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  • 1.
    Andersson, Annika
    Örebro University, Swedish Business School at Örebro University.
    Learning to learn in e-Learning: constructive practices for development2010Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis concerns technology use in distance educations and learning practices related to this use. The research was carried out over the period 2005 to 2009 in Bangladesh and Sri Lanka and has been reported in 6 published papers. The research is situated within the field of Information and Communication Technologies for Development (ICT4D) and within this field e-learning. Education is important for development and for many students in developing countries distance education is often the only option to get educated. The research question is if the use of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in distance education can contribute to development, and if so, how?

    This question is explored through two case studies in Sri Lanka and Bangladesh. A variety of data collection methods have been used: interviews, questionnaires, participant observations and document review. The research approach is interpretative and findings are analyzed using Structuration Theory.

    Initial findings showed that a major challenge for students was the change of learning practices that distance education required. Findings also showed that new constructive learning practices emerged through the use of ICT. For development to take place the learning practices of students are important. Students used to learning practices based on uncritical memorization of facts will not easily take initiatives for change, whereas students used to constructive learning practices will.  Notwithstanding the fact that most students found this transition challenging, it was found that by introducing technology into long-established transmission structures, changes towards constructive learning practices occurred.

    A major contribution of this thesis is to increase the understanding of how ICT in distance education can facilitate constructive learning practices. By arguing that constructive learning practices are conducive to societal change this finding also has implications for development. The thesis also makes a theoretical contribution by extending Structuration Theory’s applicability in demonstrating its explanatory power in settings where researcher and informants are geographically and socially distant.

    List of papers
    1. A Conceptual Framework for E-Learning in Developing Countries: A Critical Review of Research Challenges
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Conceptual Framework for E-Learning in Developing Countries: A Critical Review of Research Challenges
    2009 (English)In: Electronic Journal of Information Systems in Developing Countries, ISSN 1681-4835, E-ISSN 1681-4835, Vol. 38, no 8, p. 1-16Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a critical review of research on challenges for e-learning with a particular focus on developing countries. A comprehensive literature review including 60 papers on e-learning challenges was undertaken for the purpose of understanding how to implement e-learning in developing countries. Research questions were: what has existing research identified as the major challenges for e-learning, and, what differences, if any, are there between developing countries and developed countries in this respect? The literature study found 278 papers which were condensed to 60 based on exclusion and inclusion criteria designed to find papers of best quality as well as papers that clearly investigated well-defined challenges. The research found 30 specific challenges which were grouped into four categories, viz.: courses, individuals, technology and context. The overall conclusion is that these challenges are equally valid for both developed and developing countries; however in developing countries more papers focus on access to technology and context whereas in developed countries more papers concern individuals. A further finding is that most papers focus on one or two categories of challenges; few papers exhibit a comprehensive view. Because challenges are interrelated, based on the findings we propose a conceptual framework of emerging issues for e-learning in developed and developing countries. The framework is useful to guide both practice and research.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Hong Kong: City University of Hong Kong, 2009
    Keywords
    e-learning, challenges, literature review, conceptual framework, developing countries
    National Category
    Information Systems
    Research subject
    Computer Science; informatics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-8058 (URN)
    Available from: 2009-10-01 Created: 2009-10-01 Last updated: 2018-01-13Bibliographically approved
    2. Seven major challenges for e-learning in developing countries: Case study eBIT, Sri Lanka
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Seven major challenges for e-learning in developing countries: Case study eBIT, Sri Lanka
    2008 (English)In: International Journal of Education and Development using ICT, ISSN 1814-0556, Vol. 4, no 3Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    By using an extensive framework for e-learning enablers and disablers (including 37 factors) this paper sets out to identify which of these challenges are most salient for an e-learning course in Sri Lanka. The study includes 1887 informants and data has been collected from year 2004 to 2007, covering opinions of students and staff. A quantitative approach is taken to identify the most important factors followed by a qualitative analysis to explain why and how they are important. The study identified seven major challenges in the following areas: Student support, Flexibility, Teaching and Learning Activities, Access, Academic confidence, Localization and Attitudes. In this paper these challenges will be discussed and solutions suggested.

    Keywords
    e-learning; challenges, developing countries; support; flexibility; access; academic confidence; localization; interactivity; attitudes
    National Category
    Information Systems Social Sciences Computer and Information Sciences Computer and Information Sciences
    Research subject
    Informatics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-5908 (URN)
    Available from: 2009-03-05 Created: 2009-03-03 Last updated: 2018-01-13Bibliographically approved
    3. Letters from the field: e-learning students change of learning behaviour in Sri Lanka and Bangladesh
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Letters from the field: e-learning students change of learning behaviour in Sri Lanka and Bangladesh
    2008 (English)In: Proceedings of ECEL 2008: 7th European conference on e-Learning, 2008, p. 29-37Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reports the findings from two case studies on e-learning in Bangladesh and Sri Lanka. In these countries much hope is set on e-learning as a means to disseminate education to a larger population, but statistics show that drop out rates from e-learning courses are much higher than from traditional, classroom based, courses. In this paper it is argued that one reason for this is that the introduction of e-learning and a more student-centred learning model involves a drastic shift for students who are brought up in very teacher-centred didactic educational cultures. In order to investigate how this change in learning is perceived by its main stakeholders (i.e. the students) visits to learning centres in Sri Lanka and Bangladesh were made during 2007 and 2008. To capture the students’ opinions an open approach was chosen where students were asked to write letters about which major challenges they experience in changing their learning behaviour and completing the courses. Altogether the study is based on 107 student letters that have been analyzed and coded based on major differences and challenges identified by the students. Findings show that most students find learning on their own to be the major difference. They find this challenging because they feel very distant and because they do not know how to learn on their own. They have difficulties in managing their time and a lack of flexibility combined with a sloppy administration makes it even worse. Students used to being spoon-fed and learning by memorizing obviously need much support in taking ownership of their own learning in order to be able to learn by themselves. By comparing and mapping these findings to solutions suggested by existing research this study therefore suggests that support functions should be provided for students on ‘how to be an online learner’ and on ‘how to learn by yourself’. The teacher interaction and presence should also, at least in the early stages of the course, be frequent and active in order to make the student confident in his or hers ability to learn on their own. Finally, course flexibility (in regards to delivery mode and pace) should be high and much effort should be put into creating a supportive and well-organized administration

    Keywords
    e-learning, developing countries, educational structures, pedagogical differences, learning behaviour, support functions
    National Category
    Information Systems
    Research subject
    Informatics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-5909 (URN)
    Conference
    7th European Conference on e-Learning, Agia Napa, Cyprus, 6-7 November 2008
    Available from: 2009-03-05 Created: 2009-03-03 Last updated: 2018-01-13Bibliographically approved
    4. Increasing interactivity in distance educations: Case studies Bangladesh and Sri Lanka
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Increasing interactivity in distance educations: Case studies Bangladesh and Sri Lanka
    2010 (English)In: Information Technology for Development, ISSN 0268-1102, E-ISSN 1554-0170, Vol. 16, no 1, p. 16-33Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes how distance educations in developing countries can enhance interactivityby means of information and communication technologies. It is argued that e-learning involvesa shift in the educational structure from traditional transmission of knowledge to interactivecreation of knowledge. Our case studies are two distance educations in Bangladesh and SriLanka that use different technologies for implementing interactivity; Internet and computersin one case and video and mobile phones in the other. The findings are analyzed based onStructuration Theory and we compare the two approaches based on emerging norms andbeliefs. Findings from both cases show the concurrent enactment of both the transmissionand the interactive structure. Whereas peer collaboration and the use of self-assessment toolsmake students take more ownership of their learning, we also found the idea of a classroomwith an instructive teacher to be deeply rooted in the students’ minds.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Oxford, United Kingdom: Routledge, 2010
    Keywords
    e-learning, interactivity, educational structures, developing countries, Structuration Theory
    National Category
    Information Systems
    Research subject
    Informatics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-10267 (URN)10.1080/02681100903533719 (DOI)000208173200003 ()2-s2.0-78650331369 (Scopus ID)
    Available from: 2010-03-29 Created: 2010-03-29 Last updated: 2018-01-12Bibliographically approved
    5. Learning e-Learning: the restructuring of students beliefs and assumptions about learning
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Learning e-Learning: the restructuring of students beliefs and assumptions about learning
    2010 (English)In: International Journal on E-learning, ISSN 1537-2456, E-ISSN 1943-5932, Vol. 9, no 4, p. 435-461Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    This paper builds on a case study on e-learning in Sri Lanka with focus on students’ underlying beliefs about how one learns. E-learning programs are most often set up with the assumption that students should think, act and learn independently and with underlying values of constructivism and learner–centred learning. For students used to classroom-based, didactic education the transition to the e-learning paradigm is, however, neither predetermined nor immediate. The objective of this paper is to find out if, and how, the e-learning practice manages to transform students into more independent and self sustaining learners. By drawing on Structuration Theory this study analyzes and compares novice and experienced students’ assumptions about learning when asking for a particular support function, because support needs should change if students start adopting the e-learning view on how learning is achieved. Findings show that students increasingly adopt the e-learning view on learning as they progress through the program. Students take increasingly more ownership of their learning and the teacher is no longer seen as the container of all knowledge. The importance of discussions also increases over time indicating that knowledge is no longer seen as being transmitted but rather created.

    National Category
    Information Systems
    Research subject
    Informatics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-10268 (URN)
    Available from: 2010-03-29 Created: 2010-03-29 Last updated: 2018-01-12Bibliographically approved
    6. Learning from e-learning: emerging constructive learning practices
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Learning from e-learning: emerging constructive learning practices
    2009 (English)In: Doing IT research that matters, 2009Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This research is situated within the field of Information and Communication Technologies for Development (ICT4D) and asks if ICT use can make learning practices change. While constructive learning practices are critical to both individual and societal development, repetitive learning practices are the norm in many developing countries. The study is based on observations and in-depth interviews and uses a structurational approach to understand if and how students views of learning change during an e-learning program in Sri Lanka. We found four constructive learning practices that emerged through technology use; individual exploring, interaction with peers, interaction with teachers, and taking responsibility of the learning. Many constructive learning practices emerged outside the LMS used, in students’ voluntary uses of publicly available resources on the Internet. The study shows that technology use can play a positive role for development, provided an open environment is available; students learn constructive practicesfrom e-learning.

    Keywords
    ICT4D, e-learning, learning practices, Structuration Theory, constructive learning theory
    National Category
    Information Systems
    Research subject
    Informatics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-8886 (URN)
    Conference
    International Conference on Information Systems (ICIS), Phoenix 2009
    Note

    ICIS 2009 Proceedings. Paper 51.

    Available from: 2009-12-21 Created: 2009-12-21 Last updated: 2018-01-12Bibliographically approved
  • 2.
    Asiimwe, Edgar Napoleon
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    On Emerging Mobile Learning Environments2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis investigates issues pertaining to the implementation of mobile learning and particularly the use of learning content management systems and mobile devices in university education. The thesis is positioned at the intersection of the research areas of information systems and education. The general view of technology is grounded in the field of information systems, but it is connected to the field of learning using the framework for the rational analysis of mobile education (FRAME). The point of enquiry was chosen based on the fact that the number of people who use mobile devices today is higher than the number of people who use desktop computers. This presents an opportunity for higher education institutions to increase the reach of education services by means of delivering them on mobile devices. This, of course, also presents challenges.

    The thesis is situated in the interpretive paradigm and the methodological approach was action research. Data was collected through review of literature, interviews, focus group discussions, observations and online surveys. Findings suggest that mobile learning cannot replace existing forms of learning in least developed countries but blended learning is a feasible alternative. Three units of analysis were used and found to be significant for studying and evaluating mobile learning, the technical artefact, the social artefact and the information artefact, together making up the information systems artefact. The thesis contributes to theory by discussing how mobile learning can be seen to be constructed as an information systems artefact through these three constructs. Advancements in virtual learning technology may bring a new wave of learning management systems. The nature of the next generation of learning content management systems is a topic for further research.

    List of papers
    1. On mobile learning with learning content management systems: a contemporary literature review
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>On mobile learning with learning content management systems: a contemporary literature review
    2014 (English)In: Communications in Computer and Information Science, ISSN 1865-0929, E-ISSN 1865-0937, Vol. 479, p. 131-145Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Learning Content management systems (LCMS) are important tools for organizing learning material and communication. Increasingly mobile technologies are used for internet access; particularly important in developing countries where broadband is scarce. Mobile LCMS introduce specific challenges, which are yet not fully addressed. This paper reviews the literature on mobile LCMS for the purpose of identifying current research focus, research gaps, and future research directions regarding how to bridge the gaps and leverage CMS technology to support "mobile learning". The concept matrix method is used to collect and analyze literature. Five prominent research areas are found; Use, access, design and infrastructure; communication and collaboration; engagement and knowledge development; content and service delivery; and implementation experiences and evaluation. A major gap identified is that research does neither clearly nor thoroughly address the intersection between learning and technology. Adjusting technologies to learning contexts and environments is a key area for future research.

    Keywords
    mobile learning, MLCMS, LCMS, LMS, CMS
    National Category
    Computer Sciences
    Research subject
    Computer Science
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-42805 (URN)000348500300013 ()2-s2.0-84908500296 (Scopus ID)
    Conference
    13th World Conference on Mobile and Contextual Learning (mLearn), NOV 03-05, 2014, Istanbul, TURKEY
    Available from: 2015-02-19 Created: 2015-02-19 Last updated: 2018-01-11Bibliographically approved
    2. Ubiquitous computing in education: a SWOT analysis by students and teachers
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Ubiquitous computing in education: a SWOT analysis by students and teachers
    2013 (English)In: QScience Proceedings, QScience , 2013Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Learning from anywhere anytime is a contemporary phenomenon in the field of education that is thought to be flexible, time and cost saving. The phenomenon is evident in the way computer technology mediates knowledge processes among learners. Computer technology is however, in some instances, faulted. There are studies that highlight drawbacks of computer technology use in learning. In this study we aimed at conducting a SWOT analysis on ubiquitous computing and computer-mediated social interaction and their affect on education. Students and teachers were interviewed on the mentioned concepts using focus group interviews. Our contribution in this study is, identifying what teachers and students perceive to be the strength, weaknesses, opportunities and threats of ubiquitous computing and computer-mediated social interaction in education. We also relate the findings with literature and present a common understanding on the SWOT of these concepts.

    Results show positive perceptions. Respondents revealed that ubiquitous computing and computer-mediated social interaction are important in their education due to advantages such as flexibility, efficiency in terms of cost and time, ability to acquire computer skills. Nevertheless disadvantages where also mentioned for example health effects, privacy and security issues, noise in the learning environment, to mention but a few. This paper gives suggestions on how to overcome threats mentioned.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    QScience, 2013
    Keywords
    Ubiquitous Computing, Education, SWOT, Computer-mediated social interaction
    National Category
    Information Systems, Social aspects
    Research subject
    Informatics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-47746 (URN)10.5339/qproc.2013.mlearn.18 (DOI)
    Conference
    12th World Conference on Mobile and Contextual Learning (mLearn 2013), College of the North Atlantic, Qatar, October 22-24, 2013
    Available from: 2016-01-22 Created: 2016-01-22 Last updated: 2019-04-02Bibliographically approved
    3. MLCMS actual use, perceived use, and experiences of use
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>MLCMS actual use, perceived use, and experiences of use
    2015 (English)In: ijEDict - International Journal of Education and Development using Information and Communication Technology, ISSN 1814-0556, E-ISSN 1814-0556, Vol. 11, no 1, p. 101-121Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Mobile learning involves use of mobile devices to participate in learning activities. Most elearning activities are available to participants through learning systems such as learning content management systems (LCMS). Due to certain challenges, LCMS are not equally accessible on all mobile devices. This study investigates actual use, perceived usefulness and user experiences of LCMS use on mobile phones at Makerere University in Uganda. The study identifies challenges pertaining to use and discusses how to improve LCMS use on mobile phones. Such solutions are a cornerstone in enabling and improving mobile learning. Data was collected by means of focus group discussions, an online survey designed based on the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM), and LCMS log files of user activities. Data was collected from two courses where Moodle was used as a learning platform. The results indicate positive attitudes towards use of LCMS on phones but also huge challenges whichare content related and technical in nature.

    Keywords
    Mobile learning; LCMS; MUELE; TAM; Mobile phones
    National Category
    Information Systems, Social aspects
    Research subject
    Informatics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-47744 (URN)
    Available from: 2016-01-22 Created: 2016-01-22 Last updated: 2017-11-30Bibliographically approved
    4. Practices and challenges in an emerging m-learning environment
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Practices and challenges in an emerging m-learning environment
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    National Category
    Information Systems, Social aspects
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-56107 (URN)
    Available from: 2017-03-06 Created: 2017-03-06 Last updated: 2017-11-09Bibliographically approved
  • 3.
    Ask, Andreas
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    The Role of Enterprise Architecture in Local eGovernment Adoption2012Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Governments struggle with inefficiencies and an inability to achieve interoperable information communication technology (ICT) systems. Apparent issues include a failure of local government to realize the benefits of electronic government (eGov) initiatives, high project failure rates, administrations hampered with inefficiencies, and a lack of interoperability between systems within the local government. Thus, local governments need to address their eGov initiatives in a structured way to improve their chances of providing the benefits that are sought after.

    Sweden’s eGov model is decentralized, following a strict new public management (NPM) model. Whilst eGov ought to bring benefits to local government, Sweden is still hampered by inefficiencies and an inability to achieve interoperable ICT systems. This has been the case for quite some time. One reason why systemic gains from adopting eGov have not reached the levels sought after could be that, in many cases, ICT implementations are not enough. The transformation needed for eGov is not instantaneous; it requires various new ways of working.

    Enterprise Architecture (EA) has come to be seen as a possible solution to the apparent issues of developing, adopting and managing eGov successfully. By utilizing EA, it is argued that it is possible to bridge ICT systems and business processes, thus making the organization more efficient. However EA’s usefulness for eGov development and adoption is the subject of debate. Some researchers argue that EA lacks clearly defined scopes and concepts, which makes the use of EA in government difficult. Whereas other argues that although EA frameworks are comprehensive logical frameworks, they lack content that is related specifically to government organizations.

    The thesis posits the following research questions: What is the role of EA in eGov adoption in Swedish local government? together with three sub questions: What are the prerequisites for using EA in Swedish local eGov adoption? What has the Swedish local government in Örebro achieved with its use of EA in eGov adoption? And What problems have the Swedish local government in Örebro experienced in its use of EA when adopting eGov? To explore the role of EA in eGov adoption a longitudinal case study is carried out on the municipality of Örebro’s eGov project MovIT, a project launched in 2007 that ended in 2009. I study the prerequisites, results and problems associated with using EA in Swedish local government as part of eGov adoption. A comparative study is conducted of the goals of eGov, as stated in official eGov documents at EU and Swedish governmental levels will attest as to the supposed benefits of EA in contemporary EA-literature.

    From the study, it can be concluded that EA, as a phenomenon, is thought to be, if not a silverbullet, then at least a prerequisite to eGov success. In term of prerequisites, EA use cannot assist Swedish local government where there are more politicized objectives; in this situation, local government is required to look elsewhere to find support for its work. The study identify several critical issues from the empirical study of the prerequisites: distinction between administrative and political responsibilities; political mandate; political timing; resource allocation; coordination under NPM; dependence on providers; and choosing among standards and best practices. These issues need to be acknowledged and handled appropriately by Swedish local government in order to improve the chances for success in eGov adoption.

    The study also showed that NPM as governance model becomes a hindrance in eGov adoption, preventing the project from a more explicit use of an EA-framework and negatively affecting the projects possibility to adopt eGov. However, despite this structural problem, it is still possible – as observed – for a project that is based on EA-thinking to begin working.

    EGov, NPM and EA-thinking form a triad, with structural properties that, in some instances, correlate. In such cases, this can lead to positive changes. However, in other situations, they are contradictory, resulting in Swedish local government having a difficult time in adhering to the suggestions endorsed by the eGov project. This lead to incoherent progressions towards requested results. The existing structures hindered effective cooperation, both internally between different departments and externally with other local governments.

    This licentiate thesis has shown that the initial use of EA in local government eGov adoption is complex. Given the contradictory nature of NPM and eGov, local government has to acknowledge the negative impacts of NPM on eGov adoption. As well as acknowledging the issues that arise from EA use, a key area is a lack of support of local government in an area that is most likely to be endorsed by politicians. Politicians do not get re-elected based on efficient internal processes with a highly integrated ICT; rather, changes must be visible to citizens and businesses. This licentiate thesis has also shown that ‘EA-thinking’, as a means for local government, can move towards an EA without the explicit use of an EA framework or EA method. However, ‘EA-thinking’ may give rise to other issues that need to be acknowledged and dealt with. This licentiate thesis contributes to research by improving our understanding of the nature and importance of promoting and inhibiting different factors. Including critical issues for succeeding with eGov adoption, the negative effects of NPM and how EA-thinking can lead to positive changes, even though it cannot assist local government in all aspects deemed important to eGov adoption.

    In terms of practice, this thesis contributes by highlighting the problematic nature of institutionalized structures and the effect that this has on eGov adoption. It also contributes by enabling local governments to acknowledge the problems identified. This allows them to better understand their own development and possibly avoid similar problems or at least have a better understanding of how to handle the issues that arise.

    List of papers
    1. Implementation challenges: competing structures when new public management meets eGovernment
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Implementation challenges: competing structures when new public management meets eGovernment
    2008 (English)In: Electronic government / [ed] Maria A.Wimmer, Hans J. Scholl, Enrico Ferro, Berlin: Springer , 2008, p. 25-36Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article discusses practices, opportunities and challenges in local eGovernment project management by means of a case study of a Swedish city aiming at completely refocusing services, electronic and other, to become “citizen oriented”, meaning being able to meet the citizens’ needs more effectively. Based on empirical evidence collected by interviews and document studies, the article analyzes the development towards eGovernment and “the 24/7 agency”. Analyzing the case against eGovernment success factors we find seven challenges; political timing, resource allocation, political mandate, distinction between administrative and political responsibilities, coordination of departments, dependence on providers, and wise use of standards.. These challenges are critical because they mean choices important for national eGov development are open for local politics, complicated ad-hoc alliances among cities, and influences of strong individuals and groups. The article analyzes the challenges and finds that this situation is much a consequence of the prevailing strategic model for the public sector, New Public Management (NPM). This model by design leaves these issues in a void which has to be filled by negotiations among many actors with different roles, goals, and action space. The case shows that this makes national strategic eGov development volatile as it is dependent on a large number of local political assemblies; unlike the intention, NPM politicizes eGovernment.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Berlin: Springer, 2008
    Series
    Lecture notes in computer science ; 5184
    Keywords
    local government, electronic government, implementation, NPM, New public management
    National Category
    Information Systems
    Research subject
    Informatics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-6376 (URN)10.1007/978-3-540-85204-9_3 (DOI)000259730900003 ()2-s2.0-52449114338 (Scopus ID)978-3-540-85203-2 (ISBN)
    Conference
    7th International Conference, EGOV 2008, Torino, Italy, August 31 - September 5, 2008
    Available from: 2009-04-24 Created: 2009-04-24 Last updated: 2018-01-13Bibliographically approved
    2. The Örebro City Citizen-Oriented E-Government Strategy
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>The Örebro City Citizen-Oriented E-Government Strategy
    2008 (English)In: International Journal of Electronic Government Research, ISSN 1548-3886, Vol. 4, no 4, p. 69-88Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    This article discusses practices, opportunities, and challenges in local e-government project management by means of a case study involving interviews, document studies, and an element of action research, over eight months. The analysis against e-government success factors finds seven "critical issues"; political timing, resource allocation, political mandate, distinction between administrative and political responsibilities, coordination of departments, dependence on providers, and use of standards. We found these issues open for local choice, influences of strong individuals and groups, and chance. This is a consequence of the prevailing strategic model for the public sector, New Public Management, which leaves these issues to be filled by negotiations among many actors with different roles, goals, and action space. The general lesson is that there is a need for practical ways of acting strategically to reduce the risk level and increase the ability to implement policy. 

    Keywords
    local government, electronic government, NPM, implementation
    National Category
    Information Systems
    Research subject
    Informatics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-6366 (URN)10.4018/jegr.2008100105 (DOI)2-s2.0-56549117673 (Scopus ID)
    Available from: 2009-04-24 Created: 2009-04-24 Last updated: 2018-01-13Bibliographically approved
    3. Taking initial steps towards enterprise architecture in local government
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Taking initial steps towards enterprise architecture in local government
    2011 (English)In: Electronic government and the information systems perspective / [ed] Kim Normann Andersen, Enrico Francesconi, Åke Grönlund, Tom M. van Engers, Berlin: Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2011, p. 26-40Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to increase the understanding of immature use of Enterprise Architectures (EAs). In this paper we present results from an eGovernment initiative in a Swedish local government. This longitudinal case study illustrates the problems of taking initial steps of moving towards an EA during the development and implementation an eGovernment initiative. Through an analysis of goal achievements, we develop a better understanding of the challenges of using EA frameworks for local eGovernment-projects. Our results show that the immature use of the EA framework resulted in parts of the organization deviating from plan where individual members began to implement individual solutions, instead of basing decisions on the overall architecture. This impaired project’s possibility to develop towards an EA in an efficient way.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Berlin: Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2011
    Series
    Lecture Notes in Computer Science ; 6866
    Keywords
    eGovernment, e-service, Enterprise Architecture, Convergence, Goal achievement, Electronic Government
    National Category
    Human Aspects of ICT Information Systems
    Research subject
    Informatics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-20520 (URN)10.1007/978-3-642-22961-9_3 (DOI)
    Conference
    Second International Conference, EGOVIS 2011, Toulouse, France, August 29 – September 2
    Available from: 2011-12-08 Created: 2011-12-08 Last updated: 2018-01-12Bibliographically approved
  • 4.
    Bakunzibake, Pierre
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Improving Implementation of e-Government Services in Rwanda: An Organisational Perspective2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    As part of realising development programmes faster, developing countries have been adopting, from developed ones, modern ICTs and implementing e-government towards better public services. However, efforts of implementation of e-government services have been often resulting in unsatisfactory outcomes and even total failures. This is a big challenge particularly for Least Developed Countries which have fewer resources. Such outcomes are partly due to the lack of addressing organisational issues associated with implementations.

    This thesis addresses the question: How can the implementation of e-government services be improved from an organisational perspective in the context of Rwanda?

    The thesis adopts a socio-technical perspective and uses both qualitative case study methodology and a literature review approach. Two cases of implementation of e-government services were studied. The first case, an Enterprise Content Management system concerns the sharing and working on digital documents within government agencies. The second case, the onestop e-government is for providing online services by the central and local government agencies to the general public via a single portal, ‘Irembo’. This thesis shows that implementation of e-government services has been focusing on digitalisation of services superimposing ICT over existing structures with less attention to organisational change issues related to processes, organisational structure and policies. The thesis also identifies a deficit in implementation processes in terms of lacking clear goals and formal monitoring in the local government. Those insights on the implementation of e-government services of an LDC pinpoint a need for optimisation between technical and social aspects. This thesis makes an empirical contribution by bringing forth those insights. In order to help tackle a number of challenging issues found, a comprehensive model for improving the process of implementing e-government services, called Plan-Do-Evaluate-Resolve (PDER) was developed as a theoretical contribution based on a literature analysis.

    List of papers
    1. E-Government Implementation in Developing Countries: Enterprise Content Management in Rwanda
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>E-Government Implementation in Developing Countries: Enterprise Content Management in Rwanda
    2016 (English)In: Electronic Government and Electronic Participation, Amsterdam: IOS Press, 2016, p. 251-259Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    E-Government is now on the rise in developing countries. While developing countries can "leapfrog" technology generations, the necessary organizational change is another matter. In industrialized countries technical systems have been developed over long time in parallel with institutional development; developing countries hope to make that journey faster. Most of the e-Government implementation research focuses on developed countries. It is important to explore the relation between the literature and the findings in the context of developing countries as to come up with a gap to reduce. An interview study with 56 people in 10 government organizations involved in implementing a government-wide enterprise content management system was conducted to find out how critical success factors found in literature on implementation of information management systems relate to the situation in the Rwanda public sector to discover the step forward in Rwanda. We find a large gap between expectations and results due to a strong focus on the technical tool and little concerns about issues related to organizational change.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Amsterdam: IOS Press, 2016
    Series
    Innovation and the Public Sector, ISSN 1871-1073 ; 23
    Keywords
    e-Government, Implementation, ECM, Developing countries, Rwanda
    National Category
    Information Studies Political Science
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-53017 (URN)10.3233/978-1-61499-670-5-251 (DOI)000383380900026 ()978-1-61499-670-5 (ISBN)978-1-61499-669-9 (ISBN)
    Conference
    15th IFIP Electronic Government (EGOV) / 8th Electronic Participation (ePart) Conference, Univ Minho, Guimaraes, Portugal, September 5-8, 2016
    Available from: 2016-10-18 Created: 2016-10-18 Last updated: 2019-05-17Bibliographically approved
    2. Organisational Challenges in the Implementation of ‘one-stop’ e-Government in Rwanda
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Organisational Challenges in the Implementation of ‘one-stop’ e-Government in Rwanda
    2019 (English)In: Electronic Journal of e-Government, ISSN 1479-439X, E-ISSN 1479-439X, Vol. 17, no 1, p. 1-19Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    One-stop e-government holds potential benefits in all contexts and especially in the context of developing countries and in the Least Developed Countries (LDCs). Implementation of one-stop e-government can be challenging as it normally requires addressing a number of organisational issues including those related to the integration of the individual government information systems of different departments which traditionally function as silos; tackling organisational issues can be difficult due to the nature of the public sector. However, the contemporary literature paints a picture of scarce research on the organisational issues that impede the implementation of one-stop e-government initiatives in LDCs. This paper explores the organisational issues underlying the implementation of ‘one-stop’ e-government initiatives in Rwanda, an LDC. The study explores the status of these elements as of and up to March 2017. The qualitative case study methodology used for this study involved data collection by means of documents and interviews with key managers from central government organisations, from a private company, and from local government service clerks. Template analysis was used as a method for data analysis. Even though the number of online services for citizens, businesses, and other agencies is growing rapidly and easy payment of service fees is available, a number of organisational issues were identified. These include the lack of a clear plan of ‘to-be’ service processes and a corresponding change management strategy. Service re-design was taking place very much ad hoc. There were also unclear systematic organisational learning mechanisms and unclear operational goals in the local government. Addressing these issues would contribute towards improving the implementation of one-stop e-government and its corresponding services in such a context. The paper contributes to research by providing insights into organisational issues in a country currently in an early stage of e-government development. For Rwandan e-government professionals, the paper suggests a way forward. It also helps decision makers in Rwanda and similar countries undertaking one-stop initiatives to understand the problem context of actions taken towards IT-driven institutional reform.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Academic Conferences Limited, 2019
    Keywords
    One-stop e-government, e-government organisational challenges, Rwanda
    National Category
    Other Social Sciences
    Research subject
    Informatics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-73592 (URN)
    Projects
    Rwanda e-government project
    Available from: 2019-04-09 Created: 2019-04-09 Last updated: 2019-06-13Bibliographically approved
    3. E-government implementation and monitoring: The case of Rwanda ‘one-stop’ E-government
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>E-government implementation and monitoring: The case of Rwanda ‘one-stop’ E-government
    2019 (English)In: Electronic Journal of Information Systems in Developing Countries, ISSN 1681-4835, E-ISSN 1681-4835Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
    Abstract [en]

    Taking the case of the “one‐stop” e‐government initiative in Rwanda, the present study aims to find out how the “one‐stop” e‐government initiative is monitored at different government levels and stages and the extent to which the initiative is monitored. Furthermore, the study also aims to identify potential areas for improvement in the monitoring process. An exploratory qualitative study was undertaken in Rwandana gencies. The findings show that the monitoring of the process of implementing and improving one‐stop e‐government is partly formal at central government level and informal at local government level. Furthermore, the focus of the monitoring at the stage of use and maintenance leans more towards the benefits of end users as service consumers than those of the service providers. Incorporating formal methodological approaches at local government level and in all stages of the implementation and improvement process at central government level, as well as paying increased attention to back‐end process performance aspects, could introduce additional improvements into the monitoring practice and, in turn, increase project benefits.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    John Wiley & Sons, 2019
    Keywords
    E‐government implementation, evaluation, monitoring, one‐stop e‐government, Rwanda
    National Category
    Information Systems, Social aspects
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-70145 (URN)10.1002/isd2.12086 (DOI)
    Available from: 2018-11-12 Created: 2018-11-12 Last updated: 2019-06-13Bibliographically approved
    4. E-Government Implementation Process in Rwanda: Exploring Changes in a Socio-technical Perspective
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>E-Government Implementation Process in Rwanda: Exploring Changes in a Socio-technical Perspective
    2019 (English)In: Business Systems Research Journal, ISSN 1847-8344, E-ISSN 1847-9375, Vol. 10, no 1, p. 53-73Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Failures in e-government projects to deliver expected results are frequent in the context of developing countries. These are partly attributed to the lack of balanced attention to both technical and social aspects in the implementation. However, there has been limited research on these aspects in the least Developed Countries.

    Objectives: Taking a socio-technical perspective, this study aims at exploring the extent of changes and effects in the implementation of e-government service-oriented initiatives in Rwanda, one of the Least Developed Countries.

    Methods/Approach: An empirical investigation was conducted, via interviews at 8 agencies during the period from January 2017 to May 2018. This involved two case projects, an Enterprise Content Management System and a One-Stop e-government system. Furthermore, government documents and online material were analyzed.

    Results: A number of changes in technology, processes and people aspects were faced in both projects. However, those changes are coupled with secondary effects; there is a need for a better fit between technical systems and social systems of organizations implementing e-government; a larger gap was identified in the first case project.

    Conclusions: Addressing the issues as a socio-technical system would contribute to improved work systems of agencies and better services.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    De Gruyter Open, 2019
    Keywords
    e-Government implementation, enterprise content management, ‘one-stop’ e-government, Rwanda, socio-technical theory
    National Category
    Information Systems
    Research subject
    Informatics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-73686 (URN)10.2478/bsrj-2019-0005 (DOI)000467633400005 ()2-s2.0-85065835760 (Scopus ID)
    Projects
    Rwanda e-government project
    Available from: 2019-04-12 Created: 2019-04-12 Last updated: 2019-06-19Bibliographically approved
    5. A Model for Process Improvement in the Implementation of e-Government Services: Plan-Do-Evaluate-Resolve (PDER)
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Model for Process Improvement in the Implementation of e-Government Services: Plan-Do-Evaluate-Resolve (PDER)
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    National Category
    Information Systems, Social aspects
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-74297 (URN)
    Available from: 2019-05-17 Created: 2019-05-17 Last updated: 2019-05-17Bibliographically approved
  • 5.
    Eliason, Emma
    Örebro University, Swedish Business School at Örebro University.
    Value awareness in web site design2009Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis aims to develop knowledge about value-awareness in website design. To achieve the aim - this thesis investigates values in thedesign of Swedish municipality web sites through a perspective ofinherited values. It covers the designer perspectives’ intentions andreasons as well as user experiences and expectations. Value awarenessis influenced by theories where values and the creation of meaning arefocused. E.g., theories about: Genres; Use quality; Value sensitivedesign. The design process is seen as a decision process, wherequestions about prioritization of values have been considered.The study yields four main contributions. 1) A reflective concept ofvalue awareness; 2) Knowledge about genre-related design effects byusing the perspective of inherited values; 3) A method for value awareweb design; and 4) A guide to design by example. The empirical studyis a contribution for practical web site design for municipalities.A conclusion made in the study is that the perspective of inheritedvalues contributes to reflections on website design in several differentways. The perspective makes it possible to detect effects of designdecisions and it supports the identification of different designexamples which can be used to discuss design priorities,communicated values, and design effects. This study has shown that itis important to be value aware in web site design. Inspiration fromother designs, leads to inheritance of value prioritizations. Elements ofthe design process, such as technical and organizational arrangementsconvey prioritizations made elsewhere at earlier stages. These factorscreate expectations and experiences that might not be appropriate inthe context in which the web site is intended.

  • 6.
    Hatakka, Mathias
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    The capability approach in ict4d research2013Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    List of papers
    1. Build it and they will come?: Inhibiting factors for reuse of open content in developing countries
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Build it and they will come?: Inhibiting factors for reuse of open content in developing countries
    2009 (English)In: Electronic Journal of Information Systems in Developing Countries, ISSN 1681-4835, E-ISSN 1681-4835, Vol. 37, no 5, p. 1-16Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Open content has the potential to change the playing field when it comes to every individual’s right to education. Development of new course content is both expensive and time consuming and open content can help educational organizations to deal with these problems by offering free-to-use educational resources. Despite the benefits of open content the usage is very low in developing countries and understanding why content developers choose not to use open content is the first step towards finding a solution to the problem. Which inhibiting factors for reuse do content developers in developing countries experience with open content? To answer the question interviews, questionnaires and observations have been made with content developers from Bangladesh, Sri Lanka and from UNESCO Open Training Platform. Findings show that many of the inhibiting factors with reuse of open content do not necessarily relate to the actual content. Educational rules and regulations, lack of infrastructure, teaching practices and traditions etc. are major obstacles that need to be overcome if the usage of open content should increase.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Hong Kong: City University of Hong Kong, 2009
    Keywords
    Open Content, Open Educational Resources, eLearning, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Open Training Platform
    National Category
    Information Systems
    Research subject
    Informatics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-6299 (URN)
    Available from: 2009-04-20 Created: 2009-04-20 Last updated: 2018-01-13Bibliographically approved
    2. Development, capabilities and technology: an evaluative framework
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Development, capabilities and technology: an evaluative framework
    2011 (English)In: Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Social Implications of Computers in Developing Countries: Partners  for  Development  -­  ICT  Actors  and  Actions, 2011Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we present a framework to be used for evaluation of Information and Communication Technology for Development (ICT4D) projects. The framework is based on Sen´s notion of development as freedom where human capabilities and functionings are seen as key aspects to development. Sen´s capability approach presents an alternative way of seeing and evaluating development (alternative to more traditional ways of measuring development). The approach is based on expanding freedoms, or eliminating unfreedoms, for people so that they can live a life that they have reason to value. Even though Sen is referenced a lot in ICT4D literature the analysis rarely goes further then stating that Sen presents an alternative to traditional ways of development. Reasons can be that the capability approach does not specifically mention technology, in addition to the lack of guidelines presented by Sen on how to use the framework. The aim of this paper is to operationalize the evaluation process and to include a clear role for technology in Sen´s capability framework. The framework is validated with a case on distance education from Bangladesh. 

    Keywords
    ICT4D, capability approach, evaluation, framework, education
    National Category
    Information Systems
    Research subject
    Informatics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-21419 (URN)
    Conference
    IFIP WG9.4: 11th International Conference on Social Implications of Computers in Developing Countries
    Available from: 2012-02-16 Created: 2012-01-30 Last updated: 2019-04-10Bibliographically approved
    3. The capability approach as a tool for development evaluation: analyzing students' use of internet resources
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>The capability approach as a tool for development evaluation: analyzing students' use of internet resources
    2012 (English)In: Information Technology for Development, ISSN 0268-1102, E-ISSN 1554-0170, Vol. 18, no 1, p. 23-41Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Internet resources have been ascribed transformative powers in the development of educational organizations and students in developing regions. However, most development projects relating to Internet resources focus on publishing material without much analysis of the actual use. The question then is how we can go deeper in our analysis and study actual development outcomes. The analysis in this paper is based on Amartya Sen’s Capability Approach where both the means and ends are evaluated. The research question is “What are the benefits of using Amartya Sen’s Capability Approach when evaluating development outcomes?”. We answer the question by evaluating what capabilities and functionings Internet resources can enable for students in higher education. Findings show that the Capability Approach enables us to gain a deeper understanding of why and how development outcomes are achieved. We are also able to follow the development process from the intervention to the realized outcomes. 

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Routledge, 2012
    Keywords
    Internet resources, education, the Capability Approach, Amartya Sen, human development
    National Category
    Information Systems
    Research subject
    Informatics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-21420 (URN)10.1080/02681102.2011.617722 (DOI)000299345500003 ()2-s2.0-84856090905 (Scopus ID)
    Available from: 2012-01-30 Created: 2012-01-30 Last updated: 2018-01-12Bibliographically approved
    4. Students’ use of one to one laptops: a capability approach analysis
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Students’ use of one to one laptops: a capability approach analysis
    2013 (English)In: Information Technology and People, ISSN 0959-3845, E-ISSN 1758-5813, Vol. 26, no 1, p. 94-112Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose - We evaluate effects of students’ 1:1 laptop use from a capability perspective by investigating increases and decreases of students’ opportunities and choices. We investigate changes that have taken place and how these changes enable or restrict students to do and be what they desire.

    Design/methodology/approach – We undertake an interpretive case study based on group interviews and questionnaires. Sen’s capability approach is used as theoretical framework and has informed the data collection and the analysis.

    Findings – 1:1 laptops in schools have provided students with new opportunities and choices, but also restricted others. An evident opportunity is the equalization of access to computers. Other opportunities relate to schoolwork efficiency and increased access to information. Gains also include the use of different media for overcoming disabilities or to fit individual learning styles. Regarding students’ well-being, a “fun” learning environment is mentioned. However, the “fun” is often about playing games or using social media – something which diverts the students’ attention from the learning. Students also find that they are less social, too computer dependent, and that they miss using pen and paper. Additionally, health issues such as back problems and headaches are reported, as well as an increased risk of being robbed.

    Originality/value – Most research on 1:1 laptops in education focuses on easily quantifiable measures and reports from a teacher perspective. We take a broader approach and investigate the impact 1:1 laptops have on students’ well-being and agency. 

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Emerald Group Publishing Limited, 2013
    Keywords
    1:1 laptops, ICT supported learning, education, the capability approach
    National Category
    Information Systems, Social aspects
    Research subject
    Informatics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-26929 (URN)10.1108/09593841311307169 (DOI)000318378300005 ()2-s2.0-84874811370 (Scopus ID)
    Projects
    UnosUno
    Available from: 2013-01-18 Created: 2013-01-18 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
    5. Back to basics: Why (some) ICT4D projects still struggle
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Back to basics: Why (some) ICT4D projects still struggle
    2013 (English)In: Proceedings of the 12th International conference on social implications of computers in developing countries, 2013Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
    Keywords
    Success and failure, ICT4D, education, the capability approach, conversion factors
    National Category
    Social Sciences
    Research subject
    Informatics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-29299 (URN)
    Conference
    12th International conference on social implications of computers in developing countries (IFIP WG 9.4), May 19-22, 2013, Ocho Rios, Jamaica
    Available from: 2013-06-03 Created: 2013-06-03 Last updated: 2017-10-17Bibliographically approved
    6. Capability outcomes from educational and ICT capability inputs: an analysis of ICT use in informal education in Kenya
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Capability outcomes from educational and ICT capability inputs: an analysis of ICT use in informal education in Kenya
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In the field of Information and Communication Technologies for Development (ICT4D) ICT use in education is well studied. Education is often seen as a pre-­‐requisite for development and ICTs are believed to aid in education, e.g. to make it more accessible and to increase its quality. In this paper we study the access and use of ICT in a study circle (SC) education program in the south coast of Kenya. The study is qualitative reporting results based on interviews and observations with SC participants, government officers and SC coordinators and teachers. The study builds on the capability approach perspective of development where individuals’ opportunities and ability to live a life that they value are focused. The aim of the study is to investigate the capability outcomes enabled through the capability inputs access and use of ICT in education as well as the factors that enabled and/or restricted the outcomes. Findings show that many opportunities have been enabled such as an increase in the ability to generate an income, learning benefits, community development and basic human development (e.g. literacy and self-­‐confidence). However, conversion factors such as a poorly developed infrastructure and poor IT literacy prevent many of the individuals from taking full advantage of the ICT and the opportunities it enables.

    Keywords
    ICT supported education, education, study circle, the capability approach, ICT4D, ICT access, ICT training
    National Category
    Computer and Information Sciences
    Research subject
    Informatics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-32004 (URN)
    Available from: 2013-10-14 Created: 2013-10-14 Last updated: 2018-01-11Bibliographically approved
  • 7.
    Hellberg, Ann-Sofie
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Governments in control?: the implications of governance and policy entrepreneurship in electronic government2015Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    List of papers
    1. Health care integration in practice: an institutionalized dilemma
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Health care integration in practice: an institutionalized dilemma
    2011 (English)In: Electronic government and the information systems perspective / [ed] Kim Normann Andersen, Enrico Francesconi, Åke Grönlund, Tom M. van Engers, Berlin: Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2011, p. 1-14Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Integration in health care is a normative goal, but the legal regulation of government operations across sectors is complex. Many values must be safeguarded and they are therefore legally protected. Interoperability can, however, create value conflicts and there is little empirical research into the constructive attempts to resolve such deep-rooted conflicts. This paper addresses this gap by an in-depth study of how values are institutionalized in laws and government organizations. Data was collected by means of participant observation and narrative interviews. The study showed that value conflicts constitute barriers to integration that were difficult to resolve. One major problem was that the necessary discussion about how the conflicts should be handled could not be held because there was no such arena. Different authorities were governed by different values that were deeply institutionalized; while services were to be integrated, the legal regulating bodies were not.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Berlin: Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2011
    Series
    Lecture Notes in Computer Science ; 6866
    Keywords
    e-government – interoperability – integration – EHR – legislation
    National Category
    Other Social Sciences Other Social Sciences not elsewhere specified Computer and Information Sciences
    Research subject
    Informatics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-20564 (URN)10.1007/978-3-642-22961-9_1 (DOI)
    Conference
    Second International Conference, EGOVIS 2011, Toulouse, France,August 29 – September 2
    Available from: 2011-12-13 Created: 2011-12-13 Last updated: 2018-01-12Bibliographically approved
    2. Conflicts in implementing interoperability: re-operationalizing basic values
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Conflicts in implementing interoperability: re-operationalizing basic values
    2013 (English)In: Government Information Quarterly, ISSN 0740-624X, E-ISSN 1872-9517, Vol. 30, no 2, p. 154-162Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Interoperability is a top priority today as governments try to integrate services across departments so as to improve effectiveness as well as efficiency. Integration in government is complicated, as evidenced by a discouraging project failure rate. An often quoted reason is that the complex relationships among government, society, and technology which come into play when integrating multiple organizations are not fully understood. This paper addresses this gap by scrutinizing a large national integration project asking, what is the nature and causes of the conflicts that surface during implementation? Data was collected by means of participant observations and narrative interviews. Seven major conflicts were found, all general because they involve basic values which were in conflict with each other. The values were specified by legislation and strictly operationalized in various government institutions which, consequently, were in disagreement about what was legal and desirable. The findings show that in order to achieve interoperability a "re-operationalization" of these values is necessary. These changes cannot be clearly defined upfront but must be "negotiated" by means of practical achievements that are considered important enough to motivate gradual changes in the way we implement our values in legislation and practices. This means that ambitious integration projects must serve as spearheads in such value change, which is a root cause for delays and even failure.

    Keywords
    eGovernance, eGovernment, Interoperability, Integration, Values, Electronic health records
    National Category
    Information Systems, Social aspects
    Research subject
    Informatics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-29274 (URN)10.1016/j.giq.2012.10.006 (DOI)000316974200004 ()2-s2.0-84875405741 (Scopus ID)
    Available from: 2013-05-31 Created: 2013-05-31 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
    3. The story of the sixth myth of open data and open government
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>The story of the sixth myth of open data and open government
    2015 (English)In: Transforming Government: People, Process and Policy, ISSN 1750-6166, E-ISSN 1750-6174, Vol. 9, no 1, article id 35-51Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Emerald Group Publishing Limited, 2015
    Keywords
    e-government, open data, open government data, story telling
    National Category
    Information Systems, Social aspects
    Research subject
    Informatics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-43756 (URN)10.1108/TG-04-2014-0013 (DOI)000213902700003 ()2-s2.0-84925075188 (Scopus ID)
    Funder
    VINNOVA
    Note

    Funding agencies

    Orebro University Research School of Public Affairs  

    VINNOVA, the Swedish Governmental Agency for Innovation Systems 

    Available from: 2015-03-19 Created: 2015-03-19 Last updated: 2018-04-16Bibliographically approved
    4. Policy, process, people and public data
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Policy, process, people and public data
    2014 (English)In: Electronic Government, 2014, Vol. 8653, p. 265-276Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this paper was to analyze an implementation of the public data agenda to address the lack of empirical research on the subject. The focus of the paper is on the interplay between policy, process and people. The approach was qualitative, interpretive research and data was gathered through interaction, interviews and observations over a period of 20 months. Findings showed that the policies are a bit opportunistic and that it is not clear what data that should be made available to attract citizens to take part in the agenda, raw data or processed data? Furthermore, the incentives for citizens to engage in the public data agenda were not obvious. I therefore wonder, do we believe too much in information? Are we being information determinists?

    Series
    Lecture Notes in Computer Science, ISSN 0302-9743 ; 8653
    Keywords
    Public Data, Open Government Data (OGD), Public Sector Infor- mation (PSI), E-government, T-government, Public Sector Reform
    National Category
    Information Systems, Social aspects
    Research subject
    Informatics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-44660 (URN)10.1007/978-3-662-44426-9_22 (DOI)000362435000022 ()2-s2.0-84906333693 (Scopus ID)978-3-662-44426-9 (ISBN)978-3-662-44425-2 (ISBN)
    Conference
    13th IFIP WG 8.5 International Conference, EGOV 2014, Dublin, Ireland, September 1-3, 2014
    Available from: 2015-05-20 Created: 2015-05-19 Last updated: 2017-10-17Bibliographically approved
  • 8.
    Hernandez-Humbla, Isabel
    et al.
    Örebro University, Swedish Business School at Örebro University.
    Walfridsson, Sandra
    Örebro University, Swedish Business School at Örebro University.
    Systemkrav hos tidsregistreringssystem: En fallstudie på Bring CityMail2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    På många arbetsplatser registrerar de anställda tider i olika typer av informationssystem. Dessa informationssystem är ofta datorbaserade. Tidsregistrering innebär till exempel att en anställd registrerar den tid då han/hon påbörjar och avslutar sin arbetsdag. På vissa arbetsplatser registrerar de anställda även när de tar rast och i vissa fall när de påbörjar och avslutar olika arbetsuppgifter. Dessa tider registreras för att senare kunna användas som till exempel underlag vid utbetalning av löner eller för att mäta effektiviteten för olika arbetsuppgifter. Vi har utfört en fallstudie hos Bring CityMail Sverige där vi tittat på deras datorbaserade tidsregistreringssystem för att ta fram en kravspecifikation. Kravspecifikationen skall sedan kunna fungera som stöd vid konstruktion av ett nytt tidsregistreringssystem eller vid val av ett färdigt som finns på marknaden. Vi har utgått ifrån frågeställningen: ”Vilka systemkrav ska ett tidsregistreringssystem uppfylla för att tillgodose Bring CityMails behov och kunna användas av organisationer med liknande behov?”. De som kan ha nytta av resultatet är Bring CityMail och organisationer med liknande behov. Bring CityMail använder sig av tidsregistreringen på ett sätt som liknar hur man gör inom andra företag/organisationer. I och med detta så kan även andra företag/organisationer ha nytta av den kravspecifikation som vi har skapat i detta uppsatsarbete.

    För att ta fram en kravspecifikation har vi utfört en kravanalys där vi har skapat vårt eget tillvägagångssätt genom att kombinera metoddelar från olika systemutvecklingsmetoder. Vi har främst använt oss av kravdisciplinen inom RUP där vi skapat en System Use Case modell. För att kunna skapa modellen har vi intervjuat nyckelpersoner på Bring CityMail samt utfört en intervju och observation på ett postutdelningskontor. Utifrån intervjuerna och observationen samt System Use Case modellen identifierade vi systemkrav. Dessa systemkrav dokumenterade vi i en mall för kravspecifikation. Mallen skapade vi utifrån en existerande mall som används inom Volere processen.

     Slutsatsen i denna uppsats består av en kravlista (se rubrik ”Slutsats” nedan). Systemkraven har delats in i ”Viktiga systemkrav”, ”Mindre viktiga systemkrav” och ”Önskemål”."

  • 9.
    Islam, M. Sirajul
    Örebro University, Swedish Business School at Örebro University.
    Creating opportunity by connecting the unconnected: mobile phone based agriculture market information service for farmers in Bangladesh2011Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis is framed within the research area of Information and Communication Technologies for Development (ICT4D), which is concerned with how ICT can make a difference to the lives of the poor. This study focuses primarily on mobile phones and how they can be used as part of an Agriculture Market Information Service (AMIS) in order to provide crucial information to farmers in Bangladesh. AMIS principally collect, manage and disseminate agricultural market prices and related information through various processes and media. These services are mainly used by farmers. The research question of how mobile phone-based AMIS can be designed and deployed in order to improve opportunities for farmers in Bangladesh is investigated through a design science research approach in four steps; understanding the scope and challenges related to AMIS in least developed countries; diagnosing the situational realities of farmers of Bangladesh; understanding the process of adopting mobile phones and investigating market information practices and preferences in a rural context; and finally designing and implementing a mobile phone based AMIS and evaluating the efficiency and effectiveness of it for the farmers of Bangladesh. In this thesis, development is viewed in terms of bringing about an in-crease in farmers’ capability set directed towards the utilization of resources for the purpose of production and trade. Information and knowledge are important drivers of development and poverty reduction: ICT can create new opportunities to expand the availability, exchange, and impact of information and knowledge. This thesis contributes to ICT4D research and practice through empirical findings, the design of an AMIS, test results, and the development of analytical tools. Its major contributions include an increased understanding of farmers’ attitudes and preferences towards the use of technology in general, and mobile phones in particular, and a broader understanding of ICT for human development in the context of poor rural regions.

    List of papers
    1. Agriculture market information services (AMIS) in the least developed countries (LDCs): nature, scope, and challenges
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Agriculture market information services (AMIS) in the least developed countries (LDCs): nature, scope, and challenges
    2010 (English)In: Electronic government / [ed] Maria A.Wimmer, Jean-Loup Chappelet, Marijn Janssen, Hans J. Scholl, Berlin, Germany: Springer , 2010, p. 109-120Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Rural growth is seen as an engine to drive the economy ofdeveloping countries and the use of Agriculture Market Information Services(AMIS) is believed to enable this growth. This paper is based on a literaturestudy and investigates the spread and use of AMIS in the least developedcountries (n=49) in terms of users, management, funding, infrastructure, anddata. We investigate success as well as failure aspects, and discuss the role ofnew technologies. Findings show that while new technologies can improvedissemination of information, collecting data economically and meeting highquality requirements remains major challenges. The study contributes byproviding a comprehensive view of the challenges of AMIS in developingcountries and an AMIS project evaluation matrix (IS-PEM) based on thefindings, which together contribute to improving the design of future projects.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Berlin, Germany: Springer, 2010
    Series
    Lecture Notes in Computer Science ; 6228
    Keywords
    ICT4D, AMIS, agricultural market information systems, LDCs, Rural Development, IS Project Evaluation Matrix (IS-PEM)
    National Category
    Information Systems Human Aspects of ICT
    Research subject
    Informatics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-12301 (URN)10.1007/978-3-642-14799-9_10 (DOI)000286404000010 ()2-s2.0-78049337459 (Scopus ID)978-3-642-14798-2 (ISBN)
    Conference
    9th IFIP WG 8.5 International Conference, EGOV 2010, Lausanne, Switzerland, August 29-September 2, 2010
    Available from: 2010-10-22 Created: 2010-10-22 Last updated: 2018-01-12Bibliographically approved
    2. Agriculture market information E-service in Bangladesh: a stakeholder-oriented case analysis
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Agriculture market information E-service in Bangladesh: a stakeholder-oriented case analysis
    2007 (English)In: Electronic government / [ed] Maria A. Wimmer, Jochen Scholl, Åke Grönlund, Berlin: Springer , 2007, , p. 12p. 167-178Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper assesses an e-government project in Bangladesh using design-reality gap analysis and stakeholder theory. The project under study is anAgricultural Market Information System intended to provide timely and accuratemarket information to farmers, wholesalers, and retailers, for the purpose ofmaking actors more informed and markets more effective. The research questionsare; why did the system fail, and what, if anything, can be done toimprove it. The analysis shows deficiencies in both adaptation to stakeholderpreferences, needs and capabilities, as well as in project resources such as staffsupply and qualifications. Yet the project has been technically up-to-date andhas over time exhibited some learning as failures have resulted in adaptation tonew findings. This research suggests use of mobile technologies in combinationwith call centres and locally available human resources as the most importantfactors for success.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Berlin: Springer, 2007. p. 12
    Series
    Lecture Notes in Computer Science ; 4656
    Keywords
    eGovernment assessment, Agriculture Market Information Service, stakeholder theory, gap analysis, electronic government, mobile technologies, ICT4D, development
    National Category
    Human Aspects of ICT Information Systems
    Research subject
    Informatics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-17270 (URN)10.1007/978-3-540-74444-3_15 (DOI)000249585300015 ()2-s2.0-38049008993 (Scopus ID)978-3-540-74443-6 (ISBN)
    Conference
    6th International Conference, EGOV 2007, Regensburg, Germany, September 3-7, 2007
    Available from: 2011-10-18 Created: 2011-09-18 Last updated: 2018-01-12Bibliographically approved
    3. Factors influencing the adoption of mobile phones among the farmers in Bangladesh: theories and practices
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Factors influencing the adoption of mobile phones among the farmers in Bangladesh: theories and practices
    2010 (English)In: The International Journal on Advances in ICT for Emerging Regions, ISSN 1800-4156, Vol. 4, no 1Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    National Category
    Information Systems
    Research subject
    Informatics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-12262 (URN)
    Available from: 2010-10-19 Created: 2010-10-19 Last updated: 2018-01-12Bibliographically approved
    4. Bangladesh calling: farmers' technology use practices as a driver for development
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Bangladesh calling: farmers' technology use practices as a driver for development
    2011 (English)In: Information Technology for Development, ISSN 0268-1102, E-ISSN 1554-0170, Vol. 17, no 2, p. 95-111Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Making farmers in developing countries more informed about market opportunities is generally considered an important step toward development of the agricultural sector and increasing individual farmers' income. Mobile phones are a useful technology for delivering such information, but are farmers ready? According to Sen [Development as freedom. In J. Ezer (Ed.), Gandhi's third assassination: Information and communication technology education in India (pp. 201-212)], human capability is the basic driver for development. This paper investigates, by means of a survey (n  =  420) to farmers in rural Bangladesh, what factors affect mobile phone ownership and use and what professional information is asked for. We find that access is very high, to a large extent through community use. Neither education nor income is a determining factor, but “modernity” - being young and/or having children - is. Even the very poor have access. Attitudes are very positive not just to the phones, but also to using them for professional information services. Hence, human capacity for development is there, as is technology. What is still lacking is the useful services adapted to the rural usage patterns and social context.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    London: Taylor & Francis, 2011
    National Category
    Information Systems Human Aspects of ICT
    Research subject
    Informatics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-12294 (URN)10.1080/02681102.2010.526093 (DOI)000299344300002 ()2-s2.0-79953159858 (Scopus ID)
    Available from: 2010-10-22 Created: 2010-10-22 Last updated: 2018-01-12Bibliographically approved
    5. An agricultural market information service (AMIS) in Bangladesh: evaluating a mobile phone based e-service in a rural context
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>An agricultural market information service (AMIS) in Bangladesh: evaluating a mobile phone based e-service in a rural context
    2010 (English)In: Information Development, ISSN 0266-6669, E-ISSN 1741-6469, Vol. 26, no 4, p. 289-302Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The farmers' community in Bangladesh is one of the most deprived ones in terms of economy and access to social facilities. An agricultural market information service (AMIS) can be one of the important tools for reducing such social inequality by integrating the farmers with their markets more efficiently. Following the failure of a web-based AMIS initiated by the Government of Bangladesh and considering the wide availability of cellular networks, a mobile phone based AMIS was implemented on a pilot basis in some remote villages in Bangladesh. This paper evaluates the efficiency and effectiveness of this mobile service in terms of users, technology, process and facilitating conditions in a rural context. In general this is an interpretive case study as well as an evaluation research which is based on two small scale surveys and observations. Based on a literature review, a conceptual model is also applied for a systematic evaluation. Findings show that effectiveness of a rural e-service depends on the design and delivery of the service in accordance with the individual's information needs, adaptive technologies with easy accessibility within a given infrastructure, affordable services with a rational business model, adequate awareness and efficient communication with the respective community.

    Keywords
    agricultural market information services, mobile phone services, rural information services, farmers' information services, Bangladesh
    National Category
    Information Systems Information Systems
    Research subject
    Informatics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-12821 (URN)10.1177/0266666910385556 (DOI)000284688300004 ()2-s2.0-78649867204 (Scopus ID)
    Available from: 2011-01-11 Created: 2011-01-03 Last updated: 2018-01-12Bibliographically approved
  • 10.
    Kolkowska, Ella
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    A method for analyzing value-based compliance in systems security2013Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: The aim of this thesis is to design a method that supports analysis of different values that come into play in compliance and non compliance situations within information systems security (ISS). The thesis addresses the problem of lack of ISS compliance methods that support systematic analysis of compliant and non-compliant behaviours as well as the reasons for these behaviours. The problem is addressed by designing a method that supports analysis of different values that come into play in compliance and non compliance situations in ISS. The method is called Value Based Compliance method (VBC method).

    Research questions: The main research question of the thesis is: How should a method for analysis of different values that come in play in compliance and non-compliance situations within ISS be designed? This research question is answered by answering three sub-questions: 1) What values and goals (perspective) should the VBC method realize? 2) What underpinning design principles should the VBC method build on? 3) How should the VBC method be constructed to realize the VBC perspective and to incorporate the design principles?

    Research method: Design Science Research (DSR) was chosen as a research approach in this thesis. DSR prescribe how to carry on a design process of an artefact with preserved rigor and relevance. The approach is both useful in order to solve real life problems and theoretically ground suchproblems. The VBC method is informed by a number of kernel theories and based on current knowledge in ISS compliance literature. The method is also empirically tested in three different contexts, during six DSR cycles.

    Contributions: The three main contributions from the thesis are: the VBC perspective, the design principles and the VBC method. The VBC perspective is in line with a social view on ISS’s role in organisation. This perspective is realized in the VBC method by analysing values and value conflicts that come in play in compliance and non-compliance situations. Thus this study contributes to the field of ISS by designing a method that realizes the social view on ISS’s role in an organisation. The five design principles for a VBC method is the second contribution. The design theory with the five empirically tested design principles may be the point of departure for development of other compliance methods focusing on analysis of values and value conflicts that come into play in relation to ISS compliance. The design principles contribute also to the ISS compliance field by 1) extending compliance analysis with consideration of the different rationalities (values and goals) 2) acknowledging the difference between rational and non-rational ISS actions and 3) emphasizing the importance of finding articulated as well as unarticulated ISS actions. Finally, the VBC method itself contributes to the ISS compliance research and practice by offering a formalized, theoretically and empirically grounded method for systematic analysis of compliance and non-compliance situations as well as rationalities that come into play in these situations.

  • 11.
    Larsson, Hannu
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Sustainable eGovernance2014Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis focuses on eGovernance – the use of ICT as a means to improve public sector practice. Previous research has shown that there is a lack of long-term discussion on the purposes and directions of eGovernance development, often outlining it as unequivocally positive, while missing to consider the complexities and conflicts involved in this process. In order to understand the complexities of eGovernance a future-oriented perspective is needed. In other words a perspective that not only focuses on using ICT to be responsive to present needs but also making it possible to discuss which goals public sector ICT initiatives should strive for and how these correspond to goals and means in the public sector as a whole. In order to do this I employ a sustainability perspective.

    The aim of this thesis is to understand how eGovernance can be sustainable in such a complex organizational environment. This is approached in four papers; based on two case studies, situated in the public sector of Sweden, and a structured literature review of the use of the sustainability concept in eGovernance research.

    The findings of this thesis include a framework of sustainable eGovernance, including an outline of the different dimensions of sustainability: social, economic, environmental and technical. These dimensions are seen as carriers of different values and goals which are in a process of continuous dialogue and conflict. Cutting across these four dimensions are two themes: decision making and information infrastructure, which make up the backbone of how ICT can be used in order to improve public practice. The theoretical lens of sustainability widens our understanding and helps in the questioning of motivations, directions and implications of eGovernance initiatives. This thesis thus contributes with a theoretically and empirically founded framework, which is suitable as a foundation for sustainable eGovernance development and further research into that area.

    List of papers
    1. Evolving structure in the implementation of healthcare information systems: an actor-network analysis
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Evolving structure in the implementation of healthcare information systems: an actor-network analysis
    2011 (English)In: Electronic Journal of e-Government, ISSN 1479-439X, E-ISSN 1479-439X, Vol. 9, no 1, p. 30-40Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Public sector ICT use is now moving towards integration of services and processes across departments, for instance in the healthcare sector. This is a challenging issue as it involves distributed decision making, often across both public and private organizations, which implies a multitude of issues. Enterprise Architectures (EA) aim at providing a common framework that includes data, resources and processes, through which all aspects of the enterprise can be directed towards a common goal in an efficient manner. It as been argued that architectures should be perceived as evolving (rather then as carefully planned roadmaps), although more research on how EA evolves is needed. This paper addresses the general question of, how does an EA evolve during implementation? A case study is used to illustrate how an EA evolves throughout the process of implementation. The case is the implementation of a national patient record system in the decentralized Swedish healthcare system. The project is part of a larger effort to implement an EA in the healthcare sector aimed at further integrating the whole sector.  Data is collected by means of observations, interviews and document analysis. Using an Actor-Network Theory perspective, this paper presents four episodes during which an EA evolves through interactions. In this way the paper contributes with a deepened understanding of how EA evolves by arguing that EA programs should be seen as something that needs to be planned with regard to that it will, and should, evolve in order to respond to needs discovered in the process. The contribution is a deepened understanding of how sub-projects co-evolve with a national EA project, thus mutually affecting each other. This should not be perceived as something unequivocally negative as this might also be strategic, and leads to evolution of other parts of the EA to suit each other.

    Keywords
    actor-network theory, eGovernment, eHealth, enterprise architecture, evolving structure, implementation
    National Category
    Information Systems
    Research subject
    Informatics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-20687 (URN)
    Projects
    Avhandlingen
    Available from: 2012-01-02 Created: 2012-01-02 Last updated: 2018-01-12Bibliographically approved
    2. Ambiguities in the early stages of public sector enterprise architecture implementation: outlining complexities of interoperability
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Ambiguities in the early stages of public sector enterprise architecture implementation: outlining complexities of interoperability
    2011 (English)In: Electronic government / [ed] Marijn Janssen, Hans J. Scholl, Maria A. Wimmer, Yao-Hua Tan, Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2011, p. 367-377Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years the development of eGovernment has increasingly gone from service provision to striving for an interoperable public sector, with Enterprise Architectures being an increasingly popular approach. However, a central issue is the coordination of work, due to differing perceptions among involved actors. This paper provides a deepened understanding of this by addressing the question of how differing interpretations of interoperability benefits affect the coordination in the early stages of implementing a public sector Enterprise Architecture. As a case-study, the interoperability efforts in Swedish eHealth are examined by interviews with key-actors. The theoretical framework is a maturity model with five levels of interoperability issues and benefits. The findings highlight the need to clarify decision-making roles, ambiguities concerning jurisdictions between authorities and that differing perceptions of IT-infrastructure is connected to overall goals. The paper also suggests a re-conceptualization of eGovernment maturity by moving away from sequential models.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2011
    Series
    Lecture Notes in Computer Science (LNCS), ISSN 0302-9743 ; 6846
    Keywords
    eGovernment, Interoperability, Maturity models, Implementation, Coordination, Complexity
    National Category
    Information Systems
    Research subject
    Informatics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-20688 (URN)10.1007/978-3-642-22878-0_31 (DOI)2-s2.0-80052759011 (Scopus ID)978-3-642-22877-3 (ISBN)
    Conference
    10th IFIPWG 8.5 International Conference (EGOV 2011), Delft, The Netherlands, August 28 - September 2, 2011
    Available from: 2012-01-02 Created: 2012-01-02 Last updated: 2018-02-19Bibliographically approved
    3. Future-oriented eGovernance: The sustainability concept in eGov research, and ways forward
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Future-oriented eGovernance: The sustainability concept in eGov research, and ways forward
    2014 (English)In: Government Information Quarterly, ISSN 0740-624X, E-ISSN 1872-9517, Vol. 31, no 1, p. 137-149Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    eGov (eGovernment/eGovernance) is a complex endeavor involving many actors, ambitions, and perspectives. The field has, in research and in practice, over the years expanded its focus from service orientation to a comprehensive perspective with the ambition to integrate all of government in coherent action. Comprehensive integration requires a future-oriented perspective so investment is made in robust and flexible solutions meeting not only today's demands but also sustainable to meet those of the future. This paper addresses the use of the sustainability concept in eGov research. We discuss definitions and elements of sustainability and conduct a structured review of eGov literature investigating how various sustainability areas (social, economic, environmental and technical) are addressed. We find 21 overall themes in 94 papers, with the highest number in the “social” category. Two cross-cutting themes to which 21 overall themes relate are also identified; Decision-making and Infrastructure. Findings show that sustainability is mainly addressed narrowly, focusing on projects rather than general issues, and shallowly with a focus on single factors rather than the complex interaction among them, and with little foundation in sustainability theory. The paper contributes with an overview of themes in previous research as well as theory-based input for future research efforts on eGov sustainability, from a dynamic and sociotechnical sustainability perspective.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    San Diego: Elsevier, 2014
    Keywords
    eGovernance, eGovernment, Sustainability, Complexity, Literature review
    National Category
    Information Systems
    Research subject
    Information technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-33253 (URN)10.1016/j.giq.2013.07.004 (DOI)000331428500017 ()2-s2.0-84895906710 (Scopus ID)
    Available from: 2014-01-23 Created: 2014-01-23 Last updated: 2018-01-11Bibliographically approved
    4. Sustainable eGovernance?: decision making, coordination and continuity in Swedish eGov practice
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Sustainable eGovernance?: decision making, coordination and continuity in Swedish eGov practice
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of ICTs in the public sector, eGovernment, is increasingly understood as a complex phenomenon intricately embedded in a continuously changing environment including multiple actors, rather referred to as eGovernance. A need for research that is “future oriented” has been identified, and previous research has suggested a sustainability perspective. Research employing the sustainability concept has increased recently but is still a fledgling research area without a common focus or use of the concept. There is a lack of research with a thorough basis in sustainability theory and a need for empirically founded theoretical development regarding sustainable eGovernance. Hence, the research question of this paper is, How can current eGovernance practice be interpreted from a sustainability perspective? A case study is performed in the context of Swedish eGovernance practice, at national and municipal level. Inductive interviews are used to investigate practitioners’ views. Thereafter we test a framework of eGovernance sustainability, developed based on the eGovernance literature, against the views of the practitioners. We find that sustainability in eGovernance is most prominently related with decision making and coordination related to infrastructure, as actors struggle with achieving continuity and implementing a holistic view of the use of ICT in the public sector. We also find that eGovernance research, while still shallow, has a focus that corresponds well to the issues that practitioners find most crucial for the future. Hence, the results provide a consolidated framework of eGovernance sustainability issues, both theoretically and empirically informed. 

    Keywords
    eGovernance, eGov, Sustainability, EGOV4SD, Case study, Governance, Decision making, Infrastructure
    National Category
    Information Systems, Social aspects
    Research subject
    Informatics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-35332 (URN)
    Available from: 2014-06-11 Created: 2014-06-11 Last updated: 2017-10-17Bibliographically approved
  • 12.
    Mutimukwe, Chantal
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Information Privacy Protection in E-government in Rwanda2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Privacy of information is a critical issue for e‐government service development as lack of it negatively influences users' trust and adoption. To earn user trust, government organizations need to provide reliable privacy assurance by implementing adequate information privacy protection practices. African least developed countries (LDCs) today develop e‐government, but the status of privacy protection in these countries is not clear. This research aims to help in the achievement of the successful protection of information privacy in e-government in an LDC country, Rwanda. For this, empirical studies were conducted to increase understanding of issues re-lated to information privacy in e-government in Rwanda. A mixture of quantitative and qualitative methods was applied for data collection and analysis.

    The results show that Rwandans’ concerns about information privacy in e-government context are high, that organizational information privacy protection practices can reduce users concerns, but also that existing privacy protection practices are not adequate to ensure users’ privacy. The studies also find that users are more concerned with e-government services than with other types of electronic services. Based on these findings, this thesis suggests a set of guidelines for government organizations in Rwanda in order to achieve effective information privacy protection practices.

    The thesis contributes to the body of knowledge in the fields of e-government and information privacy by providing empirical studies from an African LDC context and developing and testing a new model explaining the links between organizational information privacy protection practices, privacy concerns and the related antecedents and consequences, hence enhancing the theoretical understanding of these relations. The thesis contributes to practice by providing a set of guidelines that can guide government organizations in Rwanda, and/ or other African LDCs in a similar situation in the process of developing information privacy protection practices.

    List of papers
    1. Trusting and Adopting E-Government Services in Developing Countries?: Privacy Concerns and Practices in Rwanda
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Trusting and Adopting E-Government Services in Developing Countries?: Privacy Concerns and Practices in Rwanda
    2017 (English)In: Lecture Notes in Computer Science, ISSN 0302-9743, E-ISSN 1611-3349, Vol. 10428, p. 324-335Article in journal (Refereed) [Artistic work] Published
    Abstract [en]

    E-government is a strong focus in many developing countries. While services can technically benefit from solutions developed elsewhere, organizational development and user trust and acceptance are always local. In Least Developed Countries (LDCs) such issues become more dramatic as services are transformed quickly from traditional manual procedures to digitized ones copying models from developed countries. One of the most critical trust issues is privacy protection; e-government services must be developed in balance with citizens’ privacy views.

    To understand how to design trusted services in an LDC this study investigates information privacy concerns, perceptions of privacy practices, trust beliefs and behavior intentions towards using e-government services in Rwanda. The study was conducted by means of a survey (n = 540).

    A majority of the respondents had a considerable level of trust, and a positive view of the effectiveness of service providers’ privacy practices. Most respondents expressed positive intentions towards using e-government services. Still, a majority of the respondents expressed considerable privacy concerns. Men were more concerned than women and reported a higher reluctance to use e-government service. As this study is one of the few studies of privacy, trust and adoption of e-government in LDC, it contributes to broadening the context in which such issues have been researched.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2017
    Keywords
    E-government, Privacy Trust, Behavior intentions, Rwanda
    National Category
    Other Social Sciences Information Systems, Social aspects
    Research subject
    Informatics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-59153 (URN)10.1007/978-3-319-64677-0_27 (DOI)2-s2.0-85029427153 (Scopus ID)
    Conference
    Electronic Government 16th IFIP WG 8.5 International Conference, EGOV 2017, St. Petersburg, Russia, September 4-7, 2017
    Available from: 2017-08-22 Created: 2017-08-22 Last updated: 2019-06-13Bibliographically approved
    2. Information privacy concerns and organizational privacy assurances: Transferability of a US model to an African LDC context
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Information privacy concerns and organizational privacy assurances: Transferability of a US model to an African LDC context
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    National Category
    Information Systems, Social aspects
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-74330 (URN)
    Available from: 2019-05-20 Created: 2019-05-20 Last updated: 2019-05-20Bibliographically approved
    3. Information privacy in e-service: Effect of organizational privacy assurances on individual privacy concerns, perceptions, trust and self-disclosure behavior
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Information privacy in e-service: Effect of organizational privacy assurances on individual privacy concerns, perceptions, trust and self-disclosure behavior
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    National Category
    Information Systems, Social aspects
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-74331 (URN)
    Available from: 2019-05-20 Created: 2019-05-20 Last updated: 2019-05-20Bibliographically approved
    4. Information privacy practices in eGovernment in an African Least Developing Country, Rwanda
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Information privacy practices in eGovernment in an African Least Developing Country, Rwanda
    2019 (English)In: Electronic Journal of Information Systems in Developing Countries, ISSN 1681-4835, E-ISSN 1681-4835, Vol. 85, no 2, article id e12074Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Privacy of information is a critical issue for e-government development as lack of it negatively influences users’ trust and adoption of e-government. To earn user trust government organizations need to provide reliable privacy assurance by implementing adequate information privacy protection (IPP) practices. African Least Developing Countries (LDCs) today develop e-government but focus is on quick technical development and the status of IPP issues is not clear. Little research has yet studied the status of IPP practices in e-government in African LDCs. To fill this gap, we assess the status of existing IPP practices in e-government in Rwanda, using international privacy principles as an assessment baseline. We adopt a case-study approach including three cases. Data were collected by interviews and a survey. The findings call into question the efficacy of existing IPP practices and their effect in ensuring e-government service users’ privacy protection in Rwanda. The study extends existing literature by providing insights related to privacy protection from an African LDC context. For practitioners in Rwanda and other LDCs, this study contributes to the protection of information privacy in e-government by providing recommendations to mitigate identified gaps.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    John Wiley & Sons, 2019
    Keywords
    Information privacy practices, privacy principles, e-government, African LDCs, Rwanda
    National Category
    Information Systems, Social aspects
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-71433 (URN)10.1002/isd2.12074 (DOI)000460947600003 ()2-s2.0-85060769634 (Scopus ID)
    Available from: 2019-01-12 Created: 2019-01-12 Last updated: 2019-06-18Bibliographically approved
  • 13.
    Nhavoto, José António
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Integration of Mobile Technologies with Routine Healthcare Services in Mozambique2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Mobile technologies are emerging as one way to help address health challenges in many countries, including in Least Developed Countries. Mobile technology can reach a large share of the population but in order to provide effective support to healthcare services, technology, information collection and dissemination, and work processes need to be well aligned. The thesis uses a design science methodological approach and mixes qualitative and quantitative data analysis to address the question of, How can mobile technologies be effectively integrated with routine healthcare services?

    The study concerns the design, implementation, and evaluation of a mobile technology-based system, called SMSaúde, with the aim of improving the care of patients with HIV/AIDS and tuberculosis in Mozambique. The work started with the elicitation of functional and user requirements, based on focus group discussions. An important challenge, as in many mHealth interventions, was the integration with routine healthcare services and the existing IT systems, as well as developing a scalable technical structure. The system has now been in routine use since 2013 in more than 16 healthcare clinics in Mozambique. Evaluation was done by a randomised controlled study. Analysis of patient records showed that retention in care in urban areas was significantly higher in the intervention group than in the control group. In a user study both patients and health professionals were very positive to the system. The thesis contributes to research by demonstrating how information system artefacts can be constructed and successfully implemented in resource-constrained settings. The practical contributions include the designed artefact itself as well as improved healthcare practices and mHealth policy recommendations.

    List of papers
    1. Mobile Technologies and Geographic Information Systems to Improve Health Care Systems: A Literature Review
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Mobile Technologies and Geographic Information Systems to Improve Health Care Systems: A Literature Review
    2014 (English)In: JMIR mhealth and uhealth, E-ISSN 2291-5222, Vol. 2, no 2, article id e21Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Background: A growing body of research has employed mobile technologies and geographic information systems (GIS) for enhancing health care and health information systems, but there is yet a lack of studies of how these two types of systems are integrated together into the information infrastructure of an organization so as to provide a basis for data analysis and decision support. Integration of data and technical systems across the organization is necessary for efficient large-scale implementation.

    Objective: The aim of this paper is to identify how mobile technologies and GIS applications have been used, independently as well as in combination, for improving health care.

    Methods: The electronic databases PubMed, BioMed Central, Wiley Online Library, Scopus, Science Direct, and Web of Science were searched to retrieve English language articles published in international academic journals after 2005. Only articles addressing the use of mobile or GIS technologies and that met a prespecified keyword strategy were selected for review.

    Results: A total of 271 articles were selected, among which 220 concerned mobile technologies and 51 GIS. Most articles concern developed countries (198/271, 73.1%), and in particular the United States (81/271, 29.9%), United Kingdom (31/271, 11.4%), and Canada (14/271, 5.2%). Applications of mobile technologies can be categorized by six themes: treatment and disease management, data collection and disease surveillance, health support systems, health promotion and disease prevention, communication between patients and health care providers or among providers, and medical education. GIS applications can be categorized by four themes: disease surveillance, health support systems, health promotion and disease prevention, and communication to or between health care providers. Mobile applications typically focus on using text messaging (short message service, SMS) for communication between patients and health care providers, most prominently reminders and advice to patients. These applications generally have modest benefits and may be appropriate for implementation. Integration of health data using GIS technology also exhibit modest benefits such as improved understanding of the interplay of psychological, social, environmental, area-level, and sociodemographic influences on physical activity. The studies evaluated showed promising results in helping patients treating different illnesses and managing their condition effectively. However, most studies use small sample sizes and short intervention periods, which means limited clinical or statistical significance.

    Conclusions: A vast majority of the papers report positive results, including retention rate, benefits for patients, and economic gains for the health care provider. However, implementation issues are little discussed, which means the reasons for the scarcity of large-scale implementations, which might be expected given the overwhelmingly positive results, are yet unclear. There is also little combination between GIS and mobile technologies. In order for health care processes to be effective they must integrate different kinds of existing technologies and data. Further research and development is necessary to provide integration and better understand implementation issues.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    JMIR Publications, 2014
    Keywords
    health care; eHealth; mobile technology; mobile phone; SMS; text messaging; geographic information system; GIS
    National Category
    Information Systems, Social aspects
    Research subject
    Informatics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-40865 (URN)10.2196/mhealth.3216 (DOI)000209895000001 ()25099368 (PubMedID)
    Available from: 2015-01-12 Created: 2015-01-12 Last updated: 2018-06-15Bibliographically approved
    2. SMSaude: design, development and implementation of a remote/mobile patient management system to improve retention in care for HIV/AIDS and tuberculosis patients
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>SMSaude: design, development and implementation of a remote/mobile patient management system to improve retention in care for HIV/AIDS and tuberculosis patients
    2015 (English)In: Journal of Medical Internet Research, ISSN 1438-8871, E-ISSN 1438-8871, Vol. 3, no 1, article id e26Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The widespread and low cost of mobile phones and the convenience of short message service (SMS) text messaging suggest potential suitability for use with alternative strategies for supporting retention in care and adherence to the treatment of various chronic diseases, such as HIV and tuberculosis (TB). Despite the growing body of literature reporting positive outcomes of SMS text message-based communication with patients, there is yet very little research about the integration of communication technologies and electronic medical records or electronic patient tracking systems.

    Objective: To design, develop, and implement an integrated mobile phone text messaging system used to follow up with patients with HIV and TB in treatment in Mozambique.

    Methods: Following the design science research methodology, we developed a Web-based system that provides support to patients. A case study involving three health care sites in Mozambique was a basis for discussing design issues for this kind of system. We used brainstorming techniques to solicit usability requirements, focus group meetings to discuss and define system architecture, and prototyping to test in real environments and to improve the system.

    Results: We found six sets of system requirements that need to be addressed for success: data collection, telecommunication costs, privacy and data security, text message content, connectivity, and system scalability. A text messaging system was designed and implemented in three health facilities. These sites feed data into a central data repository, which can be used for analysis of operations and decision support. Based on the treatment schedule, the system automatically sent SMS text message appointment reminders, medication reminders, as well as motivational and educational messages to patients enrolled in antiretroviral therapy and TB treatment programs.

    Conclusions: We successfully defined the requirements for, designed, and implemented a mobile phone text messaging system to support HIV and TB treatments. Implementation of this system could improve patients' self-management skills and strengthen communication between patients and health care providers.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Toronto, Canada: J M I R Publications, Inc., 2015
    Keywords
    Mobile health, text messaging, SMS system, patient management, design science research, Mozambique
    National Category
    Information Systems
    Research subject
    Informatics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-42527 (URN)10.2196/mhealth.3854 (DOI)000359791000019 ()25757551 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-84988336269 (Scopus ID)
    Available from: 2015-02-06 Created: 2015-02-06 Last updated: 2018-01-11Bibliographically approved
    3. SMSaude: Evaluating Mobile Phone Text Reminders to Improve Retention in HIV Care for Patients on Antiretroviral Therapy in Mozambique
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>SMSaude: Evaluating Mobile Phone Text Reminders to Improve Retention in HIV Care for Patients on Antiretroviral Therapy in Mozambique
    Show others...
    2016 (English)In: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, ISSN 1525-4135, E-ISSN 1944-7884, Vol. 73, no 2, p. E23-E30Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: We evaluated whether regular mobile phone text reminders improved patients' retention in antiretroviral therapy (ART) care in Mozambique.

    Design: SMSaude was a randomized control trial of HIV-infected patients on ART who received regular text message reminder vs. standard of care at 3 public health facilities in Maputo Province, Mozambique. The primary outcome was retention in HIV care. Between November 2011 and March 2012, 830 eligible HIV-infected patients on ART were randomized 1: 1 to the text reminder intervention or standard of care.

    Methods: We used Kaplan-Meier estimators and log-rank tests to compare proportions of patients who received SMS reminders who were retained in HIV care compared to the control group who received standard of care. Post hoc analyses were performed using Cox proportional hazards models stratified by urban/rural facility and when initiated ART (<= 3 months vs. >3 months). Hazard ratios and confidence intervals (CIs) are reported. Analysis was with intention to treat.

    Results: Patients who received text messages had lower attrition from HIV care at 12 months, though the difference was nonsignificant (RR: 0.68, 95% CI: 0.41 to 1.13). Among urban patients, text messages improved retention in HIV care (RR: 0.54, 95% CI: 0.31 to 0.95). Intervention patients newly initiated on ART (<3 months) had lower attrition than control patients (HR: 0.54; 95% CI: 0.23 to 0.91), especially urban newly initiated patients (HR: 0.20, 95% CI: 0.06 to 0.64). Text messages had no effect on retention among rural patients.

    Conclusions: Text messages did not improve retention in HIV care for all patients on ART but improved retention in care of urban patients and those who recently started ART and received text reminders compared with standard of care.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2016
    Keywords
    SMS reminders, text messages, retention in care, Mozambique, ART
    National Category
    Infectious Medicine Immunology in the medical area
    Research subject
    Infectious Diseases; Immunology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-53172 (URN)10.1097/QAI.0000000000001115 (DOI)000384109800002 ()2-s2.0-84988336269 (Scopus ID)
    Note

    Funding Agencies:

    Ark

    Vodacom Mozambique

    UCLA Postdoctoral Fellowship Training Program in Global HIV Prevention Research T32MH080634

    Available from: 2016-10-24 Created: 2016-10-24 Last updated: 2018-07-17Bibliographically approved
    4. Mobile health treatment support intervention for HIV and tuberculosis in Mozambique: Perspectives of patients and healthcare workers
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Mobile health treatment support intervention for HIV and tuberculosis in Mozambique: Perspectives of patients and healthcare workers
    2017 (English)In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 12, no 4, article id e0176051Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Studies have been conducted in developing countries using SMS to communicate with patients to reduce the number of missed appointments and improve retention in treatment, however; very few have been scaled up. One possible reason for this could be that patients or staff are dissatisfied with the method in some way. This paper reports a study of patients' and healthcare workers' (HCW) views on an mHealth intervention aiming to support retention in antiretroviral therapy (ART) and tuberculosis (TB) treatment in Mozambique.

    Methods: The study was conducted at five healthcare centres in Mozambique. Automated SMS health promotions and reminders were sent to patients in a RCT. A total of 141 patients and 40 HCWs were interviewed. Respondents rated usefulness, perceived benefits, ease of use, satisfaction, and risks of the SMS system using a Likert scale questionnaire. A semi-structured interview guide was followed. Interviews were transcribed and thematic analysis was conducted.

    Results: Both patients and HCW found the SMS system useful and reliable. Most highly rated positive effects were reducing the number of failures to collect medication and avoiding missing appointments. Patients' confidence in the system was high. Most perceived the system to improve communication between health-care provider and patient and assist in education and motivation. The automatic recognition of questions from patients and the provision of appropriate answers (a unique feature of this system) was especially appreciated. A majority would recommend the system to other patients or healthcare centres. Risks also were mentioned, mostly by HCW, of unintentional disclosure of health status in cases where patients use shared phones.

    Conclusions: The results suggest that SMS technology for HIV and TB should be used to transmit reminders for appointments, medications, motivational texts, and health education to increase retention in care. Measures must be taken to reduce risks of privacy intrusion, but these are not a main obstacle for scaling up systems of this kind.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Public Library of Science, 2017
    National Category
    Information Systems, Social aspects
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-57686 (URN)10.1371/journal.pone.0176051 (DOI)000399875200064 ()28419149 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85017624472 (Scopus ID)
    Available from: 2017-05-17 Created: 2017-05-17 Last updated: 2017-11-29Bibliographically approved
    5. Use of Mobile Technologies to Improve Healthcare in Mozambique: Key Failure/Success Factors, Challenges, and Policy Implications
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Use of Mobile Technologies to Improve Healthcare in Mozambique: Key Failure/Success Factors, Challenges, and Policy Implications
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    National Category
    Information Systems, Social aspects
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-57687 (URN)
    Available from: 2017-05-17 Created: 2017-05-17 Last updated: 2017-10-18Bibliographically approved
  • 14.
    Susha, Iryna
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Participation in open government2015Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    List of papers
    1. eParticipation research: systematizing the field
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>eParticipation research: systematizing the field
    2012 (English)In: Government Information Quarterly, ISSN 0740-624X, E-ISSN 1872-9517, Vol. 29, no 3, p. 373-382Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    It has been widely acknowledged recently that the research field of eParticipation suffers from lack of comprehensive theoretical contributions, insufficient depth, and inconsistency in definitions of central concepts. Due to the interdisciplinary nature of the field researchers find it difficult to consolidate their theoretical groundwork and further theory building in the eParticipation domain. This paper reports a literature study of conceptual publications on the subject of eParticipation/eDemocracy in the time frame of 2007–2009. Its objectives are to track recent theoretical development in the field, to reveal constraints and limitations to researching the area, and to offer some suggestions for further inquiry. The results show that most theories currently used in conceptual eParticipation research originate from the fields of Political Science and Media and Communication Studies. But together with this, contemporary eParticipation authors contribute to strengthening the field with some “in-house” models and frameworks as well. Central problems with eParticipation research concern immaturity of the field, topical gaps, and biased assumptions. The review shows that the themes of recent publications can be grouped into three major categories: stakeholders, environment, and applications and tools. It also finds some interconnections between these categories; however, in general the coupling technology–stakeholders–(participatory) environments is weak.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Elsevier: , 2012
    Keywords
    eParticipation, eDemocracy, eGovernment, research, literature review
    National Category
    Information Systems, Social aspects
    Research subject
    Informatics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-24327 (URN)10.1016/j.giq.2011.11.005 (DOI)000306150700006 ()2-s2.0-84862528508 (Scopus ID)
    Available from: 2012-08-09 Created: 2012-08-09 Last updated: 2017-12-07Bibliographically approved
    2. A communication genre perspective on e-petitioning: the case of the Citizens' Initiative
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>A communication genre perspective on e-petitioning: the case of the Citizens' Initiative
    2012 (English)In: Electronic participation / [ed] Efthimos Tambouris, Ann Macintosh, Öystein Saebö, Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2012, p. 37-48Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The European Citizens’ Initiative is designed to make European democracy more direct by allowing citizens to propose (including electronically) legal acts to the Commission. The present paper offers a conceptual model for the analysis of this eParticipation case, and other similar e-petitioning practices, which is not biased by political ambition or technological determinism. The operational framework proposed aims to understand the nature of communication between citizens, governments, and the civil society among other stakeholders in the contemporary media landscape by using the concept of genre systems for this purpose.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2012
    Series
    Lecture Notes in Computer Science ; 7444
    Keywords
    eParticipation, e-petition, European Citizens' Initiative (ECI), genre theory, communication studies
    National Category
    Information Systems, Social aspects
    Research subject
    Informatics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-24330 (URN)10.1007/978-3-642-33250-0_4 (DOI)000363274100004 ()2-s2.0-84866040957 (Scopus ID)978-3-642-33249-4 (ISBN)978-3-642-33250-0 (ISBN)
    Conference
    Fourth IFIP WG 8.5 International Conference, ePart 2012, Kristiansand, Norway, September 3-5, 2012
    Available from: 2012-08-09 Created: 2012-08-09 Last updated: 2017-10-18Bibliographically approved
    3. Context clues for the stall of the Citizens' Initiative: lessons for opening up e-participation development practice
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Context clues for the stall of the Citizens' Initiative: lessons for opening up e-participation development practice
    2014 (English)In: Government Information Quarterly, ISSN 0740-624X, E-ISSN 1872-9517, Vol. 31, no 3, p. 454-465Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The European Union recently launched an innovative participatory mechanism allowing its citizens across Europe get together and set the agenda for policy-making in Brussels. The tool - the European Citizens' Initiative - was labelled as "most direct and digital" ever in the history of European democratic experimentation as it made it possible to collect signatures (of which it is required not less than 1 million) in favour of an initiative via the internet (e-collection). Launched on I April 2012 the ECI was met with major enthusiasm in Brussels, but soon stumbled over serious difficulties as the organisers on the ground were unable to set up their online collection systems. The present paper looks into this ICT-related crisis from the point of reference of e-democracy theory based on the findings of a qualitative case-study. As a deliverable, it offers an understanding of factors and stakeholder rationales which shaped the design and implementation of the digital dimension of the ECI (iECI). (C) 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

    Keywords
    e-participation, e-democracy, European Citizens' Initiative (ECI), EU policy-making, e-petition, Policy analysis, genre theory
    National Category
    Media and Communications
    Research subject
    Information technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-37872 (URN)10.1016/j.giq.2014.02.005 (DOI)000342037100011 ()2-s2.0-84906272549 (Scopus ID)
    Available from: 2014-10-22 Created: 2014-10-20 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved
    4. Organizational measures to stimulate user engagement with open data
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Organizational measures to stimulate user engagement with open data
    2015 (English)In: Transforming Government: People, Process and Policy, ISSN 1750-6166, E-ISSN 1750-6174, Vol. 9, no 2, p. 181-206Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: This paper aims to investigate which organizational measures can facilitate the use of open data. Implementation of open government data initiatives is commonly supply-driven, as it is difficult to predict the possible uses and users of data. Nonetheless, the value of open data materializes only upon its use – either to achieve societal benefits or economic value.

    Design/methodology/approach: First, a list of organizational measures to facilitate open data use from the literature is collated. Then, four case studies to examine the challenges faced in practice when implementing them are carried out. The case sample includes two types of organizations (statistical agency and municipality) in two country settings (Sweden and The Netherlands).

    Findings: Public organizations find it challenging to set up support for open data users having various requirements and skills. Most public organizations have no or limited interaction with data users and are often selective with regards to with whom and how to communicate.

    Research limitations/implications: Given the fragmented and emerging state of research on open data use and engagement, to date no systematic framework existed which would be dedicated to user engagement strategies. The authors systematized the literature and identified the themes pertaining to this issue. Their contribution is a list of measures for public organizations to improve open data use.

    Practical implications: An important deliverable of this research is the list of possible organizational measures, which can be used by public managers to plan their open data engagement strategies. The authors suggest that data publishers adopt a problem-oriented approach for selecting which data to publish and put more efforts into stimulating stakeholder participation.

    Originality/value: The novelty of this study lies in the fact that it addresses a previously overlooked area of open data research, namely, the use of open data and ways to stimulate it.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Emerald Group Publishing Limited, 2015
    Keywords
    Collaboration, Participation, Open (government) data, Open data engagement, Open data use, Organizational measures
    National Category
    Information Systems, Social aspects
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-44445 (URN)10.1108/TG-05-2014-0016 (DOI)000213903100004 ()2-s2.0-84929314376 (Scopus ID)
    Note

    Funding agencies:

    Orebro University program "Technology-Mediated Knowledge Processes" 

    Available from: 2015-04-24 Created: 2015-04-24 Last updated: 2018-04-07Bibliographically approved
    5. Driving factors of service innovation using open government data: An exploratory study of entrepreneurs in two countries
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Driving factors of service innovation using open government data: An exploratory study of entrepreneurs in two countries
    2015 (English)In: Information Polity, ISSN 1570-1255, E-ISSN 1875-8754, Vol. 20, no 1, p. 19-34Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Open government data offers great potential for innovation and growth in various sectors of societal life. The use of open data is expected to power the development of new or enhanced services and products. However, in practice service innovation on the basis of open data is in its infancy; furthermore, there is limited knowledge about the adoption of open data by businesses. This study investigates: What are the driving factors of open data adoption by businesses for service innovation? To get insights into this issue we conduct a survey of businesses in Sweden and the Netherlands who have experimented with open data. Our study is explorative since open data innovation is an emerging research direction. We find that the driving factors motivating businesses to innovate with open data differ widely, however on average innovativeness of the company and its expertise and skills play an important role. We also conclude that facilitating conditions are viewed by businesses as an influential driver, but they are not given enough attention by data providers.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    IOS Press, 2015
    Keywords
    Open data, open government data, open data adoption, open innovation, innovation, adoption, driving factors
    National Category
    Information Systems, Social aspects
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-44448 (URN)10.3233/IP-150353 (DOI)2-s2.0-84942777003 (Scopus ID)
    Available from: 2015-04-24 Created: 2015-04-24 Last updated: 2017-10-18Bibliographically approved
  • 15.
    Viberg, Olga
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Design and use of mobile technology in distance language education: matching learning practices with technologies-in-practice2015Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis focuses on the adaptation of formal education to people’s technology- use patterns, their technology-in-practice, where the ubiquitous use of mobile technologies is central. The research question is: How can language learning practices occuring in informal learning environments be effectively integrated with formal education through the use of mobile technology? The study investigates the technical, pedagogical, social and cultural challenges involved in a design science approach.

    The thesis consists of four studies. The first study systematises MALL (mobile-assisted language learning) research. The second investigates Swedish and Chinese students’ attitudes towards the use of mobile technology in education. The third examines students’ use of technology in an online language course, with a specific focus on their learning practices in informal learning contexts and their understanding of how this use guides their learning. Based on the findings, a specifically designed MALL application was built and used in two courses. Study four analyses the app use in terms of students’ perceived level of self-regulation and structuration.

    The studies show that technology itself plays a very important role in reshaping peoples’ attitudes and that new learning methods are coconstructed in a sociotechnical system. Technology’s influence on student practices is equally strong across borders. Students’ established technologies-in-practice guide the ways they approach learning. Hence, designing effective online distance education involves three interrelated elements: technology, information, and social arrangements. This thesis contributes to mobile learning research by offering empirically and theoretically grounded insights that shift the focus from technology design to design of information systems.

    List of papers
    1. Systematising the Field of Mobile Assisted Language Learning
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Systematising the Field of Mobile Assisted Language Learning
    2013 (English)In: International Journal of Mobile and Blended Learning, ISSN 1941-8647, E-ISSN 1941-8655, Vol. 5, no 4, p. 72-90Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    This study provides a systematic review of mobile assisted language (MALL) research within the specific area of second language acquisition (SLA) during the period of 2005-2012 in terms of research approaches, theories and methods, technology, and the linguistic knowledge and skills’ results. The findings show a shift from the prevailing SMS-based language learning in 2005-2008 towards the use of more advanced multimedia and intelligent learning systems in the last years. Many highly cited studies focus on design of mobile language learning systems and experimental evaluation of their effectiveness. Studies often draw on mature pedagogic models and methods. However, descriptive and small-scale experimental studies dominate. In terms of theoretical approaches and frameworks, there is a lack of specific reference to mobile learning conceptual and theoretical models, which makes it difficult to distinguish any specific mobile learning theories from other learning theories. Research has so far paid most attention to learners’ vocabulary acquisition.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    IGI Global, 2013
    Keywords
    Intelligent Language Tutoring Systems (ILTS), Mobile Assisted Language Learning (MALL), Mobile Devices, Mobile Learning, Mobile Learning Theory, Second Language Acquisition (SLA
    National Category
    Information Systems
    Research subject
    Informatics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-33249 (URN)10.4018/ijmbl.2013100105 (DOI)2-s2.0-84903212673 (Scopus ID)
    Available from: 2014-01-22 Created: 2014-01-22 Last updated: 2018-01-11Bibliographically approved
    2. Cross-cultural analysis of users' attitudes toward the use of mobile devices in second and foreign language learning in higher education: A case from Sweden and China
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Cross-cultural analysis of users' attitudes toward the use of mobile devices in second and foreign language learning in higher education: A case from Sweden and China
    2013 (English)In: Computers and education, ISSN 0360-1315, E-ISSN 1873-782X, Vol. 69, p. 169-180Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The present study examined the current state of students' attitudes toward mobile technology use in and for second and foreign language learning in higher education. Moreover, the study investigated if age, gender or cultural factors affect these attitudes. A total of 345 students from two in many aspects different countries, China (Yunnan University) and Sweden (Dalarna University) participated in this study. To access learners' perceptions toward mobile technology use, we employed Kearney's pedagogical framework to mobile learning from a socio-cultural perspective (Kearney, Schuck, Burden, & Aubusson, 2012). Hofstede's cultural dimensions were used to approach students' cultural views, as these dimensions represent some values - aspects of culture - that may affect attitudes toward technology and learning individually as well as in combination. The findings show the respondents' attitudes toward mobile learning are very positive with individualization being most positive (83%) followed by collaboration (74%), and authenticity (73%). The statistical analysis indicates that Hofstede's factors cannot explain the differences in mobile-assisted language learning (MALL) attitudes in the chosen sample. Among the personal factors, gender is identified to be a predictor to explain the differences in students' attitudes toward MALL This study shows that technology itself seems to be the most important culture-shaping factor, more important than culture inherited from the physical environment, and more important than age. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

    Keywords
    Cross-Cultural projects, Teaching/Learning strategies, Virtual reality, Distributed learning environments, Adult learning
    National Category
    Information Systems, Social aspects
    Research subject
    Information technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-32354 (URN)10.1016/j.compedu.2013.07.014 (DOI)000325600400015 ()2-s2.0-84881292662 (Scopus ID)
    Available from: 2013-11-14 Created: 2013-11-12 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
    3. Understanding students' learning practices: challenges for design and integration of mobile technology into distance education
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Understanding students' learning practices: challenges for design and integration of mobile technology into distance education
    2017 (English)In: Learning, Media & Technology, ISSN 1743-9884, E-ISSN 1743-9892, Vol. 42, no 3, p. 357-377Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    This study explores the design requirements for mobile applications for second language learning in online/distance higher education settings. We investigate how students use technology and how they perceive that these technologies-in-practice facilitate their language learning. Structuration Theory is used for the analysis. Results show that design needs to consider that (i) students use their private mobile technologies frequently when conducting self-initiated learning tasks, (ii) students’ mobile technologies-in-practice are important, and course designers should design materials and tools for such use practices, and (iii) students prefer to work on their own due to the limited time they want to devote to their learning. Consequently, in regard to the pervasive nature of mobile technology integration in society and into students’ habitual use, they need various software tools on such devices to support individual learning.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Routledge, 2017
    Keywords
    mobile-assisted language learning, mobile applications, technology-in-practice, structurational analysis, design
    National Category
    Information Systems, Social aspects
    Research subject
    Informatics; Education
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-46028 (URN)10.1080/17439884.2016.1088869 (DOI)000415927800008 ()2-s2.0-84945231456 (Scopus ID)
    Available from: 2015-10-06 Created: 2015-10-06 Last updated: 2017-12-07Bibliographically approved
    4. Antecedents to Design of Software for Learning: Self-Regulation and Structuration
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Antecedents to Design of Software for Learning: Self-Regulation and Structuration
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    National Category
    Information Systems, Social aspects
    Research subject
    Informatics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-46432 (URN)
    Available from: 2015-11-12 Created: 2015-11-09 Last updated: 2017-10-17Bibliographically approved
  • 16.
    Wakabi, Wairagala
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Motivating eParticipation in Authoritarian Countries2016Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) can enrich the ways in which citizens participate in civic and political matters. Indeed, many theorists on online participation, or eParticipation, proclaim the potential of digital technologies to empower citizens with convenient ways to participate in democratic processes and to hold leaders to account. However, it is not clear if and how digital technologies, notably social media, can contribute to a more democratic system and engaged public in a country where open expression is limited. This thesis studies Social Networking Sites (SNS) as Information Systems (IS) artefacts, including individuals’ motivation for using them, how their features enable participation - or not - and the impacts of their use in an authoritarian country.

    Through personal interviews and focus group discussions in Uganda, this thesis finds that the common enablers of online participation in often-studied, mostly Western democratic countries are rarely translated into the offline world in an authoritarian country with one president for the last 30 years. The thesis proposes ways to increase eParticipation in authoritarian contexts, citing the social accountability sector (where the thesis shows evidence of eParticipation working) as a pathway to greater citizen participation and government responsiveness. Findings also contribute to the Information Systems artefact discourse by illuminating the political, social, technological, and information artefacts in SNS when used for eParticipation. Moreover, the thesis shows how, in contexts with a democracy deficit, resource-based theories such as the Civic Voluntarism Model (CVM) fall short in explaining what motivates political participation. It also explains how social networks contain the various constitutive aspects of the IS artefact – social, technical, informational and political - and how these various aspects need to be aligned for eParticipation to work.

    List of papers
    1. Citizens’ use of new media in authoritarian regimes: A case study of Uganda
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Citizens’ use of new media in authoritarian regimes: A case study of Uganda
    2015 (English)In: Electronic Journal of Information Systems in Developing Countries, ISSN 1681-4835, E-ISSN 1681-4835, Vol. 67, no 1, p. 1-23Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    By subsidizing the costs of civic participation, the use of the Internet is believed to stimulate participation but there are fears that intensive Internet use causes withdrawal from public life. This paper investigates the connection between the way individuals participate online and offline in authoritarian, low-income regimes, and the nature of eParticipation among citizens in authoritarian regimes such as Uganda. Based on personal interviews with 116 Internet users, the study found that common drivers of eParticipation, such as low cost, security and anonymity are hard to transplant into the offline world for citizens of authoritarian states such as Uganda. Perceived risks of retribution and intimidation for expressing a particular opinion or supporting a political cause mean that citizen-to-citizen participation is the predominant form but still at low levels, while citizen-to-government participation is negligible.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Hong Kong, China: City University of Hong Kong Press, 2015
    Keywords
    eParticipation, offline participation, online participation, engagement, authoritarian regimes
    National Category
    Social Sciences Information Systems, Social aspects
    Research subject
    Informatics; Informatics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-44453 (URN)10.1002/j.1681-4835.2015.tb00479.x (DOI)000447042500001 ()2-s2.0-84924589261 (Scopus ID)
    Available from: 2015-04-24 Created: 2015-04-24 Last updated: 2019-03-05Bibliographically approved
    2. When SNS use Doesn’t Trigger e-Participation: Case Study of an African Authoritarian Regime
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>When SNS use Doesn’t Trigger e-Participation: Case Study of an African Authoritarian Regime
    2015 (English)In: International Journal of E-Politics, ISSN 1947-9131, E-ISSN 1947-914X, Vol. 6, no 2, p. 14-29Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Numerous scholars have concluded that there is a correlation between use of social network sites (SNS), particularlyfor news and information acquisition or community building, and the likelihood for e-Participation.This paper examines how the use of Facebook affects the participative behaviours of individuals active in political and interest organizations and those not active in organized politics. Through focus group discussions involving 56 Ugandans, we conclude that in low internet use, authoritarian contexts, the Civic Voluntarism Model and the benefits Facebook brings to participation in Western democracies are turned on their head. Besides overwhelming detachment from politics, even for politically-inclined citizens, low belief in citizens’ online actions influencing change and fear of reprisals for criticizing an authoritarian president in power for 29 years, severely dulled the appetite for e-Participation. This high cost of participation means Facebook is growing citizens’ civic skills but it is hardly increasing online participation even for politically interested citizens.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Pennsylvania, USA: IGI Global, 2015
    Keywords
    Authoritarian Regimes, Civic Participation, Civic Voluntarism Model, e-Participation, Facebook, Online Participation, Self-Censorship, SNS, Uganda
    National Category
    Information Systems, Social aspects
    Research subject
    Informatics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-44458 (URN)10.4018/IJEP.2015040102 (DOI)000446487800002 ()