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  • 1.
    Andersson, Lena
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Quartz in Swedish iron foundries: exposure and cancer risk2012Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aims of the studies underlying this thesis were to assess the exposure to quartz in Swedish iron foundries and to determine the cancer morbidity for Swedish foundry workers. A cohort of 3,045 foundry workers and a final measurement database of 2,333 number of samples was established.

    The exposure measurements showed high levels of respirable quartz, in particular for fettlers and furnace and ladle repair workers with individual 8 hr TWA (GM=0.041 and 0.052 mg/m3; range 0.004-2.1 and 0.0098-0.83 mg/m3). In our database, the quartz concentrations as 8hr TWAs of current and historical data varied between 0.0018 and 4.9 mg/m3, averaging 0.083 mg/m3, with the highest exposures for fettlers (0.087 mg/m3) and furnace and ladle repair workers (0.42 mg/m3). The exposure for workers using respirators assuming full effect when used were assessed quantitatively, revealing workers with actual exposure exceeding the occupational exposure limits.

    Overall cancer morbidity was not increased, but the incidence of lung cancer was significantly elevated (SIR 1.61; 95 % CI 1.20-2.12). In the cohort study, significant associations between lung cancer and cumulative quartz exposure were detected for quartz doses of 1-2 mg/m3 * year (SIR 2.88; 95 % CI 1.44-5.16) and >2 mg/m3 * year (SIR 1.68; 95 % CI 1.07- 2.52). These findings were not confirmed in the case-control analysis.

    The agreement between the estimated exposure in our early historical model and the development model showed a regression coefficient of 2.42, implying an underestimation of the historical exposure when using the development model data. The corresponding comparison between the development and the validation model based on our survey data showed a B of 0.31, implying an overestimation of present exposures when using data from the validation model.

    The main conclusions of the thesis are that certain foundry workers are still exposed to high levels of quartz, and the overall excess lung cancer could not be confirmed in the exposure-response analysis.

    List of papers
    1. Quartz and dust exposure in Swedish iron foundries
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Quartz and dust exposure in Swedish iron foundries
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    2009 (English)In: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, ISSN 1545-9624, E-ISSN 1545-9632, Vol. 6, no 1, p. 9-18Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Exposure to respirable quartz continues to be a major concern in the Swedish iron foundry industry. Recommendations for reducing the European occupational exposure limit (EU-OEL) to 0.05 mg/m3 and the corresponding ACGIH® threshold limit value (ACGIH-TLV) to 0.025 mg/m3 prompted this exposure survey. Occupational exposure to respirable dust and respirable quartz were determined in 11 Swedish iron foundries, representing different sizes of industrial operation and different manufacturing techniques. In total, 436 respirable dust and 435 respirable quartz exposure measurements associated with all job titles were carried out and are presented as time-weighted averages. Our sampling strategy enabled us to evaluate the use of respirators in certain jobs, thus determining actual exposure. In addition, measurements using real-time dust monitors were made for high exposure jobs. For respirable quartz, 23% of all the measurements exceeded the EU-OEL, and 56% exceeded the ACGIH-TLV. The overall geometric mean (GM) for the quartz levels was 0.028 mg/m3, ranging from 0.003 to 2.1 mg/m3. Fettler and furnace and ladle repair operatives were exposed to the highest levels of both respirable dust (GM = 0.69 and 1.2 mg/m3; range 0.076-31 and 0.25-9.3 mg/m3 and respirable quartz (GM = 0.041 and 0.052 mg/m3; range 0.004-2.1 and 0.0098-0.83 mg/m3. Fettlers often used respirators and their actual quartz exposure was lower (range 0.003-0.21 mg/m3, but in some cases it still exceeded the Swedish OEL (0.1 mg/m3. For furnace and ladle repair operatives, the actual quartz exposure did not exceed the OEL (range 0.003-0.08 mg/m3, but most respirators provided insufficient protection, i.e., factors less than 200. In summary, measurements in Swedish iron foundries revealed high exposures to respirable quartz, in particular for fettlers and furnace and ladle repair workers. The suggested EU-OEL and the ACGIH-TLV were exceeded in, respectively, 23% and 56% of all measurements regardless of the type of foundry. Further work on elimination techniques to reduce quartz concentrations, along with control of personal protection equipment, is essential.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Philadelphia, PA: Taylor & Francis, 2009
    Keywords
    exposure, iron foundry, quartz; respirators
    National Category
    Medical and Health Sciences Occupational Health and Environmental Health
    Research subject
    Occupational and Environmental Medicine
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-3404 (URN)10.1080/15459620802523943 (DOI)000261508800002 ()18982534 (PubMedID)
    Available from: 2008-12-04 Created: 2008-12-04 Last updated: 2018-01-13Bibliographically approved
    2. Cancer morbidity and quartz exposure in Swedish iron foundries
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Cancer morbidity and quartz exposure in Swedish iron foundries
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    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Keywords
    Cohort study, lung cancer, occupational exposure, respirable silica, smoking habits
    National Category
    Medical and Health Sciences Occupational Health and Environmental Health
    Research subject
    Occupational and Environmental Medicine
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-21292 (URN)
    Available from: 2012-01-24 Created: 2012-01-24 Last updated: 2018-01-12Bibliographically approved
    3. Exposure assessment and modeling of quartz in Swedish iron foundries for a nested case-control study on lung cancer
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Exposure assessment and modeling of quartz in Swedish iron foundries for a nested case-control study on lung cancer
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    2012 (English)In: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, ISSN 1545-9624, E-ISSN 1545-9632, Vol. 9, no 2, p. 110-119Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Exposure assessment of quartz in Swedish iron foundries was performed based on historical and present measurement data. To evaluate the exposure response relationship between quartz exposure and lung cancer, we modeled quartz exposure from our database of measurements using determinants job title, time period and company. Based on these modeled exposure data, we conducted a nested case– control evaluation.

    In our database, the overall individual daily time-weighted average (TWA) quartz concentrations of current and historical data varied between 0.0018 and 4.9 mg/m3, averaging 0.083 mg/m3. The job titles with mean TWAs for the whole study period exceeding the European Union recommended occupational exposure limit of 0.05 mg/m3 were fettlers (0.087 mg/m3), furnace and ladle repair (0.42 mg/m3) and maintenance (0.054 mg/m3) workers.

    The mixed model analysis demonstrated significant determinants on the job level for furnace and ladle repair (β=4.06; 95% CI 2.78-5.93). For all jobs significantly higher exposure levels occurred only during the first time period, 1968-1979 (β=2.08; 95% CI 1.75-2.47), and a decreasing but not significant trend was noted for the three following 10 year time periods up to 2006 (β=1.0, 0.96 and 1, respectively). Two iron foundries had significantly higher quartz concentration levels than the others (β=1.31; 95% CI 1.00-1.71 and β=1.63; 95% CI 1.00-2.65, respectively). The individual cumulative quartz exposure measures were categorized in low, medium and high exposure (0.5-<1, 1-1.9 and ≥2 mg/m3 *years, respectively).

    In the nested case-control analysis, we found the highest odds ratios of lung cancer (OR 1.17; 95% CI 0.53-2.55) for the medium exposure group. No dose– response trend or significantly increased risk was determined for our high exposed group (≥2 mg/m3), representing 40 years of exposure at >0.05 mg/m3 of quartz. To conclude, certain foundry workers are still exposed to high levels of quartz, but an increased risk of lung cancer caused by quartz exposure in these Swedish iron foundries could not be confirmed at our exposure levels.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Philadelphia: Taylor & Francis, 2012
    Keywords
    Exposure modeling, iron foundry, lung cancer, quartz
    National Category
    Medical and Health Sciences Occupational Health and Environmental Health
    Research subject
    Occupational and Environmental Medicine
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-21293 (URN)10.1080/15459624.2011.645397 (DOI)000300962700009 ()22239127 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-84860878860 (Scopus ID)
    Funder
    AFA Insurance
    Note

    Funding Abency:

    AFA, Stockholm 

    Available from: 2012-01-24 Created: 2012-01-24 Last updated: 2018-05-08Bibliographically approved
    4. Estimating trends in quartz exposure in Swedish iron foundries: predicting past and present exposures
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Estimating trends in quartz exposure in Swedish iron foundries: predicting past and present exposures
    2012 (English)In: Annals of Occupational Hygiene, ISSN 0003-4878, E-ISSN 1475-3162, Vol. 56, no 3, p. 362-372Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Swedish foundries have a long tradition of legally required surveys in the work place that, from the late 1960s onwards, included measurements of quartz. The availability of exposure data spanning almost 40 years presents a unique opportunity to study trends over that time and to evaluate the validity of exposure models based on data from shorter time spans. The aims of this study were (i) to investigate long term trends in quartz exposure over time, (ii) using routinely collected quartz exposure measurements to develop a mathematical model that could predict both historical and current exposure patterns, and (iii) to validate this exposure model with up-to-date measurements from a targeted survey of the industry.

    Methods: Eleven foundries, representative of the Swedish iron foundry industry, were divided into three groups based on the size of the companies, i.e. the number of employees. A database containing 2333 quartz exposure measurements for 11 different job descriptionswas used to create three models that covered time periods which reflected different work conditions and production processes: a historical model (1968– 1989), a development model (1990–2004), and a validation model (2005–2006). A linear mixed model for repeated measurements was used to investigate trends over time. In all mixed models, time period, company size, and job title were included as fixed (categorical) determinants of exposure. The within- and between-worker variances were considered to be random effects. A linear regression analysis was erformed to investigate agreement between the models. The average exposure was estimated for each combination of job title and company size.

    Results: A large reduction in exposure (51%) was seen between 1968 and 1974 and between 1975 and 1979 (28%). In later periods, quartz exposure was reduced by 8% per 5 years at best. In the first period, employees at smaller companies experienced ~50%higher exposure levels than those at large companies, but these differences became much smaller in later years. The furnace and ladle repair job were associated with the highest exposure, with 3.9–8.0 times the average exposure compared to the lowest exposed group. Without adjusting for this autonomous trend over time, predicting early historical exposures using our development model resulted in a statistically significant regression coefficient of 2.42 (R2 5 0.81), indicating an underestimation of historical exposure levels. Similar patterns were seen for other historical time periods. Comparing our development model with our validation model resulted in a statistically significant regression coefficient of 0.31, indicating an overestimation of current exposure levels.

    Conclusion: To investigate long-term trends in quartz exposure over time, overall linear trends can be determined by using mixed model analysis. To create individual exposure measures to predict historical exposures, it is necessary to consider factors such as the time period, type of job, type of company, and company size. The mixed model analysis showed systematic changes in concentration levels, implying that extrapolation of exposure estimates outside the range of years covered by measurements may result in underestimation or overestimation of exposure.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Oxford, United Kingdom: Oxford University Press, 2012
    Keywords
    Iron foundry, predicting exposures, quartz, time trends
    National Category
    Medical and Health Sciences Occupational Health and Environmental Health
    Research subject
    Occupational and Environmental Medicine
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-21296 (URN)10.1093/annhyg/mer106 (DOI)000302015600011 ()22104319 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-84858671192 (Scopus ID)
    Available from: 2012-01-24 Created: 2012-01-24 Last updated: 2018-05-08Bibliographically approved
  • 2.
    Arwidsson, Zandra
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Organic complexing agents for remediation of heavy metal contaminated soil2009Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Soil washing of heavy metal contaminated soil may be enhanced by the addition of synthetic chelators. Since many of these chelators may imply stress to soil organisms and are poorly biodegraded, identification and evaluation of effective biodegradable or recyclable chelators (synthetic and/or naturally produced) is of great interest. The efficiency of biodegradable synthetic chelators was evaluated both in bench- (0.3 kg) and meso- (10 kg) scale. Results demonstrated that the solubilization of copper, lead, and zinc was similar in bench- and meso-scale systems, which indicated that these systems could be used in a technical scale. However, the arsenic extraction in meso-scale system, were non-conclusive. Due to the high cost involved in the purchase of synthetic chelating agents, recycling of the solutions is of great interest, and this was achieved in five consecutive washing cycles. Considering the economy of a full-scale process, recycling of complexing solutions with sulfide addition at each cycle, both at the 100 mM-level, appears feasible. Naturally derived chelators were produced by saprotrophic fungi and through alkaline degradation of humic substances and cellulose. The results demonstrated that these types of complexing agents are not as effective as the synthetic chelators. In the fungal systems, desorption of metals was related to production of organic complexing acids, but mainly to the pH-decrease. Nonetheless, in some systems, formation of soluble complexes was indicated (copper). Enhancement of copper, lead, and zinc release with the use of alkaline leachates from wood and peat appeared possible. Since these agents have a natural origin and are derived from rather cheap raw material, recycling is not an issue.

     

    List of papers
    1. Remediation of Metal Contaminated Soil by Organic Metabolites from Fungi I—Production of Organic Acids
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Remediation of Metal Contaminated Soil by Organic Metabolites from Fungi I—Production of Organic Acids
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    2008 (English)In: Water, Air and Soil Pollution, ISSN 0049-6979, E-ISSN 1573-2932, Vol. 205, no 1-4, p. 215-226Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Investigations were made on living strains offungi in a bioremediation process of three metal (lead)contaminated soils. Three saprotrophic fungi (Aspergillusniger, Penicillium bilaiae, and a Penicillium sp.) wereexposed to poor and rich nutrient conditions (no carbonavailability or 0.11 M D-glucose, respectively) andmetal stress (25 μM lead or contaminated soils) for5 days. Exudation of low molecular weight organicacids was investigated as a response to the metal andnutrient conditions. Main organic acids identified wereoxalic acid (A. niger) and citric acid (P. bilaiae).Exudation rates of oxalate decreased in response tolead exposure, while exudation rates of citrate were lessaffected. Total production under poor nutrient conditionswas low, except for A. niger, for which nosignificant difference was found between the poor andrich control. Maximum exudation rates were 20 μmoloxalic acid g^−1 biomass h^−1 (A. niger) and 20 μmolcitric acid g^−1 biomass h^−1 (P. bilaiae), in the presenceof the contaminated soil, but only 5 μmol organic acidsg^−1 biomass h^−1, in total, for the Penicillium sp. Therewas a significant mobilization of metals from the soilsin the carbon rich treatments and maximum release ofPb was 12% from the soils after 5 days. This was notsufficient to bring down the remaining concentration tothe target level 300 mg kg^−1 from initial levels of 3,800,1,600, and 370 mg kg^−1in the three soils. Target levelsfor Ni, Zn, and Cu, were 120, 500, and 200 mg kg^−1,respectively, and were prior to the bioremediationalready below these concentrations (except for Cu Soil1). However, maximum release of Ni, Zn, and Cu was28%, 35%, and 90%, respectively. The release of metalswas related to the production of chelating acids, but alsoto the pH-decrease. This illustrates the potential to usefungi exudates in bioremediation of contaminated soil.Nonetheless, the extent of the generation of organicacids is depending on several processes and mechanismsthat need to be further investigated.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Berlin, Germany: Springer, 2008
    Keywords
    Bioremediation, Citric acid, Fungi, Lead, Organic acids, Oxalic acid
    National Category
    Natural Sciences Environmental Sciences
    Research subject
    Environmental Chemistry
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-11843 (URN)10.1007/s11270-009-0067-z (DOI)000272851000016 ()2-s2.0-75049083063 (Scopus ID)
    Available from: 2010-09-15 Created: 2010-09-15 Last updated: 2017-12-12Bibliographically approved
    2. Remediation of Metal-Contaminated Soil by Organic Metabolites from Fungi II-Metal Redistribution
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Remediation of Metal-Contaminated Soil by Organic Metabolites from Fungi II-Metal Redistribution
    2010 (English)In: Water, Air and Soil Pollution, ISSN 0049-6979, E-ISSN 1573-2932, Vol. 207, no 1-4, p. 5-18Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Exudation of low molecular weight organic acids by fungi was studied in a project focusing on bioremediation of metal-contaminated soils. The production of acids (mainly oxalic and citric acid) as a response to nutrient variations and presence of metals has recently been reported (Arwidsson et al. 2009). A significant release of metals was observed and was related not only to the production of organic acids but also to the resulting pH decrease in the systems. The processes governing the release and redistribution of metals in the soil-water fungus system were the focus of the present continuation of the project, based on observations of Aspergillus niger, Penicillium bilaiae, and a Penicillium sp. The release of lead was 12% from the soil with the second highest initial load (1,600 mg kg(-1)), while the release of copper was 90% from the same soil (140 mg kg(-1)). The dominating mechanism behind the release and subsequent redistribution was the change in pH, going from near neutral to values in the range 2.1-5.9, reflecting the production of organic acids. For some of the systems, the formation of soluble complexes is indicated (copper, at intermediate pH) which favors the metal release. Iron is assumed to play a key role since the amount of secondary iron in the soils is higher than the total load of secondary heavy metals. It can be assumed that most of the heavy metals are initially associated with iron-rich phases through adsorption or coprecipitation. These phases can be dissolved, or associated metals can be desorbed, by a decrease in pH. It would be feasible to further develop a process in technical scale for remediation of metal-contaminated soil, based on microbial metabolite production leading to formation of soluble metal complexes, notably with copper.

    Keywords
    Bioremediation, Fungi, Metals, Oxalic acid, Citric acid
    National Category
    Chemical Sciences
    Research subject
    Chemistry
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-13015 (URN)10.1007/s11270-009-0222-6 (DOI)000274550700002 ()
    Available from: 2011-01-03 Created: 2011-01-03 Last updated: 2018-04-19Bibliographically approved
    3. Leaching of metals from contamined soil with polyhydroxycarboxylic acids of natural origin
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Leaching of metals from contamined soil with polyhydroxycarboxylic acids of natural origin
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    National Category
    Environmental Sciences
    Research subject
    Enviromental Science
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-15427 (URN)
    Available from: 2011-04-29 Created: 2011-04-29 Last updated: 2017-10-17Bibliographically approved
    4. Remediation of heavy metal contaminated soil washing residues with amino polycarboxylic acids
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Remediation of heavy metal contaminated soil washing residues with amino polycarboxylic acids
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    2010 (English)In: Journal of Hazardous Materials, ISSN 0304-3894, E-ISSN 1873-3336, Vol. 173, no 1-3, p. 697-704Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Removal of Cu, Pb, and Zn by the action of the two biodegradable chelating agents [S,S]-ethylenediaminedisuccinic acid (EDDS) and methylglycinediacetic acid (MGDA), as well as citric acid, was tested. Three soil samples, which had previously been treated by conventional soil washing (water), were utilized in the leaching tests. Experiments were performed in batches (0.3 kg-scale) and with a WTC-mixer system (Water Treatment Construction, 10 kg-scale). EDDS and MGDA were most often equally efficient in removing Cu, Pb, and Zn after 10-60 min. Nonetheless, after 10 d, there were occasionally significant differences in extraction efficiencies. Extraction with citric acid was generally less efficient, however equal for Zn (mainly) after 10 d. Metal removal was similar in batch and WTC-mixer systems, which indicates that a dynamic mixer system could be used in full-scale. Use of biodegradable amino polycarboxylic acids for metal removal, as a second step after soil washing, would release most remaining metals (Cu, Pb and Zn) from the present soils, however only after long leaching time. Thus, a full-scale procedure, based on enhanced metal leaching by amino polycarboxylic acids from soil of the present kind, Would require a pre-leaching step lasting several days in order to be efficient. (C) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

    Keywords
    Heavy metals, Amino polycarboxylic acids, Soil, Remediation, EDDS, MGDA
    National Category
    Chemical Sciences
    Research subject
    Chemistry
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-13043 (URN)10.1016/j.jhazmat.2009.08.141 (DOI)000273135600098 ()
    Available from: 2011-01-03 Created: 2011-01-03 Last updated: 2018-04-19Bibliographically approved
    5. Recycling of amino polycarboxylic acids in soil washing of heavy metal contaminated soil
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Recycling of amino polycarboxylic acids in soil washing of heavy metal contaminated soil
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    National Category
    Environmental Sciences
    Research subject
    Enviromental Science
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-15428 (URN)
    Available from: 2011-04-29 Created: 2011-04-29 Last updated: 2017-10-17Bibliographically approved
    6. Laboratory and pilot scale soil washing of PAH and arsenic from a wood preservation site: Changes in concentration and toxicity
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Laboratory and pilot scale soil washing of PAH and arsenic from a wood preservation site: Changes in concentration and toxicity
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    2009 (English)In: Journal of Hazardous Materials, ISSN 0304-3894, E-ISSN 1873-3336, Vol. 172, no 2-3, p. 1033-1040Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Soil washing of a soil with a mixture of both polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and As was evaluated in laboratory and pilot scale, utilizing both single and mixtures of different additives. The highest level of decontamination was achieved with a combination of 0.213 M of the chelating agent MGDA and 3.2xCMC* of a nonionic, alkyl glucoside surfactant at pH 12 (Ca(OH)2). This combination managed to reach Swedish threshold values within 10 min of treat­ment when performed at elevated temperature (50°C), with initial conta­minant concentrations of As = 105±4 mg/kg and US-EPA PAH16 = 46.0±2.3 mg/kg. The main mechanisms behind the removal were the pH-effect for As and a combina­tion of SOM-ionization as a result of high pH and micellar solu­bilization for PAHs. Implementation of the laboratory results utilizing a pilot scale equipment did not improve the performance, which may be due to the shorter contact time between the washing solution and the particles, or changes in physical characte­ristics of the leaching solution due to the elevated pressure utilized. The ecotox­icological evaluation, Microtox®, demonstrated that all soil washing treatments increased the toxicity of soil leachates, possibly due to in­creased availability of contaminants and toxicity of soil washing solutions to the test organism.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Amsterdam: Elsevier, 2009
    Keywords
    Arsenic, Microtox®, PAH, Soil washing, Surfactant
    National Category
    Environmental Sciences
    Research subject
    Enviromental Science
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-7988 (URN)10.1016/j.jhazmat.2009.07.092 (DOI)000271980800068 ()19699582 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-71049155866 (Scopus ID)
    Available from: 2009-09-23 Created: 2009-09-23 Last updated: 2017-12-13Bibliographically approved
  • 3.
    Benyamine, Michelle
    Örebro University, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Theoretical disputes and practical environmental dilemmas: an interdisciplinary study2002Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this thesis is to analyse the scientific basis for diverging recommendations in environmental management. A further aim of this study is to discuss the links and interactions between disciplines related to science of environmental issues, and between natural science and practice in dealing with environmental management and ecological sustainability. The question at issue was whether ontological (how the world is constituted) and epistemological (how achieve knowledge about the world) differences between disciplines lead to opposing conclusions. Scientific disputes were selected systematically to examine and analyse the theoretical characteristics and reasons of these disputes. Two case studies were selected: forest nitrogen fertilisation and constructed wetlands. Content analysis was used to study the theoretical content of and the reasons for the disputes within these two scientific areas. Research articles published in peer-reviewed journals, conference proceedings, and publications in anthologies were chosen as the empirical material.

     

    The results show that theoretical disputes arise from the diversity of disciplines and fragmentation of theoretical frameworks. The conclusions are that one way to overcome scientific disputes and achieve common knowledge and solutions to environmental problems is to identify and compare values and principles of the different scientific research traditions.

    List of papers
    1. Forest nitrogen fertilisation
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Forest nitrogen fertilisation
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    National Category
    Natural Sciences
    Research subject
    Enviromental Science
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-15930 (URN)
    Available from: 2011-06-15 Created: 2011-06-15 Last updated: 2017-10-17Bibliographically approved
    2. Why forest nitrogen fertilization is debated
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Why forest nitrogen fertilization is debated
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    National Category
    Natural Sciences
    Research subject
    Enviromental Science
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-15931 (URN)
    Available from: 2011-06-15 Created: 2011-06-15 Last updated: 2019-03-26Bibliographically approved
    3. Multi-objective environmental management in constructed wetlands
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Multi-objective environmental management in constructed wetlands
    2004 (English)In: Environmental Monitoring & Assessment, ISSN 0167-6369, E-ISSN 1573-2959, Vol. 90, no 1-3, p. 171-185Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    We examined multi-objective environmental management as applied to pursuing concurrent goals of water treatment, biodiversity and promotion of recreation in constructed wetlands. A case study of a wetland established to treat landfill leachate, increase biodiversity, and promote recreation was evaluated. The study showed that attempts to combine pollution management with activities promoting biodiversity or recreation are problematic in constructed wetlands. This could be because the typical single-objective focus of scientific research leads to contradictions when planning, implementing and assessing the multi-objective use of wetlands. In the specific case of wetland filters for landfill leachate treatment, biodiversity, and recreation, there is a need for further research that meet practical needs to secure positive outcomes.

    National Category
    Natural Sciences
    Research subject
    Enviromental Science
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-5198 (URN)10.1023/B:EMAS.0000003577.22824.8e (DOI)
    Available from: 2009-01-30 Created: 2009-01-30 Last updated: 2017-12-14Bibliographically approved
    4. Contradictions in multiobjective constructed wetland research
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Contradictions in multiobjective constructed wetland research
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    National Category
    Natural Sciences
    Research subject
    Enviromental Science
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-15932 (URN)
    Available from: 2011-06-15 Created: 2011-06-15 Last updated: 2017-10-17Bibliographically approved
    5. Site characteristics and nitrogen fertilization effects
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Site characteristics and nitrogen fertilization effects
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    National Category
    Natural Sciences
    Research subject
    Enviromental Science
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-15933 (URN)
    Available from: 2011-06-15 Created: 2011-06-15 Last updated: 2017-10-17Bibliographically approved
  • 4.
    Elgh-Dalgren, Kristin
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Remediation of materials with mixed contaminants: treatability, technology and final disposal2009Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Contaminated soils are a large issue worldwide and much effort has been made to find efficient remediation methods. At many contaminated sites, mixtures of dif­ferent contaminants with different properties are present, which may lead to addi­tional problems, and thus additional costs, during the remediation process. This thesis presents the results from soil remedia­tion of two mixed contaminated soils, containing explosives and heavy metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and arsenic, respectively. The re­sults demonstrate that bioremediation may be an efficient method for moderate explosives concentration, but that too high contaminant concentrations may prevent the biodegradation, measured by both chemical and ecotoxicological analyses. If the contaminant concentration is very high, soil washing with alkaline pH (~12, NaOH) may be a good alterna­tive, which was observed to remove both explosives and heavy metals.

    For a PAH and arsenic contaminated soil, little degradation of organics was ob­served during the bioremediation. However, the arsenic present was re-distributed in the soil, which could poten­tially lead to increased availability and thus in­creased risk for contaminant spreading. Soil washing at alkaline pH (~12-13; Ca(OH)2) with a combination of a biodegradable non-ionic sur­factant and a biodegradable chelating agent, executed at high temperature (50°C), reached treatment goals for both arsenic and PAH after 10 min treatment. Measurement of ecotoxicity using Microtox® demonstrated that remaining surfactant in the soil may lead to increased toxicity despite lower con­taminant concentrations.

    Soil is a basically non-renewable resource and thus re-cycling of remediated soil ought to be commonly occurring. Yet, the re-cycling of remediated masses has so far been limited in Sweden, mainly because of the risk of spreading of pollu­tant remains. However, a recent proposition from the Swedish EPA opens for re-cycl­ing, even though the thresholds are very con­servative. Risk assessment of the re­mediated soil includes the utilization of leach­ing tests to estimate the risk of spreading of remaining pollutants. A comparison of the leaching from four reme­diated soils using three different leaching solutions reveals that leaching of both heavy metals and PAH occurs. In addition, differ­ences between different legisla­tions were observed, which could imply that the same soil could be re-cycled in one country (the Netherlands) but not another (Sweden).

    List of papers
    1. Anaerobic bioremediation of a soil with mixed contaminants: Explosives degradation and influence on heavy metal distribution, monitored as changes in concentration and toxicity
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Anaerobic bioremediation of a soil with mixed contaminants: Explosives degradation and influence on heavy metal distribution, monitored as changes in concentration and toxicity
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    2009 (English)In: Water, Air and Soil Pollution, ISSN 0049-6979, E-ISSN 1573-2932, Vol. 202, no 1-4, p. 301-313Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Two soils with explosives and metals were evaluated for the degradation efficiency of explosives by native microorganisms under anaerobic conditions. The commercially available method Daramend®, amended with zero-valent iron (ZVI), was compared with a horse-manure amended compost and a treatment with ZVI alone. In a moderately contaminated soil, Daramend® and ZVI treatment gave significantly higher removal rates compared  to compost and control treatments (Tukey’s test, P<0.05). The largest overall decrease in ecotoxicity, measured with bioluminescent bacteria (Vibrio fischeri), was achieved with ZVI-treatment. In a more contaminated soil no degradation of contaminants and no decline in soil toxicity could be distinguished after the same time period. Problems with establishment of anaerobic conditions during parts of the remediation process and low microbial activity due to acute toxicity of contaminants are plausible explanations. Redistribution that could potentially lead to mobilization of the co-contaminant Pb was not observed in either of the soils during the biological treatments.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Springer Netherlands, 2009
    Keywords
    Bioremediation, explosives, Pb, Microtox®, mixed contaminants
    National Category
    Natural Sciences Environmental Sciences Inorganic Chemistry
    Research subject
    Environmental Chemistry
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-5969 (URN)10.1007/s11270-009-9977-z (DOI)000269007400026 ()2-s2.0-69049092648 (Scopus ID)
    Available from: 2009-03-09 Created: 2009-03-09 Last updated: 2017-12-13Bibliographically approved
    2. Simultaneous re­mediation of explosives and lead from contaminated soil by pH-adjust­ment
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Simultaneous re­mediation of explosives and lead from contaminated soil by pH-adjust­ment
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Soil washing with pH-adjusted water was evaluated in two soils containing dif­ferent concentrations of heavy metals and explosives. Overall, the most efficient treatment was with water adjusted to pH 12 by NaOH. For explosives, pH 12 removed significantly higher amounts (P<0.05) of RDX and TNT compared to pH 4 (adjusted with HNO3) and distilled water in a moderately contaminated soil (230 mg HMX/kg, 1340 mg RDX/kg, 450 mg TNT/kg). In a more highly contaminated soil (6080 mg HMX/kg, 28740 mg RDX/kg, 3120 mg TNT/kg), the pH 12-treatment was the most efficient for removal of TNT and 2,4-DNT. Explosives removal increased with treatment time, probably due to the kineti­cally slow processes underlying the explosives degradation. Mobilization of heavy metals was strongly dependent on pH, with pH 12 mobilizing more than pH 3. In addition, the change in distribution coefficient (Kd) was more pro­nounced for local contaminants Pb and Cd in comparison with Cu and Zn, which were present in background concentrations.

    National Category
    Environmental Sciences
    Research subject
    Enviromental Science
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-7990 (URN)
    Available from: 2009-09-23 Created: 2009-09-23 Last updated: 2017-10-18Bibliographically approved
    3. Bioremediation of a soil industrially contaminated by wood preservatives: degradation of polycyclic aromatic hydro­carbons and monitoring of coupled arsenic distribution
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Bioremediation of a soil industrially contaminated by wood preservatives: degradation of polycyclic aromatic hydro­carbons and monitoring of coupled arsenic distribution
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    2011 (English)In: Water, Air and Soil Pollution, ISSN 0049-6979, E-ISSN 1573-2932, Vol. 214, no 1-4, p. 275-285Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Two commercially available aerobic bioremediation methods (Daramend® and BioSan) were utilized to study the aerobic biodegradation of polycyclic aro­matic hydrocarbons (PAH) and the effect of the simultaneously present arsenic. The soil was collected at an old wood preservation site and the initial PAH16-concentration was 46 mg/kg, with mainly high molecular weight congeners. The As-concentration was105 mg/kg with low availability as assessed with se­quential extraction. To enahce the availability of PAH, the effect of a non-ionic surfactant was evaluated. Degradation of both low and high molecular weight PAH was observed, however after 30 weeks, the degradation was generally low and no treatment was significantly better than the others. The treatments had, on the other hand, an effect on As-distribution, with increased As-concentra­tion in the available fraction after treatment. This may be due to both the mi­crobial activity and the presence of anoxic micro sites in the soil. The overall efficiency of the biological treatment was further evaluated using the standar­dized ecotoxicity test utilizing Vibrio fischeri (Microtox®). The toxicity test demonstrated that the bioremediation led to an increase in toxicity, especially in treatments receiving surfactant. The surfactant implied an increase in conta­minant availability but also a decrease in surface tension, which might have contributed to the overall toxicity increase.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Springer Netherlands, 2011
    Keywords
    Arsenic, Bioremediation, Microtox®, PAH, Surfactant
    National Category
    Environmental Sciences
    Research subject
    Enviromental Science
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-7991 (URN)10.1007/s11270-010-0422-0 (DOI)000285468800023 ()2-s2.0-78650592420 (Scopus ID)
    Available from: 2009-09-23 Created: 2009-09-23 Last updated: 2018-04-18Bibliographically approved
    4. Laboratory and pilot scale soil washing of PAH and arsenic from a wood preservation site: Changes in concentration and toxicity
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Laboratory and pilot scale soil washing of PAH and arsenic from a wood preservation site: Changes in concentration and toxicity
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    2009 (English)In: Journal of Hazardous Materials, ISSN 0304-3894, E-ISSN 1873-3336, Vol. 172, no 2-3, p. 1033-1040Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Soil washing of a soil with a mixture of both polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and As was evaluated in laboratory and pilot scale, utilizing both single and mixtures of different additives. The highest level of decontamination was achieved with a combination of 0.213 M of the chelating agent MGDA and 3.2xCMC* of a nonionic, alkyl glucoside surfactant at pH 12 (Ca(OH)2). This combination managed to reach Swedish threshold values within 10 min of treat­ment when performed at elevated temperature (50°C), with initial conta­minant concentrations of As = 105±4 mg/kg and US-EPA PAH16 = 46.0±2.3 mg/kg. The main mechanisms behind the removal were the pH-effect for As and a combina­tion of SOM-ionization as a result of high pH and micellar solu­bilization for PAHs. Implementation of the laboratory results utilizing a pilot scale equipment did not improve the performance, which may be due to the shorter contact time between the washing solution and the particles, or changes in physical characte­ristics of the leaching solution due to the elevated pressure utilized. The ecotox­icological evaluation, Microtox®, demonstrated that all soil washing treatments increased the toxicity of soil leachates, possibly due to in­creased availability of contaminants and toxicity of soil washing solutions to the test organism.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Amsterdam: Elsevier, 2009
    Keywords
    Arsenic, Microtox®, PAH, Soil washing, Surfactant
    National Category
    Environmental Sciences
    Research subject
    Enviromental Science
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-7988 (URN)10.1016/j.jhazmat.2009.07.092 (DOI)000271980800068 ()19699582 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-71049155866 (Scopus ID)
    Available from: 2009-09-23 Created: 2009-09-23 Last updated: 2017-12-13Bibliographically approved
    5. Re-cycling of Remediated Soil in Sweden: An Environmental Advantage?
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Re-cycling of Remediated Soil in Sweden: An Environmental Advantage?
    2008 (English)In: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, Vol. 52, no 12, p. 1349-1361Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The disposal of soil material after ex-situ treatment of contaminated soil is an issue of growing concern. The handling and use of this material are surrounded by numerous regulatory, economic, technical and societal aspects that complicate or hinder recycling. As a consequence, the lack of means of recovery can in the long term bias the whole remedial process. In addition, it can affect the competition between various treatment options such as ex-situ, and in-situ techniques and landfilling. At the same time the materials must not have any negative environmental impacts, and their usage must be compatible with existing risk assessment and management frameworks regarding contaminated land. Other concerns such as a possible distinction against “lightly” contaminated materials, waste status and public acceptance add to the complexity. This paper focuses on Swedish conditions, but does also provide an outlook concerning EU regulation. A summary of leaching and batch tests employed for re-use of soil and waste is presented as well as an overview of the eco-toxicological aspects of treated materials. The main conclusion is that re-cycling of treated soil is desirable from numerous aspects, but has to go along an adequate risk assessment.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Amsterdam: Elsevier, 2008
    Keywords
    Environmental impact; Re-cycling; Remediation; Soil; Waste
    National Category
    Natural Sciences Environmental Sciences
    Research subject
    Environmental Chemistry
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-7989 (URN)10.1016/j.resconrec.2008.07.016 (DOI)
    Available from: 2009-09-23 Created: 2009-09-23 Last updated: 2017-12-13Bibliographically approved
    6. Re-cycling of remediated soil: evaluation of leaching tests as tools for characterization
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Re-cycling of remediated soil: evaluation of leaching tests as tools for characterization
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    2011 (English)In: Waste Management, ISSN 0956-053X, E-ISSN 1879-2456, Vol. 31, no 2, p. 215-224Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden, leaching tests with deionized water (D.W.) are frequently utilized in risk assessment, but implementation of these results to evaluate the risk of spreading in the environment is difficult. One problem is that most leaching procedures only consider heavy metals release, whereas organic pollutants are left out. The aim of the present study was to assess the possible pollutant miti­gation in four remediated soils, three with heavy metals and one with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), utilizing three different leaching solutions: D.W., a weak ionic solution (0.001 M CaCl2) and an artificially made soil wa­ter (ASW). In general, batch leaching implied larger contaminant removal than column leaching, possibly due to the more rough treatment of the soil particles, and guidelines would at times be exceeded by batch leaching but not column leaching. Utilization of CaCl2 was found to release much less heavy metal than D.W., whereas the metals mobilized by ASW were removed from solution by the filtration of soil leachates. Low molecular weight PAH was most efficiently mobilized by CaCl2, while D.W. worked better for high molecular weight PAH. Despite very low initial PAH-concentrations, tap- and groundwater criteria were exceeded by all leaching solutions.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Pergamon Press, 2011
    Keywords
    Heavy metals, Leaching test, PAH, Re-cycling
    National Category
    Environmental Sciences
    Research subject
    Enviromental Science
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-7992 (URN)10.1016/j.wasman.2009.12.021 (DOI)000286411400003 ()20117924 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-78649838340 (Scopus ID)
    Available from: 2009-09-23 Created: 2009-09-23 Last updated: 2017-12-13Bibliographically approved
  • 5.
    Grahn, Evastina
    Örebro University, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Lake sediment as environmental archive: natural and anthropogenic influence on the chronology of trace elements2006Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The focus of this thesis is the historical pollution of some seldom-monitored trace elements (SMTEs; Ag, Be, Ga, In, Sb and Tl) that have been involuntarily released for several thousands of years but whose usage have increased during the industrial era. Sediment cores from four rural lakes in a south to north transect in central Sweden, and two urban lakes have been used as environmental archives for chronological studies. The historical development of the SMTEs is put in perspective of frequently monitored elements (Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn) that serve as a well-known anthropogenic signal. Dating of the sediments is made with 210Pb, 137Cs and 239,240Pu as well as acid leachable lead and the 206Pb/207Pb ratio. The impact of diagenetic redistribution is included, when necessary.

    The results show that site-specific reference concentrations are required in order to estimate the present pollution as well as its historical development. Atmospheric deposition is the principal pathway of transport in rural lakes and the concentrations are lowered towards the north. It is not possible from this material, however, to separate the direct deposition on the lake surfaces from the contribution from their catchments. From 21Pb, acid-leachable Pb and the 206Pb/207Pb ratio a minimum of four periods of pollution can be discerned. For the SMTEs the quantitatively most important period of pollution took place from the Second World War until present. The growth of the domestic industrialisation as well as the early industrialisation of central Europe and the British Isles are also distinguishable. The pollution history of Ag, In and Sb goes back for several centuries as a result of metal processing whereas the levels of thallium mainly increase as a result of industrialisation. For Ag and Tl in-sediment diagenetic redistribution limits the precision of the historical estimate. The preliminary interpretation of 137Cs and 239,240Pu indicates that they are less suitable as chronological markers in the system studied. The urban impact on the trace metal sediment content in the urban lakes was lower than expected, except for Au. There is a large impact from hydrological conditions on the studied system why further investigations are recommended.

    List of papers
    1. Sediment reference concentrations of seldom monitored trace elements (Ag, Be, In, Ga, Sb, Tl) in four Swedish boreal lakes: comparison with commonly monitored elements
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Sediment reference concentrations of seldom monitored trace elements (Ag, Be, In, Ga, Sb, Tl) in four Swedish boreal lakes: comparison with commonly monitored elements
    2006 (English)In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 367, no 2-3, p. 778-790Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents reference and recent acid-leachable concentrations of some seldom monitored trace elements (SMTE; Ag, Be, Ga, In, Sb and Tl) in sediments from four boreal oligotrophic lakes in a south to north transect in Sweden. For comparison commonly monitored trace elements (As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn) are included as well as those of relevance for redistribution processes (Al, Ca, Fe, Mg and Mn).

    Pore water pH and the corresponding solid/solution distribution coefficients (Kd) indicated that redistribution of the elements due to acidification is minor. The depth of impact was defined as the level in the sediment where the mean values became constant on successive exclusion of metal concentrations in overlying strata. Reference concentrations were calculated below the depth of impact. The present concentration changes are estimated by the ratio between the average concentration above the depth of impact and the reference concentration.

    Reference concentration ranges for the SMT-elements are (mg/kg, dry wt.): Ag 0.16–0.66; Be 1.6–3.7; Ga 2.0–5.1; In 0.05–0.22; Sb 0.05–0.11 and Tl 0.17–0.70. The concentration ratios for these elements ranged in the two most southern lakes from 1.5 to 4.5 and in the two northern ones from 0.6 to 1.6. A high correlation between Kd for the SMT-elements, and iron, except for Sb and Tl, infer that the biogeochemistry of iron is quantitatively important for the accumulation of these elements.

    The reference concentration ranges for the commonly monitored trace elements are (mg/kg, dry wt.): As 7.0–29.6; Cd 0.33–0.98; Co 5.7–23.8; Cr 15.2–26.1; Cu 27.6–58.4; Ni 5.4–20.8; Pb 44–96. The corresponding concentration ratios were 1.2–18 (second highest 3.9) in the two most southern lakes and 0.8–1.6 in the two northern ones. Declining ratios were found from south to north, most obvious for cobalt and zinc. The copper ratios did not show a regional pattern, partly because of the impact from old mine waste.

    Increased concentrations of Ag, Be, Ga, In, Sb and Tl in recent sediments up to 4.5 times the reference levels in combination with the geographical pattern infer an elevated loading of these elements.

    National Category
    Environmental Sciences
    Research subject
    Enviromental Science
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-3058 (URN)10.1016/j.scitotenv.2006.01.018 (DOI)
    Available from: 2006-03-09 Created: 2006-03-09 Last updated: 2017-12-14Bibliographically approved
    2. Historical pollution of seldom monitored trace elements in Sweden - Part A: sediment properties and chronological indicators
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Historical pollution of seldom monitored trace elements in Sweden - Part A: sediment properties and chronological indicators
    2006 (English)In: Journal of Environmental Monitoring, ISSN 1464-0325, E-ISSN 1464-0333, Vol. 8, no 7, p. 721-731Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Sediment cores from four small oligotrophic boreal lakes, with minor acidification, in remote regions of central Sweden were used for historical interpretation of their metal content, with focus on Cu, Cd, Pb and Zn in Lake Stensjön, which has the longest sediment record (at least two centuries according to 210Pb dating). Comparison is made with the other three lakes. Major and trace elements in lake water, porewater and the acid-leached (HNO3) solid sediment phase was analysed with ICP-MS. In addition, general lake water chemistry, TOC and principal anions were measured in the aqueous phases. Redistribution processes were interpreted from geochemical modelling. The solid/solution distribution of pe/pH sensitive elements, indicates a minor diagenetic redistribution and the concentration profiles are therefore suitable for chronological evaluation. The ratios of Al, Ti, Sc and V, indicated a qualitative shift of sedimenting material a century ago, which did not have any impact on the retention of trace elements. Lead had a concentration profile, supported by the 206Pb/207Pb ratio, where it was possible to distinguish preindustrial conditions, early industrialisation in Europe, industrialisation in Sweden, and the use of leaded petrol after the Second World War. Cadmium showed a similar concentration pattern. The zinc profile resembled that of cadmium, but with less enrichment. Local lithogenic sources are believed to be quantitatively important. The solid/solution distribution (Kd) was independent of depth for all four elements. The sediment concentrations of copper and zinc are not related to early industrialisation but its concentration has doubled since the Second World War.

    National Category
    Chemical Sciences Environmental Sciences
    Research subject
    Enviromental Science
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-3059 (URN)10.1039/B601944G (DOI)16826285 (PubMedID)
    Available from: 2006-03-09 Created: 2006-03-09 Last updated: 2017-12-14Bibliographically approved
    3. Historical pollution of seldom monitored trace elements in Sweden: Part B: sediment analysis of silver, antimony, thallium and indium
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Historical pollution of seldom monitored trace elements in Sweden: Part B: sediment analysis of silver, antimony, thallium and indium
    2006 (English)In: Journal of Environmental Monitoring, ISSN 1464-0325, E-ISSN 1464-0333, Vol. 8, no 7, p. 732-744Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Sediment cores from four boreal and remote lakes in a south to north transect in central Sweden were analysed for acid leachable silver, antimony, thallium and indium in the solid sediment phase and the corresponding porewater. Dating of the cores was made by their content of acid leachable lead and the 206Pb/207Pb ratio, in one lake also by 210Pb. The impact of diagenesis on element redistribution in the sediments was included and found to be minor except for thallium. The results show lowered concentrations towards the north and most intense accumulation after the Second World War, which is taken as evidence for atmospheric deposition being the primary source. Indium has declining concentrations in recent strata while silver and antimony increase. Thallium has lowered acid-leachable concentrations in recent strata. For all metals the impact of domestic industrialisation as well as the early industrialisation of central Europe is discernible. Only thallium appears to reach a geological background at depths that correspond to the late 18th century. For the other metals elevated levels are concluded.

    National Category
    Environmental Sciences Chemical Sciences
    Research subject
    Enviromental Science
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-3053 (URN)10.1039/B601948J (DOI)
    Available from: 2006-03-09 Created: 2006-03-09 Last updated: 2017-12-14Bibliographically approved
    4. Seldom monitored trace elements (Ag, Au, Ga, In, Sb, Tl) in two urban lake sediments in Central Sweden: a case study
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Seldom monitored trace elements (Ag, Au, Ga, In, Sb, Tl) in two urban lake sediments in Central Sweden: a case study
    (English)Manuscript (Other academic)
    National Category
    Environmental Sciences
    Research subject
    Enviromental Science
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-3061 (URN)
    Available from: 2006-03-09 Created: 2006-03-09 Last updated: 2017-10-18Bibliographically approved
    5. Failure of 137Cs and 239/240Pu dating of lake sediments: fallout from nuclear weapons testing and from the Chernobyl accident as well as redistribution processes?
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Failure of 137Cs and 239/240Pu dating of lake sediments: fallout from nuclear weapons testing and from the Chernobyl accident as well as redistribution processes?
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    (English)Manuscript (Other academic)
    National Category
    Environmental Sciences
    Research subject
    Enviromental Science
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-3062 (URN)
    Available from: 2006-03-09 Created: 2006-03-09 Last updated: 2017-10-18Bibliographically approved
  • 6.
    Greis, Christina
    Örebro University, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Rapid analysis of actinide isotopes using quadrupole ICP-MS for emergency preparedness and environmental monitoring2007Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Transuranium elements in the environment are mainly derived from nuclear weapons testing and the nuclear fuel cycle. Of growing concern are illicit nuclear trafficking and the threat of terror acts. The development of rational methods, for environmental monitoring and for tracing sources of nuclear and radioactive materials in the environment, is constantly required.

    Traditionally, the actinides have been determined by radiometric techniques. These analyses can be time consuming for elements at low concentrations and with long half-lives. This thesis addresses the determination of actinides, especially plutonium, in environmental samples with ICP-QMS (inductively coupled plasma quadrupole mass spectrometry). The ICP-QMS instrument was equipped with an USN (ultrasonic nebuliser), which proved to be a successful combination for the determination of plutonium at low concentrations in acidified solutions after separation with anion exchange. The detection limit for plutonium was in the range 10-30 pg/l with a RSD of 1-10%. The suitability of chemical separation was evaluated for anion exchange, liquid-liquid-extraction and extraction chromatography.

    The outlined procedure, including sample dissolution, chemical separation and analysis, for determination of actinides in environmental matrices proved to be accurate and reliable. Quality assurance of the procedure was performed during an intercomparison exercise and with reference materials. The detection accuracy has also been validated with α-spectrometry and ICP-SFMS. The procedure has been applied to saline sediments and fresh water sediments as well as several fresh water matrices.

    List of papers
    1. Determination of plutonium in environmental samples with quadrupole ICP-MS
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Determination of plutonium in environmental samples with quadrupole ICP-MS
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    2008 (English)In: Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry, ISSN 0236-5731, E-ISSN 1588-2780, Vol. 275, no 1, p. 55-70Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    A method for rapid determination of plutonium isotopes in environmental samples with ultrasonic nebulisation and quadrupole ICP-MS detection was established. Techniques for sample dissolution, pre-concentration and chemical separation were evaluated and the optimal scheme outlined. Comparisons with α-spectrometry and high resolution ICP-MS confirmed the suitability of the method when applied to different environmental matrices within the global fallout concentration range in the northern hemisphere as well as more contaminated sites. Operational detection limits were 0.5–1.5 fg/l for fresh waters and 0.03–0.1 ng/kg for lake sediments and saline marsh sediments.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Berlin: Springer, 2008
    National Category
    Other Basic Medicine Chemical Sciences
    Research subject
    Chemistry
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-3231 (URN)10.1007/s10967-006-7004-z (DOI)000251867200007 ()2-s2.0-37549053953 (Scopus ID)
    Available from: 2007-02-13 Created: 2007-02-13 Last updated: 2018-01-13Bibliographically approved
    2. Rapid method for ICP-MS analysis of plutonium in sediment samples
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Rapid method for ICP-MS analysis of plutonium in sediment samples
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    2004 (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    National Category
    Chemical Sciences Environmental Sciences
    Research subject
    Enviromental Science
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-3232 (URN)
    Available from: 2007-02-13 Created: 2007-02-13 Last updated: 2017-10-18Bibliographically approved
    3. Redistribution pf Pu, Am, Cs and Np in salt marsh sediment - Wigtown Merse, Irish Sea
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Redistribution pf Pu, Am, Cs and Np in salt marsh sediment - Wigtown Merse, Irish Sea
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    (English)Manuscript (Other academic)
    National Category
    Chemical Sciences Environmental Sciences
    Research subject
    Enviromental Science
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-3233 (URN)
    Available from: 2007-02-13 Created: 2007-02-13 Last updated: 2017-10-18Bibliographically approved
    4. Plutonium remobilization in a humic-rich lake
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Plutonium remobilization in a humic-rich lake
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    2007 (English)In: Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry, ISSN 0236-5731, E-ISSN 1588-2780, Vol. 277, no 1, p. 265-268Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Fresh water from Lake Svartsjön, Sweden, was collected and four fractions were prepared: (1) adsorption on DEAE, (2) flocculation with Ca2+, (3) co-precipitation with Fe hydrous oxide and (4) co-precipitation with Mn hydrous oxide. The plutonium level in the lake is 65 fg/l (222 μBq/l), measured by ICP-QMS and ICP-SFMS. Pronounced accumulation in fractions (1) (34%) and (2) (66%), combined with observed levels of organic matter indicate that plutonium is predominantly associated with organic matter. Measurements of isotopic ratios indicate that 77% of the plutonium originates from weapons testing and the remaining appears to originate from the Chernobyl accident.

    National Category
    Environmental Sciences Chemical Sciences
    Research subject
    Enviromental Science
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-3234 (URN)10.1007/s10967-008-0741-4 (DOI)000257318800041 ()2-s2.0-46449100013 (Scopus ID)
    Available from: 2007-02-13 Created: 2007-02-13 Last updated: 2017-12-14Bibliographically approved
    5. Failure of 137Cs and 239,240Pu dating of lake sediments: fallout from nuclear weapons testing, the Chernobyl accident and redistribution processes?
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Failure of 137Cs and 239,240Pu dating of lake sediments: fallout from nuclear weapons testing, the Chernobyl accident and redistribution processes?
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    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    National Category
    Environmental Sciences
    Research subject
    Enviromental Science
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-3235 (URN)
    Available from: 2007-02-13 Created: 2007-02-13 Last updated: 2017-10-18Bibliographically approved
  • 7.
    Gustavsson, Lillemor
    Örebro University, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Change of toxicity during secondary treatment of industrial sludge containing nitroaromatics2005Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Wastewater treatment plants in Sweden are facing a great challenge due to the prohibition of depositing organic waste which gained legal force in January 2005. Biological and commercial available alternatives to disposal are composting and anaerobic digestion. A promising technique for wastewater and sludge treatment is the use of constructed wetland.

    In this thesis we have looked at the sludge from a wastewater treatment plant receiving wastewater from industries manufacturing pharmaceutical substances, chemical intermediates and explosives. The wastewater and sludge contains high concentrations of nitro-aromatic compounds and amino-aromatic compounds, both original compounds and degradation products. The degradation of nitroaromatics under different oxygen conditions is well examined and several studies have reported the alteration of nitroaromatics to more potent cytotoxic and genotoxic compounds after degradation. The use of bioassays is a practicable approach to estimate the toxic potency of complex samples such as sludge, since it is difficult to analyse all toxic compounds in a sample by using chemical analysis.

    The aim of this study was to follow change in toxicity in three different sludge treatment methods; aerobic composting and anaerobic digestion and constructed wetland to follow change in general and mechanism-specific toxicity.

    In order to detect both lipo- and hydrophilic compounds, different extraction and bioassays are necessary. We used organic solvents and multi-layer cleaned-up samples in the DR-Calux assay to detect the persistent lipophilic compounds causing dioxin-like activity. We also used both water and acetone extracts in the umu-C assay to detect genotoxicity and in the fishegg assay to detect embryotoxicty of water and semi-water soluble compounds in low concentrations.

    The results showed that anaerobic treatment is less suitable for this particular sludge, since the anaerobic residues showed high induction in all toxicity tests compared to the residues of the aerobic treatment. The anaerobic treatment also transformed the toxicants in the sludge to more lipophilic and persistent forms as well as to more water soluble, genotoxic compounds. This makes the treated material difficult to handle due to the toxic potential of the material as well as of the leachate. The aerobic treated material also showed an increased toxic potential of the material but the leachate showed no toxicity. However, high concentrations of nitrite were formed during both aerobic and anaerobic treatment, which is of environmental concern.

    The constructed wetlands eluated a non-toxic effluent and had a bed material with lower toxicity than expected considering the sludge concentrations and loaded sludge amount. The bed material contained concentration of TEQ considered as acceptable levels for sensitive ground use such as parks, lawns and other grounds without groundwater protection.

    However, all three treatment methods need to be optimised and the residual needs further evaluation in order to establish a suitable biodegradation method.

    List of papers
    1. Changes in toxicity and genotoxicity of industrial sewage sludge samples containing nitro- and amino-aromatic compounds following treatment in bioreactors with different oxygen regimes
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Changes in toxicity and genotoxicity of industrial sewage sludge samples containing nitro- and amino-aromatic compounds following treatment in bioreactors with different oxygen regimes
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    2004 (English)In: Environmental science and pollution research international, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 11, no 5, p. 313-320Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    GOALS, SCOPE AND BACKGROUND: From 2005, deposition of organic waste will be banned in Sweden. Likewise, in Germany and Austria, similar bans are being planned, and further countries will probably follow. Thus, there is a need to develop new methods and to refine established techniques for sludge management in the whole of the European Union. For this end, there is also an urgent need for appropriate ecotoxicological approaches to elucidate and assess the hazard potential of sewage sludge. Therefore, the present study was designed to assess the capacity of various established sludge treatment methods using different oxygen regimes to degrade recalcitrant nitro-substituted organic compounds and reduce their toxicity. Sewage sludge samples from a wastewater treatment plant in Sweden (Cambrex Karlskoga AB, industrial area Björkborn) receiving wastewater from industries manufacturing pharmaceutical substances, chemical intermediates and explosives were processed with different sludge treatment methods. Among other treatment methods, bioreactors (for anaerobic and aerobic sludge treatment) were used. In the present investigation, a battery of in vitro bioassays was employed to compare the cytotoxic and genotoxic potentials of different fractions of sludge samples in order to elucidate whether the treatments were suitable to reduce the toxicity of the sludge.

    METHODS:

    In order to investigate the cytotoxicity of the extracts of treated and untreated sludge samples, the acute cytotoxicity test with the permanent cell line RTL-W1 was used. Genotoxicity was tested by means of the comet assay (single cell gel electrophoresis) with RTL-W1 cells, and mutagenicity was assessed with the Ames test using the Salmonella typhimurium strains TA98, TA98NR and TA100. Sludge toxicity was tested in different fractions of organic extracts produced by acetone and hexane extractions. The subsequent clean-up procedure (silica gel chromatography and elution with hexane and dichloromethane) resulted in two fractions, a lipophilic hexane-fraction and a semi-lipophilic dichloromethane-fraction. For the genotoxicity and mutagenicity tests, these fractions were reunited at equal ratios.

    RESULTS AND DISCUSSION:

    The acute cytotoxicity test with RTL-W1 cells revealed a high cytotoxic potential for the semi-lipophilic DM-fractions of all sludge samples with NR50 values (= effective concentration for 50% cell death in the neutral red test) from 8.9 up to 20 mg sludge d.w./ml medium. A low cytotoxic potential for the hexane fractions of the untreated sludge samples (NR50 400 to > 400 mg sludge d.w./ml medium) was observed, whereas the hexane fractions of the treated sludge samples showed elevated cytotoxicity increasing further with treatment in the bioreactors. The comet assay indicated that three out of eight of the reunited fractions had a significant genotoxic potential. Whereas the genotoxic potential of one sample treated anaerobically was very high with an induction factor of 11.6, a similar sample (taken from the same anaerobic reactor four months later) and one untreated sample showed lower potentials. The samples treated in another anaerobic bioreactor as well as the samples treated aerobically showed no genotoxic potential. Results indicate that aerobic treatment was basically adequate for reducing the genotoxicity of the sludge, whereas anaerobic treatment was only partly useful for reduction of genotoxicity. The Ames test revealed a very high mutagenic potential for the reunited fractions of the untreated sludge samples with strain TA98 (maximum induction factors (IFmax) up to 45) and a relatively high potential for one of the samples treated aerobically (S2, IFmax = 18 (TA98, S9-)), thus documenting the suitability of both anaerobic and aerobic treatments to reduce the mutagenicity of the samples, however, with the aerobic treatment being less effective.

    CONCLUSIONS:

    Overall, none of the microbiological treatments for wastewater sludge in bioreactors was found to be ideal for general toxicity reduction of the sludge samples. Whereas cytotoxicity of the sludge increased or levelled off in most cases following either treatment, genotoxicity both increased or decreased after anaerobic treatment, depending on the specific sample. However, mutagenicity could generally be reduced by anaerobic treatment and, to a lesser degree, by aerobic treatment.

    RECOMMENDATIONS AND PERSPECTIVES:

    The complex modification of the diverse damage potentials of sludge sample extracts by use of an in vitro biotest battery following treatment for toxicity reduction in bioreactors showed that considerations of different toxicological endpoints is essential for an adequate hazard assessment. Whereas in the case of cytotoxicity reduction, the reactors proved ineffective, mutagenicity could be reduced significantly at least in some cases in this case study.

    National Category
    Other Environmental Engineering
    Research subject
    Enviromental Science
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-2917 (URN)10.1007/BF02979645 (DOI)15506634 (PubMedID)
    Available from: 2005-10-07 Created: 2005-10-07 Last updated: 2017-12-14Bibliographically approved
    2. Fate of Ah receptor agonists during biological treatment of an industrial sludge containing explosives and pharmaceutical residues
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Fate of Ah receptor agonists during biological treatment of an industrial sludge containing explosives and pharmaceutical residues
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    2004 (English)In: Environmental science and pollution research international, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 11, no 6, p. 379-386Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    GOAL, SCOPE AND BACKGROUND:

    Sweden is meeting prohibition for deposition of organic waste from 2005. Since 1 million tons of sludge is produced every year in Sweden and the capacity for incineration does not fill the demands, other methods of sludge management have to be introduced to a higher degree. Two biological treatment alternatives are anaerobic digestion and composting. Different oxygen concentrations result in different microbial degradation pathways and, consequently, in a different quality of the digestion or composting residue, It is therefore necessary to study sludge treatment during different oxygen regimes in order to follow both degradation of compounds and change in toxicity. In this study, an industrial sludge containing explosives and pharmaceutical residues was treated with anaerobic digestion or composting, and the change in toxicity was studied. Nitroaromatic compounds, which are the main ingredients of both pharmaceutical and explosives, are well known to cause cytotoxicity and genotoxicity. However, little data are available concerning sludge with nitroaromatics and any associated dioxin-like activity. Therefore, we studied the sludge before and after the treatments in order to detect any changes in levels of Ah receptor (AhR) agonists using two bioassays for dioxin-like compounds.

    METHODS:

    An industrial sludge was treated with anaerobic digestion or composting in small reactors in a semi-continuous manner. The same volume as the feeding volume was taken out daily and stored at -20 degrees C. Sample preparation for the bioassays was done by extraction using organic solvents, followed by clean up with silica gel or sulphuric acid, yielding two fractions. The fractions were dissolved in DMSO and tested in the bioassays. The dioxin-like activity was measured using the DR-CALUX assay with transfected H4IIE rat hepatoma pGudluc cells and an EROD induction assay with RTL-W1 rainbow trout liver cells.

    RESULTS AND DISCUSSION:

    The bioassays showed that the sludge contained AhR agonists at levels of TCDD equivalents (TEQs) higher than other sludge types in Sweden. In addition, the TEQ values for the acid resistant fractions increased considerably after anaerobic digestion, resulting in an apparent formation of acid resistant TEQs in the anaerobic reactors. Similar results have been reported from studies of fermented household waste. There was a large difference in effects between the two bioassays, with higher TEQ levels in the RTL-W1 EROD assay than in the DR-CALUX assay. This is possibly due to a more rapid metabolism in rat hepatocytes than in trout hepatocytes or to differences in sensitivities for the AhR agonists in the sludge. It was also demonstrated by GC/FID analysis that the sludge contained high concentrations of nitroaromatics. It is suggested that nitroaromatic metabolites, such as aromatic amines and nitroanilines, are possible candidates for the observed bioassay effects. It was also found that the AhR agonists in the sludge samples were volatile.

    CONCLUSIONS:

    The sludge contained fairly high concentrations of volatile AhR agonists. The increase of acid resistant AhR agonist after anaerobic digestion warrants further investigations of the chemical and toxic properties of these compounds and of the mechanisms behind this observation.

    RECOMMENDATION AND OUTLOOK:

    This study has pointed out the benefits of using different types of mechanism-specific bioassays when evaluating the change in toxicity by sludge treatment, in which measurement of dioxin-like activity can be a valuable tool. In order to study the recalcitrant properties of the compounds in the sludge using the DR-CALUX assay, the exposure time can be varied between 6 and 24 hours. The properties of the acid-resistant AhR agonists formed in the anaerobic treatment have to be investigated in order to choose the most appropriate method for sludge management.

    National Category
    Other Environmental Engineering
    Research subject
    Enviromental Science
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-2918 (URN)10.1007/BF02979656 (DOI)
    Available from: 2005-10-07 Created: 2005-10-07 Last updated: 2017-12-14Bibliographically approved
    3. Genotoxicity of nitroaromatic compounds in sludge after large scale biological treatment in aerated and nonaerated sacs
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Genotoxicity of nitroaromatic compounds in sludge after large scale biological treatment in aerated and nonaerated sacs
    (English)Manuscript (Other academic)
    National Category
    Other Environmental Engineering
    Research subject
    Enviromental Science
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-2919 (URN)
    Available from: 2005-10-07 Created: 2005-10-07 Last updated: 2017-10-18Bibliographically approved
    4. Reed beds receiving industrial sludge containing nitroaromatic compounds: effects of outgoing water and bed material extracts in the umu-C genotoxicity assay, DR-CALUX assay and on early life stage development in Zebrafish (Danio rerio)
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Reed beds receiving industrial sludge containing nitroaromatic compounds: effects of outgoing water and bed material extracts in the umu-C genotoxicity assay, DR-CALUX assay and on early life stage development in Zebrafish (Danio rerio)
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    (English)Manuscript (Other academic)
    National Category
    Other Environmental Engineering
    Research subject
    Enviromental Science
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-2920 (URN)
    Available from: 2005-10-07 Created: 2005-10-07 Last updated: 2017-10-18Bibliographically approved
  • 8.
    Hagström, Katja
    Örebro University, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Occupational exposure during production of wood pellets in Sweden2008Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aims of the studies underlying this thesis were to assess workers’ air exposure to wood dust and various chemicals, and to evaluate the variability in exposure and occupational dermal exposure to resin acids during the production of wood pellets in Sweden. Personal air measurements of wood dust, monoterpenes, resin acids and nitrogen dioxide (as a marker of diesel exhaust), accompanied by area measurements of these substances, VOCs and carbon monoxide, were performed at up to ten plants. Repeated measurements were also performed to evaluate within- and between-worker variability, determinants of exposure, the probability that a worker’s mean exposure exceeded the occupational exposure limit, OEL (overexposure), and the bias in the exposure-response relationship (attenuation).

    Dermal exposure was measured at the forehead, neck, forearm and hand using a tape-stripping method, in which a strip of adhesive tape is applied to the skin and then removed along with the outermost layer of the skin and chemicals adsorbed to this layer. The workers’ exposure to wood dust was high (mean: 2.4 mg/m3), with 35−42 % of the measurements above the Swedish OEL of 2 mg/m3. The exposure is also classified as unacceptable due to the calculated levels of overexposure. Exposure to resin acids like 7-oxodehydroabietic acid and dehydroabietic acid was identified, which has not been previously observed in the wood industry, with mean sum levels of 2.4 _g/m3. Levels of monoterpenes, nitrogen dioxide, VOCs and carbon monoxide were all below their Swedish OELs. A factor that influenced the level of exposure to wood dust and resin acids was the nature of the work done, notably cleaning operations, like sweeping, which increased the exposure slightly. The attenuation was high for the individual-based model, and at least 12 repeated measurements were needed to yield a bias in the exposureresponse relationship of _10 %. The results also showed that dermal exposure to resin acids occurs in these plants, which has not been shown before, and provided indications of both increased exposure during a work shift and diffusion into the skin. The main conclusion is that wood dust exposure at these levels is likely to have implications for the workers’ health in the long run, and, therefore, it is important to reduce exposure to wood dust in this industry.

    List of papers
    1. Exposure assessment to alpha- and beta-pinene, delta(3)-carene and wood dust in industrial production of wood pellets
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Exposure assessment to alpha- and beta-pinene, delta(3)-carene and wood dust in industrial production of wood pellets
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    2003 (English)In: Annals of Occupational Hygiene, ISSN 0003-4878, E-ISSN 1475-3162, Vol. 47, no 3, p. 219-226Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The main aim of the study was to measure the exposure to monoterpenes (alpha- and beta-pinene and Delta(3)-carene) and wood dust during industrial production of wood pellets and briquettes. Additional aims were to compare the results from wood dust sampled on a filter with real time measurements using a direct reading instrument and to identify peak exposures to dust. Twenty-four men working at six companies involved in industrial production of wood pellets and briquettes participated in the study. Monoterpenes were measured by diffusive sampling and wood dust was measured as total dust. A data logger (DataRAM) was used for continuous monitoring of dust concentration for 18 of the participants. The sampling time was approximately 8 h. The personal exposure to monoterpenes ranged from 0.64 to 28 mg/m(3) and a statistically significant (Kruskal-Wallis test, P = 0.0002) difference in levels of monoterpenes for workers at different companies was seen. In the companies the personal exposure to wood dust varied between 0.16 and 19 mg/m(3) and for 10 participants the levels exceeded the present Swedish occupational exposure limit (OEL) of 2 mg/m(3). The levels of wood dust during the morning shift were significantly (Mann-Whitney test, P = 0.04) higher compared with the afternoon shift. Continuous registration of dust concentration showed peak values for several working operations, especially cleaning of truck engines with compressed air. For 24 workers in six companies involved in industrial production of wood pellets the personal exposure to monoterpenes was low and to wood dust high compared with the present Swedish OEL and previous studies in Swedish wood industries. Since the DataRAM can identify critical working tasks with high wood dust exposure a reduction in exposure levels could probably be achieved by changes in working routines and by the use of protective equipment

    National Category
    Occupational Health and Environmental Health
    Research subject
    Enviromental Science
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-2859 (URN)12639835 (PubMedID)
    Available from: 2008-02-01 Created: 2008-02-01 Last updated: 2018-01-13Bibliographically approved
    2. Exposure to wood dust, resin acids and volatile organic compounds during production of wood pellets
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Exposure to wood dust, resin acids and volatile organic compounds during production of wood pellets
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    2008 (English)In: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, ISSN 1545-9624, E-ISSN 1545-9632, Vol. 5, no 5, p. 296-304Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The main aim of this study was to investigate exposure to airborne substances that are potentially harmful to health during the production of wood pellets, including wood dust, monoterpenes, and resin acids, and as an indicator of diesel exhaust nitrogen dioxide. In addition, area measurements were taken to assess background exposure levels of these substances, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and carbon monoxide. Measurements were taken at four wood pellet production plants from May 2004 to April 2005. Forty-four workers participated in the study, and a total of 68 personal measurements were taken to determine personal exposure to wood dust (inhalable and total dust), resin acids, monoterpenes, and nitrogen dioxide. In addition, 42 measurements of nitrogen dioxide and 71 measurements of total dust, resin acids, monoterpenes, VOCs, and carbon monoxide were taken to quantify their indoor area concentrations. Personal exposure levels to wood dust were high, and a third of the measured levels of inhalable dust exceeded the Swedish occupational exposure limit (OEL) of 2 mg/m3. Parallel measurements of inhalable and total dust indicated that the former were, on average, 3.2 times higher than the latter. The data indicate that workers at the plants are exposed to significant amounts of the resin acid 7-oxodehydroabietic acid in the air, an observation that has not been recorded previously at wood processing and handling plants. The study also found evidence of exposure to dehydroabietic acid, and exposure levels for resin acids approached 74% of the British OEL for colophony, set at 50 microg/m3. Personal exposure levels to monoterpenes and nitrogen dioxide were low. Area sampling measurements indicated that aldehydes and terpenes were the most abundant VOCs, suggesting that measuring personal exposure to aldehydes might be of interest. Carbon monoxide levels were under the detection limit in all area measurements. High wood dust exposure levels are likely to have implications for worker health; therefore, it is important to reduce exposure to wood dust in this industry.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Philadelphia, PA: Taylor and Francis, 2008
    National Category
    Occupational Health and Environmental Health Medical and Health Sciences
    Research subject
    Occupational and Environmental Medicine
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-2860 (URN)10.1080/15459620801957225 (DOI)
    Available from: 2008-02-01 Created: 2008-02-01 Last updated: 2018-01-13Bibliographically approved
    3. Variability and determinants of wood dust and resin acid exposure during wood pellet production: measurement strategies and bias in assessing exposure-response relationships
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Variability and determinants of wood dust and resin acid exposure during wood pellet production: measurement strategies and bias in assessing exposure-response relationships
    2008 (English)In: Annals of Occupational Hygiene, ISSN 0003-4878, E-ISSN 1475-3162, Vol. 52, no 8, p. 685-694Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Production of wood pellets is a relatively new and expanding industry in which the exposure profiles differ from those in other wood-processing industries like carpentries and sawmills where there are lower levels of wood dust. Sixty-eight personal exposure measurements of wood dust (inhalable and total dust) and resin acids were collected for 44 participants at four production plants located in Sweden. Results were used to estimate within- and between-worker variability and to identify uniformly exposed groups and determinants of exposure. In addition, overexposure, whether the risk of the long-term mean exposure of a randomly selected worker exceeding the occupational exposure limit is acceptably low, was calculated as well as the underestimation of the exposure–response relationship (attenuation). Greater variability in exposure between work shifts than between workers was observed with the within-worker variation accounting for 57–99% of the total variance in the individual-based model. Several uniformly exposed groups were detected but were mostly associated with a between-worker variation of zero which is an underestimation of the between-worker variation but an indication of uniformly exposed groups. Cleaning was identified as a work task that increases exposure slightly; so reducing workers’ exposure during this operation is advisable. The levels of wood dust were high and were found to pose unacceptable risks of overexposure at all plants for inhalable dust and at three out of four plants for total dust. These findings show that exposure to dust needs to be reduced in this industry. For resin acids, the exposure was classed as acceptable at all plants. According to an individual-based model constructed from the data, the level of attenuation was high, and thus there would be substantial bias in derived dose–response relationships.

    National Category
    Occupational Health and Environmental Health
    Research subject
    Enviromental Science
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-2861 (URN)10.1093/annhyg/men052 (DOI)
    Available from: 2008-02-01 Created: 2008-02-01 Last updated: 2018-01-13Bibliographically approved
    4. Tape-stripping as a method for measuring dermal exposure to resin acids during wood pellet production
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Tape-stripping as a method for measuring dermal exposure to resin acids during wood pellet production
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    National Category
    Occupational Health and Environmental Health
    Research subject
    Occupational and Environmental Medicine; Enviromental Science
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-2862 (URN)
    Available from: 2008-02-01 Created: 2008-02-01 Last updated: 2018-01-13Bibliographically approved
  • 9.
    Johansson, Emma M.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Impact of root and mycorrhizal exudation on soil carbon fluxes: influence of elevated CO2 and metals2009Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The thesis concerns the behavior of root and ectomycorrhizal (ECM) exudates. In particular, the dynamics of soluble low molecular weight (LMW) organic compounds such as organic acids (LMWOAs), amino acids, monosaccharides, and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) have been studied. Our knowledge of exudation rates for tree roots and especially associated ECM is limited, and also factors influencing exudation rates. Two environmental factors, metal stress and elevated atmospheric CO2 level, have been investigated. Both are of great environmental concern, but function in different ways (detoxification and C allocation) and may be highly important for the C flux caused by root/ECM exudation. The project has been carried out with mycorrhizal and nonmycorrhizal (NM) Scots pine seedlings, or saprotrophic fungi, under both sterile and non-sterile (soil) conditions. Analytical determination of exudates and calculation of exudation rates have been major tools for assessment. Assessing the possibility of using naturally occurring chelating agents (e.g. citrate and oxalate) for bioremediation of metals contaminated soils and development and validation of analytical techniques have been additional foci. The results show that from soil-living fungi and ectomycorrhizal roots exudation rates of especially LMWOAs increase significantly at Cd and Pb stress (1-100 μM), while As (as arsenate) and mixtures of metals with As have little effect. The impact of ECM fungi is large and much higher exudation rates are found when the symbionts are present both for controls and metal treatments compared to NM plants. In soil systems there was a significant mobilization of metals from soils under presence of saprotrophic fungi. Both N as well as elevated CO2 (700 ppm) causes sizable increases in exudation rates, independent of biomass, and is a finding that suggests that the availability of easily degradable carbon in soil raises, which may be highly important for the carbon flux in soil. Mycorrhizal seedlings (10 months old) increased total soil respiration ~50% compared to controls without plants in non-sterile soil systems. Key words: amino acids, 13C, carbon cycle, ectomycorrhiza, elevated CO2, exudation, DOC, LMWOA, metal stress, monosaccharides, oxalate, Pinus sylvestris, saprotrophic fungi, soil respiration

    List of papers
    1. Quantitative analysis of exudates from soil-living basidiomycetes in pure culture as a response to lead, cadmium and arsenic stress
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Quantitative analysis of exudates from soil-living basidiomycetes in pure culture as a response to lead, cadmium and arsenic stress
    2008 (English)In: Soil Biology and Biochemistry, ISSN 0038-0717, E-ISSN 1879-3428, Vol. 40, no 9, p. 2225-2236Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Six different ectomycorrhizal fungi (Hebeloma velutipes, Piloderma byssinum, Paxillus involutus, Rhizopogonroseolus, Suillus bovinus and Suillus variegatus) and two saprotrophic fungi (Hypholoma fasciculare andHypholoma capnoides) were exposed to metal stress induced by Pb, Cd and As. After pre-growth ina nutrient solution in Petri dishes, metal exposure was performed either in a nutrient rich solution or ina nutrient poor solution for seven days. The fungi were exposed to two different metal concentrations,low and high (Pb: 10 þ 100 mM; Cd: 1 þ 10 mM; As: 1 þ 10 mM). Exudation of low molecular weightorganic compounds (low molecular weight organic acids (LMWOA), amino acids and dissolved monosaccharides),as well as dissolved organic carbon was quantified as a potential response to the metalstress. The main LMWOA identified was oxalate. Oxalate exudation increased significantly in response toboth low and high Pb and Cd concentrations, as well as low As exposure, relative to nutrient controls.Exposure to As and mixtures of metals (Pb þ Cd, Pb þ As) did not result in any significant increase inoxalate production compared to controls. The presence of a carbon source (glucose) in this study islikely to have been important for exudation of organic compounds. For the nutrient rich (þ1mMglucose) metal treatments exposure to Pb and Cd mainly increased exudation of oxalate and total aminoacids. Production of dissolved monosaccharides, as well as DOC, did not increase significantly in responseto metal exposure, irrespective of nutrient conditions. This may be explained by re-absorption ofthe organic compounds by the mycelium or by the fact that metals had no effect on exudation of thesecompounds.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Amsterdam: Elsevier, 2008
    Keywords
    Amino acids, Ectomycorrhiza, Exudation, Fungi, LMWOA, Metals, Oxalate, Pure culture, Saprotrophic fungi
    National Category
    Natural Sciences
    Research subject
    Environmental Chemistry
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-11838 (URN)10.1016/j.soilbio.2008.04.016 (DOI)
    Available from: 2010-09-14 Created: 2010-09-14 Last updated: 2017-12-12Bibliographically approved
    2. Quantitative analysis of root and ectomycorrhizal exudates as a response to Pb, Cd and As stress
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Quantitative analysis of root and ectomycorrhizal exudates as a response to Pb, Cd and As stress
    2008 (English)In: Plant and Soil, ISSN 0032-079X, E-ISSN 1573-5036, Vol. 313, no 1-2, p. 39-54Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    We examined exudation of low molecular weight (LMW) organic compounds of ectomycorrhizal (ECM) and non-mycorrhizal (NM) seedlings in relation to metals. Scots pine seedlings, either colonized by one of six different ECM fungi or NM, were grown in Petri dishes containing glass beads and liquid growth medium and exposed to elevated concentrations of Pb, Cd and As. Exudation of LMW organic compounds (LMW organic acids (LMWOAs), amino acids and dissolved monosaccharides) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) was determined qualitatively and quantitatively and exudation rates were calculated. Metals had a significant impact on exudation, especially of oxalate. For Pb and Cd treatments, exudation of oxalate and total LMWOAs generally increased by 15–45% compared to nutrient controls. Production of amino acids, dissolved monosaccharides and DOC was not significantly stimulated by exposure to metals; however, there were non-significant trends towards increased exudation. Finally, exudation generally increased in the presence of mycorrhizal seedlings compared to NM seedlings. The results suggest that ECM fungi may reduce the toxicity of metals to plants through significant increases in the production of organic chelators. Axenic conditions are required to assess the full potential for production of these molecules but their overall significance in soil ecosystems needs to be determined using additional experiments under more ecologically realistic conditions.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Berlin: Springer, 2008
    Keywords
    amino acids, 13C, carbon cycle, ectomycorrhiza, elevated CO2, exudation, DOC, LMWOA, metal stress, monosaccharides, oxalate, Pinus sylvestris, saprotrophic fungi, soil respiration
    National Category
    Natural Sciences Environmental Sciences
    Research subject
    Environmental Chemistry
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-11842 (URN)10.1007/s11104-008-9678-1 (DOI)
    Available from: 2010-09-15 Created: 2010-09-15 Last updated: 2017-12-12Bibliographically approved
    3. Remediation of Metal Contaminated Soil by Organic Metabolites from Fungi I—Production of Organic Acids
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Remediation of Metal Contaminated Soil by Organic Metabolites from Fungi I—Production of Organic Acids
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    2008 (English)In: Water, Air and Soil Pollution, ISSN 0049-6979, E-ISSN 1573-2932, Vol. 205, no 1-4, p. 215-226Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Investigations were made on living strains offungi in a bioremediation process of three metal (lead)contaminated soils. Three saprotrophic fungi (Aspergillusniger, Penicillium bilaiae, and a Penicillium sp.) wereexposed to poor and rich nutrient conditions (no carbonavailability or 0.11 M D-glucose, respectively) andmetal stress (25 μM lead or contaminated soils) for5 days. Exudation of low molecular weight organicacids was investigated as a response to the metal andnutrient conditions. Main organic acids identified wereoxalic acid (A. niger) and citric acid (P. bilaiae).Exudation rates of oxalate decreased in response tolead exposure, while exudation rates of citrate were lessaffected. Total production under poor nutrient conditionswas low, except for A. niger, for which nosignificant difference was found between the poor andrich control. Maximum exudation rates were 20 μmoloxalic acid g^−1 biomass h^−1 (A. niger) and 20 μmolcitric acid g^−1 biomass h^−1 (P. bilaiae), in the presenceof the contaminated soil, but only 5 μmol organic acidsg^−1 biomass h^−1, in total, for the Penicillium sp. Therewas a significant mobilization of metals from the soilsin the carbon rich treatments and maximum release ofPb was 12% from the soils after 5 days. This was notsufficient to bring down the remaining concentration tothe target level 300 mg kg^−1 from initial levels of 3,800,1,600, and 370 mg kg^−1in the three soils. Target levelsfor Ni, Zn, and Cu, were 120, 500, and 200 mg kg^−1,respectively, and were prior to the bioremediationalready below these concentrations (except for Cu Soil1). However, maximum release of Ni, Zn, and Cu was28%, 35%, and 90%, respectively. The release of metalswas related to the production of chelating acids, but alsoto the pH-decrease. This illustrates the potential to usefungi exudates in bioremediation of contaminated soil.Nonetheless, the extent of the generation of organicacids is depending on several processes and mechanismsthat need to be further investigated.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Berlin, Germany: Springer, 2008
    Keywords
    Bioremediation, Citric acid, Fungi, Lead, Organic acids, Oxalic acid
    National Category
    Natural Sciences Environmental Sciences
    Research subject
    Environmental Chemistry
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-11843 (URN)10.1007/s11270-009-0067-z (DOI)000272851000016 ()2-s2.0-75049083063 (Scopus ID)
    Available from: 2010-09-15 Created: 2010-09-15 Last updated: 2017-12-12Bibliographically approved
    4. Quantitative analysis of soluble exudates produced by ectomycorrhizal roots as a response to ambient and elevated CO2
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Quantitative analysis of soluble exudates produced by ectomycorrhizal roots as a response to ambient and elevated CO2
    2009 (English)In: Soil Biology and Biochemistry, ISSN 0038-0717, E-ISSN 1879-3428, Vol. 41, no 6, p. 1111-1116Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Despite its potential impact on soil carbon flow, few studies have attempted to quantify the effects of elevated carbon dioxide (CO2) on production of exudates by mycorrhizal plants. In this study we quantified low molecular weight (LMW) organic compounds exuded by non-mycorrhizal (NM) and ectomycorrhizal (ECM) plants in relation to exposure to elevated CO2. Scots pine seedlings, either colonized by one of eight different ECM fungi or non-mycorrhizal (NM), were exposed to either ambient (350 ppm) or elevated (700 ppm) concentrations of CO2. Exudation of LMW organic acids (LMWOAs), amino acids, dissolved monosaccharides and total dissolved organic carbon (DOC) was determined and exudation rates were calculated per g root and fungal dry mass. CO2 had a significant impact on exudation. Under elevated CO2, exudation of total LMWOAs increased by 120–160%, amino acids by 250%, dissolved monosaccharides by 130–270% and DOC by 180–220% compared to ambient CO2 treatment. Net CO2 assimilation rates increased significantly by 41–47% for seedlings exposed to elevated CO2. Exuded C calculated as a percentage of assimilated CO2 increased by 41–88% in the elevated CO2 treatment compared to ambient CO2 treatment.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Amsterdam: Elsevier, 2009
    Keywords
    Ectomycorrhiza, Elevated carbon dioxide, Exudation, Glucosamine, LMWOAs, Pinus sylvestris
    National Category
    Natural Sciences Environmental Sciences
    Research subject
    Environmental Chemistry
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-11845 (URN)10.1016/j.soilbio.2009.02.016 (DOI)000266942900011 ()2-s2.0-67349288511 (Scopus ID)
    Available from: 2010-09-15 Created: 2010-09-15 Last updated: 2017-12-12Bibliographically approved
    5. Elevated CO2 and nitrogen influence exudation of soluble organic compounds by ectomycorrhizal root systems
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Elevated CO2 and nitrogen influence exudation of soluble organic compounds by ectomycorrhizal root systems
    2010 (English)In: FEMS Microbiology Ecology, ISSN 0168-6496, E-ISSN 1574-6941, Vol. 71, no 2, p. 186-196Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Root and mycelial exudation contributes significantly to soil carbon (C) fluxes, and is likely to be altered by an elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration and nitrogen (N) deposition. We quantified soluble, low-molecular-weight (LMW) organic compounds exuded by ectomycorrhizal plants grown under ambient (360 p.p.m.) or elevated (710 p.p.m.) CO2 concentrations and with different N sources. Scots pine seedlings, colonized by one of five different ectomycorrhizal or nonmycorrhizal fungi, received 70 μM N, either as NH4Cl or as alanine, in a liquid growth medium. Exudation of LMW organic acids (LMWOAs), dissolved monosaccharides and total dissolved organic carbon were determined. Both N and CO2 had a significant impact on exudation, especially of LMWOAs. Exudation of LMWOAs was negatively affected by inorganic N and decreased by 30–85% compared with the organic N treatment, irrespective of the CO2 treatment. Elevated CO2 had a clear impact on the production of individual LMWOAs, although with very contrasting effects depending on which N source was supplied.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Hoboken, USA: Wiley-Blackwell, 2010
    Keywords
    Global change, carbon cycling; oxalate, Pinus sylvestris, organic nitrogen, LMWOAs
    National Category
    Natural Sciences Environmental Sciences
    Research subject
    Environmental Chemistry
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-11846 (URN)10.1111/j.1574-6941.2009.00795.x (DOI)000273065000002 ()19889031 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-73049118299 (Scopus ID)
    Available from: 2010-09-15 Created: 2010-09-15 Last updated: 2018-04-19Bibliographically approved
    6. Autotrophic and heterotrophic soil respiration: the effects of non-mycorrhizal and mycorrhizal seedlings under elevated CO2
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Autotrophic and heterotrophic soil respiration: the effects of non-mycorrhizal and mycorrhizal seedlings under elevated CO2
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    National Category
    Natural Sciences Environmental Sciences
    Research subject
    Environmental Chemistry
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-11847 (URN)
    Available from: 2010-09-15 Created: 2010-09-15 Last updated: 2017-10-18Bibliographically approved
  • 10.
    Julander, Anneli
    Örebro University, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Exposure to brominated flame retardants in electronics recycling: air and human plasma levels2004Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), 1,2-bis(2,4,6-tribromophenoxy)ethane (BTBPE) and 1,2-bis(2,3,4,5,6-pentabromophenyl)ethane (DeBDethane) were analysed in air and blood samples from workers at an electronics recycling facility. The samples were collected regularly for 18 months and were analysed by isomer specific GC/MS analysis in both electron impact (EI) and negative chemical ionisation (NCI) mode.

    In addition, triiodotyronine (T3), thyroxin (T4) and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) were monitored and put in relation to the workers’ PBDE concentration in blood.

    Breathing zone air samples showed that the electronics dismantlers were highly exposed to PBDE #209 in comparison with other workers in the facility (30 ng/m3 and 8 ng/m3, respectively). However, for BTBPE and the other PBDE congeners no such difference was found. It was also shown that when dismantling small electronic products (computers and household electronics) the air levels were higher than when dismantling

    larger products (photocopiers). Monitoring dust fractions (“total dust”, inhalable dust and respirable dust) revealed that the PBDE #209 concentration was more than ten times higher in the inhalable dust fraction than the traditionally used “total dust” fraction (“total” 15 ng/m3, inhalable 192 ng/m3), which was not the case for the other BFRs.

    The sampler for inhalable dust collects particles of larger size more efficiently than the “total” dust sampler. PBDE #209 was found to bind to a higher extent to larger particles in the air. However, PBDE #209 was also present in the respirable fraction (3.1 ng/m3) that reaches the alveolar region in the lungs, making it available for uptake.

    The levels of PBDEs detected in the workers’ blood were within the range of the general population in Sweden, except for PBDE #183 and #209 which were slightly elevated (1.2 pmol/g l.w. and 5.7 pmol/g l.w., respectively) among the dismantlers. No clinical effect could be seen on the thyroid hormone status in the workers, caused by the PBDE concentration. Steady state blood concentration estimations based on levels in the respirable dust fraction suggested that the increase for PBDE #209 was due to occupational air-borne dust.

    To study biological samples with high levels of PBDEs to identify possible metabolites from PBDEs and other bromine containing compounds, whales from the Mediterranean Sea were analysed. PBDEs were found at high concentrations in the range of 66-8100 ng/g l.w.. Three methoxylated tetraBDEs (MeO-TeBDE) were identified in the whale samples at a range of 2-630 ng/g l.w.. Several unidentified organobromine compounds were also detected in the whales.

    List of papers
    1. Polybrominated diphenylethers and methoxylated tetrabromodiphenylethers in cetaceans from the Mediterranean Sea
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Polybrominated diphenylethers and methoxylated tetrabromodiphenylethers in cetaceans from the Mediterranean Sea
    2004 (English)In: Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, ISSN 0090-4341, E-ISSN 1432-0703, Vol. 47, no 4, p. 542-550Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Eight tetrabrominated to hexabrominated diphenylethers were present at ppb levels in liver from cetaceans found stranded on the beaches of the Mediterranean Sea, Italy. The highest concentration was found in striped dolphin (sum polybrominated diphenyl ethers [PBDE] 8133 ng/g l.w.) and the lowest concentration in bottlenose dolphin (sum PBDE 66 ng/g lipid weight [l.w.]). The predominant congener in all samples was 2,2',4,4'-tetraBDE (PBDE # 47) followed by, in decreasing order, the pentaPBDE # 99 and 100 and the hexaPBDE # 154 and 153. In 12 of the 14 analyzed samples, 3 different methoxylated PBDEs (MeO-PBDE # 1, 2, and 3) were detected at semiquantitatively calculated concentration ranges of 2 to 14 ng/g l.w.; 5 to 167 ng/g l.w.; and 7 to 628 ng/g l.w., respectively. In addition, several unidentified bromine compounds were seen when screening the samples in negative-chemical ionization (NCI) mode monitoring m/z 79 and 81, which illustrates the importance of running both electron-impact ionization and NCI when analyzing environmental samples. Electron-impact ionization is more specific for monitoring the molecular ion compared with NCI, which might overestimate the concentration of certain PBDE congeners.

    National Category
    Natural Sciences
    Research subject
    Enviromental Science
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-3221 (URN)10.1007/s00244-004-3200-4 (DOI)
    Available from: 2004-11-26 Created: 2004-11-26 Last updated: 2017-12-14Bibliographically approved
    2. Personal air sampling and analysis of polybrominated diphenyl ethers and other bromine containing compounds at an electronic recycling facility in Sweden
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Personal air sampling and analysis of polybrominated diphenyl ethers and other bromine containing compounds at an electronic recycling facility in Sweden
    2004 (English)In: Journal of Environmental Monitoring, ISSN 1464-0325, E-ISSN 1464-0333, Vol. 6, no 11, p. 874-880Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Brominated flame retardants (BFRs) have been used extensively and are considered ubiquitous contaminants. To evaluate exposure to brominated flame retardants within an electronic recycling facility personal air monitoring was done during a two year period. A total of 22 polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and 2 other bromine containing organic compounds have been analysed and evaluated in 17 personal air samples. The most abundant congeners of PBDE was #209 (<0.7-61 ng m(-3)), #183 (<0.1-32 ng m(-3)) indicating the use of the commercial octaBDE mixture, followed by PBDE #99 and #47 (<1.3-25 and <0.9-16 ng m(-3), respectively). The second most abundant peak in the chromatogram from all samples was identified as 1,2-bis(2,4,6-tribromophenyxy)ethane (BTBPE) in the concentration range <0.6-39 ng m(-3) (semi-quantitatively calculated against PBDE #191). A second bromine containing compound was also detected, structurally similar to decabromodiphenyl ethane (DeBDethane), however no definite identification could be made. The air samples were also evaluated on a work exposure category basis. The workers represented three different categories: dismantlers, other workers and unexposed. There was a significant difference (p < 0.05 with the Mann-Whitney test) among the dismantlers and the unexposed categories for PBDE congeners #47, #100, #99, #154; #153, #183, #209 and BTBPE. Another observation was that the air concentrations of PBDEs and BTBPE in the breathing zone were negatively correlated (p < 0.05) to the amount of recycled material ( in kg). The present work shows that the exposure to brominated flame retardants varied within the electronic facility and that further research is needed to evaluate how the exposure differs with different products being dismantled as well as how the bioavailability of the different BFRs to humans is related to particle exposure.

    National Category
    Natural Sciences
    Research subject
    Enviromental Science
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-3222 (URN)10.1039/B408381D (DOI)
    Available from: 2004-11-26 Created: 2004-11-26 Last updated: 2017-12-14Bibliographically approved
    3. Distribution of brominated flame retardants in different dust fractions in air from an electronics recycling facility
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Distribution of brominated flame retardants in different dust fractions in air from an electronics recycling facility
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    National Category
    Natural Sciences Chemical Sciences Environmental Sciences
    Research subject
    Chemistry; Environmental Chemistry; Enviromental Science
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-3223 (URN)
    Available from: 2004-11-26 Created: 2004-11-26 Last updated: 2017-10-18Bibliographically approved
    4. Polybrominated diphenylethers and thyroid hormone status in human plasma of workers at electronic recycling facility
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Polybrominated diphenylethers and thyroid hormone status in human plasma of workers at electronic recycling facility
    Show others...
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    National Category
    Environmental Sciences
    Research subject
    Enviromental Science
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-3224 (URN)
    Available from: 2004-11-26 Created: 2004-11-26 Last updated: 2017-10-18Bibliographically approved
    5. Solid-phase extraction of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in human plasma: comparison with an open column extraction method
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Solid-phase extraction of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in human plasma: comparison with an open column extraction method
    2005 (English)In: Chromatographia, ISSN 0009-5893, E-ISSN 1612-1112, Vol. 61, no 1-2, p. 67-73Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    A solid phase extraction (SPE) method in combination with silica gel cleanup to analyse tri-to heptabrominated diphenyl ethers in human plasma was validated. All congeners showed recoveries over 70% except for BDE #183, which showed recoveries around 45%. The method was tested on 21 individual plasma samples which were extracted with both the SPE method and an open column extraction method using Hydromatrix. Method detection limits were of the same order of magnitude for both methods, ranging from 0.0076 to 0.13 ng g−1 (l.w.) depending on the congener. The SPE extraction method meets the demand for a faster, less solvent-and sample-demanding method with lower contamination risk due to fewer steps compared to the open column extraction.

    National Category
    Chemical Sciences Natural Sciences
    Research subject
    Chemistry; Enviromental Science
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-3143 (URN)10.1365/s10337-004-0461-z (DOI)
    Available from: 2006-10-13 Created: 2006-10-13 Last updated: 2017-12-14Bibliographically approved
  • 11.
    Lifvergren, Thomas
    Örebro University, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Remediation of mercury polluted soil2001Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Mercury in contaminated soil constitutes a wide spectrum of species with highly different properties due to the chemical complexity of the element. Assessments of risk, ecological effects and removal potential require process and mobility studies. Identification of various chemical states of mercury in soil systems can be achieved by selective extraction procedures that would demonstrate the mobility and potential reactivity. In this thesis, a selective extraction method for mercury is presented. The method is mainly based on a parallel extraction procedure. The method was used to investigate the mercury mobility in two soils collected at two different chlor-alkali industrial sites; Bohus and Bengtfors. Both soils are heavily contaminated with mercury, 80 and 180 mg Hg/kg, respectively. In Bohus soil mercury was associated to organic matter with low water solubility and to a very resistant phase, strongly indicated to be dominated by mercury sulphides. In Bengtfors soil some mercury appeared to be weakly adsorbed, bound to secondary precipitates and associated to soluble humic matter. These result indicates a higher mobility of mercury in Bengtfors compared to Bohus soil. Both soils are fine grained with a clay dominated matrix. The main difference is the sulphur content. 0.4% and 0.03% for Bohus and Bengtfors soil, respectively. The preference of mercury for sulphides and reduced sulphur groups in organic matter is well established. The corresponding phases are in general very insoluble. This indicates that sulphur contents in soil to some extent reflects geochemical speciation as well as mobility of mercury.

    Further, the possibility to mobilise insoluble mercury phases in soils using soil fungi as well as halogenides were investigated. This was made in an attempt to investigate possible in-situ technologies for remediation of mercury polluted soils. Some of the fungi studied were able to dissolve mercury sulphides. It was also indicated that the same fungi responded with volatilsation, accumulation and possible also precipitation of mercury, as soon as toxic levels of soluble mercury were reached. These latter responses can be of advantage or disadvantage depending on remediation design.

    In batch experiments made with acidic iodide solutions and Bohus soil, a very fast and extensively dissolution of mercury was shown. Mobilisation of the mercury sulphide fraction present, could not be achieved solely by competitive complexation. The mechanism suggested was formation of tri-iodide at low pH. The combination of complextion and oxidation in the same molecule, breaks the bond between inorganic mercury and the sulphide. Extensively and fast mobilisation was also seen in a bench experiment, where iodide in combination with electroremediation simulated a possible in-situ remediation of Bohus soil.

    List of papers
    1. Microwave-assisted digestion of mercury polluted soils
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Microwave-assisted digestion of mercury polluted soils
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    National Category
    Natural Sciences
    Research subject
    Enviromental Science
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-16010 (URN)
    Available from: 2011-06-17 Created: 2011-06-17 Last updated: 2017-10-17Bibliographically approved
    2. Remediation of mercury polluted soils - I: selective extraction of mercury from a soil and speciation by gas chromatography - atomic emission detection
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Remediation of mercury polluted soils - I: selective extraction of mercury from a soil and speciation by gas chromatography - atomic emission detection
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    National Category
    Natural Sciences
    Research subject
    Enviromental Science
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-16011 (URN)
    Available from: 2011-06-17 Created: 2011-06-17 Last updated: 2017-10-17Bibliographically approved
    3. Mercury speciation and mobility in two contaminated soils
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Mercury speciation and mobility in two contaminated soils
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    National Category
    Natural Sciences
    Research subject
    Enviromental Science
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-16013 (URN)
    Available from: 2011-06-17 Created: 2011-06-17 Last updated: 2017-10-17Bibliographically approved
    4. Critical remarks concerning the method used in Sweden for risk assessment of contaminated soils (MIFO)
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Critical remarks concerning the method used in Sweden for risk assessment of contaminated soils (MIFO)
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    National Category
    Chemical Sciences
    Research subject
    Enviromental Science
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-16009 (URN)
    Available from: 2011-06-17 Created: 2011-06-17 Last updated: 2017-10-17Bibliographically approved
    5. Fungal responses to mercury
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Fungal responses to mercury
    Show others...
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    National Category
    Natural Sciences
    Research subject
    Enviromental Science
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-16014 (URN)
    Available from: 2011-06-17 Created: 2011-06-17 Last updated: 2017-10-17Bibliographically approved
    6. Remediation of mercury polluted soils - part II: mobilisation of mercury in soil by complexation with chloride and iodide
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Remediation of mercury polluted soils - part II: mobilisation of mercury in soil by complexation with chloride and iodide
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    National Category
    Natural Sciences
    Research subject
    Enviromental Science
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-16015 (URN)
    Available from: 2011-06-17 Created: 2011-06-17 Last updated: 2017-10-17Bibliographically approved
    7. Mercury contaminated soil: remediation by the combination of iodide and electroreclamation
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Mercury contaminated soil: remediation by the combination of iodide and electroreclamation
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    National Category
    Natural Sciences
    Research subject
    Enviromental Science
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-16016 (URN)
    Available from: 2011-06-17 Created: 2011-06-17 Last updated: 2017-10-17Bibliographically approved