this chemical is expected to be metabolized or degraded to PFOS in humans and the environment. Our detection of di-SAmPAP is the first confirmation of human exposure to this commercially available product which is a plausible source of PFOS in humans.

  • 685.
    Yeung, Leo W. Y.
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik. Department of Chemistry, University of Toronto, Toronto Ontario, Canada.
    Stadey, Christopher
    Waters Corporation, Mississauga ON, Canada.
    Mabury, Scott A.
    Department of Chemistry, University of Toronto, Toronto Ontario, Canada.
    Simultaneous analysis of perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances including ultrashort-chain C2 and C3 compounds in rain and river water samples by ultra performance convergence chromatography2017Inngår i: Journal of Chromatography A, ISSN 0021-9673, E-ISSN 1873-3778, Vol. 1522, s. 78-85Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    An analytical method using ultra performance convergence chromatography (UPC(2)) coupled to a tandem mass spectrometer operated in negative electrospray mode was developed to measure perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) including the ultrashort-chain PFASs (C2-C3). Compared to the existing liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry method using an ion exchange column, the new method has a lower detection limit (0.4pg trifluoroacetate (TFA) on-column), narrower peak width (3-6s), and a shorter run time (8min). Using the same method, different classes of PFASs (e.g., perfluoroalkyl sulfonates (PFSAs) and perfluorinated carboxylates (PFCAs), perfluorinated phosphonates (PFPAs) and phosphinates (PFPiAs), polyfluoroalkyl phosphate diesters (diPAPs)) can be measured in a single analysis. Rain (n=2) and river water (n=2) samples collected in Toronto, ON, were used for method validation and application. Results showed that short-chain PFAS (C2-C7 PFCAs and C4 PFSA) contributed to over 80% of the detectable PFASs in rain samples and the C2-C3 PFASs alone accounted for over 40% of the total. Reports on environmental levels of these ultrashort-chain PFASs are relatively scarce. Relatively large contribution of these ultrashort-chain PFASs to the total PFASs indicate the need to include the measurement of short-chain PFASs, especially C2 and C3 PFASs, in environmental monitoring. The sources of TFA and other short-chain PFASs in the environment are not entirely clear. The newly developed analytical method may help further investigation on the sources and the environmental levels of these ultrashort-chain PFASs.

  • 686.
    Yeung, Leo W. Y.
    et al.
    National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 16-1 Onogawa, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan; Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong SAR, People’s Republic of China.
    Taniyasu, Sachi
    National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 16-1 Onogawa, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan.
    Kannan, Kurunthachalam
    cWadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health and Department of Environmental Health Sciences, State University of New York at Albany, Empire State Plaza, Albany, NY, USA.
    Xu, Della Z. Y.
    Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong SAR, People’s Republic of China.
    Guruge, Keerthi S.
    Safety Research Team, National Institute of Animal Health, Kannondai 3-1-5, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan.
    Lam, Paul K. S.
    Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong SAR, People’s Republic of China.
    Yamashita, Nobuyoshi
    National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 16-1 Onogawa, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan.
    An analytical method for the determination of perfluorinated compounds in whole blood using acetonitrile and solid phase extraction methods2009Inngår i: Journal of Chromatography A, ISSN 0021-9673, E-ISSN 1873-3778, Vol. 1216, nr 25, s. 4950-4956Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A method for the analysis of perfluorinated compounds (perfluoroalkyl sulfonates: C4, C6, C8, C10; perfluoroalkyl sulfinates: C6, C8, C10; perfluorooctanesulfonamide, N-ethyl perfluorooctanesulfonamide, N-ethyl perfluorooctanesulfonamidoacetate, perfluorocarboxylates: C4–C14; fluorotelomer carboxylate (7:3, 8:2) in whole blood using acetonitrile and OASIS WAX® solid phase extraction (SPE) cartridge was developed. Separation of target compounds in two HPLC columns (ion exchange JJ50-2D and C18 Betasil columns) was examined. Matrix recoveries of the developed methods ranged from 70% to 120%. Separation of possible inferences such as taurodeoxycholic acid (TDC) was accomplished using an ion exchange JJ50-2D column, and this separation was validated using whole blood of different animals.

  • 687.
    Yeung, Leo W. Y.
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Yamashita, Nobuyoshi
    National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology(AIST), Research Institute for Environmental Management Technology, Potential Pollutants Group, 16-1, Onogawa, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan.
    Falandysz, Jerzy
    University of Gdansk, Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Gdansk, Poland; Environmental and Computational Chemistry Group, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Zaragocilla Campus, University of Cartagena, Cartagena, Colombia.
    Legacy and emerging perfluorinated and polyfluorinated compounds: An update2019Inngår i: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 237, artikkel-id UNSP 124506Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 688.
    Yeung, Leo W. Y.
    et al.
    Centre for Coastal Pollution and Conservation, Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong SAR, People’s Republic of China; National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), AIST Tsukuba West, 16-1 Onogawa, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan.
    Yamashita, Nobuyoshi
    National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), AIST Tsukuba West, 16-1 Onogawa, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan.
    Taniyasu, Sachi
    National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), AIST Tsukuba West, 16-1 Onogawa, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan.
    Lam, Paul K. S.
    Centre for Coastal Pollution and Conservation, Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong SAR, People’s Republic of China.
    Sinha, Ravindra K.
    Environmental Biology Laboratory, Department of Zoology, Patna University, Patna, India.
    Borole, Dnyandev V.
    Geological Oceanography Division, National Institute of Oceanography, Dona Paula, Goa, India.
    Kannan, Kurunthachalam
    Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health, Department of Environmental Health Sciences, State University of New York, Empire State Plaza, Albany, NY, USA.
    A survey of perfluorinated compounds in surface water and biota including dolphins from the Ganges River and in other waterbodies in India2009Inngår i: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 76, nr 1, s. 55-62Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite the reports of the occurrence of perfluorochemicals (PFCs) in industrialized nations, information on PFCs in less industrialized countries is meager. In the present study, concentrations and profiles of PFCs were investigated in surface waters (rivers, lakes, coastal seas and untreated sewage; n = 42) including the Ganges River water, and biota such as shrimp (n = 2), fish (n = 28), and Ganges River dolphin (Platanista gangetica; n = 15). PFOS was the dominant PFC found in most of the samples analyzed including water samples except untreated sewage (water: <0.04–3.91 ng L1; biota: 0.248–27.9 ng g1 ww). Long-chain (C11–C18) perfluorocarboxylates (PFCAs) were not detected in the water samples (<0.2 ng L1), although PFDA (0.061–0.923 ng g1 ww) and PFUnDA (0.072–0.998 ng g1 ww) were found in biological samples The arithmetic mean PFOS concentration found in the liver of Ganges River dolphin was 27.9 ng g1 ww. Bioconcentration and biomagnifications factors of PFCs were estimated in the Ganges River basin food web. The highest concentration of PFOA, 23.1 ng L1, was found in untreated sewage samples. Overall, concentrations of PFCs of water and biological samples from India are lower than the concentrations reported for other countries so far. PFC profiles in Indian waters are dominated by PFOS, followed by PFOA, which is different from the pattern reported for other countries such as Korea, Japan and USA, where PFOA was the predominant compound in waters. The flux estimates for PFOS, PFOA and PFNA from the Ganges River in India to the Bay of Bengal were in the range of several hundreds of kilograms per year.

  • 689.
    Yin, Yongguang
    et al.
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Chen, Baowei
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Mao, Yuxiang
    Department of Chemistry & Biochemistry, Florida International University, Miami FL, United States.
    Wang, Thanh
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Liu, Jingfu
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Cai, Yong
    Department of Chemistry & Biochemistry, Florida International University, Miami FL, United States; Southeast Environmental Research Center, Florida International University, Miami FL, United States.
    Jiang, Guibin
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Possible alkylation of inorganic Hg(II) by photochemical processes in the environment2012Inngår i: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 88, nr 1, s. 8-16Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The methylation of inorganic Hg by anaerobic bacteria in aquatic environments is considered to be the major pathway for methylmercury (MeHg) production. However, recent research has suggested that abiotic or chemical methylation by humic substances and other low-molecular-weight organic compounds in natural environments is also possible. Here, the aqueous photo-transformation of Hg(2+) to organomercurials was investigated in the presence of ketones, aldehydes and low molecular weight organic acids under UV irradiation. MeHg and/or ethylmercury (EtHg) were identified as the main organomercurial products by multiple analytical techniques, including chromatography-atomic spectrometry and molecular mass spectrometry and further confirmed by stable isotope tracer experiments. The yield of organomercurials was markedly influenced by pH, NaCl concentration, alkylation donor concentration and the presence of chelating ligands in the aqueous solution. Electron paramagnetic resonance spectrometry demonstrated that the radical reaction was not the predominating alkylation pathway, although methyl radicals were detected in the photo-alkylation procedure. A mechanism based on intra-molecular alkyl transfer in the Hg(2+)-low-molecular-weight organic compound complex is proposed. The present work helps us better understand of MeHg and EtHg photo-generation in natural environments.

  • 690.
    Younan, Diana
    et al.
    Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles CA, United States.
    Li, Lianfa
    Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Losa Angeles, United States.
    Tuvblad, Catherine
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för juridik, psykologi och socialt arbete. Dana and David Dornsife College of Letters, Arts and Sciences, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, United States.
    Wu, Jun
    Irvine College of Health Sciences, University of California, Los Angeles, United States.
    Lurmann, Fred
    Sonoma Technology Inc, Petaloma CA, United States.
    Franklin, Meredith
    Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles CA, United States.
    Berhane, Kiros
    Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles CA, United States.
    McConnell, Rob
    Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles CA, United States.
    Wu, Anna
    Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles CA, United States.
    Baker, Laura
    Dana and David Dornsife College of Letters, Arts and Sciences College of Letters, Arts and Sciences, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, United States.
    Chen, Jiu-Chiuan
    Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles CA, United States.
    Ambient Temperature and Externalizing Behaviors of Adolescents in Southern California: A Longitudinal Analysis2016Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: The climate-violence relationship has been debated for over 20 years, primarily because the supportive evidence was either ecological in nature or based on cross-sectional data. We conducted an individual-level, longitudinal analysis to investigate the association between temperature and externalizing behaviors in an urban-dwelling population.

    Methods: Participants (N=1287) of the Risk Factors for Antisocial Behavior Study, a multi-ethnic cohort of twins/triplets living in Southern California, were examined in 2000-2012 (aged 9 to 18 years) with repeated assessments of their aggressive and delinquent behaviors by the parent-reported Child Behavior Checklist. Ambient temperature was obtained from the local Meteorological Information System, with recordings from the closest site assigned to each geocoded residence. A monthly time-series from 1990 to 2012 was constructed and aggregated in 1-, 3-, and 6-month and 1-, 2-, and 3-year averages prior to each behavioral assessment. Multilevel mixed-effects models were used to estimate the effects of temperature, adjusting for within-family/within-individual correlations and other potential confounders.

    Results: Statistically significant associations (all p<0.05) were found between aggression and average temperature aggregated over 6 months or longer. Increasing aggressive behaviors were associated with rising 6-month average temperatures. However, longer-term (1- to 3-year average) temperatures showed a non-linear U-shaped association, with less aggressive behaviors at moderate temperatures (15-20°C), but increasing aggression at higher or lower temperatures. No significant effects were found on delinquency.

    Conclusions: Our study provides the first individual-level epidemiologic evidence supporting the adverse temperature effects on aggressive human behaviors. Similar approaches to studying violent crimes may further inform the scientific debates on climate changes and violence.

  • 691.
    Yu, Junchao
    et al.
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China; Environment Research Institute, Shandong University, Jinan, China.
    Wang, Thanh
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Han, Shanlong
    Environment Research Institute, Shandong University, Jinan, China.
    Wang, Pu
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Zhang, Qinghua
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Jiang, Guibin
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Distribution of polychlorinated biphenyls in an urban riparian zone affected by wastewater treatment plant effluent and the transfer to terrestrial compartment by invertebrates2013Inngår i: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 463-464, s. 252-257Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, we investigated the distribution of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in a riparian zone affected by the effluent from a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). River water, sediment, aquatic invertebrates and samples from the surrounding terrestrial compartment such as soil, reed plants and several land based invertebrates were collected. A relatively narrow range of δ(13)C values was found among most invertebrates (except butterflies, grasshoppers), indicating a similar energy source. The highest concentration of total PCBs was observed in zooplankton (151.1 ng/g lipid weight), and soil dwelling invertebrates showed higher concentrations than phytophagous insects at the riparian zone. The endobenthic oligochaete Tubifex tubifex (54.28 ng/g lw) might be a useful bioindicator of WWTP derived PCBs contamination. High bioaccumulation factors (BAFs) were observed in collected aquatic invertebrates, although the biota-sediment/soil accumulation factors (BSAF) remained relatively low. Emerging aquatic insects such as chironomids could carry waterborne PCBs to the terrestrial compartment via their lifecycles. The estimated annual flux of PCBs for chironomids ranged from 0.66 to 265 ng⋅m(-2)⋅y(-1). Although a high prevalence of PCB-11 and PCB-28 was found for most aquatic based samples in this riparian zone, the mid-chlorinated congeners (e.g. PCB-153 and PCB-138) became predominant among chironomids and dragonflies as well as soil dwelling invertebrates, which might suggest a selective biodriven transfer of different PCB congeners.

  • 692.
    Yu, Jun-Chao
    et al.
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China; Environment Research Institute, Shandong University, Ji'nan, China .
    Wang, Thanh
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China .
    Wang, Ya-Wei
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China .
    Meng, Mei
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China .
    Chen, Ru
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China; Environment Research Institute, Shandong University, Ji'nan, China .
    Jiang, Gui-Bin
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China .
    Levels and distribution of short chain chlorinated paraffins in seafood from Dalian, China2014Inngår i: Huan jing ke xue= Huanjing kexue / [bian ji, Zhongguo ke xue yuan huan jing ke xue wei yuan hui "Huan jing ke xue" bian ji wei yuan hui.], ISSN 0250-3301, Vol. 35, nr 5, s. 1955-1961Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [zh]

    Seafood samples were collected from Dalian, China to study the accumulation and distribution characteristics of short chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs) by GC/ECNI-LRMS. Sum of SCCPs (dry weight) were in the range of 77-8 250 ng.g-1, with the lowest value in Scapharca subcrenata and highest concentration in Neptunea cumingi. The concentrations of sum of SCCPs (dry weight) in fish, shrimp/crab and shellfish were in the ranges of 100-3 510, 394-5 440, and 77-8 250 ng.g-1 , respectively. Overall, the C10 and C11 homologues were the most predominant carbon groups of SCCPs in seafood from this area,and a relatively higher proportion of C12-13 was observed in seafood with higher concentrations of sum of SCCPs . With regard to chlorine content, Cl1,, CI8 and CI6 were the major groups. Significant correlations were found among concentrations of different SCCP homologues (except C1, vs. Cl10 ) , which indicated that they might share the same sources and/or have similar accumulation, migration and transformation processes.

  • 693.
    Yu, Ke
    et al.
    State Key Laboratory of Freshwater Ecology and Biotechnology, Institute of Hydrobiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan, China; Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon, SAR, Hong Kong.
    He, Yuhe
    Graduate School of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Yeung, Leo W. Y.
    Graduate School of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Lam, Paul K. S.
    Graduate School of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Wu, Rudolf S. S.
    Graduate School of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Zhou, Bingsheng
    State Key Laboratory of Freshwater Ecology and Biotechnology, Institute of Hydrobiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan, China.
    DE-71-induced apoptosis involving intracellular calcium and the Bax-mitochondria-caspase protease pathway in human neuroblastoma cells In vitro2008Inngår i: Toxicological Sciences, ISSN 1096-6080, E-ISSN 1096-0929, Vol. 104, nr 2, s. 341-351Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are used extensively as flame-retardants and are ubiquitous in the environment and in wildlife and human tissue. Recent studies have shown that PBDEs induce neurotoxic effects in vivo and apoptosis in vitro. However, the signaling mechanisms responsible for these events are still unclear. In this study, we investigated the action of a commercial mixture of PBDEs (pentabrominated diphenyl ether, DE-71) on a human neuroblastoma cell line, SK-N-SH. A cell viability test showed a dose-dependent increase in lactate dehydrogenase leakage and 3-(4,5-dimethylthia-zol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide reduction. Cell apoptosis was observed through morphological examination, and DNA degradation in the cell cycle and cell apoptosis were demonstrated using flow cytometry and DNA laddering. The formation of reactive oxygen species was not observed, but DE-71 was found to significantly induce caspase-3, -8, and -9 activity, which suggests that apoptosis is not induced by oxidative stress but via a caspase-dependent pathway. We further investigated the intracellular calcium ([Ca2+]i) levels using flow cytometry and observed an increase in the intracellular Ca2+ concentration with a time-dependent trend. We also found that the N-methyl d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist MK801 (3μM) significantly reduced DE-71-induced cell apoptosis. The results of a Western blotting test demonstrated that DE-71 treatment increases the level of Bax translocation to the mitochondria in a dose-dependent fashion and stimulates the release of cytochrome c (Cyt c) from the mitochondria into the cytoplasm. Overall, our results indicate that DE-71 induces the apoptosis of [Ca2+]i in SK-N-SH cells via Bax insertion, Cyt c release in the mitochondria, and the caspase activation pathway.

  • 694.
    Yu, Miao
    et al.
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Liu, Jiyan
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Wang, Thanh
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Sun, Jianteng
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Liu, Runzeng
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Jiang, Guibin
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Metabolites of 2,4,4'-tribrominated diphenyl ether (BDE-28) in pumpkin after in vivo and in vitro exposure2013Inngår i: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 47, nr 23, s. 13494-13501Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    There is currently limited knowledge on PBDE metabolism in plants although they could play an important role in the environmental transformation of these persistent organic pollutants. In this study, pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima × C. moschata) was chosen as the model to understand the fate of BDE-28 in plants. MeO-tri-BDEs, OH-tri-BDEs, and OH-tri-BDEs were found as metabolites in plant samples of both in vivo hydroponic and in vitro tissue culture exposure. Three MeO-tri-BDEs were further identified as para-substituted metabolites. MeO-BDEs and OH-BDEs, respectively, accounted for about 1.6% and 1.5% (recovery corrected) of initial amount of BDE-28 according to the semiquantitative results. Other PBDEs, especially less brominated PBDEs as impurities in the standard of BDE-28, were also detected. The impurities and evaporation of the standard must be considered when trace metabolites are studied in exposure experiments.

  • 695.
    Yuan, Bo
    et al.
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Wang, Thanh
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Zhu, Nali
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Zhang, Kegang
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing5, China.
    Zeng, Lixi
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Fu, Jianjie
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Wang, Yawei
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Jiang, Guibin
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Short chain chlorinated paraffins in mollusks from coastal waters in the Chinese Bohai Sea2012Inngår i: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 46, nr 12, s. 6489-6496Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    As an extremely complex group of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) candidates in the Stockholm Convention, short chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs) have been of extensive concern in recent years. In this study, nine bivalve and two gastropod species were collected in 2009 to evaluate the spatial distributions and potential factors influencing the bioaccumulation of SCCPs in mollusks in the Chinese Bohai Sea. The concentrations of ∑ SCCPs in the mollusks were in the range 64.9-5510 ng/g (dry weight) with an average chlorine content of 61.1%. C(10) and C(11) were the predominant homologue groups of SCCPs, which accounted for about 29.7% and 34.9% of ∑ SCCPs, respectively. Six and seven chlorinated substituents were the main congener groups. Mya arenaria (Mya), Mactra veneriformis (Mac), and Crassostrea talienwhanensis (Oyster, Ost) had higher average concentrations of SCCPs than other species, implying that these bivalves could be used as sentinels to indicate SCCPs contamination in this coastal region. A significant positive linear relationship was found between SCCP concentrations and lipid content of the mollusks, whereas the lipid-normalized SCCP concentrations were negatively linear-related to the trophic levels (TL), which implied that SCCPs did not show biomagnification in mollusks in this region.

  • 696.
    Yuan, Wang
    et al.
    Centre for Coastal Pollution and Conservation, Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon Tong, Hong Kong; National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 16-1 Onogawa, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan.
    Yeung, Leo Wai Yin
    Centre for Coastal Pollution and Conservation, Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon Tong, Hong Kong; National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 16-1 Onogawa, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan.
    Yamashita, Nobuyoshi
    National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 16-1 Onogawa, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan.
    Taniyasu, Sachi
    National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 16-1 Onogawa, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan.
    Ka, So Man
    Centre for Coastal Pollution and Conservation, Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon Tong, Hong Kong.
    Murphy, Margaret B.
    Centre for Coastal Pollution and Conservation, Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon Tong, Hong Kong.
    Sing, Lam Paul Kwan
    Centre for Coastal Pollution and Conservation, Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon Tong, Hong Kong.
    Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and related fluorochemicals in chicken egg in China2008Inngår i: Chinese Science Bulletin, ISSN 1001-6538, E-ISSN 1861-9541, Vol. 53, nr 4, s. 501-507Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The ubiquitous occurrence of perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) in environmental samples has drawn much attention. Recent human exposure studies found relatively high perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) concentrations in blood samples from several cities in China when compared with other countries. The objectives of the present study were: (1) to measure PFC concentrations and compositions in chicken egg samples from local markets in China; and (2) to conduct a preliminary human health risk assessment of egg consumption. Eight pooled egg samples from eight locations were analyzed for 11 PFCs. The results showed that close to 100% of the PFOS in the egg was distributed in egg yolk and PFOS was not detected in egg white (<0.08 ng/g wet weight, w/w). Of the perfluoroalkylsulfonates, only PFOS was detected in all egg samples, while of the perfluoroalkylcarboxylates, perfluoroundecanoic acid (PFUnDA) was detected in all samples, followed by perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) (75% occurrence) and perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA) (50% occurrence). PFOS concentrations in egg ranged from 45.0 to 86.9 ng/g w/w. The results suggested that current concentrations of PFOS in domestic chicken eggs are unlikely to cause immediate harm to Chinese populations.

  • 697.
    Yun, Zhaojun
    et al.
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, PR China.
    He, Bin
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, PR China.
    Wang, Zhenhua
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, PR China.
    Wang, Thanh
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, PR China.
    Jiang, Guibin
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, PR China.
    Evaluation of different extraction procedures for determination of organic Mercury species in petroleum by high performance liquid chromatography coupled with cold vapor atomic fluorescence spectrometry2013Inngår i: Talanta: The International Journal of Pure and Applied Analytical Chemistry, ISSN 0039-9140, E-ISSN 1873-3573, Vol. 106, s. 60-65Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    An extraction procedure for extracting organic mercury species including methylmercury (MeHg) and ethylmercury (EtHg) from petroleum samples was developed. Three extraction methods (shaking, ultrasonic and microwave assisted extraction) using different extraction solvents (TMAH, KOH/CH3OH, HCl and acidic CuSO4/KBr) were investigated by comparing the extraction efficiency of the organic mercury species. Microwave assisted extraction at 60 W for 5 min using TMAH (tetramethylammonium hydroxide, 25%, m/v) provided the most satisfactory extraction efficiency for MeHg and EtHg in petroleum at 86.7% ± 3.4% and 70.6% ± 5.9%, respectively. Speciation analysis of mercury was done by on-line coupling of high performance liquid chromatography with cold vapor generation atomic fluorescence spectrometry (HPLC-CV-AFS). The proposed method was successfully applied to analyze several crude oil and light oil samples. The concentrations of MeHg ranged from under detection limit to 0.515 ng g(-1), whereas EtHg was not detected in the samples. This method can be a very useful tool in evaluating the risk of mercury emissions from petroleum.

  • 698.
    Zeiner, Michaela
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik. Division of Analytical Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, BOKU – University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna, Austria.
    Pirkl, Raimund
    Division of Analytical Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, BOKU – University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna, Austria.
    Juranovic Cindric, Iva
    Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Zagreb, Zagreb, Croatia.
    Field-Tests versus Laboratory Methods for Determining Metal Pollutants in Soil Extracts2020Inngår i: Soil & sediment contamination, ISSN 1532-0383, E-ISSN 1549-7887, Vol. 29, nr 1, s. 53-68Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Soil is one of the vehicles by which metals enter plants and groundwater. Compared to organic pollutants, metals do not biodegrade and are usually not mobile. In order to estimate the potential impact on groundwater, the amount of extractable metals from soil are thus of concern. Soil matrices represent quite a complex matrix; thus, the appropriate choice of sample preparation and analytical method is of great importance and challenging to ensure reliable and fast data while keeping labor and time need as low as possible. Soil extracts using acetic acid were analyzed, on the one hand, using classical analytical methods such as titrimetry (complexometry) and spectrophotometry, and on the other hand, by instrumental methods, including inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES), inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GF-AAS). The classical methods are characterized by higher limits of detection (LODs), nevertheless their application as screening method on-site is promising. Applying specific reagents, precise measurements can be obtained by photometry with LODs about 0.1 mg/L. Titrimetric methods can be used for specific single element determination and for determining the sum of certain metals at contaminated sites due to LODs around 60 mg/L.

  • 699.
    Zeng, Lixi
    et al.
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, People’s Republic of China; School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, People’s Republic of China.
    Chen, Ru
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, People’s Republic of China; Environment Research Institute, Shandong University, Jinan, People’s Republic of China.
    Zhao, Zongshan
    Key Laboratory of Marine Chemistry Theory and Technology, Ministry of Education, Ocean University of China, Qingdao, People’s Republic of China.
    Wang, Thanh
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, People’s Republic of China.
    Gao, Yan
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, People’s Republic of China.
    Li, An
    School of Public Health, University of Illinois, Chicago ILL, United States.
    Wang, Yawei
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, People’s Republic of China.
    Jiang, Guibin
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, People’s Republic of China.
    Sun, Liguang
    Institute of Polar Environment, School of Earth and Space Sciences, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, People’s Republic of China.
    Spatial distributions and deposition chronology of short chain chlorinated paraffins in marine sediments across the Chinese Bohai and Yellow Seas2013Inngår i: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 47, nr 20, s. 11449-11456Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    As the most complex halogenated contaminants, short chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs) are scarcely reported in marine environments. In this work, a total of 117 surficial sediment (0-3 cm) samples and two sediment cores were collected from the Chinese Bohai and Yellow Seas to systematically study the spatial and temporal trends of SCCPs at a large scale in the Chinese marine environment. Total SCCP concentrations in the surficial sediments were in the range of 14.5-85.2 ng g(-1) (dry weight, d.w.) with an average level of 38.4 ng g(-1) d.w. Spatial distribution showed a decreasing trend with the distance from the coast to the open waters. Compositional pattern analysis suggested that C10 was the most predominant homologue group, followed by C11, C12, and C13 homologue groups. The concentrations of total SCCPs in sediment cores ranged from 11.6 to 94.7 ng g(-1) d.w. for YS1 and from 14.7 to 195.6 ng g(-1) d.w. for YS2, with sharp rise from the early 1950s to present based on (210)Pb dating technique. The historical records in cores correspond well to the production and usage changes of CPs in China. Multivariate regression statistics indicate TOC, latitude and longitude are the major factors influencing surficial SCCP levels in the Chinese East Seas by combining analysis with the data from the East China Sea (R(2) = 0.332, p < 0.01). These findings indicated that the sources of SCCPs were mainly from river outflows via ocean current and partly from atmospheric depositions by East Asian monsoon in the sampling areas.

  • 700.
    Zeng, Lixi
    et al.
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China;; School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Li, Huijuan
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China;.
    Wang, Thanh
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China;.
    Gao, Yan
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China;.
    Xiao, Ke
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China;.
    Du, Yuguo
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China;; School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Wang, Yawei
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China;.
    Jiang, Guibin
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China;.
    Behavior, fate, and mass loading of short chain chlorinated paraffins in an advanced municipal sewage treatment plant2013Inngår i: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 47, nr 2, s. 732-740Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Sewage treatment plants (STP) are an important source of short chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs) to the ambient environment through discharge of effluent and application of sludge. In this work, a field study was conducted to determine the behavior and possible removal of SCCPs during the sewage treatment process in an advanced municipal STP in Beijing, China. SCCPs were detected in all sewage water and sludge samples, and 97% of the initial mass loading in raw sewage was found to be associated with suspended matter. The total concentrations in raw influent, tertiary effluent, and dewatered sludge were 184 ± 19 ng/L, 27 ± 6 ng/L, and 15.6 ± 1.4 μg/g dry weight (d.w.), respectively. The dissolved concentrations of total SCCPs (∑SCCPs) significantly decreased during mechanical, biological, and chemical treatments. SCCP homologue profiles in aqueous phase were distinctly different from those in solid phase. Along the treatment process, the relative abundance of shorter chain and lower chlorinated congeners gradually increased in sewage water, but no obvious variations of homologue profiles were found in sludge. Mass flow analysis indicated, the removal efficiency in aqueous phase for ∑SCCPs was 82.2%, and the congener-specific removal efficiencies were positively related to their solid-water partition coefficients (K(d)). Mass balance results indicated that 0.8% and 72.6% of the initial SCCP mass loading were ultimately found in the effluents and dewatered sludge, respectively, while the remaining 26.6% was lost mainly due to biodegradation/biotransformation. It was suggested that the activated sludge system including basic anaerobic-anoxic-aerobic processes played an effective role in removing SCCPs from the wastewater, while the sorption to sludge by hydrophobic interactions was an important fate of SCCPs during the sewage treatment.

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