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  • 1.
    Allard, Karin
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    VARFÖR GÖR DE PÅ DETTA VISET?: Kommunikativa praktiker i flerspråkig undervisning med svenskt teckenspråk som medierande redskap2013Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Applying a human rights perspective on plurilingualism as a national as well as a transnational concern, with a focus on the interaction taking place in foreign language teaching and learning practices at a Swedish Special Needs School for pupils with deafness or impaired hearing, the overall aim of this study is to describe and discuss this interaction in performative terms, i.e. in terms of what is said by whom, to whom, why, and with what consequences. Although extensive research has already been carried out within the field of plurilingualism, for example from linguistic, sociological and political points of departure, research on plurilingualism with regard to foreign language teaching and learning interaction in Swedish sign language contexts has been largely missing. The ambition of this work, therefore, is to add to the diversity of research on plurilingualism. It is also hoped that this work will contribute to the debate in educational politics concerning a human rights perspective on plurilingualism, especially with regard to modern European languages as a transnational issue.

    Methodologically, an ethnographic approach has been employed to document, by means of two video cameras in combination with field notes, the practices of communication emerging from teacherstudent interaction. Using notions from Conversational Analysis and alongside established conventions of sign language transcription, a model of transcription was designed for the specific purpose of describing, in detail, the plurilingual interaction where Swedish sign language is used as a mediating tool.

    Three lessons in English and four lessons – or lesson extracts – in Spanish, at secondary level in a Special Needs School for pupils with deafness or impaired hearing, have been documented and analysed. The analyses were carried out in two different steps, one describing and one discussing the results of the empirical investigation.

    The institutionally formalised interaction observed appears to have contributed to the heavy dominance of the teacher, and of the IRE sequence used during the lessons, to a much greater extent than students’ deafness or impaired hearing. Although the aims and objectives of the curricular texts intended for these students, as well as for hearing ones, are expressed in communicative terms – for example, learning to read texts of relatively high complexity, or developing writing skills for communication across linguistic boundaries – almost all the lessons that were investigated concerned the translation of isolated words into sign language, often taken out of their English or Spanish context. Nonetheless, the students took part in the classroom interaction when protesting, joking, asking questions and helping each other. Thus, the teacher dominance noted does not imply suppression, but rather a tendency on the part of the teacher to underestimate the students, as well as reflecting a selective tradition within foreign language teaching and learning practices in a general Swedish school context. However, when viewed from a human rights perspective on future plurilingual European citizens, using their language skills to reach out into the world for mutual understanding, the students involved in the language teaching and learning interaction observed in this study may hardly be expected to reach out across linguistic boundaries, at least not as a result of the language education they have experienced.

  • 2.
    Almqvist, Gustav
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences.
    Palm, Jonas
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences.
    ”Så fort det blir något bra höjer man dem till skyarna”: - En studie om hur idrottslärare ger och resonerar kring feedback2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Introduktion: Motivation ses som en avgörande faktor i lärandemiljöer och idrottsmiljöer.    En lärares förmåga att motivera elever blir således ett viktigt redskap för att bedriva framgångsrik undervisning. Den inre formen av motivation är lättare att bibehålla över en längre tidsperiod och är förknippad med långsiktigt lärande och djupinlärning. Lärarna i ämnet idrott och hälsa kan påverka elevernas inre motivation genom att ge dem feedback. Forskning visar på att det finns ett starkt samband mellan höga nivåer av inre motivation och lärares positiva feedback. Studiens teoretiska referensram utgår ifrån motivationsteorin Self-determination theory (SDT) och dess underteori Cognitive evaluation theory (CET).       Syfte: Att synliggöra hur idrottslärare ger feedback till eleverna under lektioner i ämnet idrott och hälsa samt att undersöka hur dessa lärare resonerar kring feedback. Metod: Då syftet är av både kvantitativ och kvalitativ karaktär så har en mixad metod tillämpats. Den kvantitativa delen bestod av en öppen observationsstudie och den kvalitativa delen utgjordes av halvstrukturerade intervjuer. Tre idrottslärare verksamma på gymnasienivå deltog i studien. Varje lärare observerades under tre lektioner utifrån observationsschemat Coaching Behavior Assessment System (CBAS) och därefter genomfördes en intervju. Resultat: Studiens resultat visar att den feedback de observerade lärarna gav till eleverna i hög grad var positiv feedback. Negativ feedback till eleverna var under dessa lektioner sparsamt förekommande i relation till den positiva feedbacken. Detta överensstämmer med lärarnas resonemang kring feedback då de strävar efter att ge positiv feedback och vill undvika att ge negativ feedback.        Slutsatser: Utifrån motivationsteorin CET innebär dessa resultat att det finns goda förutsättningar för att den feedback som lärarna ger kan öka elevernas inre motivation inom ämnet idrott och hälsa. Detta kan i sin tur förbättra elevernas möjligheter till lärande inom ämnet samt inspirera dem till fortsatt fysisk aktivitet.

     

  • 3.
    Amnå, Erik
    Örebro University, Department of Social and Political Sciences.
    Swedish democracy at the crossroads: obsolete, revised or recharged ideals?2007In: Democracy and human rights in education and society: explorations from South Africa and Sweden / [ed] Chaterine Odora Hoppers, Bernt Gustavsson, Enver Motala, John Pampallis, Örebro: Örebro university , 2007, p. 89-110Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 4.
    Andersson, Erik
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Det politiska rummet: villkor för situationspolitisk socialisation i en nätgemenskap av och för ungdomar2013Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    as an attached file below

  • 5.
    Annerberg, Anna
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Gymnasielärares skrivpraktiker: skrivande som professionell handling i en digitaliserad skola2016Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this thesis is to contribute to deeper knowledge about the writing practices of teachers in upper secondary school. Schools are under constant pressure to respond to the needs and expectations of an ever-changing society and political intentions. A major factor in this change which is taking place in schools is digitalization. Another factor is the adoption of new governing principles for schools involving management by goals and results, which brings increased demands for written documentation of teachers' work.

    In order to describe and problematize this development the thesis is based on a combination of Critical Discourse Analysis and New Literacy (Clark and Ivanič, 1997). The theoretical framework rests upon an understanding of writing as social action and the idea that texts both affect and are affected by the social environment. The empirical study focuses on twelve teachers and their writing practices, analyzed during week-long field visits over three years. The teachers' talk about their writing is used together with analyses of texts and images to investigate parts of teachers' writing which, according to the teachers, are considered complex and problematic.

    The findings indicate significant differences between the writing practices of the individual teachers, where each teacher has his or her own system of texts fulfilling different purposes. Despite these differences it is still possible to identify recurrent themes in the discursive conditions for teachers' writing: efficiency, reuse, authority, audit, relationships to addressees, and room to maneuver. The study illustrates possible dilemmas for teachers' writing at the intersection of teachers' professional responsibility and demands for accountability.

  • 6.
    Arneback, Emma
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Med kränkningen som måttstock: om planerade bemötanden av främlingsfientliga uttryck i gymnasieskolan2012Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this dissertation is to map and analyse planned responses to expressions of racism in upper secondary schools. Three questions are in focus: (1) What courses of action, in response to expressions of racism, are advocated in philosophical texts and equal treatment plans for upper secondary schools? (2) What consequences have these courses of action for the formation of the mission of schools, the responsibility of teachers, and the limits of free speech? (3) What kinds of expressions of racism are these courses of action intended to be a response to? The study takes its point of departure in two theoretical traditions: Pierre-André Taguieff’s categorisations of racism are used to define the problem in the dissertation, while John Dewey’s moral philosophy provides the methodological base.

    From an analysis of equal treatment plans four temporal phases are identified. In the first phase, preventive measures, the purpose is to prevent students from developing racism. In phase two, limitations in schools, the dominant course of action is to prohibit violations in schools. The third phase, corrective measures, is concerned with how to handle situations that are contrary to the limitations in schools. The final phase, limitations on schools, relates to when schools are required to transfer responsibility for action to the social services, work environment or police authorities.

    The results indicate that the national laws (since 2006) have a strong impact on equal treatment plans, and that ‘non-violation’ becomes a dominant moral principle that displaces or subsumes other views of morality. How the non-violation principle is applied also affects the space for political conversations on topics that can be hurtful. Finally, the analysis indicates that equal treatment plans are mainly concerned with expressions of racism among students, and pay little attention to expressions of racism that occur in the organization of schools. The plans thus describe schools as a force for good that seeks to combat (potential) racism among students.

  • 7.
    Baldwin, Pia, Pauline
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Religionsämnets många didaktiska utmaningar: - med fokus på livsfrågor som lär för livet2010Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 8.
    Bergh, Andreas
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Vad gör kvalitet med utbildning?: Om kvalitetsbegreppets skilda innebörder och dess konsekvenser för utbildning2010Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this dissertation is to investigate what linguistic meanings the concept of quality is imbued with in different educational arenas and to discuss the consequences of such meanings for education. From this aim the main research question is: What does the concept of quality do to education and what does education do to the concept of quality? The question indicates an interest in understanding how the concept of quality and education mutually influence each other.

    The empirical material consists of national texts written by the government and the national school authorities, mainly between the years of 1997 to 2008, as well as interviews with different people from three local school authorities and schools. Theoretically the approach is inspired by Quentin Skinner and speech-act theory as well as Reinhart  Koselleck and conceptual history. While Skinner is mainly interested in the rhetorical use of concepts, Koselleck’s interest lies in investigating how concepts carry historical time. For this study, some analytical concepts are lifted from these two theories and are applied to the empirical material.

    From the analysis, four concluding criteria of application are formulated: education quality, result quality, market quality and system quality. The result shows that certain meanings, which for a long time have been connected to education and, in this study, are incorporated under the umbrella criterion education quality, have been challenged and partly  marginalized. Instead, the dominance of result quality, market quality and system quality lead to an acceptance of new social perceptions in education. The different national and local structures that are developed to measure quality have a high impact on local practice. As a consequence of a shift from goal to result, overriding goals are clarified and made juridically controllable. The changes also lead to consequences for the different actors in the education system, as well as for teachers, national politicians and for national and local school administrations.

  • 9.
    Boman, Ylva
    Örebro University, Department of Education.
    Utbildningspolitik i det andra moderna: om skolans normativa villkor2002Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    What could education and citizenship possibly mean in Swedish political thought in the 21st century? The main question of this thesis is: What are the conceptual and historical conditions to relate education to the political and moral dimensions of citizenship, when society is characterized by pluralism cultural diversity? This overall embracing question is discussed from critical philosophical and theoretical view points and a historical perspective of what characterises the present. The first part (I) of the dissertation deals with the philosophical and theoretical discussion of modernity, using the theoretical perspectives of Michel Foucault and Jürgen Habermas. In the second part (II) the 20th century Swedish educational policy is analysed. And finally, the third part is a discussion on how education can be related to ethical and moral foundations when education as well as politics is characterised by plurality. In other words, the third part (III) is a discussion on the normative conditions of education; I discuss different concepts of community, emphasize the political and argue for a need of a cultural dimension of education and citizenship.

    Education can be seen as one provision (among others) for morally responsible and politically active people - participating in public discourses. The idea of the citizen as a well educated person has had a formative influence on Western educational thought. Even though the citizenship dimension of education has certain historical provisions, this relationship has been formulated in various ways. Education has been related todifferent dimensions of citizenship. The aim of this thesis is to contribute to the discussion on the relation between education, democracy and citizenship, what vaules public education can embrace and on what values public education can be founded.

  • 10.
    Bryngelson, Jennie
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Karlsson, Jenny
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Pedagogers tankar om konflikthantering2013Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    SammanfattningAtt arbeta som pedagog i dagens skolsystem innebär såväl ett ansvar för barnens kunskapsinhämtande, som att vara en trygg och inspirerande förebild för eleverna. Dagligen uppstår situationer då elever hamnar i konflikter med varandra, vilket kan röra allt ifrån triviala händelser till större motsättningar gällande exempelvis etnicitet eller könsfrågor. Syftet med denna kvalitativa studie är att med hjälp av en hermeneutisk ansats undersöka hur pedagoger ser på sin roll som handledare för barnens sociala utveckling. För att få en samlad kollegial bild över pedagogernas tankar kring konflikthanering baseras uppsatsen på gruppintervjuer på två skolor av helt olika storleksgrad i mellersta Sverige. Intervjuerna har varit av semistrukturerad karaktär med utgångspunkt i tre fiktiva fall, skapade utifrån kategorierna genus, makt och etnicitet. En intressant ingång till ämnet har varit om pedagogernas handlingsstrategier skiljer sig beroende av konfliktens karaktär. Informanternas svar har sedan analyserats utifrån olika teoretiska begrepp och med utgångspunkt från följande frågeställningar:• Hur hanteras konflikter inom skolan?• Skiljer sig hanteringen av dessa utifrån vilken typ av konflikt det gäller, i så fall hur och varför? Går det att urskilja en strategisk medvetenhet?Resultatet visar att pedagogernas handlingsstrategier ej skiljer sig nämnvärt mellan de olika fallen. De båda skolorna följer generella riktlinjer oavsett konfliktens art, där såväl medlingssamtal och föräldrakontakt som förebyggande arbete är vanligt förekommande. Även handlingsplanernas vikt betonas vid konflikthantering, liksom ett fullgott samarbete inom det kollegiala arbetslaget.

  • 11.
    Börjesson, Mattias
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Från likvärdighet till marknad: En studie av offentligt och privat inflytande över skolans styrning i svensk utbildningspolitik 1969-19992016Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    For most of the 20th century the dominant aim of Swedish educational policy was an integrated public school system under national state control. During the post-war era (1945–1989) this policy led to Sweden having one of the most centralized and integrated school systems in the world. In the 1980s and 1990s, however, there was a profound change in Swedish education policy towards decentralization, deregulation and marketization of the school system. The aim of this thesis is to provide a deeper understanding of the nature and causes of this shift in education policy. The thesis draws from a theoretical framework consisting of Critical Realism, curriculum theory and Neo-Marxism. From a Neo- Marxist perspective the configuration of state education policy is understood as a dominant education ideology. The empirical material consists of state policy documents which are understood as an expression of the dominant education ideology in society.

    The results indicate a shift in the dominant education ideology in Sweden between 1969 and – 1999: from an emphasis on state governance and goals of equivalence, equality and participation in the school system during the 1970s, towards increasing skepticism regarding state regulation and an emphasis on decentralization and aims to increase parental and pupil influence in the school system during the 1980s, to a dominance of private influence via school choice and competition in the school system during the 1990s. From a theoretical perspective consisting of Critical Realism and curriculum theory, this shift in education policy and restructuring of the school system is understood in relation to economic crises, a rightward shift in politics and the dominance of neoliberal ideas in Sweden during the 1980s and 1990s.

  • 12.
    Domfors, Lars - Åke
    Örebro University, Department of Education.
    Döfstumlärare - specialpedagog - lärare för döva och hörselskadade: en lärarutbildnings innehåll och rationalitetsförskjutningar2000Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    (Teacher of the Deaf-Mute – Teacher of Special Education – Teacher of the Deaf and Hard of Hearing. The Content and Rationality Changes of a Teacher Education Program).

    This dissertation is a study of some aspects of Teachers of the Deaf (ToD) education programs using the theoretical perspectives of symbolic interactionism and concepts of rationalitites. Changes in Swedish ToD teacher education from 1873 to the 1990s are examined through the text analysis of documents such as government regulations and syllabi and other texts such as education journals. It is argued that, parallel with the dominant rationality of the period, strands of other rationalities are to be found. In an ongoing struggle for power, one dominant rationality is challenged and gradually replaced by another. The research indicates the dominance of a patriarchal values-rationality in the decades following 1873, an instrumentaltechnical rationality during the 1930s to the 1960s and a communicative rationality from the 1970s.

    Research was carried out at the National Upper Secondary School for the Deaf and Hard of Hearing in order to understand what characterizes Deaf education and the ToDs’ work, and what kind of professional skills are therefore required. The research was based on teacher interviews, student questionnaires and teaching observations in classes. Learning processes within a ToD teacher education course, as perceived by ToD students, are analysed by a study of written reflections, seminar observations and transcipts from tape-recorded seminars. ToD teacher education programs at universities in Washington D.C. and Edinburgh are also analysed.

    A model for ToD education is discussed. It is argued that even if the dimension of essentialism stressing ToD basic skills and knowledge is important, the main theories for understanding the ToD education process are communicative rationality and interactionism.

    It is further argued that, at societal level, the dominance of different rationalities implies different meanings of the ToD socialisation process, mediated through different historical and cultural contexts.

  • 13.
    Englund, Tomas
    Örebro University, Department of Education.
    Education, the curriculum, society and citizenship: starting points for a historical-sociological comparative approach2007In: Democracy and human rights in education and society: explorations from South Africa and Sweden / [ed] Chaterine Odora Hoppers, Bernt Gustavsson, Enver Motala, John Pampallis, Örebro: Örebro universitet , 2007, p. 135-180Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 14.
    Engström, Karin
    Örebro University, Department of Education.
    Delaktighet under tvång: om ungdomars erfarenheter i barn- och ungdomspsykiatrisk slutenvård2008Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Participation under coercion. On young people’s experiences in child and adolescent psychiatric inpatient care. 

    The aim of the dissertation is to study young people’s experiences of participation under coercion in child and adolescent psychiatric inpatient care and to discuss these in relationship to the potential senses of participation and the conditions applying to encounters in care. It takes as its theoretical point of departure Gadamer’s texts on medical encounters, von Wright’s texts on participation as an intersubjective phenomenon that is related to the creation of meaning and Buber’s texts on interhuman encounters. The dissertation is based on two empirical studies. The first consisted of interviews with 21 young people in the 14-18 age group who were patients in child and adolescent psychiatric inpatient care; ten of them involuntarily, eleven voluntarily admitted. The interviews dealt with the following areas: coercion, participation, meaning and encounters in care. The second study involved an analysis of the ambitions of the health care system with regard to participation and encounters with patients as expressed in the legal regulations applying to the health and medical services and the guidelines on professional ethics for different categories of staff. Analysis of the empirical material was based on a hermeneutic approach.

    The young people’s experiences of their care revealed that they rarely have any knowledge of the legal conditions that apply or about their rights, irrespective of whether they are voluntary or committed patients. One recurrent experience is lack of clarity about the reason for the treatment and what it is intended to do. Despite these shortcomings in their participation, some of the young people view their treatment as important and at times even lifesaving. Analysis of the ambitions of the health care system shows that the focus in the current regulations is placed on the self-determination and autonomy of the patients. There is rarely any description of the importance of a dialogue or of collaboration with the patient. Analysis of the material as a whole reveals that three senses can be attributed to participation in the care situation studied: participation as a right, participation as involvement and participation as meaning. The dissertation discusses how participation in these three senses can find expression in encounters between young people and staff. If participation is to be possible, a relation and an interhuman encounter is required which is characterised by truth, frankness and lack of pretence. This shows how important it is for young people undergoing coercive treatment to be able to meet individuals who can see and acknowledge them as subjects with an entitlement to participate. This can offer possibilities for the creation of meaning in treatment that has not always been sought but which can still be experienced as meaningful.

  • 15.
    Ericsson, Hanna
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Jansson, Per-Olov
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Könsroller i skolan: En kvalitativ studie i två klasser2008Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med vår C-uppsats är att studera jämställdhetsförhållanden i skolan och undersöka hur olika villkor mellan pojkar och flickor påverkar klassrumssituationen och därmed elevernas förutsättningar för lärande ur ett socialinteraktionistiskt perspektiv. Vi var även intresserade av att jämföra våra resultat med lärarnas uppfattningar och hur läraren bemöter de olika könsroller som speglas i skolan. För att lyckas med detta har vi använt oss av observationer i två olika klasser på två olika skolor, samt intervjuer med deras klasslärare för att samla in vårt resultat. De resultat vi fått fram stämmer till stor del överens med den tidigare forskning som finns inom samma ämne, även om det finns en del skillnader och undantag. Att eleverna har olika könsroller, som till viss del förstärks i skolan, är ett grundläggande resultat. Pojkar kräver mer uppmärksamhet men vi har också kommit fram till att flickor i vissa situationer kräver lika mycket. Skillnaderna finner vi främst i hur eleverna bemöts, hur ofta och på vilket sätt. Lärarens roll har en stor betydelse för klassrumssituationen och vi har även upptäckt att lektionsinnehållet kan ha viss betydelse för hur elevernas olika könsroller tar sig uttryck. Dock ser vi att allt inte är svart eller vitt. Det går inte att förstå klassrumssituationen enbart ur ett genusperspektiv utan hänsyn måste tas till flera olika förutsättningar och däribland elevernas olika personlighetsdrag.

  • 16.
    Erikson, Lars
    Örebro University, Department of Education.
    Föräldrar och skola2004Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The overall aim of this thesis is to develop a typology of the relationship between parents and schools by clarifying different meanings of that relationship. The study is anchored in a tradition within the sociology of knowledge which stresses the ongoing interpretative struggle between different social groups (Mannheim 1928/1968). Based on this theoretical approach, and in the light of international research, four models of the parent–school relationship are developed. Each model is related to an overall system of meaning, thereby clarifying competing conceptualizations of central concepts such as “parent” and “involvement”.

    The partnership model (1) stresses that it is in the children’s best educational interests to encourage cooperation between parents and schools. I argue that this model was originally based on the concept of equality, but that this concept was replaced in the 1980s by those of efficiency and learning.

    The user participation model (2) entails formal involvement of parents in the governance of individual schools. Participatory democracy, I argue, is one component in an overall system of meaning for this model. The other is efficiency, a concept that is related to changes in school governing bodies and school management during the 1980s.

    The choice model (3) emphasizes the rights of parents to choose among schools for the sake of their own children. Despite different interpretations of what choice entails, I argue that this model of the parent–school relationship can be related to an overall system of meaning in which the autonomous civil citizen is in focus.

    The separation model (4) takes as its starting point the differences between parents (home) and teachers (school) and problematizes the endeavour to achieve cooperation between the two. I argue that one component in the overall system of meaning associated with this model could be termed constitutive differences, a component that is also embedded in the concept of teacher professionalism. Two other components of the separation model are equality and integrity, the latter from the vantage point of children and young people.

    The thesis also analyses the parent–school relationship in the Swedish historical context, using the four models and the concepts mentioned above as analytical tools. In the first period, beginning with the reports of the 1940 School Committee and the 1946 School Commission, the focus was on the partnership model and the separation model. The user participation model was introduced in connection with a proposal to establish local governing bodies in the mid-1970s, and the choice model emerged, in the Swedish context, in the early 1990s.

  • 17.
    Eriksson, Cecilia [ Arensmeier ]
    Örebro University, Department of Social and Political Sciences.
    "Not that only some decide": the meaning of democracy to young people in Sweden2007In: Democracy and human rights in education and society: explorations from South Africa and Sweden / [ed] Chaterine Odora Hoppers, Bernt Gustavsson, Enver Motala, John Pampallis, Örebro: Örebro university , 2007, p. 217-244Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 18.
    Erixon, Eva-Lena
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Matematiklärares kompetensutveckling online: policy, diskurs och meningsskapande2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Different forms of professional development online are becoming increasingly common for teachers and the aim of the thesis is to contribute knowledge about online professional development for mathematics teachers and the relationship between professional development, educational policy, and mathematics teaching practice. In the thesis, professional development refers to organized professional development in terms of university courses.

    The thesis consists of four studies, each of which has been presented in the form of an article. The four studies together explore transnational and national policy discourses, meaning-making activities that can be distinguished in online professional development, discourses pertaining to mathematics teaching in the classroom and in the subsequent seminar discussions in the course, and teachers’ experience of professional development online. The different arenas have been explored using the concept of discourse with reference to Fairclough, Gee, and Sfard. The term ”discourse” refers primarily to communication and language in use.

    The result of the studies indicates that the participants have not been offered enough opportunities to reflect on how or whether the use of several concepts and everyday life connections really deepened the students’ understanding of the mathematical content. Moreover, the analysis of the interviews with the participants shows that it was difficult for them to deepen their reflections in the synchronous communication online. There is a lack of reciprocal participation and reflection in the conversation and it is hard for the participants to get an idea of how the others respond to their messages. When a participant has completed his or her message the next speaker continues with a new message and as a result, the communication often takes a new direction instead of allowing in-depth reflection.

    List of papers
    1. In-service training programmes for mathematics teachers nested in transnational policy discourses
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>In-service training programmes for mathematics teachers nested in transnational policy discourses
    2015 (English)In: European Journal of Teacher Education, ISSN 0261-9768, E-ISSN 1469-5928, Vol. 39, no 1, p. 94-109Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Results in mathematics on international knowledge surveys like Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA )and Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) have become one of the most important factors for the perceived success or failure of schools and even entire education systems in the policy arena. In this article we explore the complex recontextualising processes that occur when translating educational policy into actual programmes for teachers’ education. First, the transnational education policy discourse(s) of teachers´ in-service training with a focus on mathematics will be explored. Second, we examine how this transnational discourse is recontextualised in a national policy discourse resulting in a national reform programme for in-service training of mathematics teachers in Sweden. In a third step, concrete teacher training courses in mathematics are examined. The result shows a convergence between the official policy discourse and the pedagogic recontextualising field in terms of a broad teaching repertoire and peer discussions about reflections on certain common objects of learning.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Taylor & Francis, 2015
    Keywords
    mathematics education; in-service training; education policy; recontextualisation
    National Category
    Pedagogy
    Research subject
    Education and Learning
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-56202 (URN)10.1080/02619768.2015.1101062 (DOI)000370517700007 ()
    Available from: 2015-11-26 Created: 2017-03-08 Last updated: 2018-07-06Bibliographically approved
    2. Learning activities and discourses in mathematics teachers’ synchronous oral communication online
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Learning activities and discourses in mathematics teachers’ synchronous oral communication online
    2016 (English)In: Research in Mathematics Education, ISSN 1479-4802, E-ISSN 1754-0178, Vol. 18, no 3, p. 267-282Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    There is increasing interest in the provision of online professional development (OPD) for teachers. This case study contributes to the field of research on professional development in the context of activities and discourses relating to mathematics teachers’ synchronous oral communication online. The purpose of this article is to explore the activities on offer in this communication and to identify the discourses that mathematics teachers may create in their meaning-making activities. An analysis of an online community in the form of a professional development course for mathematics teachers has, therefore, been conducted. The analysis shows that there is a lack of reciprocal participation and a shortcoming in creating a reflective learning environment, which can probably be partly explained by the specific mode of digital conversation. The discourses created by the mathematics teachers in their meaning-making activities focused mainly on sharing experiences about the teaching of mathematics.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Taylor & Francis, 2016
    Keywords
    mathematics teachers, community of inquiry, synchronous communication online
    National Category
    Educational Sciences
    Research subject
    Education and Learning
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-56200 (URN)10.1080/14794802.2016.1190667 (DOI)000391227700003 ()2-s2.0-84976354260 (Scopus ID)
    Available from: 2016-07-04 Created: 2017-03-08 Last updated: 2018-07-24Bibliographically approved
    3. Convergences and influences of discourses in an online professional development course for mathematics teachers
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Convergences and influences of discourses in an online professional development course for mathematics teachers
    2017 (English)In: Nordisk matematikkdidaktikk, NOMAD: [Nordic Studies in Mathematics Education], ISSN 1104-2176, Vol. 22, no 1Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Nationellt centrum för matematikutbildning (NCM), 2017
    National Category
    Educational Sciences
    Research subject
    Education and Learning
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-56201 (URN)
    Available from: 2016-12-08 Created: 2017-03-08 Last updated: 2018-09-05Bibliographically approved
    4. Matematiklärares erfarenhet av kompetensutveckling online
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Matematiklärares erfarenhet av kompetensutveckling online
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    National Category
    Pedagogy
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-56203 (URN)
    Available from: 2017-03-08 Created: 2017-03-08 Last updated: 2017-10-18Bibliographically approved
  • 19.
    Falkner, Carin
    Örebro University, Department of Education.
    Datorspelande som bildning och kultur: en hermeneutisk studie av datorspelande2007Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the dissertation is to understand the playing of computer games based on its own conditions, and questions are asked such as what is the meaning constructed around playing and themselves as players, what is the social construction of playing and how can playing computer games be understood from the perspective of youth culture? A basic interest in the thesis is to contribute to the understanding of Bildung in an informal context outside the institutions, activities and genres that traditionally stand for Bildung.

    The empirical investigation that forms the basis of this thesis i in the form of presence at various LANs and interviews with players. The research perspective includes a hermeneutic point of departure and playing computer games is interpreted and understood from three perspectives: playing computer games as a meaning of Bildung (play and mimesis), as social meaning (friendship and community) and as cultural (style).

    The results demonstrates that playing computer games is something the player does to relax, to have fun and it makes the time that passes meaningful. For dedicated players, playing computer games is a longing for community. To be a member of a community provides the opportunity to become someone in relation to the others. To participate in the community of players is a way to achieve understanding about how one is expected to behave in a larger community, that is to say society. The players are not much interested in clothes and fashion. Alcohol and other drugs are disapproved. Not stealing from others in the LAN, helping each other and sharing both knowledge and material things are also ways of expressing style.

    Playing computergames is Bildung and the experiences and insights wich playing can provide should have a place in a vision regarding Bildung in our time. The teachers and the school should make use of the free-time experiences that young people take with them to school.

  • 20.
    Frödén, Sara
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    I föränderliga och slutna rosa rum: en etnografisk studie av kön, ålder och andlighet i en svensk waldorfförskola2012Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study is to generate new knowledge of the educationalpractice of a pre-school and of how it may contribute to the understandingof doing gender. The ethnographic study examines the place and practiceof a Steiner Waldorf pre-school, and it focuses specifically on materiality,age, spirituality and the intentions of the pre-school teachers. Fieldworkhas been conducted for a period of one and a half years in one pre-school.The methods used are mainly participant observation and interviews withthe pre-school teachers. The results highlight the importance of the materialand spatial dimensions of the pre-school for the constitution of children’sgender. The concepts of performativity and ritualization have beenused as the main analytical tools. The study draws on the scope of theseconcepts as understood by Judith Butler and Catherine Bell.

    On the basis of the analysis of the empirical material, a theoretical concept,situated decoding of gender, is suggested. It is argued that what atfirst glance can be interpreted as a ‘female universe’, turns out to be a placewhere gender is made non-relevant through an unintentional, yet powerfulongoing process of naturalization. The situated decoding of gender is madepossible because of certain features in this pre-school. Firstly, a repetitivestructure characterizing educational practice has been observed. This isbased on a principle of rhythm reciprocally related to the alternations betweencontinuity and change. Secondly, there is a clear spatial and materialdemarcation that the study argues makes the pre-school an enclosed space,in the sense of being a place of nurturing and protection, where the boundariesbetween home and pre-school are maintained. Thirdly, the performativeforce of the ritualized preschool practices further enhances the decodingof gender. The ritualization highlights and supports the spiritual dimensionin the pedagogy, which sidelines the doing of gender. Fourthly, theteachers contributed to the decoding of gender through the consistency oftheir everyday actions.

  • 21.
    Gustavsson, Bernt
    Örebro University, Department of Education.
    Negotiating the space for democracy between the universal and the particular: the role of phronesis2007In: Democracy and human rights in education and society: explorations from South Africa and Sweden / [ed] Chaterine Odora Hoppers, Bernt Gustavsson, Enver Motala, John Pampallis, Örebro: Örebro university , 2007, p. 67-87Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 22.
    Gustavsson, Emma
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Karlsson, Camilla
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Könsintegrerad lek: en kvalitativ studie om förskolans miljö och dess inverkan på barns könsintegrarade lek2009Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Vårt syfte med studien är att belysa relationen mellan miljön i förskolan och könsintegrerad lek. Vidare vill vi undersöka hur barnen positioneras och positionerar sig i förskolans miljöer samt den könsintegrerade leken. En kvalitativ studie med observationer och intervjuer har genomförts på två förskolor i två kommuner. Intervjuerna genomfördes med sammanlagt 5 förskollärare och observationerna skedde genom att vi iakttog barnens lek på de utvalda förskolorna.

    Resultatet av studien visar att förskollärarna anser att förskolornas miljöer inte präglas av den könsintegrerade leken men att den förekommer i mer eller mindre utsträckning. Samtliga förskollärare förespråkar dock en könsintegrerad lek som en viktig del i verksamheten. Vi anser utifrån resultatet av studien, att det är pedagogerna som har den största inverkan på barns möjliga könsintegrerade lek. Beroende på pedagogernas förhållningssätt, deras aktiva inverkan och medvetenhet om lekmaterialets betydelse kan de både främja och hindra den könsintegrerade leken.

  • 23.
    Göhl-Muigai, Ann-Kristin
    Örebro University, Department of Education.
    Talet om ansvar i förskolans styrdokument 1945-1998: en textanalys2004Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    With the overall aim of "analysing and comparing the language that was used during the period 1945-1998 in pre-school documents with regard to the duty of promoting the development of children into responsible persons and citizens", the thesis studies seven authoritative government texts for pre-schools. The goal documents form an intertextual chain whose first link was published under the auspices of the National Swedish Bord of Health and Welfare, when the number of institutions for the care and education of the youngest children was still very limited. The goal document which make up the latest link in the chain serves as an indication of the altered status of pre-schools caused by their becoming a part of the educational system. - Starting out from curriculum theory the thesis makes a text analysis where the methodology has been inspired by Quentin Skinner's histiorical-pragmatic and intertextual approach and by John Austin's speech act theory. The source texts are contextualised by means of parliamentary reports, government bills, and other contemporary texts. - Since 'ansvar' ('responsibility') is a contingent concept, the context has a decisive importance for the meaning. The analyses of the pre-school goal documents reveal certain differences from the usual lexical definitions of 'ansvar' ('responsibility'), which are 'punishment', 'answer' and duty, and which are used in law, moral philosophy and political science. The authority and adulthood implied by the standard meanings, and the weight, seriousness and negative axiological sense associated with these, are changed when in a "new" context, the pre-school context, the issue is children's development of responsibility. - When the goal documents refer to the youngest members of society as having the ability to take and show responsibility, this indicates not only that the sense, reference and speech act potential of the word have changed, but also that the underlying perception of children has changed. - "New", positively axiological senses of 'ansvar' ('responsibility') appering in several of the pre-school goal documents are that the children are expected to "respond to" other people and "show consideration" and a "democratic responsibility" - an interpretation which has been caused by the advocacy that children should participate and share the responsibility and also have a real influence on the everyday life of pre-schools.

  • 24.
    Hagström, Eva
    Örebro University, Department of Education.
    Meningar om uppsatsskrivande i högskolan2005Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This dissertation is about the writing of theses in Swedish higher education. The aim is to construct meanings about thesis writing from different kinds of texts. The meanings are answers to the overall question about what good teaching can be in relation to thesis writing, and to what extent handbooks on writing can enhance such teaching.

    The dominant meaning constructed from handbooks on thesis writing is that writing is about following certain rules and closely connected to this meaning is the idea that writing can be taught as a separate ability. Focus is on the abilities of the individual student. A consequence of this meaning is that handbooks can be of use. The dominant meaning constructed from research on thesis writing is that writing takes place in a context, and that the teaching must concentrate on the content of the subject. When students understand the subject they will also be able to write. Focus is on what the institution can do to support students. The consequence of this meaning is that there is no need for handbooks in the teaching of writing.

    Important aims of Swedish higher education are being neglected in most texts on writing, i.e. critical thinking, students’ influence over the education, the possibilities of all categories of students participating in higher education, students’ personal development, education and citizenship. These issues, however, are frequent in other texts on higher education, and in the last part of the dissertation the question of thesis writing is brought to these broader contexts.

    The dissertation takes pragmatism as its theoretical starting point. The construction of meanings and their consequences, as well as the insistence on the two roles of education being of use to the individual as well as to society, come from pragmatism. So does also, following Dewey, the belief that what students do in education must have significance, not only in future, but as it takes place.

  • 25.
    Harbe, Linda
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Windh, Erika
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Fonologiska svårigheter hos barn: En studie om hur olika yrkesgrupper kan arbeta med detta2012Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Sammanfattning

    I dagens samhälle är det viktigt att kunna kommunicera verbalt med olika personer i olika situationer och sammanhang. För de flesta så är detta inget större problem, men om man har svårigheter med talet som exempelvis stamning, pratar otydligt eller inte kan säga vissa språkljud, så kan det vara ett hinder för att föra ett samtal. Vi har fått intresse för fonologiska svårigheter genom verksamhetsförlagd utbildning och i vardagen där vi mött barn som på olika sätt har haft problem med sitt språkande. Där av har vi intresserat oss för hur olika yrkesgrupper i en viss kommun arbetar för att hjälpa barn som har fonologiska svårigheter. Vi vill undersöka hur termen språkstörning definieras och om respondenterna upplever att det finns en "vänta och se – mentalitet" gällande språksvårigheter. Med detta menar vi att pedagoger kan arbeta förebyggande eller vänta in barnets mognad, för att se om svårigheterna försvinner av sig självt. Denna inväntningsstrategi visade sig vara vanligare för 10-15 år sedan medan man idag arbetar man mer förebyggande. För att nå fram till våra resultat så har vi intervjuat sju personer som är verksamma inom yrken där man jobbar med barn som har språksvårigheter. Vi har delvis inspirerats av ett fenomenologiskt synsätt, då om hur olika personer i specifika yrkesgrupper uppfattar fenomenet fonologiska svårigheter. Vi vill även ta del av våra respondenters praktiska och teoretiska erfarenheter i ämnet. Genom intervjuerna har vi fått insikt i hur komplext fenomenet språksvårigheter är, eftersom barnet utvecklas och mognar olika snabbt i olika åldrar. Likaså har vi sett hur arbetet och samarbetet ser ut i denna kommun, då respondenternas utsagor stämmer väl överens med varandras och de fyller i varandras berättelser om hur arbetsgången fungerar dem emellan. Vi har också fått insikt i hur de olika yrkesgrupperna jobbar med barn som har fonologiska svårigheter. Vi har även fått reda på att det finns olika benämningar beroende på vilken språksvårighet barnet har.

    Med denna examinationsuppgift önskar vi kunna bidra med kunskap om fonologiska svårigheter till personer inom olika yrkeskategorier, som arbetar med barn.

     

  • 26.
    Holmström, Ingela
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Learning by hearing?: Technological framings for participation2013Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis examines technological framings for communication and identity issues, with a particular focus on Swedish mainstream schools where children with cochlear implants are pupils. Based on a sociocultural perspective on learning, the thesis focuses on how pupils and teachers interact with (and thus learn from) each other in classroom settings. The study comprises a) a sociohistorical analysis of three Swedish non-governmental organizations’ periodicals from 1891 to 2010, and b) an ethnographic study including micro-analyses of interaction in two mainstream classrooms where there are children with cochlear implants. The sociohistorical analysis illustrates how different technologies, in a range of ways, have shaped (i) how people with hearing loss communicate and interact with others and (ii) their identity positions. The analysis also demonstrates the presence of language ideologies in settings where children with hearing loss are taught. Here the main preference is for spoken communication, even though different types of visual communication emerge during the 1980s and 1990s. In addition, the issue of integration has been a matter of debate since the 1970s and provides a backdrop for the current situation, where an increasing number of children with cochlear implants receive their schooling in mainstream public rather than segregated regional deaf schools.

    Against this background, micro-analyses have been carried out of classroom interaction and recurring patterns and activities have been identified. The results illustrate that audiologically-oriented and communicative-link technologies play major roles in the classrooms and these both facilitate and limit the pupils’ participation. Based on postcolonial theory, the results can be understood in terms of participation and non-participation of the pupil with cochlear implants, who acquire peripheral identity positions in these classroom settings. The analysis also illuminates unequal power relations regarding technologies in use, and expressions of language ideologies in the classrooms, where spoken communication is preferred. Overall, the everyday life of children with cochlear implants in mainstream schools appears to be complex, and it is technologies in use that frame the conditions for their participation in interaction and communication.

    List of papers
    1. Technologies at work: a sociohistorical analysis of human identities and communication
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Technologies at work: a sociohistorical analysis of human identities and communication
    2013 (English)In: Deafness and Education International, ISSN 1464-3154, E-ISSN 1557-069X, Vol. 15, no 1, p. 2-28Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    This article presents results from a study based on archival data from periodicals published by three Swedish non-governmental organizations (NGOs) active in the field of deafness and hard of hearing. A sociohistorical analysis of the material, which covers more than a century, from 1890 to 2010, highlights that technologies have specifically impacted issues concerned with communication and identity. The article presents key topics that have been identified, as well as similarities and differences between the NGOs with regard to their views on and interest in visually oriented and audiologically oriented technologies and methods of communication. In addition, the analysis shows how deafness, based on different perspectives, can be understood as both identity and disability and how technologies and methods of communication impact identification processes.

    Keywords
    deaf community, Swedish NGOs, audiologically oriented, sociohistorical analysis, visually oriented
    National Category
    Social Sciences Pedagogy
    Research subject
    Education
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-25366 (URN)10.1179/1557069X12Y.0000000012 (DOI)
    Projects
    CIT, Communication, Identity and Technology
    Available from: 2012-08-27 Created: 2012-08-27 Last updated: 2017-10-18Bibliographically approved
    2. Mainstream school placement of children with cochlear implants: sociohistorical and contemporary perspectives
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Mainstream school placement of children with cochlear implants: sociohistorical and contemporary perspectives
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    National Category
    Educational Sciences
    Research subject
    Education
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-31003 (URN)
    Available from: 2013-09-27 Created: 2013-09-27 Last updated: 2017-10-17Bibliographically approved
    3. ”Va sa han?”: communicative strategies in educational environments where one participant has cochlear implants
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>”Va sa han?”: communicative strategies in educational environments where one participant has cochlear implants
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The number of pupils with cochlear implant (CI) has seen a sharp increase in public schools in Sweden. This study focuses on communicative strategies in inclusive classrooms where pupils with CI are members. The empirical ethnographic data comes from two mainstream classrooms in Sweden where pupils and adults use a range of technologies, and strategies, (co)creating opportunities for communication and learning in everyday classroom life. The analyses indicate that pupils with CIs are responsible for their own communicative participation in mainstream classrooms (when they can't make sense of or don't hear oral talk), while their right to choose or regulate communication channels are not uncommonly curtailed by the adults. Different technologies play an important role in inclusive classrooms where pupils with CIs are members but these at the same time sometimes create barriers for participation. They cannot therefore be seen as a panacea for pupils with CI in inclusive educational settings.

    National Category
    Educational Sciences
    Research subject
    Education
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-31004 (URN)
    Available from: 2013-09-27 Created: 2013-09-27 Last updated: 2017-10-17Bibliographically approved
    4. Communicating and hand(ling) technologies: everyday life in educational settings where pupils with cochlear implants are mainstreamed
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Communicating and hand(ling) technologies: everyday life in educational settings where pupils with cochlear implants are mainstreamed
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Different technologies are commonly used in mainstream classrooms to teach pupils who wear surgically implanted cochlear hearing aids. We focus on these technologies, their application, how pupils react to them, and how they affect mainstream classrooms in Sweden. Our findings indicate that language ideologies play out in specific ways in such technified environments. The hegemonic position wielded by adults with regard to the use of technology usage has specific implications for pupils with cochlear implants.

    Keywords
    cochlear implants, language ideology, oral communication, visually-oriented communication, mainstream schools
    National Category
    Educational Sciences
    Research subject
    Education
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-31005 (URN)
    Available from: 2013-09-27 Created: 2013-09-27 Last updated: 2017-10-17Bibliographically approved
  • 27.
    Hultin, Eva
    Örebro University, Department of Education.
    Samtalsgenrer i gymnasieskolans litteraturundervisning: en ämnesdidaktisk studie2006Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this dissertation is to analytically discern different conversational genres within the teaching of literature, organized within the framework of the two school subjects in which Swedish is taught in upper secondary school, and to place this teaching of literature in a historical context by relating it to different conceptions of the Swedish subject.

    To be able to achieve this aim, a curriculum studies approach is combined with an ethnographical one. The ethnographical part of the study was conducted as a classroom study, including five different classes and teachers talking about literature, which took place during the school year 2003/2004 at three different schools in the middle of demographical Sweden. This part of the study also involved qualitative interviews with teachers and students concerning different factors which might have an effect on these conversations. The conversations of the study can be described as a part of the every-day-life of the teaching of those subjects, as the teachers organised these conversations in a way that they usually organise conversations of literature in their classes. However, what the teachers meant by talking about literature appeared to differ among them so radically that these conversations could be analytically discerned as four different conversational genres: The Teaching Examination, Text Oriented Talk, Culturally Oriented Talk, and Informal Book Talk. These four conversational genres are possible to analytically discern using the didactical tool, the analysis of conversational genres, which is developed in the dissertation in relation to Michail Bakhtin’s theory of speech genres.

    The curriculum part of the study comprises an analysis in three steps to place the teaching of literature in a historical context. In the first step national syllabuses for the subjects Swedish and Swedish as a second language are analysed. In the second step local syllabuses for the subjects are analysed. Finally, in the third step, the teachers’ thoughts, deliberations and ideals forming their teaching of literature are analysed. The teaching where conversational genres have been analytically discerned could then be related to different conceptions of the subject Swedish: Swedish as a Higher Subject of Bildung, Swedish as a Proficiency Subject, and Swedish as an Experience-based Subject.

    The analyses and discussions in the dissertation contribute to the discussions in the field of Subject-Didactics on the role of literature and conversation within the subjects of Swedish and Swedish as a Second language. Another contribution of the dissertation is the didactical tool, the analysis of conversational genres, which might be used by researchers and teachers for analysis and reflection on conversations in teaching.

  • 28.
    Håkanson, Christer
    Örebro University, Department of Education.
    Lärares yrkeslandskap: ett institutionellt perspektiv2004Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    School education takes place in an institution, which means certain restrictions on how teaching can be arranged and what learning processes can be established. The purpose of the present study is to examine the possible consequences of the institutional conditions characterising a school for teachers’ work. The object of analyses is teachers’ work as part of and a response to the institutional conditions and the more specific question is about the consequences of those conditions seen in relation to the task of preparing pupils to become active citizens.

    The analyses is directed towards a critical interpretation of the institutional conditions, based on a view that social processes are contradictory and characterised by power relations and that an awareness of restrictions will make it easier to overcome or change them. Insight into what forces make up a situation will facilitate social action.

    An institutional analysis presupposes institutionally related concepts, why some concepts which are not too frequently used in educational contexts have been introduced. These institutionally oriented conceptual tools aim at clarifying what implications for actions are built into different situations. They indicate current restrictions, but still leave room for alternative actions.

    The main focus of the study is on the classroom as a room for communication and learning seen in relation to processes of reflection, dialogue and experience which have been defined as necessary parts of a citizen education project. The conclusion is that teachers’ working conditions are contradictory from different points of view. There is a lack of coherence between programmatic goals and conditions offered to fulfil them, but there are also contradictions built into current teaching practices. Institutionalisation implies a limitation of the social space for action and a tendency to overlook the complexity of social processes. This does not mean that reflection, dialogue and experience do not occur in a classroom, but it means that this is rather an exception than a rule, and to accomplish a change presupposes changed institutional conditions.

  • 29.
    Högberg, Sören
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Om lärarskapets moraliska dimension: ett perspektiv och en studie av lärarstuderandes nätbaserade seminariesamtal2015Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this dissertation, an educational perspective called the moral dimension of teaching is developed. The work includes a theoretically informed discussion from a pragmatist point of view in which the concept of pedagogical rhythm is introduced. The concept captures the need for teachers to regularly shift their intentions and occasionally act in contradictory ways as a consequence of the moral which emerges from interaction in pedagogical situations. Using this perspective, criteria are developed for the characteristics of discussions of the work of teachers, which are desirable in order for students in pre-service teacher education to have opportunities to develop their teachership.

    Secondly, the educational perspective as it is conceptualised serves as a theoretical framework for a study of discussions taking place in net-based seminars among students in teacher education. The study consists of 14 recorded seminars in which discussions of the work of teachers are analysed in terms of content and direction for reflection. The result of the analysis is a construction of four different focal points for processes of making judgements: existential, performative, critical and professional. Mainly the performative, and to some extent the critical, focal points appear to be supported by the net-based environment, although potential for the professional focal point is found when available tools in net-based settings are used in deliberate ways.

    Finally, based on these four focal points, possible future predispositions among student teachers are deliberated. Student teachers’ future opportunities to develop a moral and epistemological authority are discussed, as well as teachers’ general opportunities to exercise professional responsibility. The conclusion emphasises that a perspective such as the one developed in the dissertation is important, as it creates an understanding for the need to educate student teachers to exercise a form of responsibility that goes beyond being accountable to society.

  • 30.
    Jenvén, Hélène
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Utsatta elevers maktlöshet: en studie om elevers sociala samvaro som förbättringsarbete i åk 8-92017Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the thesis is to examine how everyday social interactions and relations in a school class in years 8-9 are experienced by pupils and teachers and how they can be understood and improved. The research design is an action research approach and is carried out as a case study involving four teachers and 24 pupils. Four issues are formulated and the teachers and the researcher together suggest how certain problems might be solved, which in turn directs the action process over the period of three school terms. Analytical concepts are used to map and understand pupils’ everyday social relations in terms of peer groups, positions and norms. Eriksson’s (2001) sociological theory on bullying is used to analyze and explain the complexity of a case of bullying.

    Defined dominating norms that appear to guide the pupils’ social interactions are: (1) You should make room for yourself, be visible and heard, (2) you should have many friends and (3) you should look down on those who study. The everyday social relations are affected by the pupils’ positioning and by the groupings that are formed in the class. Crystalized groups that emerge in the study are: (1) those who make a lot of noise and take up a lot of room, (2) those who study, (3) pupils who are frequently absent, (4) those who feel uncomfortable and (5) those who are outside (a marginalized group). In addition to these findings, three dominating norms among the teachers emerge. These norms guide and affect how the teachers act and think when victimized pupils and their situations are discussed. Teachers’ dominating norms seem to prevail in situations where some pupils are victimized by other pupils in the class. This in turn could contribute to various kinds of moral disengagement on the part of the teachers when dealing with victimizing acts among pupils. From the perspective of the victimized pupils, such a way of acting could be understood as teachers, in their role as “security guarantors”, are unable to prevent the powerlessness of victimized pupils.

  • 31.
    Jonsson, Emma
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Andersson, Maria
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Sambandet mellan tal- skriftspråk - lärares val av strategier.2008Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

     

    Sammanfattning

    Syftet med denna uppsats är att belysa hur lärare i år 1 ser på sambandet mellan tal- och skriftspråk. Genom kvalitativa intervjuer med två lärare och genom observationer i deras klasser har vi sett vilka strategier lärarna använde sig av i sin undervisning. Genom dessa har vi kunnat studera betydelsen av lärarnas val av strategier för elevernas möjligheter till språkutveckling. Tidigare forskning påpekar vikten av att tal- och skriftspråk utvecklas i samband men även att språket utvecklas i sociala sammanhang där kommunikation har en central roll. Vi har genom vår studie fått fram att lärarnas synsätt kring detta har stor betydelse för deras val av strategier och det har i sin tur betydelse för elevernas språkutveckling.    

  • 32.
    Klaar, Susanne
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Naturorienterad utbildning i förskolan: pragmatiska undersökningar av meningsskapandets individuella, sociala och kulturella dimensioner2013Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    The overall purpose of this thesis is to investigate, illuminate and clarify meaning making processes and content when children between the ages of 1-3 encounter nature in a preschool practice. Further, the aim is to develop and illustrate action-centred methodological approaches that facilitate investigations of individual, social and cultural dimensions of preschool children’s meaning making of nature. The results are presented in four substudies that all take their starting points in John Dewey’s pragmatic philosophy, with a specific focus on Dewey’s concept of transactions, his theory of action and educative experience as meaning making. In the first substudy, a Practical Epistemology Analysis (PEA) is developed and used to investigate physical meaning making by studying actions and the consequences of these actions. In the second sub-study, a Custom Analysis is developed to facilitate investigations of how the preschool culture contributes to children’s meaning making of nature. An Epistemological Move Analysis (EMA) is used in the third sub-study for investigations relating to teachers’ guiding processes. Here, a Substantive Learning Quality Analysis (SLQA) is also developed and used for investigations of multi-dimensional learning qualities in children’s learning about nature. In the fourth substudy, the analysis methods above are refined to form a tool that can be used by teachers in their reflective work with pedagogical documentation in preschool practice. The results illuminate a multifaceted perspective of meaning making about nature. In this context, meaning making includes cognitive, physical, moral and aesthetical qualities, and nature content includes caring for nature, health and well being in nature and knowledge about natural phenomena and processes. The results contribute to a critical discussion about preschool science education that concerns how preschool practices can highlight nature learning and the multifaceted aspects that are of importance for making meaning of the environment and of life. 

    List of papers
    1. Action with friction: a transactional approach to toddlers’ physical meaning making of natural phenomena and processes in preschool
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Action with friction: a transactional approach to toddlers’ physical meaning making of natural phenomena and processes in preschool
    2012 (English)In: European Early Childhood Education Research Journal, ISSN 1350-293X, E-ISSN 1752-1807, Vol. 20, no 3, p. 439-454Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Research into preschool education has paid a lot of attention to investigating children’s conceptual development and cognitive learning aboutnature, with methods based on observations and verbal interviews before and after a teaching period. The purpose of this study has been to present and illustrate an approach that facilitates the analysis of practical meaning making in Early Childhood Education. The study is largely based on John Dewey’s pragmatism and has a particular focus on his use of transaction, functional coordination, inquiry, educative experience and nature. In this context meaning making is understood as the growing, learning process that contributes to further actions in extended ways. A transactional approach to physical experiences, with a focus on analyses of toddlers’ bodily actions in nature encounters, is illustrated by a video recording of a toddler’s encounter with icy and clay surfaces. This encounter was analysed using Practical Epistemological Analysis. Toddlers’ inquiry processes were studied with a specific focus on functional coordination, i.e. relations between different actions and their consequences when meeting the environment. The methodological approach contributes to further research by focusing on practical and physical learning processes. It can also be seen as a contribution to Early Childhood Science Education by showing the relation between previous experiences of natural phenomena and meaning making for further actions in extended ways.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Oxfordshire, United Kingdom: Taylor & Francis, 2012
    Keywords
    Practical epistemology analysis (PEA), science education, bodily actions, nature, pragmatism, transaction
    National Category
    Educational Sciences
    Research subject
    Education
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-26948 (URN)10.1080/1350293X.2012.704765 (DOI)000309120200009 ()2-s2.0-84866668211 (Scopus ID)
    Available from: 2013-01-21 Created: 2013-01-21 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
    2. Children’s meaning making of nature in an outdoor-oriented and democratic Swedish preschool practice
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Children’s meaning making of nature in an outdoor-oriented and democratic Swedish preschool practice
    2014 (English)In: European Early Childhood Education Research Journal, ISSN 1350-293X, E-ISSN 1752-1807, Vol. 22, no 2, p. 229-253Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research has shown that the Swedish preschool educational tradition is characterised by outdoor-oriented and democratic approaches. The purpose of this study is to empirically investigate what consequences these approaches have for preschool children's meaning-making of nature, when studied in practice, in children's spontaneous outdoor activities. The methodology is based on John Dewey's pragmatism with a specific focus on transaction, habits and customs. A transactional analysis method has been developed to fulfil the purpose of the investigation. The analysis illuminates relations between: (1) the Swedish preschool's educational tradition in terms of national customs; and (2) the local customs expressed in practice. Fifty-seven events were chosen for further analysis including play with water and sand, and sliding on snow. Consequences for children's meaning-making of nature are shown as possibilities for experience-based inquiry based on children's own choices and also for enjoying and feeling good in nature. The results show fewer possibilities for scientific concept learning. The results can thus be seen as a contribution to the early childhood educational discussion about how to arrange learning situations of natural phenomena and processes in preschools and at the same time maintain their democratic/outdoor-oriented characteristics

    Keywords
    outdoor; democracy; Swedish preschool; culture; pragmatism; meaning-making
    National Category
    Pedagogy
    Research subject
    Education
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-26587 (URN)10.1080/1350293X.2014.883721 (DOI)000334334300007 ()2-s2.0-84898972839 (Scopus ID)
    Available from: 2012-12-05 Created: 2012-12-05 Last updated: 2017-12-07Bibliographically approved
    3. Doing, knowing, caring and feeling: Exploring relations between nature-oriented teaching and preschool children’s learning
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Doing, knowing, caring and feeling: Exploring relations between nature-oriented teaching and preschool children’s learning
    2013 (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Research has shown that early childhood science education is based on education and care, sometimes stressed as a dichotomy. The purpose of this study is to empirically investigate the relations between teachers’ teaching and children’s learning in preschool practice, both in terms of educative processes and nature oriented content. The ambition is also to develop and present an analysis method that facilitates these investigations. Outdoor nature experiences of preschool children (aged 1-3) were video-recorded, transcribed and analysed. The methodology is based on John Dewey’s pragmatic philosophy. Here, Epistemological Move Analysis, oriented toward teachers’ guiding processes as moves, and Substantive Learning Quality Analysis, oriented toward multidimensional learning qualities, are developed and used as analysis tools. The analyses show that the relations between teaching and learning processes and nature content are intertwined and include education and care. The teachers guide towards aesthetical, moral, cognitive and physical qualities in learning by challenging, admonishing, instructional, confirming, generative, reorienting and reconstructing moves. The results contribute to nature-oriented teaching practice and nature-oriented preschool research when discussing and investigating teaching and learning processes and nature content.

    Keywords
    preschool teaching, transactional approach, John Dewey, nature, epistemological moves
    National Category
    Pedagogy
    Research subject
    Education
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-26950 (URN)
    Available from: 2013-01-21 Created: 2013-01-21 Last updated: 2017-10-18Bibliographically approved
    4. Verksamhetsorienterad dokumentation i förskolans praktik: ett didaktiskt reflektionsverktyg
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Verksamhetsorienterad dokumentation i förskolans praktik: ett didaktiskt reflektionsverktyg
    (Swedish)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I artikeln presenteras ett tredelat verktyg att använda vid läsning och granskning av dokumentationer. Verktyget är teoretiskt grundat i ett pragmatiskt perspektiv på lärande. Detta pragmatiska perspektiv bidrar med att bibehålla öppenhet för osäkerhet och överraskningar och låta dokumentationen inkludera socialisation och värdeinnehållsliga lärprocesser kopplade till mänsklig aktivitet (Dewey 1929; Biesta och Burbules 2003), samtidigt som det också erbjuder möjlighet till strukturerade reflektioner kring samtidiga och ömsesidiga dimensioner av meningsskapande. Reflektionsverktyget kan vara ett sätt att ta stöd i verksamhetsorienterade teorier (se exempelvis Pramling Samuelsson och Asplund Carlsson 2003; Dahlberg, Moss och Pence 2006; Lenz Taguchi 2012) och med hjälp av pragmatiska perspektiv på lärande synliggöra relationer mellan individuella, sociala och förskolekulturella dimensioner av meningsskapande processer och innehåll.

    National Category
    Educational Sciences
    Research subject
    Education
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-26951 (URN)
    Note

    Susanne Klaar is also affiliated to Institutionen för kommunikation och information, Högskolan i Skövde, Skövde, Sweden

    Available from: 2013-01-21 Created: 2013-01-21 Last updated: 2017-10-17Bibliographically approved
  • 33.
    Knutas, Agneta
    Örebro University, Department of Education.
    Mellan styrning och moral: berättelser om ett lärarlag2008Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Earlier research on teacher teams has found that the dominant model for the governance of schools is a leadership dominated by a rational organization and an individual leadership model. It has also found that school managements interfere with teacher teams and their decisions. This study explores the tension between governance, in the context of the Swedish school system, and the moral principles of a teacher team. In an empirical study, a teacher team was followed at their weekly meetings. Inspired by Hannah Arendt’s political philosophy, parts of her theories of human action have been focused upon. Proceeding from the concept of ‘inter-est’, what principles are expressed in the actions of teachers in a team at the upper level of the nine year compulsory school?

    In the narratives used to present the empirical findings, figuration, action and webs of relationships say something about the team and their cooperation. The teachers in the study sometimes worry that their task is not a worthwhile one. They are also concerned about their scope to respond to each student’s uniqueness. One principle manifested in the inter-est emerging from the stories is that the team are striving to do their best. At other times, the teachers protest by refusing to take responsibility, revealing a principle of mistrust of the management’s ideas on cooperation with parents. When teachers discuss a theme of war and peace, the principle emerging is that they want to enable each student to perform their best. The results illustrate how management and organization work against variation and diversity. The teachers are concerned with their honour as teachers and protest against the local authority by not accepting the task handed to them. When the team discuss their resources, too, the management denies them their right to decide. Being part of a teacher team also involves consideration of the goals of the school. The narratives about this team and their protest at the school management and local authority interfering with their task, contribute to a possible discussion about the responsibilities of teachers from a moral perspective. The results demonstrate that the local authority and management hinder the creativity, imagination and judgement of teachers through the precedence they give to procedural rules.

  • 34.
    Langmann, Elisabet
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Toleransens pedagogik: en pedagogisk-filosofisk studie av tolerans som en fråga för undervisning2013Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Focusing on a lived and practiced tolerance, this thesis sets out to explore questions concerning education for tolerance, and, specifically, how teachers and educators can prepare students to become tolerating subjects in their everyday encounters with others. Taking its point of departure in real and fictional classroom situations, the overall purpose of the study is to explore the ethical and transformative potential inherent in education for tolerance. The theoretical frame of the study is deconstruction and the philosophical writings of JacquesDerrida.

    The purpose of the thesis is accomplished in three movements. The first aims to show why teachers and educators need to redirect their attention in the classroom if the ethical and transformative potential that lies in education for tolerance is to be taken seriously. Instead of focusing on the tolerated and “deviating” other, it proposes that the tolerating subject should be the center of attention. The second movement aims to prepare the ground for a deconstructive reading by mapping different contemporary discourses of tolerance. Three distinct but interrelated dilemmas of tolerance are identified: the dilemma of welcoming, the dilemma of drawing boundaries, and the dilemma of bearing or enduring the otherness of the other. The third movement aims to show how a deconstructive reading of the dilemmas of tolerance can help teachers and educators to perceive and relate otherwise to the tolerating subject in education. For this, I turn to Derrida’s deconstructions of three concepts that are vital for our understanding of tolerance: hospitality, justice and mourning. The final section of the thesis discusses some educational implications deriving from the study. It is argued that if we look at the tolerating subject through the experience of its deconstruction, we also come to see education for tolerance otherwise. What this altered perspective can mean for education is articulated within the framework of what is calleda pedagogy of tolerance.

  • 35.
    Larsson, Kent
    Örebro University, Department of Education.
    Samtal, klassrumsklimat och elevers delaktighet: överväganden kring en deliberativ didaktik2007Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this dissertation is to study learning through deliberative dialogue, the social climate of the classroom, and certain aspects of student participation in civic education in upper secondary schools, as well as aspects of deliberative didactics. It takes its theoretical point of departure in John Dewey’s texts on democracy and education. An additional perspective on the social and moral aspects of democratic life is provided by Axel Honneth’s studies on disrespect and a morality of recognition. An empirical study is presented in which students and teachers were interviewed in focus groups about their opinions and experiences, on the basis of the aim of the dissertation and the research questions addressed.

    The analysis reveals a potential to learn civics thorough dialogue and discussion. A dialogue with deliberative qualities is characterized as one with a clearly defined purpose and relevant knowledge content. In the course of such a dialogue, the participants apply and develop certain abilities, some of which are identified in the study. Regarding the social climate in the classroom, especially during learning through dialogue and discussion, several difficulties and problematic situations were mentioned in the focus group interviews. These were problems related to “disturbing silence” and “troubling speech”. Honneth’s theory of moral recognition is in such situations seen as a basis for teachers’ professional reflections and for deliberative dialogues involving teacher and students. Concerning student participation and the civic education classroom as a form of democratic community and a public sphere, both students and teachers interviewed spoke of a balancing act between many different interests, some of which are discussed with a focus on the formation of interests. Other aspects studied are how a sense of community can be created and how the private and individualistic meet the public and common in civic education. It is concluded that the civic education classroom, considered as a public sphere, can be an arena for deliberation and thus develop a sense of community and a deliberative competence for use in a wider citizenship perspective.

    In the final chapter it is concluded that deliberative didactics can be seen as a didactic dimension of reflexive cooperation. It is characterized as a reflexive approach whereby the teacher invites the students to deliberate on issues of subject content, ways of working, the social climate of the classroom, and different aspects of participation and common interests. It is also argued that the practical cooperation – the actions and their consequences – following from intersubjective speech are as important as the dialogue itself.

  • 36.
    Liljestrand, Johan
    Örebro University, Department of Education.
    Klassrummet som diskussionsarena2002Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    (The classroom as an arena for discussions)

    The aim of the dissertation is to study whole class discussions in the Swedish upper secondary school, concerning issues subjected to controversy in the public debate. The empirical study is related to a wider question: the possibilities for the school to educate democratic citizens.

    By using discourse analysis,14 videotaped lessons from social- and religious studies where analysed, with the ambition to investigate recurrent patterns of participation and meaning making. Five teachers and six classes participated in the study.

    The analysis shows that the teachers have two concurrent goals: to focus on the students’ contributions on issues in the public debate, and introduce the students to different questions in the public debate. A consequence of these goals is that the role of the teacher often becomes complex. By acting on the basis of having responsibility for the students’ development of knowledge, and sometimes also calling attention to certain values, the teacher attempts to guide the students as not yet ready for the public debate. Features from other kinds of teacher-centred education are thereby present in the discussions. However, students can also act as more autonomous participants in relation to the teacher. When they are not answering the teacher’s questions in an expected way, and in particular, in situations in which they are interacting with each other, the students may discuss the public issues without being teacher-guided to the same extent as in other situations.

    The last chapter concludes that the authority of the teacher is partly given by the official steering-documents. It is still possible to ask if the guiding role of the teacher itself could be subjected to discussion. This suggestion is made from the point that teacher authority is considered as more or less limited for developing a critical attitude among the students. One may also ask if the students’ could be offered possibilities to choose the topic for discussion themselves. This latter point is made against the background that classroom-discussion presupposes student’s viewpoints in order to be accomplished.

  • 37.
    Lindberg, Owe
    Örebro University, Department of Education.
    Talet om lärarutbildning2002Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this dissertation can be described as threefold, (i) to problematice the ways in which we talk about, or, the discourses of, teacher education, (ii) to analyse contemporary discussions about teacher education as it has taken shape in relation to the present teacher education reform in Sweden, and (iii) to develop points of references for alternative ways to talk about teacher education, on the basis of (i) and (ii), and in relation to Stephen Toulmin’s analysis of the modern project.

    The dissertation consists of twelve chapters divided into four parts. Part I is an introduction to the field of research and to the dissertation. Part II is an analysis of contemporary Swedish discussions about teacher education and teachers. Part III is an attempt to deepen the analysis by adding international and historical perspectives. Part IV, finally, takes the discussion another step further by using Toulmin’s analysis of the modern project as a lens through which to read the discourses about teacher education and teachers.

    Through a series of analyses the dissertation ends up in a discussion about how we could talk about teacher education within the spirit of the third modernity. The discussion is centred around five metaphors, “Teacher education as a public dialogue”, “Teacher education as the education of teachers”, “The education of teachers as an offer about Bildung in a citizenship perspective”, “The education of teachers as teachers education” and “Teachers education as communication”. In relation to these metaphors two lines of talk are suggested. We could start to talk about teachers work as if it was a profession with communicative and deliberative characteristics seen in the perspective of citizenship in terms of belonging and participation and we could start to talk about teachers education as if it was meant to create good conditions for becoming teachers to develop their capacity to make sound judgements in relation to their work by participating in critical, constructive and challenging dialogues.

  • 38.
    Messina Dahlberg, Giulia
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Languaging in virtual learning sites: studies of online encounters in the language-focused classroom2015Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis focuses upon a series of empirical studies which examine communication and learning in online glocal communities within higher education in Sweden. A recurring theme in the theoretical framework deals with issues of languaging in virtual multimodal environments as well as the making of identity and negotiation of meaning in these settings; analyzing the activity, what people do, in contraposition to the study of how people talk about their activity. The studies arise from netnographic work during two online Italian for Beginners courses offered by a Swedish university. Microanalyses of the interactions occurring through multimodal video-conferencing software are amplified by the study of the courses’ organisation of space and time and have allowed for the identification of communicative strategies and interactional patterns in virtual learning sites when participants communicate in a language variety with which they have a limited experience.

    The findings from the four studies included in the thesis indicate that students who are part of institutional virtual higher educational settings make use of several resources in order to perform their identity positions inside the group as a way to enrich and nurture the process of communication and learning in this online glocal community. The sociocultural dialogical analyses also shed light on the ways in which participants gathering in discursive technological spaces benefit from the opportunity to go to class without commuting to the physical building of the institution providing the course. This identity position is, thus, both experienced by participants in interaction, and also afforded by the ‘spaceless’ nature of the online environment.

    List of papers
    1. Communication in the virtual classroom in higher education: languaging beyond the boundaries of time and space
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Communication in the virtual classroom in higher education: languaging beyond the boundaries of time and space
    2013 (English)In: Learning, Culture and Social Interaction, ISSN 2210-6561, E-ISSN 2210-657X, Vol. 2, no 3, p. 127-142Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The empirical study presented here focuses upon naturalistic social interaction in online synchronous communities within higher education. Our interests here relate to accounting for the communicative strategies employed by participants who are dealing with a common task, and how these specific tasks are negotiated within the constraints and opportunities accorded in the multimodal multilingual virtual setting. Taking sociocultural theoretical points of departure, we focus on students' languaging and use of tools when they have access to a range of resources inside the online videoconferencing program. The study is based upon screen recordings of both student-only and teacher-lead meetings during one semester in the online course Italian for beginners offered by a Swedish university. The analysis is two-fold: we provide an overview of the interactional patterns at the general lesson level in the data complemented by a micro-interactional analysis of selected slices of everyday life from two meetings. Our findings indicate that students make use of several resources that dialectically shape how they get positioned within the virtual community culture. These identification processes function as ways of enriching and nurturing learning, both of appropriating the target language, as well as enabling ways of being in multimodal, multilingual communities of practices.

    Keywords
    Language learning, Online synchronous environments, Multilingualism, Identities, Technology mediated social interaction
    National Category
    Pedagogy
    Research subject
    Education
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-32674 (URN)10.1016/j.lcsi.2013.04.003 (DOI)000340858600001 ()2-s2.0-84881367859 (Scopus ID)
    Projects
    Cincle, Studies of everyday Communication and Identity processes in Netbased Learning Environments
    Available from: 2013-12-08 Created: 2013-12-08 Last updated: 2018-05-21Bibliographically approved
    2. Understanding glocal learning spaces: an empirical study of languaging and transmigrant positions in the virtual classroom
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Understanding glocal learning spaces: an empirical study of languaging and transmigrant positions in the virtual classroom
    2014 (English)In: Learning, Media & Technology, ISSN 1743-9884, E-ISSN 1743-9892, Vol. 39, no 4, p. 468-487Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The use of digital tools like computers and tablets in institutional learning arenas give rise to forms of flexibility where time and space boundaries become diffuse. Online learning sites are understood as being crucial today, especially in large parts of the Global North, where anyone anywhere potentially can become a student and have access to educational opportunities. 

    This study focuses on the analysis of recorded sessions, part of an “Italian for (adult) beginners” online course. Our interests relate to accounting for how students negotiate different language varieties, including modalities, and how communication in virtual learning settings enables both flexible participation trajectories and identity positions in and across the boundaries of time and space.

    The sociocultural and dialogical analyses here are framed in terms of fluidity of “glocal” positions and (trans)languaging that emerge in and across time and space in Technology Mediated Communication. Our findings suggest that online environments support meaning-making where it is possible to identify alternative ways of (co)constructing and mediating learning. Such hybridity as well as the performative character of learning and identity display have important implications for online glocal communities.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Routledge, 2014
    Keywords
    translanguaging; language learning; higher education; online synchronous environments; transmodality; glocal communities
    National Category
    Pedagogy
    Research subject
    Education
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-38538 (URN)10.1080/17439884.2014.931868 (DOI)000343908000005 ()2-s2.0-84908645444 (Scopus ID)
    Projects
    CINLE
    Note

    Special theme issue "Media and migration: learning in a globalized world"

    Available from: 2014-11-12 Created: 2014-11-12 Last updated: 2018-06-11Bibliographically approved
    3. Mapping languaging in digital spaces: literacy practices at borderlands
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Mapping languaging in digital spaces: literacy practices at borderlands
    2016 (English)In: Language Learning & Technology, ISSN 1094-3501, E-ISSN 1094-3501, Vol. 20, no 3, p. 80-106Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Honolulu: University of Hawaii, 2016
    National Category
    Pedagogy
    Research subject
    Education
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-41826 (URN)000388443400010 ()2-s2.0-84994589695 (Scopus ID)
    Projects
    CINLE
    Available from: 2015-01-15 Created: 2015-01-15 Last updated: 2018-07-09Bibliographically approved
    4. Learning analytics to visually represent the mobility of learners in the language-focused virtual classroom: a multivocal approach
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Learning analytics to visually represent the mobility of learners in the language-focused virtual classroom: a multivocal approach
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Keywords
    technology-mediated communication, videoconferencing, virtual learning sites, social learning analytics, critical moments, dialogue, (im)mobilities, ethnography, multivocal analysis
    National Category
    Pedagogy
    Research subject
    Education
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-45570 (URN)
    Available from: 2015-08-14 Created: 2015-08-14 Last updated: 2017-10-17Bibliographically approved
  • 39.
    Morawski, Jan
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Mellan frihet och kontroll: om läroplanskonstruktioner i svensk skola2010Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this thesis is to explore how different competing discourses inthe historical context of the Swedish education development have qualifiedand disqualified different constructions of national curriculum. How andafter what kind of principles is the curriculum constructed? What qualifywho are going to be recognized as the author and addressee of the curriculum?These key questions of the study are discussed in the first part of thethesis. My point of departure is that the curriculum can be understood as arelation between freedom and control. In an educational system this relationshipreflects the problematic tension between the external demandsfrom an authoritative center and the local need to independently reflectover educational issues. How these concepts are defined by the prevailingsocial discourses affect specific relations and constructions of curricula as asteering tool and a producer of specific teacher identities. In this sense, Iclaim that curriculum is constructed in different ways depending on whichof the didactic questions are emphasized and answered and who is judgedas the legitimate author. Based on this, three models of curriculum constructionare formulated; the content based, the result based and the processbased. These models are subsequently used as an analytical tool to examinethe historical development of Swedish national curricula.The second part of the thesis investigates the Swedish education systemand the production of the national curriculum as a product of rival discourses.The historical investigation begins 1842 when the first state curriculumwas issued and the inquiry concludes in 2008. The findings indicatethat no one single construction has been totally dominant and thatthere has been an on-going discursive struggle between different alternativeand opinions about what teachers must do and be.

  • 40.
    Mårdh, Andreas
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Om historieämnets politiska dimension: diskursiva logiker i didaktisk praktik2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Today, history education is often a contested issue over which political frontiers are drawn between adversaries advocating fundamentally different visions of what constitutes a desirable curriculum and, by extension, a desirable society. At present, this dimension is in need of increased attention, considering that populist rhetoric has gained a foothold in mainstream politics and that history, as a school subject, continues to serve the purpose of constituting “the people”, often in national and ethnic terms. Against this background, the aim of this thesis is to comprehensively grasp the political dimension of history education by conducting methodological, empirical and theoretical investigations.

    The thesis draws on the pragmatist philosophy of democratic education as well as on post-structuralist theories of history, antagonism and populism. Methodologically, the thesis make use of the logics of critical explanation framework (LCE) to empirically explore how history classroom practices as well as contemporary right-wing populist discourse operate.

    The results show that the LCE methodology constitutes a viable analytical vocabulary for generating knowledge of the political dimension of history education. Furthermore, the thesis offers empirical knowledge about how and why practices of history education are interchangeably politicised and rendered stable by teachers, students and members of the public. Theoretically, populism, as a discursive logic, is criticised and then reconceptualised into an educative mode by which history teaching practices can be enacted. Collectively, the results provide a comprehensive understanding of the political dimension of history education.

    List of papers
    1. Inquiring into the political dimension of history classroom practices: Suggestions for epistemological criteria and analytical concepts
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Inquiring into the political dimension of history classroom practices: Suggestions for epistemological criteria and analytical concepts
    2019 (English)In: Historical Encounters: A journal of historical consciousness, historical cultures and history education, E-ISSN 2203-7543, Vol. 6, no 1, p. 15-28Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, three epistemological criteria are suggested against which analytical frameworks for studying the political dimension of history classroom practices can be deemed viable. The suggested criteria - (I) the primacy of practice, (II) the primacy of empirical openness and (III) the primacy of the political - are articulated by conducting critical and affirmative readings of previously established concepts, primarily historical consciousness. To clarify their application, the criteria are positioned in relation to the premises and concepts of a potential framework; namely, the logics of critical explanation (Glynos & Howarth, 2007), the viability of which is argued for theoretically and empirically.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    HERMES History Education Research Network, School of Education, The University of Newcastle, 2019
    Keywords
    History Education, History Wars, Politics, Classroom Practice
    National Category
    Didactics Pedagogy History
    Research subject
    Education; History
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-75848 (URN)000481624600002 ()
    Available from: 2019-08-21 Created: 2019-08-21 Last updated: 2019-09-18Bibliographically approved
    2. Between stability and contingency: A case study of the social, political and fantasmatic logics of Swedish history classroom practice
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Between stability and contingency: A case study of the social, political and fantasmatic logics of Swedish history classroom practice
    2019 (English)In: Nordidactica: Journal of Humanities and Social Science Education, ISSN 2000-9879, no 1, p. 132-155Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    This study explores the political and ideological workings of history classroom practices enacted in the context of Swedish upper secondary education. Using the post-structuralist logics of critical explanation framework (Glynos & Howarth, 2007), the paper reports on a series of video-recorded observations and outlines the discursive logics found to constitute the studied practices. At the heart of the analysis are the socially shared assumptions, political relationships of us-and-them, and ideological narratives that alternately furnish the history classroom practices with stability and contingency. The results encompass three case-specific logics: (I) a social logic demonstrating that the stability of the studied classroom practices rests on shared assumptions about historical idealism and partial progress, (II) a political logic indicating that the classroom practices are unsettled when students establish temporal equivalence between past and present us-and-them relationships, and (III) a fantasmatic logic showing that teachers and students become ideologically invested in said practices through narratives emphasizing the need to prevent the repetition of past injustices.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Karlstad: Karlstads universitet, 2019
    Keywords
    HISTORY DIDACTICS, CLASSROOM PRACTICE, POLITICAL DIMENSION, LOGICS
    National Category
    Didactics
    Research subject
    History; Education
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-73988 (URN)
    Available from: 2019-05-02 Created: 2019-05-02 Last updated: 2019-09-18Bibliographically approved
    3. Right-wing populism and history education: Some insights from a Swedish case study
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Right-wing populism and history education: Some insights from a Swedish case study
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    National Category
    Pedagogy
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-76498 (URN)
    Available from: 2019-09-18 Created: 2019-09-18 Last updated: 2019-09-18Bibliographically approved
    4. Democratic Education in the Mode of Populism
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Democratic Education in the Mode of Populism
    2017 (English)In: Studies in Philosophy and Education, ISSN 0039-3746, E-ISSN 1573-191X, Vol. 36, no 6, p. 601-613Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    This paper seeks to bring John Dewey’s pragmatist philosophy of democratic education and the public into dialogue with Ernesto Laclau’s theory of populism. Recognizing populism as an integral aspect of democracy, rather than as its antithesis, the purpose of this paper is to provide a theoretical account of populism as being of educational relevance in two respects. First, it argues that the populist logic specifies a set of formal elements by which democratic education could operate as a collective enterprise. Second, it asserts that the notion of populism supplements any congenial understanding of democratic education by bringing political demands, conflicts and affects to the fore. Finally, the paper discusses the risks and possibilities inherent in visualizing populism as an educational modus.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Springer, 2017
    Keywords
    Populism, Democratic education, The public, Demands, Affect, Antagonism
    National Category
    Pedagogy Philosophy
    Research subject
    Education
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-54881 (URN)10.1007/s11217-017-9564-5 (DOI)000412461800001 ()2-s2.0-85009848651 (Scopus ID)
    Note

    Funding Agency:

    LUN (The Board of Teacher Education) at Örebro University

    Available from: 2017-01-20 Created: 2017-01-20 Last updated: 2019-09-18Bibliographically approved
  • 41.
    Nilsson, Lena
    Örebro University, Department of Education.
    Hälsoarbetets möte med skolan i teori och praktik2003Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The overall aim of the thesis is to investigate whether, and if so how, schools can be developed in a way that foregrounds a greater awareness of their role in the promotion of health.

    This thesis is about how the school itself, that is to say everything that can be subsumed within the notion of education, can promote health. The conclusions that can be drawn from the literature review can be summarised as follows: "poor health inhibits learning" and "poor learning inhibits health". Based on empirical investigations of health promotional projects in schools, pictures of both schools and related health promotion projects emerge.

    Health promotion work ranges in extent from traditional dissemination of knowledge about health to methods for establishing dialogues in everyday work and about democratic issues. Health promotion practice is close to, and can even be confused with, activities for school development. Health promotion work can equally well be used as a tool in school development strategies. Training in conducting dialogues between different categories of staff and between students and teachers can function as one such tool. One precondition for such an encounter to take place, however, is that a broad and non-traditional concept of health is used.

    Health promotion work can be understood as one amongst a number of democratic strategies. When focusing on participation and democracy, health promotion work and school development become proximate to one another, despite the fact that they adopt different approaches and perspectives when looking at the same area or problem. Drawing on Foucault, however, health promotion work and school development can either be understood as a way of manipulating and disciplining "low income children" or, alternatively, as a means of empowerment, participation, development of "voice" and deliberation. There is thus an extensive field for further research and a number of examples, are presented. Drawing on the work of Richardson, "writing" is my main interpretative strategy for understanding both the literature and the empirical data. My work is also informed by a "problem-based methodology" based on that developed initially by Robinson.

  • 42.
    Nordmark, Marie
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Digitalt skrivande i gymnasieskolans svenskundervisning: en ämnesdidaktisk studie av skrivprocessen2014Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this thesis is to investigate the writing process in the teaching of the subject of Swedish at upper secondary school. This study analyses the relations between the pupils’ writing and the school environment in which the writing takes place and how the pupils position themselves and others in relation to their use of digital artefacts and norms in the classroom. The empirical material has been created in three classes at two different schools. The data consists of participant observations of 42 lessons, all of which were video recorded using two cameras, and audio recorded semi-structured interviews with 24 pupils and 3 teachers. Theoretically, the study is based on sociocultural perspectives on literacy and learning and a multimodal social semiotic understanding of meaning-making based on an interest in the use of resources that constitute meaning in the social environment. From an ecological perspective, writing is examined as discourses in which the participants and the environment interact. Analytic concepts are used by inspiration from Kress et al (2005) and Smidt (2002). The figure “Writing roles in fields of tension” has been constructed to illustrate the students’ writing roles and positioning's in the empirical material. The results show that the shift from paper and pen to computer and screen means more than a shift change in the use of artefacts. The teaching of digital writing has a point of departure as a project in communication. In multimodal environments, pupils are often left without access to a teacher due to the layout of the room. This leads to positioning in roles, such as help seeker and helper. The classrooms are characterised by the constant presence of social media and its demands on students’ attention. Earlier generations of writing processes emphasised the importance of prewriting, drafting and revision in stages. In the digital writing process these stages are lacking. In this context, the digital writing process can be understood as a “fourth generation process” consisting of writing, saving and sending. The fourth generation of writing process stresses on the writing at a micro- rather than macro level. The word processing functions of spelling and grammar offer clickable solutions to problems, but cannot be considered as tools for learning. In the digital classroom pupils are vulnerable, left to their own resources and have difficulties in handling complex assignments.

  • 43.
    Nylund, Mattias
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Yrkesutbildning, klass & kunskap: en studie om sociala och politiska implikationer av innehållets organisering i yrkesorienterad utbildning med fokus på 2011 års gymnasiereform2013Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    The overall purpose of this thesis is to critically contextualise the organization of content in Swedish upper-secondary vocational education by highlighting its social and political implications in relation to social class. Policy documents concerning the content of vocational education in Sweden from 1971 to 2011 serve as the main empirical source, with particular attention given to the reform of 2011 (Gy11). The thesis is comprised of four studies that each represents a different context that reveals social and political implications of the selection and organisation of content in Gy11. The content structure of Gy11 is thus analysed in relation to (a) the school’s role of fostering democratic citizens and the overarching societal function of education, (b) knowledge distribution among social classes, (c) a class context, including key historical and contemporary reforms, and (d) a modern historical context, focusing on how two previous structural reforms (1971 and 1994) organised power and control over educational content.

    The study results show that, in terms of its content structure and underlying principles, Gy11 represents a historical break with previous reforms in many respects. Fundamental organising principles of past reforms, such as students’ preparation for active citizenship, critical thinking and entry to higher education, have been given less importance while the content is more context-bound than in previous reforms. The Gy11 reform can thus be seen as a part of a broader policy trend that is detracting from earlier efforts to give all social classes equal access to an equivalent education and reduce social imbalances in education. This new way of shaping vocational education is, it is argued, likely to exacerbate class inequalities by both reducing social mobility and rendering knowledge distribution in society more asymmetric.

    List of papers
    1. Framtidsvägen: Vägen till vilken framtid för eleverna på gymnasieskolans yrkesprogram?
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Framtidsvägen: Vägen till vilken framtid för eleverna på gymnasieskolans yrkesprogram?
    2010 (Swedish)In: Pedagogisk forskning i Sverige, ISSN 1401-6788, E-ISSN 2001-3345, Vol. 15, no 1, p. 33-52Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Göteborg: Institutionen för pedagogik och didaktik, Göteborgs universitet, 2010
    Keywords
    framtidsvägen, yrkesutbildning, utbildningspolitik, läroplansteori, utbildningskonceptioner, gymnasiereform
    National Category
    Social Sciences Pedagogy
    Research subject
    Education
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-15385 (URN)
    Note

    Den 13 maj 2009 lämnade regeringen över proposition 2008/09:199 till riksdagen. Propositionen innehåller förslag till de mest omfattande och genomgripande förändringarna av gymnasieskolan sedan 90-talets gymnasiereform. Som underlag för propositionen ligger gymnasieutredningen Framtidsvägen – en reformerad gymnasieskola, vilken fick i uppdrag att föreslå en ny struktur för gymnasieskolan. Propositionen följer på de flesta punkter de förslag som presenterades i utredningen, och det är denna utredning som analyseras i föreliggande artikel. I artikeln riktas intresset mot utredningens förslag avseende den innehållsliga utformningen av de framtida yrkesprogrammen. De teoretiska utgångspunkterna hämtas från läroplansteoretisk forskning, framförallt från Englund (2005) och Carr och Hartnett (1996), där den historiska spänningen mellan skolans sociala-medborgerliga uppdrag och dess ekonomiska-arbetsmarknadsstyrda uppdrag fokuseras. Utredningens förslag till framtida yrkesprogram diskuteras mot bakgrund av vilket framtida samhälle, liksom vilken roll i detta samhälle, eleverna förbereds för. Avslutningsvis diskuteras vilken gymnasieskolans huvudsakliga samhälleliga funktion blir med utredningens förslag.

    Available from: 2011-04-27 Created: 2011-04-26 Last updated: 2017-12-11Bibliographically approved
    2. Gymnasiereformens konsekvenser för den sociala fördelningen av kunskaper i de yrkesorienterade utbildningarna
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Gymnasiereformens konsekvenser för den sociala fördelningen av kunskaper i de yrkesorienterade utbildningarna
    2011 (Swedish)In: Pedagogisk forskning i Sverige, ISSN 1401-6788, E-ISSN 2001-3345, Vol. 16, no 2, p. 81-100Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [sv]

    I föreliggande artikel analyseras den pågående gymnasiereformen (Prop 2008/09:199, SOU 2008:27) utifrån dess innebörd för kunskapers organise-ring i de yrkesorienterade utbildningarna. För att diskutera reformens möjliga kon-sekvenser analyseras den i relation till befintliga praktiker i en fordonsprograms-klass. Problemet som står i fokus är den ojämlika sociala fördelningen av kunskap och makt som föreligger mellan olika samhällsklasser. I denna problematik har de yrkesorienterade utbildningarna en central position, då dessa huvudsakligen både rekryterar elever från, tillika socialiserar för, arbetarklasspositioner. De teoretiska begreppen hämtas framförallt från utbildningssociologen Basil Bernstein, som skil-jer på kunskap organiserad i horisontella och vertikala diskurser, vilka ger olika förutsättningar för handling i olika sammanhang. Resultaten från analysen visar att befintliga praktiker i huvudsak är horisontellt organiserade och att de riskerar att ytterligare styras i den riktningen genom att reformen premierar starkt kontextbun-den, färdighetsorienterad, kunskap. För den sociala fördelningen av kunskap inne-bär detta att reformen i högre grad än vad som redan är fallet utestänger hälften av gymnasieungdomarna, företrädelsevis med bakgrund i arbetarklassen, från vertika-la diskurser, från kunskap som ger makt.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Stockholm: Stockholms universitets förlag, 2011
    Keywords
    Vocational education, education policy, educational ethnography, horizontal and vertical discourse, Basil Bernstein, social class, knowledge organisation
    National Category
    Educational Sciences
    Research subject
    Education
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-20768 (URN)
    Available from: 2012-01-13 Created: 2012-01-10 Last updated: 2018-05-03Bibliographically approved
    3. The relevance of class in education policy and research: the case of Sweden’s vocational education
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>The relevance of class in education policy and research: the case of Sweden’s vocational education
    2012 (English)In: Education Inquiry, ISSN 2000-4508, E-ISSN 2000-4508, Vol. 3, no 4, p. 591-613Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Over the last few decades, less importance has been attached to the concept of class in educational policy and educational research. Due to the continued relevance of class in many educational contexts, this article argues that this trend is unfortunate, untimely and unwarranted, and that important questions are overlooked as a result. As a case in point, the article examines contemporary policy trends in upper-secondary vocational education in Sweden. The article comprises two interrelated sections. The first discusses the more general matter of the relevance of class (and its critique) and how class can be understood in contemporary society. Following the conclusions from part one, the second section demonstrates how problems arise when vocational education is removed from its class context, illustrated by contemporary policy trends in Sweden where not only issues of class  are ignored, but policies are also adopted that are likely to augment class inequalities.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Taylor & Francis, 2012
    Keywords
    social class, education policy, vocational education, upper-secondary education, curriculum
    National Category
    Educational Sciences
    Research subject
    Education
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-31898 (URN)10.3402/edui.v3i4.22056 (DOI)
    Available from: 2013-10-11 Created: 2013-10-11 Last updated: 2019-06-14Bibliographically approved
    4. Ordnande principer för innehållets urval och organisering i de gymnasiala yrkesutbildningarna 1971-2011: en analys av tre strukturreformer
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Ordnande principer för innehållets urval och organisering i de gymnasiala yrkesutbildningarna 1971-2011: en analys av tre strukturreformer
    (Swedish)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I föreliggande artikel diskuteras vilka ordnande principer som legat bakom skolinnehållets urval och organisering i de gymnasiala yrkesorienterade utbildningarna 1971-2011 genom en analys av de tre större utbildningsreformer som genomförts under perioden. Utbildningssociologen Basil Bernsteins arbeten tas som utgångspunkt och utformningen av de yrkesorienterade utbildningarna analyseras som olika modaliteter av en pedagogisk kod. Analysen visar på såväl kontinuiteter som förändringar mellan reformerna avseende innehållets urval och organisering samt makten och kontrollen över (och genom) detta. Exempel på slutsatser är att 1970- och 1990-talets reformer styrdes utifrån en sammanförande princip medan Gy11 styrs efter en isärhållande princip. Gy11 representerar också i jämförelse med tidigare reformer en mer entydig modalitet där marknadsstyrning dominerar. En annan slutsats är att kunskapsfrågan varit marginaliserad i samtliga reformer och att man kan se en historisk rörelse från att specifika kunskaper prioriteras (1970) till egenskaper; flexibel (1990) och anställningsbar (2011). Samtliga reformer representerar relativt tydliga kodmodaliteter och på ett övergripande plan förskjuts balansen avseende makten över innehållet från stat (1970) till elev (1990), till arbetsliv och företag (2011). De ordnande principerna för innehållet representerar en historisk rörelse från en konservativ pedagogik med radikala inslag (1970) till en progressiv pedagogik med svaga radikala inslag (1990) till en tydligt konservativ pedagogik (2011).

    National Category
    Educational Sciences
    Research subject
    Education
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-31899 (URN)
    Available from: 2013-10-11 Created: 2013-10-11 Last updated: 2017-10-17Bibliographically approved
  • 44.
    Nylén, Roger
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Sambandet mellan ämnesdidaktik och ämneskunskap i historia.: En studie av hur lärare påverkas, planerar och genomför undervisning i ämnet historia.2012Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 45. Odora Hoppers, Chaterine
    et al.
    Gustavsson, BerntÖrebro University, Department of Education.Motala, EnverPampallis, John
    Democracy and human rights in education and society: explorations from South Africa and Sweden2007Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • 46.
    Ohlsson, Ulla
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Vägen in i ett yrke: en studie av lärande och kunskasputveckling hos nyutbildade sjuksköterskor2009Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The path to a career in nursing begins on the first day of nursing training and is not completed until the nurses have worked one year in their profession. During the training period, the student nurses have training elements in two different activitysystems: the higher education institution and the healthcare sector. The aim of this study is to examine and highlight the relationship between the different parts of the training as well as how the relationship is manifested during the newly qualified nurses’ initial period in the profession. The research’s overall question is what makes the newly qualified nurses’ learning and knowledge development easier or harder in relation to the different parts of the nursing training. Interviews have been used to create data which have been analysed based on activity theory, a social theory of learning and different ways of describing knowledge. The research findings show that the activity systems have different knowledge cultures, learning processes and patterns of action. The study participants describe the differences in terms of being in ‘different worlds’. The newly qualified nurses do not always have the practical skills that are sought after and, therefore, cannot always act as independent subjects, but become marginalized non-participants who observe the course of events. Supervision and the rounds are the two most demanding duties during the first year in the profession, since these duties have been practiced to a limited extent during the nurse training placement. The supervisory function appears different to newly qualified male and female nurses. The women in the study feel that it is problematic to be a supervisor for older experienced assistant nurses, in that the assistant nurses do not accept them as supervisors. The men do not indicate this as being a problem, rather emphasizing that the assistant nurses support them in the supervisory function. During the rounds, the nurses must inform the doctor of the state of the patients’ health and care needs. The participants feel that it is difficult to live up to the doctors’ demands ahead of the rounds. In summary, my findings show that the different knowledge cultures in the higher education institution and the healthcare sector make the newly qualified nurses’ learning and knowledge development more difficult. During the first year in the profession, the newly qualified nurses learn to be nurses, and they talk about themselves as nurses in a totally different way than at the start of that year. The changed way of talking about themselves indicates that they have recreated their identity from student nurses to nurses.

  • 47.
    Olsson, Anna-Lova
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Strävan mot unselfing: en pedagogisk studie av bildningstanken hos Iris Murdoch2015Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This dissertation is a study in philosophy of education and focuses on the moral dimensions of an individual’s formation, and on how reading fictional literature can contribute to the process of formation. The point of departure is the notion that education contains – or should contain – moral dimensions and thus contributes to the formation of individual life and a life shared with others. The study revolves around the philosophical works of Iris Murdoch (1919-1999) and what she calls “moral transformation” - a task and a striving towards realism and unselfishness. The study is concluded by a discussion of how Murdoch’s thinking contributes to the understanding of formation within philosophy of education.

    It is argued that Murdoch’s ideas about moral transformation can be summarised in four theses and that these show that transformation is a process of profound individual change. The theses are in short: 1) imagination supports moral transformation by allowing the individual to understand the world in a more realistic way, 2) attention supports transformation by directing the individual towards the good, 3) unselfing is a moral state of consciousness and a transformative process that leads towards unselfishness. The ego is subdued and the individual opens up to the influence of his or her surroundings, 4) reading fictional literature supports the moral transformation of the individual if the text has a quality of imagination.

    The study shows that Murdoch’s work can make an important contribution to the understanding of formation within the philosophy of education: With the idea of moral transformation as a point of departure the study develops questions of the individual’s formation by highlighting individuality and imagination. Moral transformation means gaining a deeper presence in one’s relationships, and it is a continuous process of discovering the world that the individual needs to endeavour to maintain. It is a striving towards unselfing.

  • 48.
    Pettersson, Charlotta
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Kursplaners möjlighetsrum: om nationella kursplaners transformation till lokala2013Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This study explores the transformation of national syllabuses into local ones, as expressed in teachers’ organized conversations. It also investigates what view of knowledge is expressed in local syllabuses and what implications that view has for the educational task entrusted to schools by society. The data collected consist of six focus-group conversations in which teachers discuss national and local syllabuses. The thesis takes its theoretical point of departure in relational curriculum theory, with support from Ricoeur. These perspectives form the basis for the model that is used to study the transformation of national syllabuses are transformed into local ones – and what they are transformed in relation to. This transformation process results in four local ‘spaces of possibilities’: The analysis shows that teachers interpret the national syllabuses as documents which open up unlimited freedom in their teaching. The teachers use this freedom to turn from the content of national syllabuses towards other texts. Teachers feel that the only thing limiting them in their teaching is the grading of students, which places many different kinds of demands on them. The view of knowledge that emerges from the spaces of possibilities described is an individualistic one. The teachers fall back on their own experience, rather than reading, interpreting and developing an understanding of what the national syllabuses mean in relation to their experience and knowledge. In terms of content, the education provided is directed inwards towards the teacher’s own individual view of knowledge, rather than outwards towards the task given to schools by society. It is concluded that it is the teachers who, individually and based on their personal points of view, decide what knowledge students need to prepare them for life, rather than the goals set out in national syllabuses.

  • 49.
    Quennerstedt, Ann
    Örebro University, Department of Education.
    Kommunen - en part i utbildningspolitiken?2006Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This dissertation focuses on the municipality (the local authority) as a participant in Swedish educational policy. The reform of school governance in the 1990s, gave municipality wider authority in the educational field and a greater responsibility for education. Discussions about the equivalence of education were a key aspect in decentralising school governance and responsibility for education, and questions were raised about how equivalence would be affected by increased local influence on education. Since the meaning of equivalence had become contested in educational policy, the answer differed. In the dissertation, political discussions about the municipality and about equivalent education are merged, and together form a base for the main question: In what different ways are the municipality constructed as a participant in educational policy?

    The analysis is undertaken within a curriculum theory tradition and from a discourse theory perspective that focuses school and education as situated in a field of tension determined by social and political struggle. The research interest is directed to the world as constructed in language and communication. The empirical material studied in the dissertation consists of national political texts, texts from the National Agency for Education and interviews with local politicians (local authority committee members).

    From the analysis, three discourses about the municipality as a participant in educational policy are identified. These are:

    The municipality as responsible for performance, which centres the construction of the municipality on a responsibility for educational performance. All actions undertaken by the municipality are in the discourse defined within a framework of goal achievement and results.

    The municipality as a non-participant, where the municipality has no place in educational policy or realisation of the educational system. Education is considered as a matter between the state, the professionals and the families.

    The municipality as a political-ideological actor, where the municipality is constructed as a participant with scope to organise school on the basis of certain political and ideological principles. The ideological stance adopted by the political majority guides the municipality’s actions in the educational field.

    The discourses have tangible consequences for the shape which school education assumes on a day-to-day basis in municipalities. Depending on which discourse that dominates a municipality’s understanding of its own role, the actions undertaken by that municipality will be more or less directed towards education performance, and more or less ideologically based.

  • 50.
    Quennerstedt, Mikael
    Örebro University, Department of Education.
    Att lära sig hälsa2006Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this dissertation is to contribute to an understanding of the subject content in Physical Education (PE) foremost from a health perspective. By using an approach deriving from John Dewey’s transactional perspective on meaningmaking (Bentley & Dewey 1949), and a discourse theoretical position, the discourses identified in the dissertation’s studies are consequently regarded as participants in pupils’ meaning-making. This makes it possible to discuss the results of the studies in terms of the institutional content and conditions of meaning-making in PE. The thesis consists of three different discourse analyses, where the institutionalised aspect of meaning-making in PE is examined by analysing local curriculum documents from 72 Swedish compulsory schools.

    The results of the dissertation show that in the study of subject content in PE a dominance of an activity discourse can be identified, although a social development discourse is also identified as being important in the documents. The results, thus, suggest that the subject content of PE can be characterised by a wide variety of activities, where pupils are expected to be active participants in the sense of being physically active. The content is also characterised by actions promoting good relationships, co-operation and consideration for others. Actions privileged within the discourses in PE are movement, physical activity, trying many different activities together, active participation, good relations and enjoyment.

    The results also show that health is explicitly constituted as fitness training, life-long physical activity and knowledge about physical training based on scientific facts from physiology and anatomy. Learning health in PE thus mainly consists of a pathogenic health discourse. But from a salutogenic perspective, health is also constituted as the possibility to participate in movement, physical leisure activities and social relations, and enjoy a life-long engagement in different movement and sport activities. The analysis also shows, however, that within the frame of the subject content of PE, it is also possible to regard health in terms of a commitment to health- and environmental issues, a sense of well-being in ongoing activities and an active involvement in subject content matters within PE. Health can therefore be constituted in different ways within PE, although this is not always made explicit in the local curriculum documents.

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