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  • 701.
    Zhao, Tao
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology. Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Linnaeus University, Kalmar, Sweden; Department of Chemistry, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ganji, Suresh
    Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Linnaeus University, Kalmar, Sweden.
    Schiebe, Christian
    Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Linnaeus University, Kalmar, Sweden.
    Bohman, Björn
    Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Linnaeus University, Kalmar, Sweden; School of Molecular Sciences, University of Western Australia, Perth, Australia.
    Weinstein, Philip
    School of Biological Sciences, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, Australia.
    Krokene, Paal
    Department of Plant Molecular Biology, Norwegian Institute of Bioeconomy Research, Ås, Norway.
    Borg-Karlson, Anna-Karin
    Department of Chemistry, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Unelius, C. Rikard
    Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Linnaeus University, Kalmar, Sweden.
    Convergent evolution of semiochemicals across Kingdoms: bark beetles and their fungal symbionts2019In: The ISME Journal, ISSN 1751-7362, E-ISSN 1751-7370, Vol. 13, no 6, p. 1535-1545Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Convergent evolution of semiochemical use in organisms from different Kingdoms is a rarely described phenomenon. Tree-killing bark beetles vector numerous symbiotic blue-stain fungi that help the beetles colonize healthy trees. Here we show for the first time that some of these fungi are able to biosynthesize bicyclic ketals that are pheromones and other semiochemicals of bark beetles. Volatile emissions of five common bark beetle symbionts were investigated by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. When grown on fresh Norway spruce bark the fungi emitted three well-known bark beetle aggregation pheromones and semiochemicals (exo-brevicomin, endo-brevicomin and trans-conophthorin) and two structurally related semiochemical candidates (exo-1,3-dimethyl-2,9-dioxabicyclo[3.3.1]nonane and endo-1,3-dimethyl-2,9-dioxabicyclo[3.3.1]nonane) that elicited electroantennogram responses in the spruce bark beetle Ips typographus. When grown on malt agar with C-13 D-Glucose, the fungus Grosmannia europhioides incorporated C-13 into exo-brevicomin and trans-conophthorin. The enantiomeric compositions of the fungus-produced ketals closely matched those previously reported from bark beetles. The production of structurally complex bark beetle pheromones by symbiotic fungi indicates cross-kingdom convergent evolution of signal use in this system. This signaling is susceptible to disruption, providing potential new targets for pest control in conifer forests and plantations.

  • 702.
    Zhao, Xiaoli
    et al.
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085, China.
    Shi, Yali
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085, China.
    Wang, Thanh
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085, China.
    Cai, Yaqi
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085, China.
    Jiang, Guibin
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085, China.
    Preparation of silica-magnetite nanoparticle mixed hemimicelle sorbents for extraction of several typical phenolic compounds from environmental water samples2008In: Journal of Chromatography A, ISSN 0021-9673, E-ISSN 1873-3778, Vol. 1188, no 2, p. 140-147Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A novel type of superparamagnetic silica-coated (Fe3O4/SiO2 core/shell) magnetite nanoparticle modified by surfactants has been successfully synthesized and was applied as an effective sorbent material for the pre-concentration of several typical phenolic compounds (bisphenol A (BPA), 4-tert-octylphenol (4-OP) and 4-n-nonylphenol (4-NP)) from environmental water samples. Compared with pure magnetic particles, a thin and dense silica layer would protect the iron oxide core from leaching out in acidic conditions. In order to enhance their adsorptive tendency towards organic compounds, cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC) or cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) were added, which adsorbed on the surface of the Fe3O4/SiO2 nanoparticles (Fe3O4/SiO2 NPs) and formed mixed hemimicelles. Main factors affecting the adsolubilization of analytes were optimized and comparative study on the use of CPC and CTAB-coated Fe3O4/SiO2 NPs mixed hemimicelles-based SPE was also carried out. CPC-coated Fe3O4/SiO2 NPs system was selected due to lower elution volume required and more effective adsorption of the target compounds. Under selected conditions, concentration factor of 1600 was achieved by using this method to extract 800 mL of different environmental water samples. The detection limits obtained for BPA, 4-OP and 4-NP with HPLC-FLD were 7, 14, and 20 ng/L, respectively.

  • 703.
    Zhao, Zongshan
    et al.
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China; Key Laboratory of Marine Chemistry Theory and Technology, Ministry of Education, Ocean University of China, Qingdao, China.
    Li, Huijuan
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China; Key Laboratory of Marine Chemistry Theory and Technology, Ministry of Education, Ocean University of China, Qingdao, China.
    Wang, Yawei
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Li, Guoliang
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Cao, Yali
    Key Laboratory of Marine Chemistry Theory and Technology, Ministry of Education, Ocean University of China, Qingdao, China.
    Zeng, Lixi
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China; College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Lan, Jing
    College of Chemistry and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Qingdao Agricultural University, Qingdao 266109, P. R. China.
    Wang, Thanh
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Jiang, Guibin
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Source and migration of short-chain chlorinated paraffins in the coastal East China Sea using multiproxies of marine organic geochemistry2013In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 47, no 10, p. 5013-5022Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Multiple proxies of terrestrial organic matters (TOM) were introduced to study the migration behaviors of short-chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs) in the coastal East China Sea (ECS). The contents of SCCPs in the surface sediment collected from Changjiang (Yangtze) River Delta (CRD) and along the Zhejiang-Fujian coastline ranged from 9.0 to 37.2 ng/g (dry weight, d.w.), displaying a "band-style" distribution trend. Spatial distribution patterns of SCCP congeners presented an increasing trend seaward and southward along the coastline for shorter carbon length (C₁₀ + C₁₁) and lower chlorinated (Cl₅ + Cl₆ + Cl₇) congeners, suggesting a spreading tendency seaward and southward from the CRD and the north of the inner shelf. The significant relationship between ΣSCCPs and total organic carbons (TOC) (r(2) = 0.402, p < 0.05) indicated that the migration of SCCPs in sediments was markedly affected by TOC. The spatial patterns of the TOM proxies of TOC δ(13)C, the contents of ΣC₂₇ + C₂₉ + C₃₁ n-alkanes, terrestrial marine biomarker ratio (TMBR), and terrestrial TOC (T-TOC) were all similar to that of ΣSCCPs. Linear relationships between SCCP contents and both the contents of ΣC₂₇ + C₂₉ + C₃₁ n-alkanes (r(2) = 0.537, p < 0.05) and T-TOC (r(2) = 0.495, p < 0.05) were also observed. The consistence demonstrated that a major portion of sedimentary SCCPs in the coastal ECS should be from the river input of Changjiang River and deposited in the CRD and along the inner shelf of the ECS, but only a minor fraction was transported to the offshore areas.

  • 704.
    Zhou, Shouming
    et al.
    Department of Chemistry, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada.
    Yeung, Leo W. Y.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology. Department of Chemistry, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada.
    Forbes, Matthew W
    Department of Chemistry, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada.
    Mabury, Scott
    Department of Chemistry, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada.
    Abbatt, Jonathan P D
    Department of Chemistry, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada.
    Epoxide formation from heterogeneous oxidation of benzo[a]pyrene with gas-phase ozone and indoor air2017In: Environmental Science: Processes & Impacts, ISSN 2050-7887, E-ISSN 2050-7895, Vol. 19, no 10, p. 1292-1299Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The formation of two classes of epoxide products from the heterogeneous reaction of benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) with gas-phase ozone was demonstrated. BaP was coated on a Pyrex glass tube and oxidized with different concentrations of ozone. After oxidation, the epoxide products were derivatized by N-acetylcystein (NAC) and then analyzed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The results show that in addition to mono-epoxides, diol-epoxides were also formed. BaP exposed to genuine indoor air also produces mono- and diol-epoxides, having similar chromatograms to those produced by oxidation of BaP by low concentrations of ozone. Although it is well recognized that diol-epoxides are formed from BaP oxidation in the human body and that they exhibit carcinogenicity via formation of adducts with DNA, this is the first demonstration that such classes of compounds can be formed by abiotic heterogeneous oxidation.

  • 705.
    Zhou, Zhen
    et al.
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Shi, Yali
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Vestergren, Robin
    Norwegian Institute for Air Research (NILU), Tromsø, Norway.
    Wang, Thanh
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Liang, Yong
    School of Medicine, Jianghan University, Wuhan, China; Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Chemical Materials and Devices of Ministry of Education, Jianghan University, Wuhan, China.
    Cai, Yaqi
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Highly elevated serum concentrations of perfluoroalkyl substances in fishery employees from tangxun lake, China.2014In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 48, no 7, p. 3864-3874Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Increasing production and use of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) has been reported from China, and a few studies have shown there are subpopulations in China with high and increasing exposure to these chemicals. In this paper, we present a comprehensive exposure assessment of PFASs in fishery employees from Tangxun Lake, China. Exceptionally high serum concentrations of C4 to C12 PFASs were observed in fishery employees (n = 39, median perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS) 10 400 ng/mL) compared to a reference group from the same city (n = 9, median PFOS 18.7 ng/mL). On the basis of the comparison of different exposure pathways, it was concluded that contaminated fish from Tangxun Lake was the primary source of PFAS exposure to fishery employees, and there was a positive association between serum PFAS concentrations and time of employment in the fishery. PFOS isomer profiles in fishery employees showed a significantly higher proportion of linear PFOS (78.4%) compared to the background-exposed reference group (66.8%), reflecting the highly linear PFOS isomer profile (>90%) of lake fish. Median renal clearance rates (CLrenal) of C4 to C10 perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCAs) and perfluoroalkanesulfonic acids (PFSAs) ranged from 0.020 to 16.5 mL/day/kg and 0.013 to 9.43 mL/day/kg, respectively. PFCAs with less than eight perfluoroalkyl carbons were primarily eliminated via urine, whereas other routes of excretion may have contributed to the elimination for long-chain PFCAs and PFSAs. Calculated daily PFOS exposures of fishery employees significantly exceeded tolerable daily intake limits, but clinical blood chemistry parameters were mostly within normal reference ranges. However, additional epidemiological studies are needed to address potential associations between PFAS exposure and health effects in the Tangxun Lake area.

  • 706.
    Zhu, Nali
    et al.
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Li, An
    School of Public Health, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, United States.
    Wang, Thanh
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Wang, Pu
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Qu, Guangbo
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Ruan, Ting
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Fu, Jianjie
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Yuan, Bo
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Zeng, Lixi
    Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Wang, Yawei
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Jiang, Guibin
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Tris(2,3-dibromopropyl) isocyanurate, hexabromocyclododecanes, and polybrominated diphenyl ethers in mollusks from Chinese Bohai Sea.2012In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 46, no 13, p. 7174-7181Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A novel brominated flame retardant (BFR), tris(2,3-dibromopropyl) isocyanurate (TBC), as well as hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), were analyzed in 11 species of mollusks collected from nine coastal cities around the Chinese Bohai Sea in 2009 and 2010. The detection frequencies were 100%, 99%, and 77% for PBDEs, HBCDs, and TBC, respectively. Concentrations of ∑HBCDs ranged from below detection limit (nd) to 28.8 ng g(-1) on a dry weight (dw) basis, followed by ∑(12)PBDE (0.01-20.4 ng g(-1) dw) and TBC (nd-12.1 ng g(-1) dw). Statistically significant linear correlations were found among the three BFRs. Positive correlations were found between BFRs concentrations and lipid content in mollusks. The concentrations tend to decrease with increasing trophic levels of the mollusks, implying trophic dilution rather than biomagnifications of the BFRs in the aquatic food chains of the sampling area. Among the 11 mollusks species, Mytilus edulis showed higher bioaccumulation capability than others and was therefore considered to be an appropriate bioindicator of contamination by the BFRs in the Chinese Bohai Sea, in agreement with its previous selection for the biomonitoring of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). A dramatic decrease in PBDE concentrations in mollusks of the area was found for the time period from 2003 to 2010, with a half-life of only 2.3 ± 1.7 years, reflecting a rapid response of mollusks to the change in pollution of the marine environment.

  • 707.
    Zhu, Nali
    et al.
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Schramm, Karl-Werner
    Molecular EXposomics (MEX), Helmholtz Zentrum München Center for Environmental Health, Germany; Wissenschaftszentrum Weihenstephan für Ernährung, Landnutzung und Umwelt, Department für Biowissenschaften, Technical University of Munich (TUM), Freising, Germany.
    Wang, Thanh
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Henkelmann, Bernhard
    Molecular EXposomics (MEX), Helmholtz Zentrum München Center for Environmental Health, Germany.
    Fu, Jianjie
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Gao, Yan
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Wang, Yawei
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China; Molecular EXposomics (MEX), Helmholtz Zentrum München Center for Environmental Health, Germany.
    Jiang, Guibin
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Lichen, moss and soil in resolving the occurrence of semi-volatile organic compounds on the southeastern Tibetan Plateau, China2015In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 518, p. 328-336Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigated a wide range of semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs), including 28 persistent organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), 18 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), 13 polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), and 3 hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) congeners in lichen, moss and soil collected from the southeastern Tibetan Plateau, China. This allows research provides insight into elevation gradient distributions and possible cold trapping effects of SVOCs in this high mountain area, and compares lichens and mosses as air passive samplers for indicating SVOC occurrences. DDTs, endosulfans, HCHs and hexachlorobenzene predominated in all of the samples. Source analysis indicted that there were fresh inputs of DDTs and HCHs in the sampling region. Lichens and mosses shared commonalities in revealing the profiles and levels of SVOCs based on their lipid-content-normalized concentrations. The concentrations of 12 OCPs and 14 PCBs in lichens were significantly linearly correlated with altitudes, whereas the correlations for mosses and soil with altitudes were insignificant. Both a frequency distribution diagram and the Mountain Contamination Potential Model indicated that SVOCs with specific values of log K-OA (8-11) and log K-WA (2-4) had relative high mountain contamination potential on the Tibetan Plateau.

  • 708.
    Zhu, Nali
    et al.
    Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, Peoples R. China.
    Schramm, Karl-Werner
    Mol EXpos MEX, Deutsches Forschungszentrum für Gesundheit und UmweltMol EXpos MEX, Helmholtz Zentrum München - Deutsches Forschungszentrum für Gesundheit und Umwelt (GmbH), Neuherberg, Germany; Weihenstephan für Ernährung und Landnutzung, Department für Biowissenschaften, Wissenschaftszentrum, Technische Universität München, Freising, Germany.
    Wang, Thanh
    Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, Peoples R. China.
    Henkelmann, Bernhard
    Mol EXpos MEX, Helmholtz Zentrum München - Deutsches Forschungszentrum für Gesundheit und Umwelt (GmbH), Neuherberg, Germany.
    Zheng, Xiaoyan
    Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, Peoples R. China; China National Environmental Monitoring Center, Beijing, Peoples R. China.
    Fu, Jianjie
    Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, Peoples R. China.
    Gao, Yan
    Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, Peoples R. China.
    Wang, Yawei
    Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, Peoples R. China; Mol EXpos MEX, Helmholtz Zentrum München - Deutsches Forschungszentrum für Gesundheit und Umwelt (GmbH), Neuherberg, Germany.
    Jiang, Guibin
    Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, Peoples R. China.
    Environmental fate and behavior of persistent organic pollutants in Shergyla Mountain, southeast of the Tibetan Plateau of China2014In: Environmental Pollution, ISSN 0269-7491, E-ISSN 1873-6424, Vol. 191, p. 166-174Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Pristine mountains are ideal settings to study transport and behavior of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) along gradients of climate and land cover. The present work investigated the concentrations and patterns of 28 organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), 25 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCBs), 13 polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), and 3 hexabromocyclododecane (HBCDs) isomers in the air of the Shergyla Mountain, southeastern Tibetan Plateau. Endosulfan І, hexachlorobenzene, pentachlorobenzene, hexachlorocyclohexanes and dichlorodibenzotrichloroethane and its degradation products (DDTs) were the predominant compounds while PBDEs and HBCDs showed the lowest background concentrations. Most of the target POPs had significantly higher concentrations in summer than those in winter. Increasing trends of the concentrations of DDTs and endosulfan were found with increasing altitude on the western slope in the Shergyla Mountain. Potential forest filter effect was observed based on the lower air concentrations of the target POPs in the forest than the ones out of the forest.

  • 709.
    Åhlgren, Kristina
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Bäckström, Mattias
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Identification of major point sources in the severely contaminated alum shale area in Kvarntorp, Sweden2016In: Mining Meets Water – Conflicts and Solutions: IMWA 2016 in Leipzig, Germany, July 11–15, 2016 / [ed] Drebenstedt, C. & Paul, M., Freiberg: TU Bergakademie Freiberg, Institute of Mining and Special Civil Engineering , 2016, p. 377-382Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Scarcity of imported fuel led to oil production from alum shale in the Kvarntorp area, 200 km west of Stockholm, during 1941-1966. Remains from this are a 100 meter high waste deposit, Kvarntorpshogen, consisting mostly of shale ash and water filled open pits. As this shale is rich in sulphur and trace metals such as U, Ni and Mo, leaching from the waste deposit is feared. To elucidate the important question whether Kvarntorpshgen is the most important concern, or to what extent other sources might contribute with contamination, water sampling was extended to contain more localities than the ordinary control program. A new approach was the sulphur isotope analysis. The results point towards an area too complex for using sulphur isotopes for mixing calculations. Isotope fractionation during oil production is shown by the delta(34) difference between shale and shale ash. Current isotope fractionation indicates sulphate reduction. Some localities indicate pyrite weathering and others rather show buffer capacities due to the presence of lime. Sr concentrations also suggest weathering. It is indicated that Kvarntorpshgen has an impact on the surroundings, but also that the water filled open pits as well as an industrial area affect the water quality. It is concluded that Kvarntorpshgen is one of the most important contributors of metal dispersion, but other point sources cannot be discarded as environmental risks.

  • 710.
    Åhlgren, Kristina
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Sjöberg, Viktor
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Sartz, Lotta
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology. Bergskraft Bergslagen AB, Kumla, Sweden.
    Bäckström, Mattias
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Understanding Groundwater composition at Kvarntorp, Sweden, from leaching tests and multivariate statistics2017In: 13th International Mine Water Association Congress – Mine Water & Circular Economy: Proceedings, Volume 2 / [ed] Wolkersdorfer, C.; Sartz, L.; Sillanpää, M.; Häkkinen, A., International Mine Water Association , 2017, p. 770-776Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Due to oil production from alum shale, the Kvarntorp area is heavily polluted. A waste deposit consisting mostly of shale ash and fines is of important concern. Groundwater shows that parameters such as pH, U, V, Ni and Mo are different at different localities around the deposit. Leaching tests indicate that burned and unburned shale residues leave different signatures on leachates. Principal component analysis of groundwater and leaching tests suggest that ground-water is affected by the waste deposit and that it is more influenced by shale ash than by fines.

  • 711.
    Ålund, Marie
    et al.
    Man-Technology-Environment Research Centre, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Arwidsson, Zandra
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology. SAKAB AB, Kumla, Sweden .
    Allard, Bert
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Leaching of metals from contaminated soil with polyhydroxicarboxylic acids of natural origin2009Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effect of addition of complexing agents, generated from natural products, on the release and redistribution of metals from contaminated soil has been studied. Water soluble humic substances (fulvic acids, FA) generated by leaching of high-molecular weight humic matter (peat) at high pH, and isosaccharinic acid (ISA), generated by degradation of wood (saw-dust) at high pH was used and compared with some synthetic complexing agents representing naturally occurring products: Citric acid (CA), ethylenediamine disuccinic acid (EDDS) and methylglycine diacetic acid (MGDA).

    Four contaminated soils with elevated levels of particularly As, Cr, Cu, Ni and Pb at maximum levels of 1.5, 1.2, 1.7, 0.14 and 3.8 g/kg, respectively (two from shooting-ranges, one from a steel-works site and one from a wood impregnation site) were leached with alkaline solutions (pH 12) containing peat degradation products (1.2 g/l TOC; some 90 % FAs) and wood degradation products (0.7 g/l TOC, some 50-60 % ISA), as well as solutions of CA, EDDS and MGDA (0.25 mM, pH 6-8). Metal releases were analysed after various leaching times: 24 h, 1 week, 5 weeks. Results are related to the total content of metals in the soil (XRF-analysis), total leachable fractions (sequential leaching according to Tessier) and leaching with nitric acid (pH 3).

    A release of some 10 % of the lead inventory and up to 50 % of the copper in one of the soils could be achieved in the FA and ISA leaching systems, while the synthesised agents EDDS and MGDA led to releases of some 60-90 %. The effects of FA and ISA were generally significantly lower than those of the other complexing agents for As, Cr, and Ni, but significantly higher for V (present at the level 40 mg/kg). Thus, a significant enhancement of the release of particularly copper and lead from the contaminated soils by leaching with alkaline (pH 12) leachates of wood and/or peat appears to be feasible.

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