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  • 1.
    Ahlberg [Alsarve], Jenny
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Efter kärnfamiljen: familjepraktiker efter skilsmässa2008Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This dissertation is about post-divorce families. The central question is how family is constructed after divorce. The aim is to study how family relationships are negotiated, transformed and reproduced after the separation. The research is based on 24 in-depth interviews with twelve young adults, between the ages of 21 and 29, with divorced parents. Their narratives about their families are analysed using a theoretical framework inspired by the individualization theories (Beck & Beck-Gernsheim 2001; Giddens 1997, 1995) and the doing family perspective (Morgan 1996; Silva & Smart 1999a), especially focusing on the concepts of negotiation and family practices. More specific questions raised in the dissertation are how are family boundaries drawn by the young adults? How do the interviewees understand the new organization of their families, which has been renegotiated after the separation? What perception of motherhood and fatherhood can be found in the narratives? And, finally, to what extent are family relationships after divorce negotiated in the way that the individualization theories claim?

    The results show a quite complex picture of family life after divorce. While both parents are often described as participating parents, the family practices after divorce appear clearly gendered. The mother’s involvement in taking care of the child seems not to be negotiable in the same way as the father’s. Hence, motherhood appears natural and taken for granted to a much greater extent than fatherhood. The negotiations between the parents after divorce can be of both an explicit and implicit character according to the narratives, but yet another kind of negotiation are the indirect negotiations. In these negotiations, the child is used as a go-between or carrier, a position that seems to limit their own possibility to participate in the decision making. Another aspect that seems to diminish children’s participation is the principle of loyalty to both their biological parents. The results also show that the children’s living arrangements after divorce are characterized by changes and renegotiations rather than being permanent. The parents’ new partners are described in different ways in the narratives, however, they are often seen as turning points that have a major influence on the family relationships. The nuclear family as a normative ideal is present in all the interviews but in different ways. While some express an explicit critique of it, others regard it as something that they want for themselves in the future. What constitutes a family according to the narratives? Firstly, blood ties and formal relationships are pointed out. Secondly, the feeling of solidarity and closeness is viewed perhaps as the most evident element of family life. This feeling can be created by open communication as well as by spending time together on a regular basis. Thirdly, growing up together and/or sharing everyday life practices are also considered as vital to develop and maintain close family ties. This means that the family boundaries after divorce are renegotiated over time rather than permanent. These negotiations take place in a certain context, where gender norms, earlier experiences and other social relationships play an important role.

  • 2.
    Berg, Elin
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Lundin, Anette
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    I mörkret ser ingen vad som sker..: En kvalitativ studie av kvinnors upplevelse av trygghet och otrygghet i staden.2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Women today feel that their urban surroundings are unsafe, and because of that they use different strategies to reduce the risk of being exposed to criminal acts towards them. The focus of this study is to develop an understanding of the insecure feeling that women feel and what that feeling might originate from. By using previous research and theories we have been able to incorporate a gender perspective on the study this because the gender role is central to understand women’s feelings of insecurity. The purpose of the study was to develop a deeper understanding of women’s sense of safety and insecurity.The central questions of the study are1. How do women describe their insecurity, and what kind of impact does it have on their everyday life?2. How do women relate to and handle their witness of fear and insecurity in their everyday life?To gather answers for these questions we interviewed six women between the ages of 20-30 who all live in Örebro. The women’s responses show that they have a greater sense of insecurity than men, that the feeling of insecurity is always present and the fear cannot be connected to a certain object. Instead the women see many different factors as frightening, and they position themselves as victims in a town, created by and for men. Thus the women use different strategies to reduce the risk of being exposed to crime. The conclusion is that the town is influenced by gender, and that everyday life looks different for women and men. The social construction of gender creates different positions for women and men in society; this is a result of people’s views on other people and their society, an expectation of how things should be and how they are.

    Keywords: safety, insecurity, fear, gender, city, Örebro

  • 3.
    Blomberg, Helena
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Mobbning, intriger, offerskap: att tala om sig själv som mobbad i arbetslivet2010Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis is a study of bullying narratives, mainly co-produced in a process of ongoing interaction. The focus is on how narrators rhetorically organize their storytelling and identity work by using discursive resources. The empirical material consists of 12 interviews with, and 12 written stories by people who have been exposed to workplace bullying plus information from three websites about bullying, and previous research. The overarching aim of the study is to identify how a bullying discourse is produced, reproduced, challenged and negotiated in bullied persons’ narratives. Specific aims are to determine how bullying is portrayed publicly, how narrators with experience of being bullied build their stories, how the narratives stand in relation to victimization, what makes it possible to talk about vulnerability and what are its limits, and finally to develop a narrative approach.Theoretically and methodologically, the study has its basis in narrative analysis, discursive psychology, conversation analysis, and metaphor analysis. The study shows how the narrators categorize themselves as active, competent, and consensus seeking. They resist being victimized, but by their use of the interpretative repertoire and a standard story of bullying, they nevertheless become indirectly victimized. What’s at stake, in the narratives, is the question of guilt, which they rhetorically evade by the use of different metaphors. These metaphors depict bullying as a mystery, a lifelong source of suffering, a transformation, a learning experience, a battle, a contagious virus, and a trap. The narrators are constrained by the narrative conditions, the interpretative repertoire, standard story, and narrative form and content – a story of good and evil when creating their own story. The narrative conditions at the same time set the limit for expressing oneself in the identity work. This also means we are part of the production and reproduction of the bullying discourse when I, as a researcher, and the narrators use the repertoire and the standard story in mutual understanding.

  • 4.
    Dahlin, Erica
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences. Örebro University.
    Forslund, Emma
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences. Örebro University.
    Utmattningsdepression: En studie om det moderna arbetslivets relation till psykisk ohälsa utifrån fem kvalitativa intervjuer2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this essay is to try to understand the relationship between the structures of modern working life and the development of burnout. By using the method of qualitative interviews we wanted to see if the Effort-Reward Imbalance Model could be applied to the data we had collected. Two questions have been highlighted in our research: 

     

     

     

     

     

     

       

    1. • Is it possible to establish a relationship between the structures of modern working life and the development of burnout among the subjects interviewed?
    2.  

    3. • Is it possible to explain the development of burnout among our interviewed subjects through the Effort-Reward Imbalance Model?  
    4.  

       

    Our theoretical frames are the general theories of the modern society and the modern working life as developed by Anthony Giddens, Ulrich Beck and Zygmunt Bauman. We have also used Johannes Siegrist’s medical-sociological Effort-Reward Imbalance Model (ERI-Model). Our main findings are that the characteristics of modern working life mostly have had a negative affect on the lives of four of the five interviewed subjects. Hence, modern working life is one contributing factor to the development of burnout among our interviewed subjects. Four of five interview subjects fulfilled the three hypotheses postulated by the Effort-Reward Imbalance Model. This indicates that these individuals are at an increased risk of developing poor health. It also indicates that an imbalance between efforts and rewards as well as an imbalance between internal and external factors at the workplace might have contributed to their development of burnout.

     

     

     

     

  • 5.
    Enelo, Jan-Magnus
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Klass, åsikt och partisympati: det svenska konsumtionsfältet för politiska åsikter2012Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this thesis is to study political opinions and party voting in relation to class. The range of opinions studied consists of a socioeconomic dimension, dealing with issues of economic equality, and a socio-cultural dimension, dealing with questions of culture and morality.

    Following Pierre Bourdieu, the object of the study is conceptualised as a field of consumption of political opinions consisting of a space of political opinions or stances, a space of political party preferences, and a space of social positions or opinion holders defined by (among other things) their cultural and economic capital. The field of consumption is examined through multiple correspondence analysis and Euclidean classification.

    Overall, the field of consumption of political opinions is found to be relatively homologous to the social space. The field of consumption is found to be a two-dimensional space, with one dimension separating left-wing from rightwing opinions and the second distinguishing between socio economic and socio- cultural opinions. The tendency to vote left wing and to have left-leaning socio-economic opinions corresponds to a low total volume of capital and possessions dominated by cultural capital, whereas the tendency to vote right wing and to have right-leaning socio-economic opinions corresponds to a high total volume of capital. Liberal socio-cultural opinions correspond to a high level of possession cultural capital (and its relative weight in the structure of the total possession of capital), whereas the opposite is true for conservative opinions. Furthermore, the socio-cultural dimension is found to harbour two different aspects: liberalism or conservatism with regard to traditional morality and liberalism or conservatism with regard to the idea of a national culture.

    This thesis also studies how individuals tend to combine opinions from the two dimensions into tangible constellations of opinions.

  • 6.
    Engdahl, Emma
    Örebro University, Department of Social and Political Sciences.
    A theory of the emotional self: from the standpoint of a neo-Meadian2004Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this dissertation, two fundamental questions are posed: (1) what is emotion, and (2) what part does it play in the social processes of self-formation and self-realization? How do we as behaving beings, who experience sensations, become interacting beings, who experience emotions? And, how are our emotional experiences related to who we are and our ability to acquire a positive relation to ourselves? By attempting to answer these questions I point out the social conditions that are necessary to enable emotional experiences, and in turn self-formation and self-realization. The focus is on the form, rather than on the content of the emotional self. From the developed neo-Meadian perspective on the emotional self, emotion is understood as a phenomenon linked to both mind and body, without being explained as a mind-body combination. It is argued that emotional experiences are (1) corporal evaluations of our interchanges with the outer world, especially, the other, and (2) crucial to who we are or want to be. An introduction to the neo-Meadian theory of the emotional self is presented in a general manner by including notions of the social self and emotion as social. In the first part of the dissertation, I suggest that diverse phenomena in the social process of self-formation and self-realization is explained by a view that has its roots in the classic social psychology of Adam Smith, Charles Horton Cooley, and, especially, George Herbert Mead. The view consists of three salient ideas: (1) the self does not emerge without the other or society, (2) it is from the point of view of the other or society that the self develops, and (3) self-realization involves a need for recognition. In the second part of the dissertation, I expand the view on emotion as social that is incorporated in the classic social psychology by investigating the recently established field of the sociology of emotions. Once the general structure of the notion of the social self and emotion as social is shown and provided with a preliminary defense, different modifications are considered. In the third part of the dissertation, both the classic social psychology and the sociology of emotions are modified to become more accurate. I elaborate on Mead’s distinction between social behavior, in the form of (1) functional identification, and social interaction, in form of (2) attitude taking of the thing from which he means that self-feeling arises, and (3) attitude taking of the other from which he means that self-reflexion arises.

  • 7.
    Gustafsson, Karin M
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    The importance of trust.: a study of knowledge production of biodiversity.2013Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The loss of biological diversity is one of today’s greatest environmental problems. Scientific knowledge is typically presented as the premise to solve this problem. However, science alone is not sufficient to produce knowledge of biodiversity. Other actors are also involved in knowledge production. The aim of this thesis is to analyse how different actors create knowledge of the environmental problem of biodiversity loss and to further investigate the importance of trust in the relationships between these knowledge producers.

    This thesis uses a discourse analytical perspective and conducts interviews and document studies to explore how actors use different narratives to legitimate their knowledge production. Through four papers addressing different aspects of knowledge production, this thesis discusses conditions for knowledge production, particularly the importance of trust.

    The results show that actors other than scientific experts also have the ability to act in knowledgeable ways and to be involved in knowledge production of biodiversity. Knowledge is produced by making use of many different dimensions and aspects, such as global, regional, local, and science, politics, and everyday life. The result also shows how trust, distrust, and as-if trust are key activities in knowledge production of environmental problems, such as the loss of biodiversity.

    This thesis argues that the actors involved need to realise and acknowledge that knowledge production is a mutual process in which actors must engage in trust and distrust activities. In so doing, it will be possible to understand the complexity of the loss of biodiversity and thus to better manage this problem.

    List of papers
    1. Acknowledging risk, trusting expertise, and coping with uncertainty: citizens' deliberations on spraying an insect population
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Acknowledging risk, trusting expertise, and coping with uncertainty: citizens' deliberations on spraying an insect population
    2012 (English)In: Society & Natural Resources, ISSN 0894-1920, E-ISSN 1521-0723, Vol. 25, no 6, p. 587-601Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The basis for this article is the growing interest in understanding how the public evaluates risk issues. The empirical case consists of an interview study of residents in an area that has experienced an outbreak of moths that has become a nuisance to humans. The study focuses on the narratives created by the residents to make sense of the situation, the risks they associated with regulatory options, and how these narratives relate to expert opinions of the problem. The analysis shows that the residents criticize specific experts and knowledge claims. This is done, however, without questioning science as such; there is still a belief among the residents that science is an institution that generally produces valid knowledge. The analysis also shows that citizen knowledge does not merely passively reflect science. Instead, citizens create meaning and construct knowledge by organizing personal experiences and knowledge claims into coherent narratives.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Taylor & Francis, 2012
    Keywords
    biodiversity, narrative, public trust, public understanding of science, risk, spraying
    National Category
    Sociology
    Research subject
    Sociology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-23368 (URN)10.1080/08941920.2011.620598 (DOI)000304064100005 ()2-s2.0-84859627301 (Scopus ID)
    Available from: 2012-06-11 Created: 2012-06-11 Last updated: 2017-12-07Bibliographically approved
    2. Made in conflict: local residents' construction of a local environmental problem
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Made in conflict: local residents' construction of a local environmental problem
    2011 (English)In: Local Environment: the International Journal of Justice and Sustainability, ISSN 1354-9839, E-ISSN 1469-6711, Vol. 16, no 7, p. 655-670Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this paper is to understand how local residents participate in the construction of local environmental problems and to evaluate a particular analytical approach in environmental sociology to study this phenomenon. The paper is based on an interview study with a sample of local residents. The analysis demonstrates how the local residents attempt to construct a local environmental problem. In particular, the study focuses on how involved actors are positioned, how different sorts of knowledge claims are used, and how the neglect the residents perceive from the authorities affects the attempt to construct a local environmental problem. The study shows that the local residents play a central role in the construction of the situation and that the evaluated model could be very helpful as an analytical tool in the investigation of local residents' participation in the construction of environmental problems.

    Keywords
    environmental problem, environmental knowledge, local residents, social constructionism, narrative, pine processionary moth
    National Category
    Sociology
    Research subject
    Sociology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-16483 (URN)10.1080/13549839.2011.589431 (DOI)
    Available from: 2011-08-09 Created: 2011-08-09 Last updated: 2019-03-05Bibliographically approved
    3. Environmental discourses and biodiversity: the construction of a storyline in understanding and managing an environmental issue
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Environmental discourses and biodiversity: the construction of a storyline in understanding and managing an environmental issue
    2013 (English)In: Journal of Integrative Environmental Sciences, ISSN 1943-815X, E-ISSN 1943-8168, Vol. 10, no 1, p. 39-54Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Although biodiversity is considered to be one of today’s greatest environmental challenges, its definition remains open to interpretation. How biodiversity is understood and managed depends on the environmental discourses within which it is articulated. This paper examines how the Swedish Society for Nature Conservation (SSNC), one of the largest environmental NGOs in Sweden, describes biodiversity in its 2011 yearbook. The yearbook is aimed at a wide audience and is intended to improve the general public’s understanding of biodiversity. Using discourse analysis, this study shows how the SSNC defines biodiversity by re-articulating three environmental discourses and integrating them into a single storyline. The analysis shows how these discourses offer different possibilities for different subject positions to speak about and act in relation to biodiversity. Finally, the study shows how normative implications for action are articulated as consequences of these definitions and who is responsible for performing these actions.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Taylor & Francis, 2013
    Keywords
    biodiversity, environmental discourse, subject position, storyline, discourse analysis, environmental NGO
    National Category
    Sociology
    Research subject
    Sociology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-30152 (URN)10.1080/1943815X.2013.769455 (DOI)000316012700003 ()2-s2.0-84875216572 (Scopus ID)
    Available from: 2013-08-08 Created: 2013-08-08 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
    4. Boundary work, hybrid practices and portable representations: an analysis of global and national co-productions of Red Lists
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Boundary work, hybrid practices and portable representations: an analysis of global and national co-productions of Red Lists
    2013 (English)In: Nature and Culture, ISSN 1558-6073, E-ISSN 1558-5468, Vol. 8, no 1, p. 30-52Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    For many countries, the IUCN Red List of threatened species is a central instrument in their work to counteract loss of biodiversity. This article analyzes the development of the Red List categories and criteria, how these categories and criteria are used in the construction of global, national, and regional red lists, and how the red lists are employed in policy work. A central finding of the article is that this mix of actors implies many different forms of boundary work. This article also finds that the Red List functions as a portable representation, that is, a context-independent instrument to represent nature. A third finding is that the Red List functions as a link between experts and policy makers. Thus, the Red List is best understood as a boundary object and hybrid practice where the credibility of scientific assessment and a specific policy is mutually strengthened

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Berghahn Journals, 2013
    Keywords
    Portable presentation, hybrid practices, co-production, boundary work, Red List
    National Category
    Social Sciences Sociology
    Research subject
    Sociology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-24146 (URN)10.3167/nc.2013.080103 (DOI)000317804900003 ()2-s2.0-84876340533 (Scopus ID)
    Funder
    Swedish Research Council Formas
    Available from: 2012-07-19 Created: 2012-07-19 Last updated: 2017-12-07Bibliographically approved
  • 8.
    Johansson, Björn
    Örebro University, Department of Social and Political Sciences.
    Att slåss för erkännande: en studie i gatuvåldets dynamik2001Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this thesis is to give a contribution to the knowledge of why people use violence against each other in public places. In more specific terms the thesis examines mechanisms that generates violent actions by reference to what happens in the situated transaction between the offender and the victim, and to the ways in which the urban environment create opportunities for violent actions.

    In the thesis I address some overall questions to mark of different dimensions of the studied phenomenon. The questions pay attention to: 1) the relation between the physical and social dimensions of the urban environment and the ways in which the urban environment creates opportunities for violent crimes; 2) why the offenders seek themselves to certain places and the symbolic meaning those places has, and; 3) what happens in the situated transactions between the offender and the victim.

    My methodological approach is multistrategic. The main components of the approach are qualitative interviews, studies of court orders, statistics and geographical studies. I interviewed respondents that have been punished for different crimes of violence committed in public places in the city centre of Örebro. The interviews were complemented with a case study of court orders over street related crimes of violence committed in the same area, and with a statistic and a geographical analyses over where, when and by whom the crimes were committed.

    The analyses of the ways in which the urban environment creates opportunities for violent crimes reveals some necessary conditions of physical, social and cultural character, i.e. properties of the urban environment that creates good opportunities for street related violence to occur. I started with a statistical examination of where, when and by whom different crimes of violence were committed. With the empirical regularities as a starting-point I began to analyse the urban environment with the help of Bill Hillier’s (1996) concept of virtual community. The analysis reveals that the city centre context of Örebro offer good opportunities for encounters and movements as it contains of several squares and main passages with an open character and good opportunities for orientation. Thus, the physical design of the city centre form a potential for violence to occur. After that I focused on border controls and the potential for violence they include. The importance of border controls were examined in several ways and it was concluded that the border controls contain different dimensions that contribute to the production of violent actions in different ways. This was followed by an examination of the use of the public spaces from the perspective of territoriality and the potential for violence that territories include. It was concluded that the city centre contains of several territories belonging to different categories, and that a distinction could be made between territories established on spontaneous grounds as well as territories established as a result of the activities that exists in a certain area.

    The analyses of the situated transactions reveal several mechanisms that contribute to the production of violent actions. The analyses started with a statistical examination of the offenders, the victims and the situations that results in violence. With this as a starting-point I began to examine the situated transactions with reference to what happens in the transactions. I found that different kinds of disturbances constitute the initial cause of the process in which an interaction exceeds to violence. Other important aspects that were revealed were the importance of respect and honour for the production of violence and that a distinction could be made between different kinds of violence depending on how the disturbances are interpreted and what it is directed towards. Furthermore, I examined the importance of emotions and social bonds for the production of violence as well as the ways in which different kinds of strategies of action find expression in the situated transactions in public places. Finally the situated transaction were examined from a ritualistic perspective were I found that different kinds of violations of the ritual objects as well as different dimensions of power and status are important for the understanding of the street related violence.

  • 9.
    Johansson, Monica
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    I moderskapets skugga: berättelser om normativa ideal och alternativa praktiker2014Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This study explores the relationship between ideals of motherhood and heterosexual normativity, from the perspective of women at the margins of these discourses. The title, In the shadow of Motherhood, illustrates the overriding power of the image of motherhood to marginalise alternative experiences. The concept of motherhood, like that of Family, has traditionally signalled the reproduction of the normative; it does not usually encompass the critical scrutiny that would allow for diverse experiences of mothering.

    Theoretically, the study is located within the fields of feminist sociology and inclusive family studies in productive dialogue with queer notions of gender and sexuality. Methodologically, it is inspired by narrative analysis and consists of in-depth interviews with eight lesbian, bisexual and heterosexual women grappling with different experiences of motherhood and mothering practices. Some of them identify as mothers while others do not, but by not being biogenetic mothers within a heterosexual relationship they share the position of being outside of what is often considered normal, natural and desirable. The analysis reveals a considerable variation in the positions,

    experiences and identities of the participants, particularly in regards to changes over time, which cannot be reduced to binary categories such as heterosexual/lesbian, biological/non-biological, mother/childless or voluntary/involuntary childlessness. The analysis also exposes a deep tension between ideologies of motherhood and lived experiences of care practices. Furthermore, from the perspective of the participants, the boundaries between inclusion and exclusion reinforce and challenge each other, creating spaces of both individual and collective resistance. The study illuminates the need to shift the location of these experiences from the margins to the centre not only in sociological research of family and gender, but also within feminist sociology.

  • 10.
    Kihlström, Jofen
    Örebro University, Department of Social and Political Sciences.
    Böjelser & begär: en kritik av medicinens beroendebegrepp2007Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This book is an attempt to formulate a sociological theory of the phenomena which is otherwise known as substance abuse and substance dependency in the medical field.

    The first step toward such a theory is a critique of how DSM-IV presents diagnostic criteria for substance abuse and substance dependency as if these criteria are valid and reliable ways of measuring mental illness and bodily dysfunction. I point to the fact that these criteria neither are valid or reliable variables for measurement nor theoretically grounded defi nitions of the phenomena. My point is that diagnosis is an elaborate way of disguising moral judgments as medical assessments of illness or dysfunction.

    The second step towards the formulation of my theory goes via my empirical study of nine men and women who call themselves sex and love addicts. By conducting deep interviews with them I conclude that it is impossible to talk about sex and love addiction without constantly referring to stereotypes and widely held assumptions of alcoholics and drug addicts. Moreover it is apparent that these men and women are making moral judgments about themselves rather than pointing to some form of genuine disruption which they cannot control.

    From my critique and my empirical study I am able to identify a number of areas that a theory of addiction, as opposed to the medical view where this phenomena are being broken down in two sub categories (abuse and dependency), must be able to handle to explain addiction generally and specifically in relation to alcohol, drugs, sex and other forms of social deviance. A number of philosophical hallmarks of medicine is also identifi ed and seen as part of the problem, therefore I mean that a successful theory of addiction must transcend the mind body dualism of Descartes as it is a cornerstone in the medical view upon and understanding of humans.

    By reconstructing the habitus and field concepts in Pierre Bourdieus theory of practice I mean that it is possible to understand addiction from an action theory point of view. This discussion is also broadened by a pragmatist discussion of the mind and a neo meadian theory of the emotional self.

    My conclusion is that addiction can be understood and explained within an action theory which focus upon individual as well as collective action and understand this as habitual practice that is partly embodied and therefore not discursive – habits of which we cannot easily speak is seen as one of the compelling components in addiction rather than a mythical loss of control which is nowhere to be found but as a rhetoric grip stemming from the AA view upon addiction as a disease.

  • 11.
    Larsson, Susanna
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    We bang our heads, therefore I am: subculture as laboratory of identity – the case of heavy metal2012Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Subculture is a structure against which identities are both created and guarded. These identities are often socially and practically negotiated against an idea of individual authenticity. The thought of nurturing ones uniqueness while striving to fit in is a common duality and a clear cause of friction within subcultures. The fourty year old heavy metal subculture is no exception. It has proven an arena for boundary drawing, exclusivity and alienation, but also for fierce loyalty and a sense of self-fulfilment.

    This thesis studies how young adults construct their identities in relation to subcultures in general and in relation to the heavy metal subculture in particular. This is brought to the for in four articles concerned with the construction and reproduction of subjective and intersubjective authenticity, the stigma and self-determination surrounding alienation, the practices of different levels of rituals and the construction of female gender identity in a male-dominated subculture.

    The thesis finds that heavy metal fans construct their identity in relation to the subculture through a life story. This life story is spun around a number of arguments on self and identity, which all aim to position the individual as a long-term, authentic, knowledgeable, self-determined and practically involved heavy metal fan. Furthermore, identity is constructed through a number of practices of which the narration of the subculture and the use of instruments exemplify both abstract and concrete rituals. Alienation is an important aspect of identity creation, especially where heavy metal fans, following an initial feeling of alienation, position themselves and their culture in what is considered a self-chosen manner against an outside society. Alienation can especially accompany the experiences of the female heavy metal fan, both within and outside the subculture. However, endurance and knowledge helps sustain a sense of a self-made identity, which can earn her respect from other heavy metal fans.

    List of papers
    1. I bang my head, therefore I am: constructing individual and social authenticity in the heavy metal subculture
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>I bang my head, therefore I am: constructing individual and social authenticity in the heavy metal subculture
    2013 (English)In: Young - Nordic Journal of Youth Research, ISSN 1103-3088, E-ISSN 1741-3222, Vol. 21, no 1, p. 95-110Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates the ways by which heavy metal fans construct their self and collective in relation to the music and the culture, by concentrating on subjective and inter-subjective arguments on what it means to be an authentic heavy metal fan. The empirical material consists of focus group interviews and single interviews with Swedish heavy metal fans of ages 18-27. By way of conclusion, individual construction of an authentic heavy metal identity is the result of a) arguments on long term dedication, b) being able to highlight symbolic events and attributes which are associated with the heavy metal culture, and c) arguments of making the right choices based on an authentic inner voice. Thus, social construction of a common authentic identity is the result of negotiations around an abstract moral. The study finds that the construction of authentic selves and collectives takes place partly in a close social in-group context, where individual and collective dedication is known and need not be argued for, as well as in a thematic in-group, where symbols and attributes are knownbut where dedication must be argued for.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    SAGE Publications India, 2013
    Keywords
    Heavy metal, identity, authenticity, self, morals
    National Category
    Sociology
    Research subject
    Sociology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-26559 (URN)10.1177/1103308812467673 (DOI)000314240800005 ()2-s2.0-84873274065 (Scopus ID)
    Available from: 2012-11-30 Created: 2012-11-30 Last updated: 2018-03-06Bibliographically approved
    2. Like a trojan horse among the average joes: acknowledging, upholding and reproducing alienation and rebelliousness within the heavy metal subculture
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Like a trojan horse among the average joes: acknowledging, upholding and reproducing alienation and rebelliousness within the heavy metal subculture
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this article is to draw attention to the approaches used by young heavy metal fans to acknowledge, uphold and reproduce the dynamic relationship between social alienation and rebelliousness within the heavy metal culture and with the outside world. The empirical material was obtained through focus groups and individual interviews with heavy metal fans of ages 18 through 26. This article makes four main observations. First, alienation in heavy metal culture must be understood in direct relation to the expression of rebelliousness. Second, rebelliousness is a provocation as well as an integration of in-group belongingness and out-group alienation. Third, alienation functions as a precursor to but also a catalyst of rebelliousness. Last, feelings of alienation and rebelliousness have either an abstract or a concrete recipient, towards whom the experience of self is mirrored.

    Keywords
    alienation, rebelliousness, heavy metal
    National Category
    Sociology
    Research subject
    Sociology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-26560 (URN)
    Available from: 2012-11-30 Created: 2012-11-30 Last updated: 2017-10-17Bibliographically approved
    3. Never alone in the dark, always alone in the dark: rituals and social adhesives in the heavy metal subculture
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Never alone in the dark, always alone in the dark: rituals and social adhesives in the heavy metal subculture
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study is to research the kinds of rituals which hold the heavy metal culture in its diversity together as well as to research the concrete and abstract connotations of rituals in this context. The empirical material consists of single interview and focus interview receipts covering the reports of 26 heavy metal fans of ages 18-27. By way of conclusion, the heavy metal fans engage in rituals on three levels. First, they have concrete formal ritual meetings in the form of concerts, where they reproduce values of authenticity, negotiate the meaning of attributes and recharge with emotional energy. Second, the fans engage in a natural ritual, a ”de-socialised” ritual, where they nurture a subgenre prone heavy metal identity. This is done by a) engaging in a system of civil inattention in the bodily presence of heavy metal fans of other subgenres and b) reproducing a cultural value of being detached in the bodily absence of other heavy metal fans. Third, they engage in an individual and preparatory ritual, which serves as a reflexive understanding of and transformation into the ideal heavy metal self while preparing for other rituals.

    Keywords
    heavy metal, rituals, social adhesives
    National Category
    Sociology
    Research subject
    Sociology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-26561 (URN)
    Available from: 2012-11-30 Created: 2012-11-30 Last updated: 2017-10-17Bibliographically approved
    4. It’s a matter of eating or being eaten: gender positioning and difference making in the heavy metal subculture
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>It’s a matter of eating or being eaten: gender positioning and difference making in the heavy metal subculture
    2013 (English)In: European Journal of Cultural Studies, ISSN 1367-5494, E-ISSN 1460-3551, Vol. 16, p. 453-467Article in journal (Other academic) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this article is to study how gender difference and ultimately female gender positioning are created and manifested in the heavy metal culture. The empirical material consists of single interviews and focus group interviews with heavy metal fans between the ages of 18 and 26. The overall finding is that, while gender is a movable position in general, women move their gender position to a greater extent than men as they are constantly forced to adhere to the male values of the heavy metal culture. Three dualities in the positioning of heavy metal women illustrate to this phenomenon: a whore-goddess paradigm based on the knowledge of the female heavy metal fan; the balancing act of “acting male” and “looking female”; and the gender “twilight zone” of being insufficiently male for heavy metal culture while being insufficiently female for the mainstream world.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    London, UK: Sage Publications, 2013
    Keywords
    gender, heavy metal, positioning, difference, representation
    National Category
    Sociology
    Research subject
    Sociology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-26562 (URN)10.1177/1367549413484305 (DOI)000322320000005 ()
    Available from: 2012-11-30 Created: 2012-11-30 Last updated: 2018-03-06Bibliographically approved
  • 12.
    Lilja, Maja
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Det bästa för mitt barn: nyblivna mödrar i den delade staden2015Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
  • 13.
    Lind, Martin
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    BoendeByggarna: Kartläggning av en social upphandling för framgångsrik introduktion på arbetsmarknaden2015Report (Other academic)
  • 14.
    Lind, Martin
    Örebro University, Department of Social and Political Sciences.
    Det svårgripbara nätverket: en sociologisk studie av företagare i nätverk2002Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The questions for this study are:

    1. What are networks?

    2. How do networks work?

    These questions are answered by means of two different investigations. The first is chiefly theoretical and the second is primarily empirical.

    The theoretical investigation begins with an examination of four different concepts of networks used in social research: network as a perspective, network as a phenomenon, network as a research method and network as a method for development. The concept is then further investigated on three levels. On the first level, the parts of a network and the relationships between these parts are analysed. The second level focuses on the emergent properties of a network. The emergent properties refer to those irreducible features that make it a network, and that at the same time mark the difference between networks and other types of social entities (organizations, rituals etc.). Two such properties form the starting point for the examination, namely value-adding and diffusion. The third level of analysis places the network in relation to space and organization. This three level analysis is used throughout the thesis.

    In the empirical section, four cases of entrepreneurial networks are examined. The aim of the case studies is to identify the network and to study how the network works. What in the example is the network? How does the network work in the actual case? What does the network do? What properties can be assigned to the network and the way it works? Or, more comprehensively, from the examination of four cases of networks, what conclusions can be drawn about what networks are and how they function?

    From the case studies I have concluded that personal ties are fundamental to a network, and that the chains of production are a type of tie that may, but does not have to, occur when the network is activated in an entrepreneurial context. For the entrepreneurs and their enterprises, the social exchange has no value in itself, but if it can add value, for example as a lubricant in coordinating production chains, it fulfils an important purpose.

    I have also concluded that what makes an entrepreneurial network a network is not the coordination of production chains, but the personal relationships that manage these chains. Thus it is not the coordination itself, but the way of coordinating that is of importance. Networks can be found in structures of many different types of ties, but for the emergent properties to emerge there has to be a structure of personal ties at the core.

    I have assumed that a network is not a method or a perspective, but a social entity with certain properties. The investigation has provided support for this assumption. There is extensive research on SME networks, industrial districts and value-adding chains that shows that networks in production contexts form social constellations with their own distinctive features and ways of working.

    The relationship between networks and space is temporary, but not essential. Networks can be bound to places, but they do not have to be.

    An important structural difference between organizations and networks is that networks are formed of separate units that cooperate, while organizations form a single unit that may, but does not have to be characterized by cooperation.

    The most important conclusion from the comparison of organizations and networks is that these concepts together provide a better explanation of the case studies than either of the concepts alone. To understand and explain the complex social interplay that occurs in the case studies, it is a great advantage to use networks and organizations as concepts for different social entities with different properties and different ways of working.

  • 15.
    Lind, Martin
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Från nyanländ till plåtslagare: Kartläggning av en modell för framgångsrik introduktion på arbetsmarknaden2015Report (Other academic)
  • 16.
    Lind, Martin
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Samordning av arbetsmarknadsinsatser: En utvärdering av samverkansuppdrag mellan Förvaltningen för funktionshinder och Vuxen- och arbetsmarknadsförvaltningen i Örebro kommun2016Report (Other academic)
  • 17.
    Lind, Martin
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Salmonsson, Lisa
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Sortering av hushållsavfall: En förstudie om varför människor sorterar eller inte sorterar hushållsavfall som de gör samt om vilka insatser som kan få fler att sortera mer2019Report (Other academic)
  • 18.
    Lundberg, Susanna
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    "Vi kan ju sälja det övriga landet till hugade spekulanter": om tillhörighet, gemenskaper och handlingsmöjligheter i en förändrad ekonomi2016Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this dissertation is to contribute to a deeper understanding of how the national community is reproduced and delineated in relation to class, gender and racialisation. It uses a qualitative methodology and interviews with people chosen to represent an economic margin, and is theoretically informed by Pierre Bourdieu, Beverly Skeggs and others. In interviewees’ accounts about work life and societal change, traces are found regarding how the national community is delineated, and how value for the community is claimed or denied.

    The main findings are that a national community is connected through the idea of value for the community, and that the dominating ideas concerning this value change over time in accordance with economic, political and discursive processes. Recognition is a condition for access to the labour market and for the right to contribute to the future of the community. The values and the community are not homogenous; there is room for competing values and thus competing ways of recognition.

    Those with less recognised resources get their value for the community questioned in relation to current hegemonic values. Adaptability to the needs of the labour market in terms of expectations of geographic flexibility and the right attitude are common demands that implicitly presumes economic and social resources.

    Misrecognition of resources and value also relate to the social process of racialisation. Whiteness can be regarded as the result of recognised national inclusion in a country such as Sweden where the ideal of light skin and blue eyes have gained hegemonic position through history. Class relations as well as male domination over women works through the same mechanisms of misrecognition and excluded experiences.

  • 19.
    Lundin, Elin
    Örebro University, Department of Social and Political Sciences.
    Motstånd och kreativitet: George Herbert Meads bidrag till aktör-strukturdebatten2004Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This dissertation is about the agency-structure debate. Different ways of comprehending the relationship between agency and structure constitute a watershed between theoretical approaches in sociology. On one side, we have the Weberian social definition paradigm. On the other, we have the Durkheimian social facts paradigm. My overriding focus is, however, not on theories that explain social reality in terms of either agency or structure. But rather, I focus on sociological theories whose aim is to integrate the two explanations or paradigms. How to integrate agency and structure in a satisfying way has become one of the central problems - perhaps even the most central - in social theory today. The vital question is how to create a theory that explains social reality by proceeding from both the notion of people doing things which affect the social relationships in which they are embedded (agency) and the idea of the social context moulding and forming social activity (structure). In the present dissertation, I examine George Herbert Mead's answer to the question by comparing his social pragmatism with the contemporary contributions to the agency-structure debate made by Anthony Giddens, Pierre Bourdieu and Jürgen Habermas. Often Mead has been erroneously associated primarily with a concern with agency, rejecting the importance of social structures. By discussing the revisionist, "social behavioristic" critique of Herbert Blumer's "symbolic interactionistic" interpretation my aim is to come to terms with such bias perspectives of Mead's views. His solution of the problem of agency and structure is based on two central ideas: 1) about the situated character of human action and 2) about the primary sociality of human action. I illustrate how Mead considers corporeal social structures of habitual responses to a certain stimuli as a precondition for experiencing inhibitions of the act or problematic social relations. The inhibited social act transforms our social behavior into social interaction where we get consciously aware of meaning and ourselves. He speaks of this as taking the attitude of the (generalized) other from which he means that self-reflexion arises. Giddens, Bourdieu and Habermas had intentions of exceeding the dualism between agency and structure by focusing on social practices. I argue, by emphasizing the importance Mead ascribed to the inhibited social act, his theory gives us better possibilities than the contemporary theories to solve the vital question.

  • 20.
    Petersen, Anders
    Örebro University, Department of Social and Political Sciences.
    Depression: vor tidsalders vrangside2007Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    What are the social conditions that enable depression to play a significant societal role in contemporary Western societies? This is the leading question of the dissertation. As an alternative to those who claim that contemporary depression is constructed by the exorbitant consumption of antidepressants, it is stated that both depression and the consumption of antidepressants is

    possible due to contemporary social conditions. Inspired by the analysis of modernity by Wagner, and on the basis of the theoretical concept of third modernity as proposed by Carleheden, it is claimed that an ethical conduct of life that demands authentic self-realization has been institutionalised in

    our historical epoch. By analysing how authentic self-realization is being realized in the new spirit of capitalism (Boltanski & Chiapello), it is being concluded that the socializing parameters of third modernity are those of being able to be active, flexible, polyvalent, adaptable, versatile etc. selves. Hence, authentic self-realization in imbued with these normative demands. In relation to the phenomenon of depression this is interesting, because contemporary depression can be understood, not as a subjective condition, but as a phenomenon of lack. What is being applauded in the society of today is just what depressive individuals lack, namely the ability to act in accordance

    with the normative claims of self-realization. Depressed individuals are in that sense failed selves (Ehrenberg) who represent and informs us about the “other side” of contemporary normative self-realization requirements. In other words: Within present-day society the institutionalized demands for authentic self-realization and depression have become each others antithesis. This socially demanded form of self-realization – which is put under the scrutiny of normative critique (Taylor) – is thus exactly what allows for depression to play such a significant role in present-day Western societies.

  • 21.
    Redmalm, David
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    An animal without an animal within: investigating the identities of pet keeping2013Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    If the human is an animal without an animal within—a creature that has transcended the animal condition—what is a pet? This creature balancing on the border between nature and culture, simultaneously included in and excluded from a human “we”, is the focus of this thesis. The thesis analyzes the discourses and normative frameworks structuring the meaning of pets in people’s lives. By extension, it analyzes how the boundary between “human” and “animal” is produced, negotiated, and challenged in the relationship between pet and owner.

    Each of this thesis’ four constituent studies focuses on an aspect of personal relationships between humans and pets: pets as figures for philosophical thinking, the dual role of pets as commodities and companions, the grief for lost pets, and the power issues at play in the everyday life of pet and owner. Drawing on Michel Foucault’s genealogical approach, crossbred with Donna Haraway’s material-semiotic perspective, the analysis exposes the powers allowing pets to occupy these various positions.

    The thesis demonstrates that pets occupy a special position as boundary creatures in the lives of humans, allowing humans to play with and thus reproduce dichotomies inherent to the contemporary Western worldview, such as human/animal, person/nonperson, subject/object, and friend/commodity. However, pets’ conceptual transgressions may also challenge this worldview. On the one hand, pets are bought and sold as commodities, but on the other, they are widely included in the human sphere as friends or family members. This paradoxical position is accentuated in the construction of a more-than-human home, and it is also visible when pets pass away. This thesis argues that pets, these anomalous creatures, may help humans understand that there are no humans or animals within, only relations between them. Based on this argument, this thesis develops a sociological approach for analyzing the production of humanity and animality in relations between humans and other animals.

    List of papers
    1. In-your-face-ethics: phenomenology of the face and social psychological animal studies
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>In-your-face-ethics: phenomenology of the face and social psychological animal studies
    2011 (English)In: Undisciplined animals: invitations to animal studies / [ed] Pär Segerdahl, Newcastle upon Tyne: Cambridge Scholars Publishing, 2011, 1, p. 73-104Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this essay, I show how nonhuman animals can challenge anthropocentric theoretical reflection by their mere gaze. According to the central social psychological thought figure, humans become the individual beings they are in the eyes of others. What happens when those others are nonhuman animals? Instead I show that many social philosophers focusing on the encounter face-to-face have a peculiar fascination for nonhuman animals; it is as if nonhuman animals quietly call attention to themselves as soon as philosophers begin their meditations. In the essay, I especially focus on Emmanuel Lévinas phenomenology of the face. For Lévninas, the meeting face to face is prior to all other forms of sociality. When another being respond to your existence, you become someone in the very invitation to speak. The invitation to speak entails a responsibility to respond and confirm the existence of the other, and therefore, ethics is intimately intertwined with the process of perceiving a notion of self and the meeting face-to-face. While Lévinas argues that we never can decide in advance who has a face and who has not, and that human beings may be bereaved of their faces, Lévinas is not ready to grant a face to a nonhuman animal. This has raised a discussion whether Lévinas is indeed consistent with his own thinking. I show that Lévinas position in relation to nonhuman animals does not follow from his discussion of the phenomenology of the face, but from the things he associate with the word ‘animal’, and from how he uses it to define the human subject.  I suggest that studies of social life cannot define in advance what an ‘other’ is, since the moment where we discover a new face and challenge our notion of ourselves is an integral part of social existence. Since an important aspect of Lévinas face is that it is always prior to the I, then we can never dismiss a possible face in advance. This becomes crucial in relation to nonhuman animals, since they regularly are bereaved of their faces with reference to their animality, even though many people interact face-to-face with nonhuman animals. Consequently, in order not to risk neglecting meaningful interaction, social scientists need an open stance toward possible faces, and they should start by letting nonhuman animals into social science studies in general, and social psychological studies in particular.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Newcastle upon Tyne: Cambridge Scholars Publishing, 2011 Edition: 1
    Keywords
    Emmanuel Lévinas, Jacques Derrida, Donna Haraway, postmodern ethics, animal ethics, face, animal studies, human-animal relations, l'animot, Djurens Rätt, Animal Liberation Front
    National Category
    Social Psychology
    Research subject
    Sociology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-27070 (URN)978-1-4438-2951-9 (ISBN)
    Available from: 2013-01-28 Created: 2013-01-28 Last updated: 2017-10-17Bibliographically approved
    2. Holy bonsai wolves: chihuahuas and the Paris Hilton syndrome
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Holy bonsai wolves: chihuahuas and the Paris Hilton syndrome
    2014 (English)In: International journal of cultural studies, ISSN 1367-8779, E-ISSN 1460-356X, Vol. 17, no 1, p. 93-109Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    This article examines the reasons for the Chihuahua breed’s popularity in contemporary westernsociety by looking at two sets of data: Chihuahua handbooks and The Simple Life show, starringParis Hilton and her Chihuahua Tinkerbell. The article argues that the Chihuahua is a holy anomaly:a creature which can be used in myths and rituals to temporarily alleviate the tension-filled binaryoppositions and stereotypes inherent in a particular culture, in order to celebrate and reinforcethat culture’s categories and social order. The Chihuahua – or the bonsai wolf – transcendstwo binary oppositions fundamental to contemporary westerners: subject/object and nature/culture. Although the Chihuahua challenges a number of related binary oppositions, it is generallydismissed as a matter for humor, low-brow entertainment or expressions of sentimentality,rendering ritual encounters with Chihuahuas harmless. The article concludes by asking: whatwould happen if humans actually started listening to what the Chihuahua is telling them?

    Keywords
    animal–human relations, anomalies, binary oppositions, chihuahuas, dichotomies, dogs, Donna Haraway, Paris Hilton, hudographies, humor, popular culture
    National Category
    Sociology
    Research subject
    Sociology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-32185 (URN)10.1177/1367877912464539 (DOI)000328600100006 ()
    Available from: 2013-10-29 Created: 2013-10-29 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
    3. Pet grief: when is nonhuman life grievable?
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Pet grief: when is nonhuman life grievable?
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This study explores how pet owners grieve their pets and view their pets’ transience. Drawing on Butler’s notion of the differential allocation of grievability, I have analyzed eighteen interviews with pet owners. Butler argues that grievability is made possible by a normative framework which allows for some human or human-like lives to be grieved, while other lives are rendered ‘lose-able’. All the interviewed pet owners say that they are capable of grieving a nonhuman animal, but analysis suggests that they make their pets grievable and ungrievable by turns. I argue that by maintaining this ambivalence, the interviewees negotiate pets’ inclusion in a human society while simultaneously defending human exceptionalism. The article concludes with a discussion of pet grief as a potentially destabilizing emotion. I suggest that grieving beings on the border between grievable human and lose-able animal—‘werewolves’ according to Giorgio Agamben—may be a powerful way of challenging normative frameworks which arbitrarily render some human and nonhuman lives lose-able.

    Keywords
    animal studies, Giorgio Agamben, bereavement, Judith Butler, companion animals, grief, human-animal relations, loss, mourning, pets
    National Category
    Sociology
    Research subject
    Sociology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-32187 (URN)
    Available from: 2013-10-29 Created: 2013-10-29 Last updated: 2017-10-17Bibliographically approved
    4. Discipline and puppies: the powers of pet keeping
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Discipline and puppies: the powers of pet keeping
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This article analyzes eighteen interviews with pet owners to conceptualize how they organize their lives in relation to their pets. I use Foucault’s concepts of the bipolar technology of disciplinary power and regulatory biopower in combination with Haraway’s material-semiotics to explore the normative frameworks that structure the relationship between pet and owner and make it meaningful. The analysis shows that the boundaries of the home, the play of power between bodies, and exchanges of love and care are central to producing the pet relationship as inherently meaningful and as an indispensible part of the lives of both pet keepers and pets. While pet owners produce their pets’ subjectivity by speaking of them as autonomous persons, pets also enable their owners’ subjectivity. I end the article by comparing pet keeping to Foucault’s notion of a lived critique to underline that the power dynamics of pet keeping problematize the often taken-for-granted status of one of sociology’s main objects of study: “the human".

    Keywords
    biopower, companion animals, cynicism, disciplinary power, Michel Foucault, Donna Haraway, human-animal relations, pets, resistance
    National Category
    Sociology
    Research subject
    Sociology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-32190 (URN)
    Available from: 2013-10-29 Created: 2013-10-29 Last updated: 2017-10-17Bibliographically approved
  • 22.
    Rigi Ebrahimi Bueno, Mona
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Firouzi, Faye
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    "Jag är bättre än så": En studie om hur stimatisering- och stämplingsprocesser kan påverka föredetta kriminella mäns anpassningsmöjligheter i samhället.2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    ABSTRACT

    The aim of this study is to look into how ex-offenders experience that stigmatization and labeling- processes might affect their possibilities to create an integrated and adapted life in society. It is also of interest to study how and if the interviewees experience their self-image to be affected by these processes. Our research-questions are:

    -          How do ex-offender males experience stigmatization and labeling-processes to impact their possibilities when trying to re-integrate into society?

    -          Do ex-offender males experience their self-image being affected by stigmatization and labeling-processes? If so, how are they affected?

     

    In order to achieve this we interviewed members of the organization KRIS in Örebro, where we selected males over 23 years of age with a prior prison sentence. The study is based on the labeling-theory of Howard Becker as well as the stigma-theory by Erving Goffman.

    In the conclusions derived from the results we found that the interviewees experience a more distinct and obvious stigmatization and labeling from authorities such as the police and the legal system, than that from other people in society. That type of stigmatization will also prove to be the most significant barrier to their potentials of prospering and adapting to a new life in society. The study also shows that labeling and stigmatization-processes have no direct impact on their self-image. Instead it is more so from the self-labeling which has derived from a sense of shame and guilt over their past life.

     

     

    Keywords: Labelling, stigma, deviance, self-image

  • 23.
    Singleton, Benedict E.
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    From the sea to the land beyond: exploring plural perspectives on whaling2016Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A perennial challenge in efforts to deal with environmental issues is the question of how to simplify. As such, where and when one simplifies is often a source of conflict, but perversely also paramount to finding a solution. This thesis focuses on one long-standing environmental issue, the whaling debate. Specifically, it performs a strategically sited microethnography of Faroese whaling, grindadráp, exploring linkages between actions on local and international scales. This thesis aims to contribute to environmental sociological efforts to analyse and resolve complex socio-environmental problems.

    The five papers that together constitute this thesis collectively provide a description of grindadráp from the local scale of the bays where pilot whales are killed to the international forums where whaling as a whole remains an issue at the heart of an on-going, deadlocked conflict. Primarily based on three months’ fieldwork in the Faroe Islands, this thesis combines observation, interviews, media and other literature. The theoretical lenses employed are that of the ‘ontological turn’ and the ‘theory of sociocultural viability’ (cultural theory). The former utilised as a tool for ethnographic practice with the latter used to analyse how different perspectives on reality manifest throughout the whaling conflict.

    This thesis demonstrates that grindadráp has changed through time as a result of the interactions between actors with different views on the matter at hand. However, in contrast to the global whaling debate, this interaction has been mostly constructive, with appropriate changes in practice ensuring grindadráp’s continued popularity within the Faroe Islands. Furthermore, its continuation will likely depend on grindadráp’s continued ability to balance different perspectives. This thesis thus echoes environmental sociological calls for improved dialogue in the framing and resolution of environmental disputes, suggesting that cultural theory provides a tool that balances relativism and pragmatism in dealing with complex environmental problems.

    List of papers
    1. Mutual Aid, Environmental Policy, and the Regulation of Faroese Pilot Whaling
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Mutual Aid, Environmental Policy, and the Regulation of Faroese Pilot Whaling
    2015 (English)In: Human Geography, ISSN 1942-7786, Vol. 8, no 3, p. 37-48Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines the evolution of unwritten regulations and formal government policies in the control of the Faroese pilot whale drive, or grindadrap. This form of whaling has occurred in the Faroe Islands since at least the sixteenth century, probably much longer. Informed by theories of anarchist geography, we discuss specific policies, both formal and informal, regulating when and where whales may be pursued, actions of whalers in boats and onshore, equipment permitted for use, and the distribution of meat and blubber from the hunt that have developed over the centuries in response to internal or external pressures and calls for change. Our discussion gives special attention to a recent change in the regulation of grindadrap, namely the requirement, beginning in 2015, that whalers who participate in the killing process—as distinct from other aspects of whaling—be certified as having attended a training course on the subject. We conclude with a discussion of lessons learned through a reading of anarchist geographies as applied to the topic at hand.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Bolton: Institute of Human Geography, 2015
    Keywords
    whaling, Faroe Islands, mutual aid, anarchism, environmental policy
    National Category
    Social Anthropology
    Research subject
    Sociology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-46843 (URN)
    Available from: 2015-11-27 Created: 2015-11-27 Last updated: 2018-09-04Bibliographically approved
    2. Love-iathan, the meat-whale and hidden people: ordering Faroese pilot whaling
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Love-iathan, the meat-whale and hidden people: ordering Faroese pilot whaling
    2016 (English)In: Journal of political ecology, ISSN 1073-0451, E-ISSN 1073-0451, Vol. 23, p. 26-48Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    A key question in any environmental dispute is the nature of what is under discussion. 'Cosmopolitics' – political battles over the form of reality – are a feature of many environmental clashes. This article focuses on one such clash: during the summer of 2014, grindadráp – the iconic practice of driving pilot whales for meat – was the big news item in the Faroe Islands. More accurately, a conservation campaign by the controversial group Sea Shepherd Conservation Society (SSCS), Operation Grindstop 2014, garnered most attention. Aiming to stop or at least disrupt the 'barbaric' and 'sadistic' grindadráp, SSCS were involved in several confrontations with Faroese authorities and publicly engaged with Faroese pro-whaling advocates in several discussions that were seemingly fruitless. Based on 3 months fieldwork during the campaign, this article describes a 'political ontology' of Grindstop 2014. What emerged was a 'hybrid' born of a clash between two fundamentally dissonant systems of ordering, which structured and were reinforced by various practices, both discursive and material. Activists on both sides were engaged in a cosmopolitical struggle to decisively enact their orderings, creating alternative stories of whales, Faroese whaling, the ocean environment and modernity. The aim is to understand what happened when these orderings met. This article argues that throughout the summer these two orderings moved apart, consequently hiding the diversity of opinion and discussion within Faroese society around grindadráp. As such, alternative orderings of grindadráp were suppressed, notably those voiced by Faroese activists arguing that the practice should cease because of the high levels of toxins in pilot whale meat.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Tucson, USA: University of Arizona Libraries, 2016
    Keywords
    Faroe Islands, whaling, political ontology, cosmopolitics, Îles Féroé, chasse à la baleine, l'ontologie politique, cosmopolitique, Islas Feroe, caza de ballenas, ontología política, cosmopolítica
    National Category
    Social Anthropology Environmental Sciences
    Research subject
    Sociology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-49328 (URN)000381699200006 ()
    Available from: 2016-03-14 Created: 2016-03-14 Last updated: 2017-11-30Bibliographically approved
    3. Inclusive hunting: Examining Faroese whaling using the theory of socio-cultural viability
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Inclusive hunting: Examining Faroese whaling using the theory of socio-cultural viability
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    National Category
    Sociology (excluding Social Work, Social Psychology and Social Anthropology)
    Research subject
    Sociology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-53557 (URN)
    Available from: 2016-11-18 Created: 2016-11-18 Last updated: 2017-10-18Bibliographically approved
    4. What’s missing from Ostrom? Combining design principles with cultural theory
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>What’s missing from Ostrom? Combining design principles with cultural theory
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    National Category
    Sociology (excluding Social Work, Social Psychology and Social Anthropology)
    Research subject
    Sociology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-53558 (URN)
    Available from: 2016-11-18 Created: 2016-11-18 Last updated: 2017-10-18Bibliographically approved
    5. Clumsiness and elegance in environmental management: applying cultural theory to the history of whaling
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Clumsiness and elegance in environmental management: applying cultural theory to the history of whaling
    2016 (English)In: Environmental Politics, ISSN 0964-4016, E-ISSN 1743-8934, Vol. 25, no 3, p. 414-433Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The global whaling debate is one of the most well-known environmental disputes; despite the continued moratorium, both whaling and conflict continue. This endless discord has been criticised as deleterious to whale conservation and as imperialistic towards whaling communities. The history of the whaling debate is examined through the lens of cultural theory (CT). CT argues that there is productive potential in respectful interaction between different perspectives on an environmental issue. Using CT, modern whaling past and present is reconstructed, tracking how different actors have come to prominence, altering the nature of the policy landscape through their actions. Since the onset of modern whaling, whales and whaling practice have been conceived in narrow terms, depending on the dominance of particular actors on either side of the debate. Proposed solutions to the impasse are assessed according to the maxims of CT.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Taylor & Francis Group, 2016
    Keywords
    environmental politics; whaling; cultural diversity; conservation; Cultural theory
    National Category
    Sociology (excluding Social Work, Social Psychology and Social Anthropology) Globalisation Studies Social Anthropology
    Research subject
    Sociology; Enviromental Science
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-48328 (URN)10.1080/09644016.2015.1112492 (DOI)000371009000002 ()2-s2.0-84958167038 (Scopus ID)
    Note

    Funding Agencies:

    Vega Fond grant from Svenska Sällskapet for Antropologi och Geografi

    Frodskaparsetur Foroya travel scholarship

    Available from: 2016-02-16 Created: 2016-02-16 Last updated: 2018-01-10Bibliographically approved
  • 24.
    Soneryd, Linda
    Örebro University, Department of Social and Political Sciences.
    Environmental conflicts and deliberative solutions?: A case study of public participation in EIA in Sweden2002Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this thesis is to analyse a case of public involvement in environmental decision-making. The thesis asks what mechanisms can include or exclude the public, in the sense of giving or denying opportunities to express views and to influence the process. The empirical case is an airport development and one specific form of public involvement, EIA (Environmental Impact Assessment). The case is theorised and contextualised in relation to deliberative democracy, sociology of knowledge, social anthropology, cultural geography, risk and planning research.

    The case study is presented in four papers. In relation to the EIA process for the planned extension of Örebro-Bofors Airport in Sweden, the following questions are asked: how can the EIA be understood (1) as an open arena for evaluating the three dimensions of sustainable development, (2) as a quasi-legal process; (3) how do local people perceive noise and how did they react to the handling of airport noise in the EIA; and (4) how did local people act within and outside the EIA to influence the process.

    The research approach used is case study analysis. The case study is based on public records as well as interviews with residents in the vicinity of the airport and active members of the local protest group. The focus of the study is on local people's objectives, responses and actions.

    The study concludes that the case in question was characterised by exclusion rather than inclusion of the public. The general exclusion mechanisms identified are the ways of thinking and talking about the environment in dominating discourses of sustainable development and risk, as well as institutional constraints because of the dominant role of the developer and administrators. Furthermore, it was shown that local people had more complex views of airport noise than was captured by the standardised used in the EIA. When local people found that the EIA process was not an arena in which they could make their claims heard, they found other, creative ways of acting and of influencing the process.

    It is argued that a traditional perspective on planning and participation is too narrow to understand public participation in EIA. Environmental conflicts, in this case and others, indicate that citizens wish to participate in discussions of what makes political decisions legitimate and good for all. From the perspective of deliberative democracy, public participation can be understood as a matter of forcing social problems, based in experiences from individual lifeworlds, to be attended to by the political and administrative systems that can deal with them. This is an ongoing process and it is important to recognise public involvement in processes such as EIA's as well as actions outside them.

    List of papers
    1. Transport infrastructure investment and environmental impact assessment in Sweden: public involvement or exclusion?
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Transport infrastructure investment and environmental impact assessment in Sweden: public involvement or exclusion?
    2000 (English)In: Environment and planning A, ISSN 0308-518X, E-ISSN 1472-3409, Vol. 32, no 8, p. 1465-1479Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we discuss whether environmental impact assessment (EIA) can serve as an arena for including citizens in the decisionmaking process. Through a case study of a proposed extension of a regional airport in Sweden, the role of EIA, and to what degree different actors and arguments influenced the decision, is analysed. It is found that there are serious problems concerning public participation when it comes to projects which extend beyond the local level and which play an important part in the regional economy. In these cases there is a risk, despite the aims of EIA, that the process will be characterised by public exclusion rather than by public involvement.

    National Category
    Sociology
    Research subject
    Sociology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-15913 (URN)10.1068/a32228 (DOI)000088879400009 ()
    Available from: 2011-06-14 Created: 2011-06-14 Last updated: 2017-12-11Bibliographically approved
    2. Noise and newts: public engagement in the UK and Sweden
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Noise and newts: public engagement in the UK and Sweden
    2003 (English)In: Environmental impact assessment review, ISSN 0195-9255, E-ISSN 1873-6432, Vol. 23, no 1, p. 17-37Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    There are many incentives to improve public participation involvement in Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) and public inquiries not least because the conflicts arising from protests against new developments are practical problems that need to be solved. This paper addresses the ambition of promoting public participation in EIA. In doing this, it illustrates how legal or quasi-legal processes, such as EIA and public inquiries facilitate or restrain public involvement. Two cases of airport developments are compared: the EIA process for the planned extension of the airport in Örebro, Sweden and the public inquiry process for the planned extension of the airport in Manchester, UK. The concluding section discusses how the requirement to achieve efficient public involvement could be met.

    Keywords
    Environmental impact assessment, Public participation, UK, Sweden
    National Category
    Sociology
    Research subject
    Sociology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-15915 (URN)10.1016/S0195-9255(02)00057-4 (DOI)
    Available from: 2011-06-14 Created: 2011-06-14 Last updated: 2017-12-11Bibliographically approved
    3. Hearing as a way of dwelling: the active sense-making of environmental risk and nuisance
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Hearing as a way of dwelling: the active sense-making of environmental risk and nuisance
    2004 (English)In: Environment & Planning. D, Society and Space, ISSN 0263-7758, E-ISSN 1472-3433, Vol. 22, no 5, p. 737-753Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The goal of integrating a broad set of stakeholders and local knowledges in environmental decisionmaking can come into conflict with the aim of effectively regulating environmental change through the establishment of standardised methods. In this paper I explore public perceptions of environmental change as active sense-making with respect to a particular aspect of the environment-sounds and noise. I use a case study of an Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) process for the planned extension of an airport in Sweden. I focus on how local citizens reacted to the issue of airport noise as discussed in the EIA, as well as on local perceptions of noise. Analysis of local peoples' perceptions of environmental change raises questions concerning the meaning of environmental protection versus individual rights, the population affected by a development, and the issue of financial compensation versus commitment to dialogue. These questions must be raised in order to assess whether EIA fulfils its goal of increasing dialogue and building more participatory structures within the planning process.

    National Category
    Sociology
    Research subject
    Sociology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-15912 (URN)10.1068/d300t (DOI)000224642000007 ()
    Available from: 2011-06-14 Created: 2011-06-14 Last updated: 2017-12-11Bibliographically approved
    4. "I thought the facts would make difference": a case study of public involvment in EIA
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>"I thought the facts would make difference": a case study of public involvment in EIA
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    National Category
    Sociology
    Research subject
    Sociology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-15916 (URN)
    Available from: 2011-06-14 Created: 2011-06-14 Last updated: 2017-10-17Bibliographically approved
  • 25.
    Svensson, Louise
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Mobbning i arbete: arbetsorganiseringens inverkan på handlingsutrymmet och mobbningprocessen2010Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this dissertation is to identify and analyze organizational characteristics and interactional forces within the workplace organization that may affect the mobbing process. The empirical basis comprises 20 semistructured interviews with victims, observers, and bullies. Organizational theory and workplace studies are theoretical influences, as are the concepts of negotiations and outsiders. A central concept is employee discretion: formal, informal, and real discretion. Different parties in the mobbing process are identified and analyzed. It is confirmed that bullies create a negative perception of their victim and try to cause others to share this perception. Collaborators are those whom bullies potentially can recruit, and may include anyone who does not show open support for the victim. People who give open support to the victim are more likely to be bullied themselves, unless they have a strong position in the group. The mobbing process can begin for a large number of reasons. In this study, three main reasons are identified and discussed. First, mobbing can begin because the victim is seen as an outsider. Second, the mobbing process can begin with a change of position. The third main reason for a mobbing process to begin is a confrontation. Mobbing occurs only in contexts where people meet regularly and often and hence can only leave at high cost. Regular interaction and proximity to the same people are the only conditions necessary for mobbing to occur in a context. There are, however, a number of aggravating and mitigating latent characteristics or qualities that have been raised in this dissertation that may affect the mobbing process. These are cooperation and coexistence, existence of a place of retreat, distribution of bureaucratic authority and employer participation, the double belongings within the organization (formal and informal), reorganization and changing workload, and the organization’s relations to stakeholders. The same quality may be an obstacle to mobbing in one situation and facilitate it in another.

  • 26.
    Uggla, Ylva
    Örebro University, Department of Social and Political Sciences.
    Environmental politics and the enchantment of modernity: mercury and radioactive waste disposal in Sweden2002Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Current Swedish environmental policy embraces the notion of sustainable development and the discourse of ecological modernisation, both of which stress the role of modern institutions in environmental protection work. In pursuing ecological sustainability, the Swedish Government assigns importance to the issue of domestic, safe, final disposal of mercury and radioactive waste; responsibility for mercury and radioactive waste management must not be passed to future generations. This political message is not particularly controversial. Yet, siting conflicts tend to arise when the policy is going to be put into practice.

     

    The aim of this thesis is to relate the emergence and course of siting conflicts concerning mercury and radioactive waste disposal to discursive aspects of its context. The societal context in which the siting process takes place contains contemporaneous, sometimes incompatible and competing discourses. The questions raised in the thesis are: What does the political message of safe, final waste disposal and sustainable development entail? What are the implications of this particular framing of the issue?

    The policy proposing final disposal of mercury and radioactive waste in repositories deep in the bedrock requires local implementation. In the local implementation process the parties involved in the siting conflict struggle over definition of the suggested project, with the core of the conflict being the issue of risk versus safety. In this sense, the local conflict echoes contemporaneous and partly incompatible discourses within modernity, as well as the tension between demands for safety and uncertainties in calculations and management connected to proposals for the final disposal of mercury and radioactive waste.

    The overall handling of environmental threats within the discourse of ecological modernisation can be characterised as a presentation of problems with ultimate, possible win-win solutions and an economic, technological and scientific framing of the problems. This results in a reduction of the complexity of the issue at stake, concealing its political dimensions. In the process of policy implementation, however, there emerge deferred political issues and value questions, as well as unresolved societal issues, all of which tends to result in local siting conflicts.

    List of papers
    1. Mercury waste management in Sweden: historical perspectives and recent trends
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Mercury waste management in Sweden: historical perspectives and recent trends
    2000 (English)In: Journal of Environmental Planning and Management, ISSN 0964-0568, E-ISSN 1360-0559, Vol. 43, no 4, p. 561-572Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    This paper discusses the development of Swedish policy for mercury waste management. Starting with a description of the development of the policy for hazardous waste management in Sweden, the paper examines the process which led to the parliamentary decision that mercury waste should be gathered and safely disposed of. Special emphasis is placed on how the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency deals with questions of uncertainties and risks connected to deep disposal, and to what extent the government considers that people living close to the disposal should have the opportunity to influence the decision process. The paper concludes that this policy may be hard to implement. The proposed solution may create new problems which concern to what extent and in what way the local population will trust authorities when it comes to the assertion that deep disposal will not constitute any risk for themselves or their local environment.

    National Category
    Sociology
    Research subject
    Sociology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-4603 (URN)10.1080/713676572 (DOI)
    Available from: 2008-09-22 Created: 2008-09-22 Last updated: 2017-12-14Bibliographically approved
    2. Risk society and secure culture conceptions of the possibilities and task of politics
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Risk society and secure culture conceptions of the possibilities and task of politics
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    National Category
    Sociology
    Research subject
    Sociology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-15940 (URN)
    Available from: 2011-06-15 Created: 2011-06-15 Last updated: 2017-10-17Bibliographically approved
    3. Discussion of risk and safety in mercury and radioactive waste disposal
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Discussion of risk and safety in mercury and radioactive waste disposal
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    National Category
    Sociology
    Research subject
    Sociology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-15941 (URN)
    Available from: 2011-06-15 Created: 2011-06-15 Last updated: 2017-10-17Bibliographically approved
    4. Mercury and radioactive waste disposal in Sweden: political handling at the local level
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Mercury and radioactive waste disposal in Sweden: political handling at the local level
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    National Category
    Sociology
    Research subject
    Sociology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-21172 (URN)
    Available from: 2012-01-18 Created: 2012-01-18 Last updated: 2017-10-17Bibliographically approved
    5. Institutional thinking in siting conflicts: the case of Stripa mine
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Institutional thinking in siting conflicts: the case of Stripa mine
    2004 (English)In: Facility siting: risk, power and identity in land use planning / [ed] Boholm, Åsa and Löfstedt, Ragnar E., London: Earthscan / James & James, 2004, p. 44-55Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    London: Earthscan / James & James, 2004
    Series
    Risk, society, and policy series
    Keywords
    Siting conflicts, mercury, hazardous waste
    National Category
    Sociology
    Research subject
    Sociology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-15944 (URN)1-84407-146-4 (ISBN)9781849771306 (ISBN)
    Available from: 2011-06-15 Created: 2011-06-15 Last updated: 2017-10-17Bibliographically approved
  • 27.
    Wali, Mursal
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Allan, Sardonia
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Vision om jämställdhet - en illusion?: En kvalitativ studie om jämställdhet inom samboförhållanden2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 28.
    Åberg, Berit
    Örebro University, Department of Social and Political Sciences.
    Samarbete på könsblandade arbetsplatser: en könsteoretisk analys av arbetsdelning mellan kvinnor och män i två yrken: akutsjuksköterskor och ordningspoliser2001Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this thesis I adress the problem of intra-occuptional sex segregation in the labour market, especially in male-dominated professions and workplaces. By intra-occupational sex segregation, or internal sex segregation, I mean the division of work tasks that develops in occupations in which we find both women and men with the same education and initially the same positions in the organisation.

    I argue that internal sex segregation can best be explained in terms of the creation and affirmation of gender identity and not in terms of any differences in the formally equal qualifications of women and men. My reasoning is based on a structural-agency discussion that includes gender structures on two analytical levels. To develop and illustrate this kind of explanation, I undertook two empirical studies involving interviews with and observations of female and male nurses on an emergancy ward and female and male patrol officers in a police force.

    I assume, on the basis of a structural theory of love power and from Nordic empirical research, that male patrol officers use predominantly male practices to affirm gender identity and that female nurses use predominantly female practices for the same reason. These are supported or thwarted within specific contexts in the workplace. Identity processes within different contexts produce specific organisational gender structures. In the police organisation the gender structure shows a rather one-sided support for male practices. On the emergancy ward there is balanced support for both female and male practices. These structures play a decisive role in the development of co-operation between women and men in the workplaces.

    There are two types of gender minority processes going on here, one involving men in a occupation dominated by women, and one involving women in a male-dominated occupation. Gender identity affirmation in a typically female profession does not constitute an obstacle to male nurses being considered competent nurses. By contrast, the stereotyping of female and male practices among patrol officers creates barriers that prevent female patrol officers from being regarded as real patrol officers. These barriers bolster the internal sex segregation amongst female and male patrol officers.

  • 29.
    Öhman, Marie
    Örebro University, Department of Social and Political Sciences.
    Kropp och makt i rörelse2007Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Body and Power in Motion

    This dissertation is concerned with body and politics, or, more specifi cally body, power and governance. The central question is how specifi c individuals and bodies are constituted in the teaching of Physical Education (PE) in school. Inspired by Foucault’s work and the research fi eld that emanates from the concept of governmentality, one of the ambitions is to develop a method that facilitates the study of power and governance processes in teachers’ and students’ interactive actions and dealings. With the aid of this approach, 15 video-recorded physical education lessons in 5 Swedish nine-year compulsory schools are analysed in order to demonstrate how governance processes are included in the work and activities in terms of how the processes of governance–self-governance are staged, and the direction this takes. In using the term direction I am here referring to the content the governance is aiming towards, where the question of which subjects and bodies are constituted is of substantial interest. This means that the study not only focuses on what is done, but also on the way in which it is done, i.e. it analyses both process and content.

    The results show that physical exertion and the desire for physical work is a thread that runs though the analysed material. It is mainly scientifi c knowledge about the body that is referred to in actual teaching practice. This is displayed through the use of a scientifi cally inspired language when talking about the body, where effects on muscles and degrees of oxygen intake are considered in connection with the physical activities. In connection with physical exertion, pupils are encouraged to do their best, try the activities on offer, cooperate with others and face challenges. In line with the governmentality perspective’s problematisation of the process governance–self-governance, the study highlights a governance mentality that is not characterised by coercion, but is rather directed towards different components of willingness where the students are expected to be participatory, take responsibility and govern their own actions in the direction of that which is most desirable and reasonable. The willingness component appears as the actual hub of character-building, were the students ought to be physically active, should want to do their best, be willing to try, should want to show solidarity and should want to defeat the others. The process of governance–self-governance is staged as different ways of appealing to one’s willingness in the activities studied. Specifi c governance techniques are used to support and promote self-governance work, i.e. different forms of encouragement strengthen the correct action, emphasising physical exertion as pleasurable and focuses on the fact that we are all involved in a common project. In the dissertation it is shown how the body is included in a socio-political context. Through the body the individual is turned into a participant of physical projects concerned with becoming a certain kind of social citizen. The body thus symbolises the complex encounter between the individual and society. In this way the study demonstrates and highlights tendencies that are evident in modern society. It is thus a narrative that indicates how we all become part of a discourse system.

  • 30.
    Öman, Erik
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Almquist, Gustav
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Mötet, ett dilemma eller en möjlighet?: - En kvalitativ studie av myndighetspersoners beskrivningar av individer med ett socialt funktionshinder.2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This is a study with a qualitative approach and a social psychological perspective. Our purpose is to describe and analyze authority officials descriptions of individuals with a social disability and their perception of how the interaction in the encounter with its implementation. We are interested in how they experience their power as authority representatives. The following issues are highlighted.

    • How do people in authority describe individuals with a social disability?

    • What is the authority officials view on the interaction in meetings with individuals with a social disability?

    • How do authority officials experiencing his or her position of power in relation to the meeting?

    Our results are based on semi-structured interviews with five persons in authority, which is active in Insurance and Employment Service in Örebro County. The theoretical basis is based on the labelling theory. The concepts chosen for analysis are stigma, social responsiveness, lack of social responsiveness, defense measures and power. The results of the study show that authority officials understand the concept of social disability as any type of diagnosis, with social anxiety disorder and intellectual impairment are the two most mentioned. Authority officials describe that these individuals have a range of social difficulties such as problems with finances, lack of jobs or problems in their social relationships. Authority officials meetings with individuals with a social disability is described as complex, where the need for support appears to be unlimited. Factors such as time and creativity plays a crucial role in the interaction. The power aspect of the meeting affects the sense that the authority official has the power to change and improve the living conditions of individuals, but may not be the person to act freely in the meeting when the latter is controlled by the authority's rules and regulations. Authority officials freedom of action can be influenced by his personal qualities and skills. At the same time can also lead to the individual with a social disability can have confidence and trust in authority the person.

1 - 30 of 30
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