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  • 1.
    Alsarve [Arvidsson], Daniel
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    I ständig strävan efter framgång?: föreningsdemokratins innehåll och villkor i Örebro Sportklubb 1908-892014Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this dissertation is to study the conditions of and changes in sociative democracy processes at club level. One sports club is studied, Örebro Sportklubb (ÖSK), from its foundation in 1908 up to 1989. The main sources are club minutes, member magazines and annual reports. Democracy, and its twofolded relation to sport and economy processes, is the main problem area of the study. The specific question is how aspirations for economic effectiveness and sporting success influenced the democracy processes in ÖSK between 1908 and 1989.

    The Swedish sports movement has been described as a democratic movement. But the same movement has also been portrayed as an undemocratic movement made of men, for men. The study is based on a broad understanding of the democracy concept where issues of representativeness, influence, participation and knowledge are prominent. At a club level, the study is analysing the contents of the Swedish sports movement's democracy and its change during the 1900s. The thesis also illustrates how the pursuit of economic efficiency affected the associative democracy. These efficiencies were visible already in the 1920s, but was deepened during the 1970s. In short, the democratic range decreased, and successful sections became less and less motivated to finance the deficits of other sections.

    But the increased market orientation did not only represent a threat to the associative democracy. Marketisation and commercialization also preconditioned the democracy. At the club arena (Eyravallen), the members met in the clubhouse and café which, in turn, deepened the social capital and friendships within the club.

  • 2.
    Arvidsson, Malin
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Att ersätta det oersättliga: statlig gottgörelse för ofrivillig sterilisering och vanvård av omhändertagna barn2016Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
  • 3.
    Backius, Stefan
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Arbetare på scen: amatörteater som politiskt verktyg2011Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis focuses on the political dimensions of aesthetic expression during the Long Sixties. The thesis deals with amateur theatre ventures both within and linked to the social democratic labour movement. ’Spelet om Norbergsstrejken’ (The Play about the Norberg Strike) had its première in 1977 in a small industrial village in the industrial region of Bergslagen. Similar plays appeared in many regions of the country and a wave of workers’ plays emerged and made an impact on the internal investments of the educational association ABF in amateur theatre. The empiricism of the thesis concludes in 1982 when a social democratic amateur theatre association was founded and after a breakaway from the social democratic movement was establishing a residential study centre in another small village in Bergslagen. Sixties radicalisation provides the social context of the study and the perspective of sociological social movement research is used and developed. Based on the perspective of cognitive practice and the concepts of cosmology and movement ideology attention is directed towards the theatre assets of performance hosts, expectation horizons and patterns of behaviour. The thesis argues for a deeper understanding of sixties radicalisation partly meaning that the periodisation needs to be extended backwards as well as forwards in terms of time and partly that the political dimensions of aesthetic expression should be focused on. Based upon the results of the thesis the concept of culturactivism was formulated which defines the specific approach that appeared in the space between political and cultural activism. This highlights the need for a concept that covers the cognitive free space that arose between aesthetic expression and political activism and which has not previously attracted the attention of historical studies about sixties radicalisation to any great degree.

  • 4.
    Bajramović, Sanela
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Hierarchical Sisterhood: Supporting Women's Peacebuilding through Swedish Aid to Bosnia and Herzegovina 1993-20132018Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This dissertation examines possibilities and challenges faced by international interveners in a post-socialist and violently divided area. The study object is the Swedish foundation Kvinna till Kvinna, formed in 1993 during the Bosnian war, originating from the peace movement and supported by the Swedish government aid agency Sida. The aim is to contextualize and analyze Kvinna till Kvinna’s two decades of engagement in peacebuilding in Bosnia. The encounter with domestic women’s NGOs is of particular interest. By focusing on rhetoric, practice and silences, the ambition has been to understand the international/local relationship from the perspective of both actors.

      In terms of methodology, this study combines a hermeneutic approach with that of oral history. The empirical material utilized consists of both written and oral sources, the majority of which appear in research for the first time. To capture the complexity of the peacebuilding endeavor, critically scrutinize it and discern its benevolence, this research draws inspiration from postcolonial and semiperipherality theories, as well as influential theorizing on peacebuilding, sisterhood and solidarity.

      This study shows that even well-intentioned, locally-focused external efforts, constrained by donor agendas and circumstances on the ground, contain problematic characteristics common in the era of liberal peace. While subscribing to the idea of transnational sisterhood, Kvinna till Kvinna also presented a belief in Swedish supremacy and demonstrated a lack of interest in local knowledge. It sought to educate and change its Bosnian counterparts by using soft methods. Further, the findings challenge idealized images of the ‘local’ as a peace-loving force for change and a powerless victim of Western domination. The hierarchical sisterhood that over time evolved between the two actors, founded on basic shared values related to women’s situation, was driven by mutual benefit. Acknowledging advantages of this type of transnational encounters in peacebuilding contexts, the study raises questions about dilemmas in them and underlines the importance of rhetorical listening.

  • 5.
    Engwall, Kristina
    Örebro University, Department of Humanities.
    "Asociala och imbecilla": kvinnorna på Västra Mark 1931 - 19672000Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Vilka konsekvenser medförde det att under perioden 1931-1967 kategoriseras som sinnesslö kvinna i Sverige? Undersökningens källmaterial är i huvudsak patientjournaler från Västra Marks sjukhus för s.k. asociala och imbecilla kvinnor, men även riksdagsmaterial. Utifrån detta material diskuteras samhällets uppfattning av och åtgärder mot det som upplevdes som sinnesslöproblemet. I avhandlingen behandlas sinnesslöa som en social kategori och kön diskuteras i termer av kvinnlighet på fyra olika nivåer.

    Avhandlingen visar hur kvinnorna på Västra Mark var en utsatt grupp människor som upplevt otrygghet samt fysiska och sexuella övergrepp. Men i samhällsdebatten i tidigt 1900-tal talades mer om det hot som sinnesslöa kvinnor ansågs utgöra p.g.a sin "sexuella" opålitlighet". De samhälleliga åtgärderna resulterade i internering, till exempel på Västra Mark, sterilisering och äktenskapsförbud.

    Men kvinnorna på Västra Mark befann sig i gränsområdet mellan avvikande och normalt. Därmed ansågs i vissa fall att familjebildning kunde vara bättre för kvinnornas återanpassning till samhället än förhindrandet av familjebildning som lagen förespråkade. För kvinnorna själva var fästman, äkta make och barn något som eftersträvades då detta ingick i den "normala" kvinnligheten. Av undersökningen framgår att sinnesslöa kvinnor omfattades av en annorlunda kvinnlighet än vad kvinnor i allmänhet gjorde.

    En studie om en marginaliserad grupp, som till exempel sinnesslöa kvinnor, medför att grundläggande frågor om människors värde och människosyn aktualiseras. Frågor om exempelvis individuell frihet och samhälleligt ingripande synliggös därmed på ett mer framträdande sätt än vad en studie av centrala grupper i ett samhälle skulle ha möjliggjort. Avhandlingen visar också på nödvändigheten av ett könsperspektiv i handikappforskningen samt vikten av att sinnesslöa inkluderas i handikapphistorien.

  • 6.
    Folkesson, Klara
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Inkludering, marginalisering, integration?: enskilda medborgares identifikationer och kommunalpolitisk utveckling2012Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis focuses on the individual experience of being a migrant in the context of the development of local, municipal politics concerning immigrants, in Sweden during the time period between 1972 and 2002. The thesis is based on two different empiric materials. One consists of narratives from networks of Muslim women migrants in the suburban, immigrant- dense area of Fittja in the municipal of Botkyrka, located in the greater Stockholm area. The other consists of immigrant-centered policies and political decisions, found in Botkyrka municipal archives.

    The thesis focuses on a dynamic time period when big-city areas in Sweden have become increasingly heterogeneous and where integration policies have become a growing part of political agendas but where segregation and societal differentiation in many cases are increasing in spite of political efforts to achieve equality and multiculturalism. In this complex context, the thesis examines the relation between local political structure and individual agency. The study shows that subjective factors such as motherhood, background or future plans often are most important when defining an individual self-image in relation to the major society, which in turn impacts active, subjective strategies of inclusion or marginalization. Ethnicity, culture and gender are however, in almost all cases, the factors around which well meaning municipal immigrant-related political discourses are based in Botkyrka. The interviewed women are highly included in different areas outside of the political framework, although this activism often goes unnoticed in the hegemonic political system that reproduces unquestioned, collective categorization concerning immigrant women as passive “victims”. The findings in this thesis’ historical case study therefore indicate the development of a “non-meeting” between political structure and immigrated citizens, which leads to a critical discussion regarding the contents of inclusion and marginalisation as well as the meaning of political rhetoric like integration.

  • 7.
    Frih, Anna-Karin
    Örebro University, Department of Humanities.
    Flickan i medicinen: ungdom, kön och sjuklighet 1870-19302007Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The main purpose of this thesis is to study and analyze how concepts of childhood and adolescence were constructed in scientific medicine during the period 1870 to 1930. The focus in the first part of the thesis is to study the sick girl as a stereotype in 1870–1900. In the late nineteenth-century, the poor health of girls was a popular topic in Swedish medical discourse. It was a well-established opinion that a substantial number of Swedish girls suffered from various diseases and ailments. Mass- and coeducation was under debate and physicians became interested in the impact of schools and schooling on children’s health. It is here shown that children, and in particularly adolescents, were de-fined as gendered creatures. The doctors emphasized the universal nature of adolescence and conceptualized pu-berty as a traumatic and risky stage of life and they also tended to focus on middle-class girls. Pubescent girls were seen as most vulnerable to external stress such as mental strain and physical demands. Physicians claimed that ill health inevitably followed when girls were educated in the same way as boys. However, boys and their health were discussed too. The most common ailments for both girls and boys were overstudy, anemia, headaches and disor-dered digestion. It was also shown in various studies, that poorer children were substantially inferior in weight as well as in height. Chlorosis was a common theme in late nineteenth-century medical discourse. Although it appeared mainly as a girls’ disease in medical books and in most sanitary journals, health studies for example, showed that chlorosis could also be a boys’ disease. However, sick boys were rarely spoken of. Medical opinions on overstudy, chlorosis and dress reform could be interpreted as a concern for unhealthy girls as future mothers of the nation. It is not my intention to advertise doctors as vicious oppressors, as opponents of female emancipation. In fact, the doctors often pointed out social factors and unequal circumstances of childhood and adolescence for girls and boys.

    In early twentieth-century, the scientific opinion of girls changed. Even though gendered notions of children and youths persisted all through the period studied, more and more some doctors, Karolina Widerström, for example, began to question them. The new girl was not weak and ill, but rather healthy and active. However, a dividing line between those who claimed the weakness of girls and those who emphasized the new, healthy girl became more evident after 1900. In this thesis, this disparity is discussed in terms of popular medical discourse and scientific medi-cal discourse. In the latter, girls were still described as more sensitive and more frail than boys and as unfit for higher education and strenuous schoolwork. Thus, the new girl – vivid, healthy and equal to the boy – was above all a con-struction in popular medicine. The uniform medical discourse on girls from the late nineteenth-century thus dissolved. A number of changes in the medical discourse on sickness and health of girls and boys during in this period occurred. First, concepts of sickness and health were modified over time and fewer schoolchildren were considered sick. Fi-nally, in the beginning of the period studied, girls were sicker than boys were, but in the end, in the 1930s, there was no obvious gender difference. Both sexes seemed equally sick (or healthy).

  • 8.
    Hartman Söderberg, Ingrid
    Örebro University, Department of Humanities.
    "Vidunder till qvinnor": Sju systrar som pionjärer i yrkesliv och offentlighet 1860-19352003Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The second half of the 19th century saw the Swedish agrarian society transforming into an industrial society, a development which brought with it major social change including an incipient emancipation of woman. The unmarried woman obtained a number of new rights legally, politically and financially. New educational opportunities came within reach and she was given access to an independent professional life.

    This group biography depicts the life stories of seven sisters. They grew up in a society in which woman's given role was that of the mistress of the house. Their father, Jonas Andersson of Häckenäs Estate, was a liberal member of Parliament and a representative of the Swedish peasant estate and he fought for woman's right to authority, education and access to new vocational spheres. The strategies he advocated provided a way out for the woman into the public sphere, a path which all the seven sisters were to turn into. Also their mother supported and encouraged them in their life choices. The sisters chose different careers and educational paths, whereby they stepped out into the public sphere in many cases as pioneers - as elementary school teachers, telegraph operator, photographer and physiotherapist. Some of them enjoyed permanent appointments whereas others were self-employed. The seven sisters remained autonomous professional women. None of them married.

    Using an extended politics and public sphere concept, which includes women's activities within popular movements and societies, it is argued that some of the sisters also appeared in other public arenas by participating in social debate and contributing to social change. Particularly two of the sisters have been studied in this respect. As an active politician after women had been given their full political rights, the younger of the two had the opportunity to put into practice her visions of a better society. She was the one who most clearly made visible their ideological heritage from home.

    As the "daughters of liberalism", the seven sisters managed to convert the social and cultural capital that they brought with them from childhood. They stepped out into the various arenas of the public sphere and chose a way of life so different from that of previous generations of women. They viewed themselves as "marvellous women" as they did not fulfil what long had been regarded as woman's "true destiny". Instead, they helped to create a new female pattern of life.

  • 9.
    Hellsing, My
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Hovpolitik: Hedvig Elisabeth Charlotte som politisk aktör vid det gustavianska hovet2013Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This dissertation examines political life at the Swedish Gustavian Court through Duchess Charlotte (1759–1818). She was the Swedish monarch’s sister-in-law and well-known for her political memoirs. This study reassesses the Duchess as a political agent in her own right by taking into account earlier neglected sources.

    Drawing inspiration from previous research, I elaborate my empirical findings in an analytical framework called court politics. My claim is that politics involved both men and women at court since it was a key part of social life. I also structure the political agency of the Duchess into six different spheres. Each sphere is equivalent to a combined set of space, social relations, and activities, each of which supplied her with political capital. There are four spheres corresponding to the essential features of the royal identity: firstly, being at the head of a court; secondly, as part of the Swedish royal family; thirdly, in the performance of social duties at court; and fourthly, being the Duke’s consort. The two other spheres derive from the Duchess’s personal life, such as in her relationship with the Fersen family and her close circle of female friends. My examples reveal the Duchess acting as a leading figure in the social life of the Stockholm elite, hereby influencing the composition of political circles. She acted as a patron for court positions and solicited the Duke and the monarch for political purposes. When she was unsatisfied with their political decisions, she refused to host any social occasions, creating disorder within court society.

    The major focus in previous investigations of elite women’s political power has been on their marital status as a means of influence. By framing the Duchess’s agency in six spheres, I position her between the aristocracy and royal authority, together with both men and women of her social status. Thus, this case study offers a display of the complex dynamics of power at the Gustavian court.

    List of papers
    1. Hertiginnan & hovpolitiken
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Hertiginnan & hovpolitiken
    (Swedish)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    National Category
    History
    Research subject
    History
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-32594 (URN)
    Available from: 2013-12-02 Created: 2013-12-02 Last updated: 2017-10-17Bibliographically approved
    2. Hertiginnan, hovet & staden i det gustavianska Stockholm
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Hertiginnan, hovet & staden i det gustavianska Stockholm
    2013 (Swedish)In: Sjuttonhundratal, ISSN 1652-4772, p. 103-125Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    National Category
    Humanities
    Research subject
    History
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-30944 (URN)
    Available from: 2013-09-25 Created: 2013-09-25 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
    3. Honnêta män, italienska seder och kunglig impotens: hertiginnan Charlotte om Gustaf III:s hov
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Honnêta män, italienska seder och kunglig impotens: hertiginnan Charlotte om Gustaf III:s hov
    2013 (Swedish)In: Kvinnorna gör mannen: maskulinitetskonstruktioner i kvinnors text och bild 1500–2000 / [ed] Kristina Fjelkestam, Helena Hill, David Tjeder, Göteborg: Makadam Förlag, 2013, 1, p. 165-189Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Göteborg: Makadam Förlag, 2013 Edition: 1
    National Category
    Humanities
    Research subject
    History
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-30945 (URN)9789170611223 (ISBN)
    Available from: 2013-09-25 Created: 2013-09-25 Last updated: 2017-10-17Bibliographically approved
    4. « …que dumoin apres ma mort la verite perse… »: La duchesse Charlotte, journaliste à la cour de Suède
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>« …que dumoin apres ma mort la verite perse… »: La duchesse Charlotte, journaliste à la cour de Suède
    2014 (French)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    National Category
    History
    Research subject
    History
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-32590 (URN)
    Available from: 2013-12-02 Created: 2013-12-02 Last updated: 2017-10-17Bibliographically approved
    5. Libertinage féminin à la cour suédoise du XVIIIe siècle à travers les écrits de la duchesse de Sudermanie
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Libertinage féminin à la cour suédoise du XVIIIe siècle à travers les écrits de la duchesse de Sudermanie
    2011 (French)In: Amour divin, amour mondain dans les écrits du for privé de la fin du Moyen Âge à 1914 / [ed] Maurice Daumas, Morlaàs: Editions Cairn , 2011, p. 141-151Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Morlaàs: Editions Cairn, 2011
    National Category
    Humanities
    Research subject
    History
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-30946 (URN)9782350682266 (ISBN)
    Conference
    Amour divin, amour mondain dans les écrits du for privé de la fin du Moyen Âge à 1914, Pau, 2010
    Available from: 2013-09-25 Created: 2013-09-25 Last updated: 2018-03-06Bibliographically approved
  • 10.
    Ilshammar, Lars
    Örebro University, Department of Humanities.
    Offentlighetens nya rum: teknik och politik i Sverige 1969-19992002Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This study in contemporary history describes the transformation of the public sphere in Sweden during the period 1969-1999, and analyses the role of information technology and politics in the process. The overall aim of the study is to explain how, and why, the public sphere in Jürgen Habermas sense has deteriorated during a period of rapid technological and political change, when increasing attention has been given to information technology as a new tool for improving democracy and empowering citizens.

    Theoretical inspiration is drawn from two perspectives within the modern history of technology and sociology of technology; the LTS (Large Technical Systems) and STS (Science, Technology and Society) approaches, as well as from the regime theory concept within political science. This multidisciplinary framework provides the theoretical basis for the study, including terms as socio-technical systems, system builder, technification, interpretative flexibility, stabilization, closing and regime change. In addition, the analysis draws upon previous research in economic history, where focus often has been on the important role of institutions. The term path dependence is central in this tradition.

    The starting point for the study is the process of a mutual legitimization between citizens and political actors that traditionally has taken place within the public sphere. In return for citizens support and trust, political actors have granted format rights to the public space. Two aspects of this interdependence are addressed: Freedom of speech and citizen’s access to public information, and their access to arenas where an exchange of political ideas and opinions is taking place. In the study, the former is a question of the legal system and the limits to freedom of speech in new medias such as the Internet, while the latter concerns citizen’s technical means and possibilities to connect to electronic networks.

    Research interest is concentrated on the formal political system, focusing both actors and structural factors such as technological development, media convergence, ideological change and international integration in the transformation process. Four case studies of institutional changes during formative moments, within what is defined as the legal and the technical infrastructures, are conducted and represent the empirical base of the thesis. The case studies are centered on Swedish governmental commissions, on the government itself and on proceedings in the parliament, and concerns formation and transformation of computer law, as well as the deregulation and privatization of the technical infrastructure.

    In the latter process Televerket (Swedish Telecom) has been an influential promoter of competition and institutional separation between tele- and data communications, representing a major regime change in favour of market relations in the technical infrastructure. In the area of computer law, the Swedish regime dominated by SCB (Statistics Sweden) was incorporated into a joint European data protection regime, resulting in limitations of freedom of speech on the Internet. These regime changes have also transformed the role of the state, constituting a “net watchers state”.

    Another important finding is that promotion of democracy and improvement of access to the public sphere, never was on the agenda in the political transformation processes studied, although a parallel discourse on democracy and information technology existed throughout the period studied.

  • 11.
    Johansson, Richard
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Storstrejken 1909 i Örebros dagspress: En granskning av media som maktfaktor i kampen mellan arbete och kapital2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 12.
    Jonsson, Patrick
    Örebro University, Department of Humanities.
    Handelsfrihetens vänner och förbuden: identitet och politisk kommunikation i svensk tullpolitik 1823-18542005Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Free trade can seem a peculiar thing, it’s both an economical theory and a trade policy, both an ideology and a scientific theory. Much of these tensions can be found already in the writings of Adam Smith. The dissertation focus the political aspect of free trade, and investigates how it was communicated within Swedish trade policy between 1823 and 1854. During this period the prohibitions in the Swedish tariff were subject of a fierce debate within the political system. 1823 a principal decision was taken to abolish them, but not until 1854 and 1857 respectively, one can say it was finally executed. Recent theories on trade policy change, suggests that to explain these kinds of processes, one can’t only look at the primary economic interests behind the change. Institutions and ideas are vital factors as well. My investigation considers these together with the aspects arenas and actors as important together with the more economic factors. The political actors communicated the issue on arenas, and the issue got institutionalised within the political system and was affected by existing institutions. Existing ideas also influenced how the problem was finally solved. The free traders are studied as political communicators where message and identities worked together. Political aspects like virtues, national interests and rhetoric came into play that explains why the change cannot be reduced to the strength of economic interests. In this the British free trade reforms gave the Swedish free traders important tools. In line with developments on the continent during the middle of the century, free trade was adopted and championed as a policy for national enrichment and empowerment. In this the roles played by different actors were important, the main roles were that of statesman and spokesperson for the people, both originated within the British political process. Swedish actors adopted these and transformed them to a Swedish context.

  • 13.
    Karlsson, Henrik
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Vården av de arbetsoförmögna: reumatikervårdens framväxt i den tidiga välfärdsstaten2012Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This dissertation is about the development of care for the chronically ill, particularly rheumatics, from 1900 to 1960. Two aspects, economic support and medical care, are discussed regarding the efforts made by society to improve the situation for the chronically ill. The aim is to investigate the underlying motives for the care, and the interests of the state and the medical profession in the matter. The development of the care takes place in a historical context in which the state increased its responsibility for the social security of the citizens. Primarily this was seen in the creation of a social insurance system. There is a focus on the introduction of a national basic pensions scheme in 1913, which apart from giving old age pension would also give economic security to those who were struck with disablement. To reduce the costs for early retirement disability pensions, where rheumatics were the largest group, economic resources were set aside for the purpose of combating and curing disablement. As a consequence of this initiative, specialist care for rheumatics was built up within the framework of the basic pensions scheme. At the same time, doctors were arguing that the care for rheumatics should have been organised in the public health service.

    The dissertation follows the institutional development of specialist care for rheumatics up to the 1960s, when the National Social Insurance Board took over the pension board’s duties and powers, and the decision was taken to transfer the specialist care for rheumatics to the county councils. In the organisational development, the influence of the medical profession and medical science in the shaping of the work is discussed. In addition, other factors such as changes in the labour market, where the motive was to rehabilitate the sick so that they could work and be self-supporting, are put forward as an important explanation for the organisational structuring that the care of rheumatics underwent during the twentieth century. This meant that social work became an important complement to the medical care itself.

  • 14.
    Larsson, Katarina
    Örebro University, Department of Humanities.
    Andrahandskontrakt i folkhemmet: närmiljö och kvinnors förändringsstrategier2004Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The thesis consists of three studies of problem areas from the 1940s and 1950s, in which women’s organisations in Örebro - a middle-sized Swedish town – demanded that municipal planning of the local environment should ensure that reproductive work, i.e. housework and care work, was organised in a way deemed satisfactory by women. The thesis also examines how these demands were received and handled by the Municipality of Örebro.

    It is a well-known fact that women were very under-represented in the political bodies of that time. The question of influence is taken up using regime theory, which assumes that in order to exercise political influence, groups can join forces and work in networks and coalitions.

    A central figure in women’s politics in Örebro was the journalist and author Margit Palmaer, who had a strong commitment to the local community and was at the same time well oriented in current political questions. Together with the women’s organisations, she took up her women’s political questions on political decision-making levels.

    The studies are about how the laundry work was to be organised, and the building of modern laundries equipped with washing machines, how the women made demands for collective service flats, which would enable the women to take gainful employment outside the home, and finally about the demands for communal child care that would satisfy the needs of gainfully employed women. These were also questions on the national political agenda. At this time the state had considerable welfare ambitions that the municipalities were given the task of realising.

    The municipalities could get advantageous loans for the modern laundries if they were integrated in new housing projects. This led to the municipalities, whose main goal was to act in an economically rational way, organising the laundry work in a way that did not satisfy the needs of the women, the people who actually did the washing. In this period, childcare was mainly seen as an emergency measure for the children of single mothers. The women’s demands, that the municipality should have a more general responsibility for childcare, were not considered valid. Those in favour of collective service flats supported the idea expressly to release women for gainful employment, and that was the reason why the idea aroused such strong opposition, and why it was never realised in Örebro. Inherent in the concept of collective service flats were the possible effects on gender relations, since a woman’s main occupation would no longer be to look after her home, husband and children without payment, and those who actually did this would be paid for doing so.

    The study shows that there were obvious clashes of opinion between the women and the mainly male municipal politicians and planners about who should have the power to define what needs there were, how they were to be fulfilled and when they were to be regarded as having been fulfilled. And when planning is based on the assumption that women do not have to support their families, when their gainful employment is regarded as secondary, and when they are expected to facilitate men being gainfully employed by doing housework and care work, then they are tied to reproductive work tasks.

    Another result of the study is the conclusion that the regime theory assumption about possibilities for networks and coalitions to exercise influence, regardless of their original power resources, needs modification. In order for women to have such possibilities, there had to be a bridge between national and local politics. Margit Palmaer was such a bridgebuilder. There was, however, a limit to women’s political opportunities which lay at the point where the essence of femininity and thus also of masculinity was openly challenged.

  • 15.
    Lennqvist, Jörgen
    Örebro University, Department of Humanities.
    Våtmarkshistoria: Hjälmarens och Kvismarens stränder under 1800- och 1900-talen2007Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis is a history of man’s and nature’s relationship, with regards to water. It is an environmental history about the changes in the wetland landscape around the Lakes Hjälmaren and Kvismaren in central Sweden during the 19th and 20th century. Hjälmaren, Sweden’s fourth-largest lake, was lowered between 1878 and 1888. The lake was lowered 1, 3 metres and the fluctuation of the water level was reduced to 0, 6 metres. The lowering of the lakes Hjälmaren and Kvismaren made it possible to convert 19 000 hectares of wet meadowland into fields for modern agriculture. A dramatic shift in the valuation of wetlands has occurred during the research period.

    In the 19th century these areas were looked upon as impediments and vast areas were drained and thousands of lakes were lowered. In the late 20th century wetlands are now being regarded as valuable and are sometimes even restored.

    The first part of the thesis covers the drainage of the area. The shift from traditional agriculture towards modern, market-oriented farming initiated the great drainage project that changed the landscape of the flatlands in the research area. An elite wanted to change the land use. They wanted to drain the meadows so they could be used as agricultural fields.

    The second part is about maintaining the land for agriculture and again solving the water problem of the region. This was caused by upstream drainages and the lowering of the land. Around 1950 the drained land had sunk about one meter. The solution was dikes and pumps for protection of the agricultural land.

    The third part of the thesis is about wetland reconstruction to create habitats for wetland birds. The birdwatchers had become an important group in the research area at the end of the 20th century. Two smaller areas were reconstructed and were given statuses as nature reserves, the Kvismare area and the Os, a part of Hjälmaren close to the city of Örebro.

    In the thesis the water system and wetlands are seen both as a context for actions and a result of these actions. At the centre of the analysis in the thesis is the concept landscape system. The landscape system includes technical solutions, society and nature. Man is around as the active intentional transformer of the system. The term landscape system also includes both thoughts of and regulations as to how this system could, and should be designed. The parts of the landscape system all have seamless internal relations.

    All groups of actors, the big estate owners, the investigators of flood protection and bird watchers have had to make compromises and gather institutional recourses together with others to reach their goals; to make changes in the landscape system.

  • 16.
    Lindberg, Pia
    Örebro University, Department of Humanities.
    Kampen om Asea: lokal stat och industrialisering – Arboga och Västerås 1875–19002008Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The main purpose of this thesis is to study the role of local government in the process of industrialization and to analyze the decision-making processes which led to developments of water-supply, sewerage and electrification in Sweden in late 19th century. Its’ main focus is centred on the agents involved in this process and primarily on which of their interests infl uenced and limited the introduction of new technology. In the middle of the 1870’s the Swedish towns experienced external pressure for change by central government issuing the so-called ’towns-charters’. These charters were meant to create better living-conditions for the citizens and to make urbanization possible. As a result of this pressure for change, several Swedish towns and cities used their own initiatives in developing industrial infra-structure. By using two centrally located Swedish towns – Arboga and Västerås – the study shows how their investment in industrial infrastructure contributed to the late 19th century industrial development. The study also show that establishment of large technological processes are not easy to introduce just because the necessary techniques are present. Instead, establishment of necessary infrastructure is much easier if all partners involved have a common vision as to future development, a unified view of the potential of new technology as well as a will and ability to work towards a common goal. The mapping-out of the industrial infrastructure in Arboga and Västerås shows how a row of social facts contributed to the different development of the two towns.

    In Arboga, the clashing interests of the partners involved came to hinder the establishment of new ideas. The fact that they could not agree on a unified vision of future developments meant that they could not cooperate. It also made financing of projects difficult. In Västerås, however, there were contributors with great interest in establishing new technical development. Above all, these were happy to collaborate.

    The thesis shows that in their openness to innovations, in their attitudes to financing these, in their capacity to cooperate towards great projects and in their ability to reach decisions swiftly, one finds a great part of the explanation to why Västerås in the 20th century developed into the industrial centre of the Lake Mälaren Valley and left Arboga in an industrial back-water.

    Finally, the thesis show that the industrial development at the end of the 19th century was to a great degree dependent on lone initiatives taken at local level. Thelocal government actively influenced an industrialization through the creation of the conditions necessary for it to grow.

  • 17.
    Prestjan, Anna
    Örebro University, Department of Humanities.
    Att bota en drinkare: idéer och praktik i svensk alkoholistvård 1885 - 19162004Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    The focus for this thesis is the alcoholic care in Sweden from the establishment of the first alcoholic institution in 1885 and the years right after the compulsory care act was passed in 1913. In the thesis the practical activity at the four first alcoholic institutions is examined, but also the ideas concerning alcoholic care that were formulated by the men that were the institutions initiators and responsible for the activities.

    The research has its starting point in and also confirms care as a sociocultural phenomenon and not merely a medical issue, and that there is an agreement in terms of meaning between the ideals expressed by the medicine as well as other societal interests. Both idea and actual practice have been examined in order to answer the question how the alcoholic care was shaped as a result of the medicalization of the drunkenness problem, but also the consequences of this alcoholic care. Especially the American and the British research position has proved that conceptions about will and morals have been significant to the shaping of a care ideology concerning the alcoholism and its treatment. A second question the research has intended to answer is if, an if then how, such conceptions affected the care ideology and the actual care in practice also in Sweden.

    One of the results of this thesis is that the early alcoholic care in Sweden ideologically claimed to represent and originate from medical principles and knowledge, even though the treatment methods proposed and practiced originated from the conception about alcoholism as a willpower illness. The purpose with the treatment was primarily to affect the will and moral and consequently the traditional medical science and pharmaceutics were given a subordinated position compared to the medical methods that proceeded from a holistic view on the human, as for example hypnosis and water therapy. The treatment was also individualized according to a relation between the doctor and each patient.

    The examinations confirm the alcoholic care as a sociocultural phenomenon that aimed at and resulted in functions where medical interests coincided with those of the society in general. This is shown by the fact that treatment methods as well as the aim with the alcoholic’s treatment were the same at those kinds of institutions with a medical starting point as well as at the Floda colonies, in spite of the fact that the latter was an alcoholic institution that dismissed alcoholism as a medical issue.

    The first alcoholic institutions functioned as improvement machines, where alcoholics regarded as bad for the society were pressed in at the one end, to in the other come out as ideal men and citizens - hard working family men, self-controlled and physically powerful. With these ideals medical definitions of health coincided with social definitions of the meaning of being a worthy citizen.

    Among the foremost consequences of the first alcoholic care was the presentation of an alternative solution on the societal problem drunkenness and an optimistic belief in the alcoholic’s potential to be cured. Other consequences were the ones that concerned the individual – a state of illness will result in changes in the individual’s status in society and that the ill person has to admit to be the deviating one that is to be corrected. On the side of the therapeutical function, the first alcoholic care also had a normative function, though only within the social class that the heads at the institutions themselves belonged to. The alcoholic care was during this period accordingly not an expression for the upper classes’ social control of the lower classes, but rather a self improvement project by the middle class. Finally the alcoholic care during the examined period also had consequences for the later alcoholic care. During the period 1885 – about 1916 the practical experiences made lead to a revision of the care ideology. A private alcoholic care for volunteering patients was still the principle, but in reality an increased state involvement as well as force could be motivated.

  • 18.
    Thörn, Andreas K.G.
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    En framgångsrik främling: Filadelfiaförsamlingen i Stockholm - självbild i historieskrivning och verksamhet 1910-19802014Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the thesis is to examine how a group’s self-image is created, sustained and if necessary changed during the revolutionary 20th century. The study takes its point of  eparture in the idea that a self-image is essential for an organisation’s cohesion and collective identity. The study object is the Pentecostal Philadelphia church in, Sweden, established in 1910. In concrete terms, the thesis examines the self-image of the church as it is expressed in its narratives and activities from 1910 to 1980. The lf-image is analysed with the aid of the concepts ‘boundaries’ and ‘symbols’ and in relation to social and organisational change processes. In the main the empirical material  onsists of official documents such as jubilee publications, annual reports and the weekly newspaper Evangelii Härold.

    The main contribution of the thesis is an analysis of the church’s historical narrative. In this narrative the overall theme appears to be the small and faithful group that due to God’s influence and despite opposition became a major  nd significant church -- a success story. The theme also remains the same when the circumstances change. Narrative theory emphasises that the narrative has to be changeable order to be serviceable. However, my study shows that the narration, at least at the level highlighted in the thesis, is inert. The self-image seems to be difficult to change but is not necessarily static. The narrative is shown to include strategies for dealing with internal change processes and changes in society.

  • 19.
    Yalcin, Zeki
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Facklig gränspolitik: Landsorganisationens invandrings- och invandrarpolitik 1946 - 20092010Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis concerns the trade union reaction to immigration as a phenomenon and toimmigrants as a labour force on the Swedish labour market. It concerns trade union politicsregarding immigration and immigrants, from the political decision taken in 1946 to recruitworkers from other countries because of the labour shortage in Sweden, to 2009 when theconflict in the Swedish town of Vaxholm, that was a consequence of the EU’s expansion to theeast and which received such enormous attention in the Swedish media, was given its finalverdict and the continued existence of the “Swedish model” was placed under question. Thestudy focuses on the labour movement’s central trade union organisation in Sweden, in otherwords the Swedish Trade Union Confederation (Landsorganisationen, or LO as it is commonlyabbreviated in Sweden).The basis for the thesis has been that the process of immigration must naturally in the longterm lead to the addition of workers on the labour market, and consequently increasedcompetition amongst workers. The question has been how the interest organisation LO, whoseprimary mission is to protect the wage rates and social conditions for its members, and whichhas the restriction of competition as an overriding strategy, would handle the phenomenon ofimmigration and the existence of immigrants as a labour force on the Swedish labour marketand within the trade union movement, during the course of the study. The choice of LO as afundamental starting point for the study, being as it is an interest organisation with the shorttermobjective of protecting its members’ interests, but also given the organisation’s more longtermobjectives of being an important actor on the labour market and within society, hasinfluenced the choice of the thesis’ central theoretical concepts; strategy, restriction ofcompetition, calculability, power and hegemony. This very starting point, but also the natureof the source materials and a reflection over the immigration process (from immigration toimmigrant workers on the labour market and finally to trade union members), has meant that Ihave chosen to structure the thesis and present my findings based on three different problemareas. I have chosen to refer to these problem areas as boundaries, there LO have dealt withvarious problems concerning the phenomena of immigration and immigrants on the Swedishlabour market, as well as problems related to some of its own members having foreignbackgrounds. These boundaries consist firstly of an outer boundary that is a physicalboundary, coincident with national boundaries and influencing immigration politics, there LOwas able to consider the scope of the immigration process and make calculations about whatthe resultant addition of new workers, that is a natural consequence of the immigrationprocess, would mean for the labour market. Secondly an inner boundary, that encompasses thelabour market but is more transparent to members of society and influences immigrant politics,there LO was able to consider the terms and conditions that should be made available to theimmigrant workers, in general within society and in particular on the labour market. Finally aninnermost boundary, encompassing the trade union membership, there LO was able to managethe terms and conditions for the immigrant workers within the trade union movement.The thesis’ overriding objective has been to examine LO’s strategies for these threeboundary areas and to see if there is a coherent pattern behind LO’s actions on these threevarying levels. A more theoretical objective with this thesis has been to examine if the possiblepatterns that would appear in LO’s actions within these three boundary areas, could bediscussed from the perspective of a power structure.

  • 20.
    Zethrin, Nils-Olof
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Mellan masskonsumtion och folkrörelse: idrottens kommersialisering under mellankrigstiden2015Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
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