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  • 1.
    Almqvist, Lena
    Örebro University, Department of Behavioural, Social and Legal Sciences.
    Children's health and developmental delay: positive functioning in every-day life2006Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The general aim of this thesis was to gain understanding of what patterns of child and environment characteristics that promote and sustain health and positive functioning of children with and without developmental delay or disabilities. The focus was on promotion of strengths and competencies rather than on prevention of risk factors, with an emphasis on children’s functioning in every-day life. Both cross-sectional and longitudinal studies were conducted on representative samples of children. In Study I, participation in school activities were used as an outcome of positive functioning of children with disabilities. The findings indicated that autonomy, locus of control, child-peer interaction, and availability of activities were most influential in relation to participation in a pattern of child and environment factors. No significant difference was found across groups in type and degree of disability. Study II was conducted to gain knowledge of how young children perceive health. The interviews revealed that children perceived health in a multidimensional perspective, well represented by the health dimensions of ICF. The children largely related consequences of health to engagement. In Study III, engagement was used as an outcome of children’s interaction with their natural environment. The focus was to describe how children with and without developmental delay, divided into homogenous groups according to a pattern of child-environment interaction factors, engaged in developmentally appropriate behavior in their preschool and home environment. Groups of children with different patterns showed similar outcomes of engagement. Children with developmental delay were represented across groups, implying that developmental delay was less of a factor by itself influencing level of engagement. Study IV was longitudinal and the aim was to identify pathways of children’s engagement over time of children with and without developmental delay. Child-peer interaction seemed to promote high level engagement, while developmental delay only showed to be influential of low level engagement over time if combined with behavior problems. Children without developmental delay or behavior problems were met with greater teacher responsiveness, and at the same time teacher responsiveness predicted stable patterns of high level engagement or change to higher level engagement over time. The general finding in this thesis supported a both a multidimensional perspective of health and positive functioning, in where developmental delay and disability is viewed as a function of child and environmental characteristics. The results are discussed in a systemic perspective, in where the role of the delay or disability, as of other factors related to health and positive functioning in the whole child-environment system is determined by a multitude of factors. The dynamic character of children’s development makes it difficult to predict children’s future functioning, from isolated factors such as disability or developmental delay. Thus, a disability or developmental delay only becomes a risk factor of health, when combined with other risk factors that decrease the functioning of children in their every-day life.

    List of papers
    1. Participation in school environment of children and youth with disabilities: a person-oriented approach
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Participation in school environment of children and youth with disabilities: a person-oriented approach
    2005 (English)In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 46, no 3, p. 305-314Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigated patterns of interrelated positive subject and environmental factors related to participation in school activities of pupils with different kinds of disabilities. Questionnaires concerning participation were collected from 472 pupils with disabilities and their teachers, parents and special education consultants. A person-oriented approach with the aim to identify patterns of variables related to a high degree of participation of pupils with disabilities was used. Cluster-groups were formed based on scores for individual subjects on factors identified as important for participation. Groups with a high degree of participation were characterized by high scores in autonomy and perceived interaction with peers and teachers and an internal locus of control. Type and degree of disability did not predict cluster group membership. A conclusion is that the outcome participation is better predicted by patterns of interrelated positive subject and environmental factors than by type of disability or any other single factor.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Oxford: Blackwell, 2005
    National Category
    Social Sciences Social Work Psychology
    Research subject
    Psychology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-3103 (URN)10.1111/j.1467-9450.2005.00460.x (DOI)
    Available from: 2006-08-25 Created: 2006-08-25 Last updated: 2017-12-14Bibliographically approved
    2. 'I can play!': Young children's perceptions of health
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>'I can play!': Young children's perceptions of health
    2006 (English)In: Pediatric Rehabilitation, ISSN 1363-8491, E-ISSN 1464-5270, Vol. 9, no 3, p. 275-284Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Health is today viewed as a multi-dimensional concept partly conceptualized independent from not being ill. The aim of this study was to gain knowledge of how young children perceive health. Interviews were conducted with 68 children (4–5 years), within their pre-school setting, with the help of a semi-structured interview guide. A multi-dimensional perspective represented by the health dimensions of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) was used in a manifest deductive content analysis. The children's statements were categorized and placed under one of the four health dimensions, body, activity, participation and environment. A latent content analysis was applied to identify underlying themes in the manifest categories. The results revealed that young children perceive health as a multi-dimensional construct, largely related to being engaged, i.e. to be able to perform wanted activities and participate in a supportive every-day context. This implies that improvements of child engagement should be emphasized in health promotion and to a greater extent be the central focus of health interventions for young children.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    London: Taylor & Francis, 2006
    National Category
    Social Sciences Social Work Psychology
    Research subject
    Psychology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-3104 (URN)10.1080/13638490500521303 (DOI)
    Available from: 2006-08-25 Created: 2006-08-25 Last updated: 2017-12-14Bibliographically approved
    3. Patterns of engagement in young children with and without developmental delay
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Patterns of engagement in young children with and without developmental delay
    2006 (English)In: Journal of Policy and Practice in Intellectual Disabilities, ISSN 1741-1122, E-ISSN 1741-1130, Vol. 3, no 1, p. 65-75Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to identify patterns of process characteristics capturing the essence of children's experiences in their natural environment and their possible association with health and well-being operationalized as engagement for young children with and without developmental delay. Data were gathered from 1035 children between 1 and 3 years in community-based preschools. Teachers and parents responded to questionnaires concerning interaction, activity, and engagement, as well as demographic and biopsychosocial information. A cluster analysis was conducted to find homogenous patterns related to engagement. Five distinct patterns were identified, all related to different levels of engagement. Several factors, within both the child and the environment, were associated with high levels of engagement. Interaction skills and availability of activities appear to be strong predictors of high-level engagement, regardless whether or not the child has been identified as developmentally delayed.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Malden, MA: Blackwel, 2006
    National Category
    Social Sciences Social Work Psychology
    Research subject
    Psychology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-3105 (URN)10.1111/j.1741-1130.2006.00054.x (DOI)
    Available from: 2006-08-25 Created: 2006-08-25 Last updated: 2017-12-14Bibliographically approved
    4. Pathways of engagement for young children with and without developmental delay
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Pathways of engagement for young children with and without developmental delay
    (English)Manuscript (Other academic)
    National Category
    Psychology
    Research subject
    Psychology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-3106 (URN)
    Available from: 2006-08-25 Created: 2006-08-25 Last updated: 2017-10-18Bibliographically approved
  • 2.
    Andershed, Henrik
    Örebro University, Department of Behavioural, Social and Legal Sciences.
    Antisocial behavior in adolescence: the role of individual characteristics2002Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The main aim of this dissertation is to investigate whether traits on the level of the individual are important in understanding violent, frequent antisocial behavior among adolescents. The first of the four studies included in this dissertation asks whether individual-level explanations are going to be a fruitful approach at all. The other three studies speak to the question which particular individual characteristics are related to violent, frequent antisocial behavior.

    Two different large samples of 14 to 16-year-old male and female non-referred adolescents were assessed. The adolescents were mainly assessed with self-report questionnaires but information from parents and teachers was also incorporated in one of the samples.

    Results show that aggressive, antisocial behavior for a subgroup of adolescents cuts across social contexts, indicating that their aggressive behavior is largely dependent on individual characteristics, more than on situational factors. It is further shown that a constellation of personality traits involving a grandiose, manipulative interpersonal disposition, callous, unemotional affective traits, and an impulsive, irresponsible behavioral style, characterizes a subgroup of antisocial adolescents who have more violent, frequent antisocial behavior than antisocial adolescents without this personality constellation. This same subgroup also shows more pronounced problem behaviors of other kinds — early behavioral problems, problems with inhibiting aggressive behaviors, and problems with hyperactivity, impulsivity, and attention.

    Moreover, the results show that the affective facet of this particular personality constellation, involving callous, unemotional traits, plays an important role in violent, frequent antisocial behavior independently of other antisocial-related dimensions such as impulsivity, hyperactivity, and sensation seeking traits. Importantly, the main findings were similar for males and females.

    It is concluded that specific personality traits are important to consider when moving further toward an understanding of violent, frequent antisocial behavior and that research on non-referred, community samples of youths can be particularly helpful for this purpose. Implications for prevention and intervention and directions for future research are discussed.

    List of papers
    1. Bullying in school and violence on the streets: are the same people involved?
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Bullying in school and violence on the streets: are the same people involved?
    2001 (English)In: Journal of Scandinavian Studies in Criminology and Crime Prevention, ISSN 1404-3858, E-ISSN 1651-2340, Vol. 2, no 1, p. 31-49Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Examined the relationship between bullying in school and street violence. 2,915 adolescents (aged 14-15 yrs) completed questionnaires concerning street violence, weapon carrying, violence victimization, loitering, bullying, and nights away from home. Results show that bullying others in school was strongly linked to violent behavior and weapon-carrying on the streets, both among males and females. Bullying others in school was also related to being violently victimized on the streets. Findings suggest that school bullying is in many cases a part of a more general violent and aggressive behavior pattern, and that preventive efforts targeting individuals with bullying behavior in school may decrease violence among adolescents in the community as well.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    London: Taylor & Francis, 2001
    Keywords
    Aggressive Behavior, Student Characteristics, Victimization, Violence, Bullying, Weapons
    National Category
    Psychology
    Research subject
    Psychology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-6554 (URN)10.1080/140438501317205538 (DOI)
    Available from: 2009-05-04 Created: 2009-05-04 Last updated: 2017-12-13Bibliographically approved
    2. The usefulness of self-reported psychopathy-like traits in the study of antisocial behaviour among non-referred adolescents
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>The usefulness of self-reported psychopathy-like traits in the study of antisocial behaviour among non-referred adolescents
    2002 (English)In: European Journal of Personality, ISSN 0890-2070, E-ISSN 1099-0984, Vol. 16, no 5, p. 383-402Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Addresses the question of whether it is possible to use a self-report measure of psychopathic traits on non-referred youth samples to identify a subgroup of problematic youths who are particularly problematic and different from other problem youths. A large sample of 1,279 eighth-grade, non-referred adolescents (mean age 14.42 yrs), and their parents were assessed. Students completed self-report measures that assessed personality, conduct problems, and family functioning. Parents responded by completing and mailing in a questionnaire. Results show that the adolescents exhibiting a low-socialized psychopathy-like personality constellation had a more frequent, violent, and versatile conduct-problem profile than other low-socialized and well socialized adolescents. The psychopathy-like adolescents also differed from other poorly socialized adolescents in ways that suggested that their etiological background was different from adolescents with non-psychopathy-like conduct problems. The authors conclude that self-report measures can indeed be useful for research purposes in subtyping youths with conduct problems.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    New York: John Wiley & Sons, 2002
    Keywords
    Antisocial Behavior, Antisocial Personality Disorder, Behavior Problems, Psychopathy, Self Report
    National Category
    Psychology
    Research subject
    Psychology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-6543 (URN)10.1002/per.455 (DOI)
    Available from: 2009-05-04 Created: 2009-05-04 Last updated: 2017-12-13Bibliographically approved
    3. Psychopathic traits in non-referred youths: a new assessment tool
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Psychopathic traits in non-referred youths: a new assessment tool
    2002 (English)In: Psychopaths: current international perspectives / [ed] Eric Blaauw, Lorraine Sheridan, Den Haag: Elsevier , 2002, p. 131-158Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Den Haag: Elsevier, 2002
    National Category
    Psychology
    Research subject
    Psychology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-6748 (URN)90-5749-962-2 (ISBN)978-90-5749-962-3 (ISBN)
    Available from: 2009-05-12 Created: 2009-05-12 Last updated: 2017-10-18Bibliographically approved
    4. Callous, unemotional traits in violent and frequent conduct-problem behavior among non-referred youths
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Callous, unemotional traits in violent and frequent conduct-problem behavior among non-referred youths
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    National Category
    Psychology
    Research subject
    Psychology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-15936 (URN)
    Available from: 2011-06-15 Created: 2011-06-15 Last updated: 2017-10-17Bibliographically approved
  • 3.
    Andersson, Kin
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Proactivity at work2015Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Proactive behaviour implies taking initiative and mastering unexpected situations, and hence, is desirable in different situations. The present thesis includes three empirical studies intended to understand the consequences of proactive behaviour, as well as the factors that contribute to proactive behaviour at work and when facing unemployment. More specifically, whether job design, as measured by objective work task analysis, provides conditions conducive to proactivity in the workplace and when facing unemployment. The results of proactive behaviour during unemployment were also of interest. Study I focused on the influence of job design on individuals’ personal initiative and confidence in their ability when facing unemployment. Participants were employees at a downsizing Swedish assembly plant. Confidence in one’s ability mediated the relationship between job design and personal initiative, and personal initiative affected job search behaviour when advised to be dismissed. Study II, a longitudinal exploration, focused on the predictors of re-employment in the same group as in Study I. Men were more than nine times as likely as women to obtain jobs within 15 months. Individuals without children were more than seven times as likely as those with children to find work within 15 months. The desire to change occupation and willingness to relocate also increased the probability of being re-employed, whereas anonymous-passive job-search behaviour and work-related self-efficacy actually decreased the probability of re-employment. The number of job applications did not impact later re-employment. Study III analysed job design as a predictor of group initiative and self-organisational activities in semiautonomous industrial work groups. An input-process-output model showed that group processes such as reflexivity mediated the impact of job design on proactivity in work groups. Taken together, these studies suggest that work task analysis a useful tool, since it provides access to information that cannot be obtained with self-report measures. Job design indirectly affected proactivity both in the face of unemployment, and in industrial work groups. Further, it is worthwhile to continue identifying the antecedents and consequences of proactivity, as this seems to be an important factor regarding work and unemployment.

    List of papers
    1. Personal initiative at work and when facing unemployment
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Personal initiative at work and when facing unemployment
    2009 (English)In: Journal of Workplace Learning, ISSN 1366-5626, E-ISSN 1758-7859, Vol. 21, no 2, p. 88-108Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: Learning at work generalises through socialisation into behaviours away from the workplace. The aim of this study is to give empirical evidence of a positive relationship between job design, self-efficacy, competence efficacy and personal initiative at work, and proactive job search while under notice of redundancy and in unemployment.

    Design/methodology/approach: The results are based on a detailed work task analysis and self-reported data by individuals who had been made redundant (n = 176).

    Findings: The paper finds that the theoretical model received substantial, but not full support. Job design has impact on personal initiative through self-efficacy and competence-efficacy as mediating variables between job design and personal initiative. Personal initiative at work affects proactive job search when facing unemployment.

    Research limitations/implications: A limitation is that the respondents in general had jobs that were low-skilled and routine. It is likely that a research group with larger differences in job design would show stronger relations between job design and personal initiative.

    Practical implications: Work task analysis identifies conditions at work that minimise and mitigate individual initiative and makes it possible to correct them in order both to enhance organisational effectiveness and the individuals’ long-term employability.

    Originality/value: The paper proposes that autonomy and complexity, which are the aspects most predominant in the study of how job design affects personal initiative and self-efficacy, are too limited. The sequential completeness provides a broader or narrower scope of work tasks and more or less feed back which is crucial for learning and mastery-experiences. Demand on cooperation, demand on responsibility, cognitive demand and learning opportunities affect initiative-taking as well.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Emerald Group Publishing Limited, 2009
    National Category
    Psychology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-45960 (URN)10.1108/13665620910934807 (DOI)2-s2.0-70349410747 (Scopus ID)
    Available from: 2015-09-30 Created: 2015-09-30 Last updated: 2017-12-01Bibliographically approved
    2. Predictors of re-employment: A question of attitude, behavior, or gender?
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Predictors of re-employment: A question of attitude, behavior, or gender?
    2015 (English)In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 56, no 4, p. 438-446Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    This longitudinal study examined the predictive value of attitudes, personal-related variables, job search behaviour, and demographic variables on re-employment among 142 assembly workers who had been made redundant. Participants completed a questionnaire within a week after leaving their jobs, and another 15 months later. Results of hierarchical logistic regression revealed that gender (being male), was the strongest predictor of re-employment. Willingness to relocate and desire to change occupation also increased the odds of re-employment 15 months after dismissal. On the other hand - having children at home and anonymous-passive job-search behaviour, which is more prevalent among women, decreased the odds for re-employment. The study is contributing to research by revealing gender differences in job search behaviour and the importance of focusing qualitative differences instead of merely quantitative measures in job-search behaviour. And even more important, despite attitude and job-search behaviour, there is still differences that seems to be related to gender and family responsibility.

    Keywords
    Attitudes, family responsibility, gender differences, job-search behaviour, re-employment, work-related self-efficacy
    National Category
    Psychology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-45959 (URN)10.1111/sjop.12218 (DOI)000358042800010 ()25959069 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-84929207124 (Scopus ID)
    Available from: 2015-09-30 Created: 2015-09-30 Last updated: 2017-12-01Bibliographically approved
    3. Group initiative and self-organizational activities in industrial work groups
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Group initiative and self-organizational activities in industrial work groups
    2009 (English)In: European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, ISSN 1359-432X, E-ISSN 1464-0643, Vol. 18, no 3, p. 347-377Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Autonomous work groups are involved in goal setting and planning and hence can define their jobs and the outcome idiosyncratically. Our interest lies in how job design restricts or creates possibilities for groups to redefine their work and thus go beyond formal requirements. The aim was to test a model of the relationships between dimensions of job design, group processes, group initiative, and self-organizational activities. The results are based on work task analyses and questionnaires administered to 31 work groups at four Swedish industrial companies. The theoretical input-process-output model received substantial support. Dimensions of job design affect whether a group, through collective reflexivity, can redefine work and proactively create conditions and organize work so that uncertainty can be handled and new tasks mastered. Group processes such as cooperation and social support enhance group initiative to achieve such meaningful change. In this study, reflexivity does not impact on group initiative, but does explain the major amount of variance in self-organizational activities. Work task analyses can be a useful tool for providing groups with the prerequisites for self-organizational activities. We believe these to be essential for the groups' capacity to be involved in the innovation process from idea to finished product.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Hove: Psychology Press, 2009
    National Category
    Social Sciences Psychology
    Research subject
    Psychology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-8675 (URN)10.1080/13594320801960482 (DOI)
    Available from: 2009-12-04 Created: 2009-12-04 Last updated: 2017-12-12Bibliographically approved
  • 4.
    Anniko, Malin
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Stuck on repeat: Adolescent stress and the role of repetitive negative thinking and cognitive avoidance2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Stress and stress-related mental health problems such as anxiety and depressive symptoms are common in adolescents and seem to be increasing, especially in mid- to late-adolescent girls. Although adolescence, as a period of rapid growth and profound change, is often marked by an increase in normal stressors (e.g. conflicts with parents, fitting in with peers, increased academic demands), most adolescents do not develop more persis-tent problems with stress. To be able to develop effective preventive interventions there is a need to understand both what adolescents are ascribing their stress to, how different stressor domains relate to outcomes, and why some adolescents go on to develop stress-related mental health problems while others do not.          

    This dissertation aimed to answer some of these questions by investigating the role of cognitive avoidance and repetitive negative thinking (RNT) in the development of stress-related mental health problems (Study I & III). It also aimed to develop and validate a shortened version of a questionnaire designed to measure stressor load within different life domains in adolescence (Study II). Findings show that the shortened version of the Adolescents Stress Questionnaire seems to be a valid measure of stressor load within different domains in adolescence. School-related stressors were the most prevalent sources of stress, but social stressors seem to have a stronger link to increases in mental health symptoms. Also, adolescents who report higher levels of distress and stressor load tend to increase their engagement in cognitive avoidance and RNT over time which in turn predicts further increases in mental health symptoms. This suggests that cognitive avoidance and RNT may be important mechanisms in the development of stress-related mental health problems in adoles-cence.

    List of papers
    1. Investigating the mediating role of cognitive emotion regulation in the development of adolescent emotional problems
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Investigating the mediating role of cognitive emotion regulation in the development of adolescent emotional problems
    2018 (English)In: Nordic Psychology, ISSN 1901-2276, E-ISSN 1904-0016, Vol. 70, no 1, p. 3-16Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research has indicated that cognitive emotion regulation strategies contribute to the development and maintenance of emotional problems in adults and adolescents. However, there is a lack of longitudinal research with adolescent samples, hence knowledge of exactly how these strategies influence the development of emotional problems in adolescence is sparse. This study investigated maladaptive cognitive emotion regulation (cognitive avoidance and repetitive negative thinking) as a potential mediator in the development of anxiety and depressed mood over time in adolescence. Self-reported depressed mood, anxiety, and cognitive emotion regulation strategies were assessed during school hours in a sample of Swedish 10th graders (N=149; 53% girls), with follow-up assessments one and two years later. Repetitive negative thinking and cognitive avoidance formed a unidimensional factor of cognitive emotion regulation. Cognitive emotion regulation was found to mediate the development of both anxiety and depressed mood over time, lending support to the previous findings that cognitive emotion regulation strategies such as cognitive avoidance and repetitive negative thinking might act as transdiagnostic mechanisms in the development of emotional symptoms in adolescence. This suggests that maladaptive forms of cognitive emotion regulation could be important targets in prevention and treatment of emotional problems in adolescence.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Routledge, 2018
    Keywords
    Emotion regulation, anxiety, depressed mood, adolescence, longitudinal design
    National Category
    Psychology (excluding Applied Psychology)
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-65648 (URN)10.1080/19012276.2017.1323665 (DOI)000425787700002 ()2-s2.0-85019197348 (Scopus ID)
    Available from: 2018-03-12 Created: 2018-03-12 Last updated: 2018-05-22Bibliographically approved
    2. Development of a Shortened Version of the Adolescent Stress Questionnaire (ASQ-S): construct validity and sex invariance in a large sample of Swedish adolescents
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Development of a Shortened Version of the Adolescent Stress Questionnaire (ASQ-S): construct validity and sex invariance in a large sample of Swedish adolescents
    Show others...
    2018 (English)In: Scandinavian Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Psychology, E-ISSN 2245-8875, Vol. 6, no 1, p. 4-15Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Stressor experience is an important topic of research concerning adolescent health and ill-health. For this, valid and reliable measures of adolescent stress are needed. The Adolescent Stress Questionnaire 2 was developed to tap into stressor domains specific for adolescence. Psychometric evaluations in Australian and European samples have indicated adequate psychometric properties. However, the ASQ-2 is quite extensive, which may render its use in large cohort studies, where several aspects of adolescent health are investigated, inconvenient and problematic.

    Objective: To evaluate the psychometric properties of a short version of the ASQ-2 (ASQ-S) in terms of construct validity and factorial invariance across gender.

    Method: The ASQ-2 was translated into Swedish and items were retained from nine of the ten scales based on factor loadings. One scale (stress of emerging adult responsibilities) was removed entirely due to low internal consistency and variance explained. The remaining 27 items were piloted and then included in an ongoing 5-year longitudinal study involving the participation of all students in the 7th and 8th grade in public schools from three Swedish municipalities (N = 2768, 47.5 % girls, mean age 13.64 years). For this study data from the first and second wave was used.

    Results: A nine factor Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) showed a good fit to the data and invariance across sexes was supported. The nine scales correlated positively with depressive symptoms, anxiety and worry and negatively with self-esteem. Girls reported higher stress levels than boys in eight of the nine scales. Stressors related to peer pressure predicted reported levels of anxiety and worry one year later, whereas stressors related to romantic relationships predicted depressive symptoms.

    Conclusions: Overall this study suggests that the ASQ-S could be a valid measure of adolescent stressor experience and psychometrically equivalent to the full ASQ-2.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    New York, NY, USA: Exeley Inc., 2018
    Keywords
    Adolescents, stress measurement, psychometrics, sex invariance, emotional distress
    National Category
    Psychology (excluding Applied Psychology) Psychiatry
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-67064 (URN)10.21307/sjcapp-2018-001 (DOI)000438366500002 ()
    Funder
    Swedish Research Council FormasSwedish Research CouncilVINNOVA
    Note

    Funding Agency:

    Forskningsradet for Arbetsliv och Socialvetenskap (FAS) 

    Available from: 2018-05-22 Created: 2018-05-22 Last updated: 2018-08-16Bibliographically approved
    3. Stress-related Mental Health Problems in Adolescence: What are Adolescents Stressed About and Could Worry be a Potential Target in Prevention? A Longitudinal Investigation
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Stress-related Mental Health Problems in Adolescence: What are Adolescents Stressed About and Could Worry be a Potential Target in Prevention? A Longitudinal Investigation
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    National Category
    Psychology (excluding Applied Psychology)
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-67066 (URN)
    Available from: 2018-05-22 Created: 2018-05-22 Last updated: 2018-05-22Bibliographically approved
  • 5.
    Arucaj, Camile
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Andersson, Ylva
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Det är eländigt med insomnibesvär och minnet hjälper till att bevara det så!2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Sleep and our ability to remember personally experienced events is a fundamental function in our lives and plays an important role in our wellbeing. The aim of this study was to investigate whether there is a relationship between insomnia symptoms and memory for personally experienced events, while controlling for the effects of variables such as emotions and age. We also investigated the relationship between sleeprelated worry and memory for personally experienced events. Data was collected through a survey, which was conducted in a student population of 314 respondents. Results indicate that there was a significant correlation between insomnia symtpoms and memory for personally experienced events after controlling for emotions and age. Significant correlations were also found between sleeprelated worry and memory for personally experienced events. The role of memory for personally experienced events as a possible factor for maintaining insomnia symptoms is discussed further.

  • 6.
    Badinlou, Farzaneh
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    The power of action and knowledge in episodic memory for school-aged children2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Developmental and cognitive research suggests that there are age-related differ-ences in children’s episodic memory across school ages due to the development of knowledge, which in turn affects memory strategy use and information pro-cessing over time. However, there are controversial findings related to devel-opmental patterns and factors involved in children’s episodic memory function.

    This dissertation studies action memory, a form of episodic memory, across school ages to explore developmental differences and children’s memory per-formance as related to different encoding conditions, retrieval modes, materi-als, and events. In study I, the effects of different encoding conditions (i.e., verbal tasks, VTs; experimenter-performed tasks, EPTs; and subject-performed tasks, SPTs) and memory tests (i.e., recall and recognition) were examined across school ages. This study found that the developmental pattern of action memory was more pronounced for enacted encoding than verbal encoding, the most pronounced in recall test than in recognition test. In study II, the recall period of enactment effects and the effects of task difficulty were investigated as functions of age and encoding conditions in school-aged children. The results revealed that enacted encoding not only outperformed verbal encoding but also that the response speed increased over the recall period, the effect being more noticeable in older than younger children. Moreover, the level of task difficulty can be regarded as an important factor affecting the pattern of memory output among school-aged children. Study III explored the effect of children’s declarative knowledge on memory performance by presenting knowledge-based cues such as objects and semantic integration items. Providing cues related to children’s prior knowledge in the encoding and test phases improved memory performance, especially in older children. The overall results indicated clear-cut developmental differences in episodic memory across school ages. Episodic memory functions differed as functions of age, encoding, testing instructions, and type of event. SPTs and EPTs can improve memory function, this improvement was more pronounced in SPTs than in EPTs. The positive impact of action memory on memory performance is discussed in terms of the cognitive mechanism, memory strategies, and information processing involved.

    List of papers
    1. Developmental differences in episodic memory across school ages: Evidence from enacted events performed by self and others
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Developmental differences in episodic memory across school ages: Evidence from enacted events performed by self and others
    2017 (English)In: Memory, ISSN 0965-8211, E-ISSN 1464-0686, Vol. 25, no 1, p. 84-94Article in journal (Refereed) [Artistic work] Published
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to examine action memory as a form of episodic memory among school-aged subjects. Most research on action memory has focused on memory changes in adult populations. This study explored the action memory of children over time. A total of 410 school-aged child participants, comprising 201 girls and 208 boys in four age groups (8, 10, 12, 14), were included in this study. We studied two forms of action encoding, subject-performed tasks (SPTs) and experimenter-performed tasks (EPTs), which were compared with one verbal encoding task as a control condition. At retrieval, we used three memory tests (free recall, cued recall, and recognition). We observed significant differences in memory performance in children aged 8-14 years with respect to free recall and cued recall but not recognition. The largest memory enhancement was observed for the SPTs in the 8-14-year-old participants under all test conditions. Participants performed equally well on the free recall of SPTs and EPTs, whereas they displayed better performances on the cued recall and recognition of SPTs compared to EPTs. The strategic nature of SPTs and the distinction between item-specific information and relational information are discussed.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Taylor & Francis, 2017
    Keywords
    Developmental differences, episodic memory, action memory, enactment effect, school-aged children
    National Category
    Psychology Applied Psychology
    Research subject
    Psychology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-47908 (URN)10.1080/09658211.2015.1126607 (DOI)000392495000007 ()26711845 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-84951871229 (Scopus ID)
    Available from: 2016-02-03 Created: 2016-02-03 Last updated: 2018-05-23Bibliographically approved
    2. A study of retrieval processes in action memory for school-aged children: The impact of recall period and difficulty on action memory
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>A study of retrieval processes in action memory for school-aged children: The impact of recall period and difficulty on action memory
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    National Category
    Psychology (excluding Applied Psychology)
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-67070 (URN)
    Available from: 2018-05-23 Created: 2018-05-23 Last updated: 2018-05-23Bibliographically approved
    3. Action memory and knowledge-based cuing in school-aged children: The effect of object presentation and semantic integration
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Action memory and knowledge-based cuing in school-aged children: The effect of object presentation and semantic integration
    2018 (English)In: Acta Psychologica, ISSN 0001-6918, E-ISSN 1873-6297, Vol. 186, p. 118-125Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Research into memory has found that declarative knowledge provides rich information about the world and improved memory performance. The present research investigates the effects of knowledge-based cues on memory for action events and on the enactment effect. Cued recall of action phrases was examined in four groups of 8-14-year-olds (410 children in total). The object cues (i.e., real vs. imaginary objects) and semantic relational cues (i.e., well-integrated vs. poorly integrated items) were manipulated in three encoding conditions: verbal tasks, experimenter-performed tasks, and subject-performed tasks. Results indicate that enacted encoding has a recall advantage over verbal encoding regardless of the cue manipulations, though presenting objects and semantic-integrated items can moderate the enactment effect. In addition, providing further information about prior knowledge can directly influence memory performance across age groups. These results are discussed in relation to the effect of knowledge-based information in facilitating memory strategies and cognitive processing in school-aged children.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Elsevier, 2018
    Keywords
    Action memory, Enactment effect, Knowledge-based cues, Objects, School-aged children, Semantic integration items
    National Category
    Psychology (excluding Applied Psychology)
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-66871 (URN)10.1016/j.actpsy.2018.04.011 (DOI)000432763600014 ()29705084 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85046164462 (Scopus ID)
    Available from: 2018-05-21 Created: 2018-05-21 Last updated: 2018-06-11Bibliographically approved
  • 7.
    Bauducco, Serena
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Adolescents' sleep in a 24/7 society: Epidemiology and prevention2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Sleep undergoes important changes during adolescence and many teenagers experience problems sleeping. These in turn affect adolescents´ academic, physical and psychosocial functioning. Moreover, there are some indications that sleep problems in this age group may be increasing, possibly as a consequence of societal changes, e.g., internet availability. Research on adolescents´ sleep is growing, but more epidemiological studies are needed to clarify the prevalence of poor sleep, long and short-term outcomes associated with it, and potential risk and protective factors to target in preventive interventions. The aim of this dissertation was to contribute to each of these goals; Study I investigated the longitudinal association between sleep problems, defined as symptoms of insomnia, and school absenteeism; Study II explored the prevalence of poor sleep, defined as sleep deficit, in an adolescent population and psychosocial and contextual factors associated with it, including emotional and behavioral problems, stress, sleep hygiene and technology use; finally, Study III evaluated the short-term effects of a novel universal school-based intervention to improve adolescents´ sleep health.

    The findings show that poor sleep was strongly related to adolescents´ functioning, including emotional and behavioral problems and school attendance, and that sleep deficit was prevalent in adolescents. This supports the need for prevention. Moreover, sleep deficit was associated with stress, technology use and arousal at bedtime, which may represent important barriers to sleep. A preventive intervention targeting these barriers to promote adolescents´ sleep health was successful with the individuals most at risk. However, it remains to be seen whether these changes will be maintained after the intervention and whether incidence of sleep problems will be lower relative to a control group. Implications for theory and practice are discussed.

    List of papers
    1. Too tired for school?: the effects of insomnia on absenteeism in adolescence
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Too tired for school?: the effects of insomnia on absenteeism in adolescence
    Show others...
    2015 (English)In: Sleep Health, ISSN 2352-7218, E-ISSN 2352-7226, Vol. 1, no 3, p. 205-210Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: Sleep has important consequences for a person's daytime functioning. Numerous studies have shown that insomnia predicts work absenteeism and work disability in adults, but only a few studies have examined this association in adolescents. This study aims to explore whether symptoms of insomnia in adolescents predict school absenteeism 1 year later, over and above known psychological risk factors for absenteeism.

    Design: The study used a longitudinal design with 2 measurement points over 1 year.

    Setting: The students completed questionnaires during school hours at baseline and again at follow-up.

    Participants: Students in the 10th to 12th grades in a Swedish upper secondary school were followed prospectively for 1 year (age, 16-20 years; N = 353; 48.1% girls).

    Measurements and results: We used logistic regression analyses, controlling for the known effects of psychological factors, and arrived at a model elucidating the role of insomnia. That is, besides symptoms of insomnia, the model included previous absenteeism, alcohol intoxication, school-related social phobia, social anxiety, depressive symptoms, somatic symptoms, and bully victimization. Symptoms of insomnia predicted school absenteeism 1 year later, over and above known risk factors for absenteeism. Adolescents reporting severe symptoms of insomnia were almost 3 times more likely than adolescents reporting no or low symptoms to report problematic absenteeism 1 year later. We did not find any gender difference.

    Conclusions: Our findings underscore the importance of sleep problems on adolescents' daytime functioning as measured by school absenteeism. Therefore, sleep may be an important target for preventive interventions with adolescents.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Elsevier, 2015
    Keywords
    Sleep, Insomnia, School absenteeism, Adolescence, Longitudinal
    National Category
    Psychology (excluding Applied Psychology)
    Research subject
    Psychology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-46656 (URN)10.1016/j.sleh.2015.07.007 (DOI)2-s2.0-84940890895 (Scopus ID)
    Available from: 2015-11-27 Created: 2015-11-20 Last updated: 2019-03-05Bibliographically approved
    2. Sleep duration and patterns in adolescents: Correlates and the role of daily stressors
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Sleep duration and patterns in adolescents: Correlates and the role of daily stressors
    2016 (English)In: Sleep Health, ISSN 2352-7218, E-ISSN 2352-7226, Vol. 2, no 3, p. 211-218Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: The first aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of sleep deficit in a large sample of adolescents. Second, the study aimed to assess whether short sleep duration in the sample was associated with emotional and behavioral problems. Lastly, the study aimed to investigate the association between daily stressors-bedtime activities and sleep duration.

    Design: Cross-sectional survey.

    Setting: The questionnaires were completed during school hours in 17 municipal junior high schools in Sweden.

    Participants: A total of 2767 adolescents aged 12 to 16 years, 48% girls.

    Measurements and Results: Sleep measures included total sleep time (TST) for schooldays and weekends, obtained as combined measures of self-reported bed-time, wake-time, and sleep onset latency. We used the new National Sleep Foundation's guidelines to operationalize sleep duration. Overall 12% of younger adolescents (age 12-13 years) and 18% of older adolescents (14-16 years) slept less than recommended (TST < 7 hours). Adolescents reporting nonrecommended TST also reported more behavioral (ie, norm-breaking behaviors) and emotional problems (ie, depression, anxiety, and anger), with effects in the small-medium range. Finally, adolescents reporting bedtime arousal and use of information and communication technology in bed were more likely to report TST < 7 hours. Stress at home (for younger adolescents) and stress of school performance (for older adolescents) were also associated with TST less than 7 hours.

    Conclusions: The new National Sleep Foundation's recommendations were informative in this context. Future sleep interventions need to target barriers to good sleep practices, such as use of information and communication technology, stress, and worry that may contribute to arousal at bedtime.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Elsevier, 2016
    Keywords
    National Sleep Foundation (NSF); Sleep duration recommendations; Sleep deficit; Sleep patterns; Emotional and behavioral problems; Adolescent sleep; Daily stressors; Electronic media; Information and communication technology (ICT); Sleep hygiene; Bedtime arousal
    National Category
    Psychology
    Research subject
    Psychology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-51652 (URN)10.1016/j.sleh.2016.05.006 (DOI)000437210000011 ()2-s2.0-84977147448 (Scopus ID)
    Projects
    Tre Stads Studien
    Funder
    Swedish Research Council FormasSwedish Research CouncilVINNOVA
    Note

    Funding agency:

    Forskningsrådet för Arbetsliv och Socialvetenskap (FAS)

    Available from: 2016-08-11 Created: 2016-08-11 Last updated: 2018-11-27Bibliographically approved
    3. Making room for sleep: The evaluation of a preventive school-based program to improve adolescents´ sleep
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Making room for sleep: The evaluation of a preventive school-based program to improve adolescents´ sleep
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    National Category
    Psychology (excluding Applied Psychology)
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-59254 (URN)
    Available from: 2017-08-23 Created: 2017-08-23 Last updated: 2017-10-16Bibliographically approved
  • 8.
    Bergbom, Sofia
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Matchmaking in pain practice: challenges and possibilities2014Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    All people experience pain and for some people, acute pain may over time develop into long-term disabling problems. Already at an early stage, it is possible to identify people at risk for long-term problems and psychologically oriented interventions have been shown to successfully prevent future disability. However, not all people are helped by treatment and there is room for improvement. Moreover, subgroups of people suffering from pain, with different profiles of psychological factors have been identified, indicating that people with pain problems differ. The first aim of this dissertation was to improve the understanding of how people differ. The second aim was to use these individual differences and to match people to psychological treatment based on their psychological profile. The third aim was to explore what happens during treatment that might be important for treatment outcome.

    The findings show that people who belonged to subgroups with elevated levels of psychological factors had less favorable outcomes over time, despite treatment, than people with no elevations. Moreover, people with elevations in several psychological factors had even less favorable outcomes. Psychological treatments aimed at preventing future disability performed well, but using profiles to match people to treatment did not improve outcomes further; people who were matched to a treatment and people who were unmatched had similar outcomes. However, the profiles used for matching were unstable over time and there is need to improve the identification of psychological variables used for treatment matching. Finally, a number of psychological factors were shown to be valuable targets for treatment; if the treatments successfully produced change in people’s thoughts and emotions related to pain the treatment outcomes were better. The findings were summarized in a flow chart showing the recommended clinical approach to people seekinghealth care for acute pain problems.

    List of papers
    1. Relationship Among Pain Catastrophizing, Depressed Mood, and Outcomes Across Physical Therapy Treatments
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Relationship Among Pain Catastrophizing, Depressed Mood, and Outcomes Across Physical Therapy Treatments
    2011 (English)In: Physical Therapy, ISSN 0031-9023, E-ISSN 1538-6724, Vol. 91, no 5, p. 754-764Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Pain catastrophizing and emotional distress can act as prognosticfactors for pain and disability. Research on how these variables interact withinindividuals and over time is in an early stage. Understanding various patterns ofprognostic factors and how these factors change during treatment is important fordeveloping treatments targeting important factors.

    Objective: The primary aim of this study was to investigate relationships betweenpain catastrophizing and depressed mood in people seeking primary care for mus-culoskeletal pain. An additional aim was to relate these patterns of prognostic factorsto outcomes during a 6-month period.

    Design: The design was prospective; data were obtained at baseline and atfollow-up.

    Methods: Forty-two physical therapists taking part in an educational programrecruited, from their clinical practices in primary care, consecutive patients whowere currently experiencing a pain problem. Patients received various physicaltherapy interventions between baseline and follow-up.

    Results: On the basis of patterns of scoring for pain catastrophizing and depressedmood, 4 subgroups of participants were found. Belonging to a subgroup withelevated levels of either pain catastrophizing or depressed mood at baseline wasrelated to the absence of improvement and elevated levels of disability after physicaltherapy interventions. Furthermore, elevated levels of both variables were related tothe highest levels of disability.

    Limitations: The analyses relied on self-report. Neither treatment content norpain-related fear was measured. The sample was a mixture of participants reportingacute pain and subacute pain.

    Conclusions: The results stress the importance of assessing and targeting prog-nostic factors. Moreover, the results suggest the need to tailor treatments to matchpatterns of prognostic factors and the need to target depressed mood and paincatastrophizing in physical therapy interventions.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Oxford University Press, 2011
    National Category
    Psychology Medical and Health Sciences
    Research subject
    Psychology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-34088 (URN)10.2522/ptj.20100136 (DOI)000289961000016 ()21451092 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-79960940349 (Scopus ID)
    Funder
    Forte, Swedish Research Council for Health, Working Life and Welfare
    Available from: 2014-03-06 Created: 2014-03-06 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved
    2. Early psychologically informed interventions for workers at risk for pain-related disability: does matching treatment to profile improve outcome?
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Early psychologically informed interventions for workers at risk for pain-related disability: does matching treatment to profile improve outcome?
    2014 (English)In: Journal of occupational rehabilitation, ISSN 1053-0487, E-ISSN 1573-3688, Vol. 24, no 3, p. 446-457Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: This randomized controlled trial had two main aims. The first aim was to investigate the effect of early preventive, psychologically informed, interventions for pain-related disability. The second aim was explore whether people who are matched to an intervention specifically targeting their psychological risk profile had better outcomes than people who were not matched to interventions.

    Methods: A total of 105 participants were recruited from their workplace, screened for psychological risk factors and classified as being at risk for long-term pain-related disability. They were subgrouped into one of three groups based on their psychological profile. Three behaviorally oriented psychological interventions were developed to target each of the three risk profiles. Half of the participants were assigned a matched intervention developed to target their specific profile, and half were assigned an unmatched intervention. After treatment, repeated measure ANOVAs and χ2 tests were used to determine if treatments had an effect on primary and secondary outcomes including perceived disability, sick leave, fear and avoidance, pain catastrophizing and distress, and if matched participants had better outcomes than did unmatched.

    Results: Treatments had effects on all outcome variables (effect sizes d ranging between 0.23 and 0.66), but matched participants did not have better outcomes than unmatched.

    Conclusions: Early, preventive interventions have an impact on a number of outcome variables but it is difficult to realize a matching procedure. More in-depth research of the process of matching is needed.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Springer, 2014
    Keywords
    Musculoskeletal pain, Occupational health services, Disability leave, Return-to-work, Pain management, Randomized controlled trial
    National Category
    Psychology Medical and Health Sciences
    Research subject
    Psychology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-34090 (URN)10.1007/s10926-013-9478-1 (DOI)000340487900008 ()2-s2.0-84905444201 (Scopus ID)
    Funder
    Forte, Swedish Research Council for Health, Working Life and Welfare
    Available from: 2014-03-06 Created: 2014-03-06 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved
    3. When matching fails: Understanding the process of matching pain-disability treatment to risk profile
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>When matching fails: Understanding the process of matching pain-disability treatment to risk profile
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose A previous study [1] showed that matching people at risk for pain-related disability to an intervention aimed at targeting their psychological problem profile did not, as hypothesized, improve the effect of the intervention. Methodological issues were suggested to explain the lack of differential effect. It was questioned whether the profiles used to allocate people to treatment were adequate. The aim of this study was to investigate if the risk profiles used to determine matching were sufficiently stable and valid by comparing the original profiles withprofiles constructed using other methods.

    Methods Ninety-five people suffering musculoskeletal problems were screened, profiled, and matched to workplace based early interventions according to profiles. We studied stability and validity of their psychological risk profiles by investigating their concordance at different time points. People were originally assigned to profiles at inclusion, using a brief screening questionnaire. Then, they were profiled just before treatment start,using the same items. Finally, they were profiled again at treatment start, using extensive questionnaires. Concordance among the three sets of profiles was investigated.

    Results Profiles at inclusion were unstable until treatment start. People moved from profiles with more severe elevations in psychological variables, to a profile with moderate elevations. Concordance between the two means of profiling at treatment start was better; the brief screening and the extensive questionnaires assigned people to similar profiles.

    Conclusions Risk level may be determined with brief instruments at an early stage of problem development. However, profiles and targets for interventions should be determined immediately prior to treatment start, preferably using full questionnaires.

    Keywords
    Musculoskeletal pain, Occupational Health Services, Disability leave, Risk Assessment, Process Assessment (Health Care)
    National Category
    Psychology
    Research subject
    Psychology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-35184 (URN)
    Note

    This research was supported by grants from the Swedish Council for Working Lifeand Social Research

    Available from: 2014-05-28 Created: 2014-05-28 Last updated: 2017-10-17Bibliographically approved
    4. Both early and late changes in psychological variables relate to treatment outcome for musculoskeletal pain patients at risk for disability
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Both early and late changes in psychological variables relate to treatment outcome for musculoskeletal pain patients at risk for disability
    2013 (English)In: Behaviour Research and Therapy, ISSN 0005-7967, E-ISSN 1873-622X, Vol. 50, no 11, p. 726-734Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    We know little about why some people get better after psychological treatments for pain disability, whereas other people do not. In order to understand differences in treatment response, we need to explore processes of change during treatment. It has been suggested that people with pain complaints who change early in treatment have better outcomes. Therefore, we aimed to investigate whether changes in psychological variables at different time points are related to outcome, and whether early or late changes are better predictors of outcome. We used the fear avoidance model as a theoretical framework. We followed 64 patients weekly over 6–7 weeks and then determined outcome. Our findings indicate that people who decrease in catastrophizing and function early in treatment as well as in depressive symptoms, worry, fear avoidance beliefs and function late in treatment have better outcomes. Early decreases in function, and late decreases in depressive symptoms and worry uniquely predict improvements in disability. While early and late changes covaried concurrently, there were no significant sequential relationships between early and late changes. Changes in the proposed process variables in the fear avoidance model, early as well as late in treatment, thus add valuable information to the explanation of outcome.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Elsevier, 2013
    Keywords
    Pain-related disability, Psychological treatment, CBT, Process of change, Treatment response
    National Category
    Psychology
    Research subject
    Psychology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-28927 (URN)10.1016/j.brat.2012.08.008 (DOI)000311178800010 ()23000845 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-84866305805 (Scopus ID)
    Available from: 2013-05-03 Created: 2013-05-03 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
  • 9.
    Besic, Nejra
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    At first blush: the impact of shyness on early adolescents' social worlds2009Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Shyness as a behavioral characteristic has been in focus of research in psychology for a number of decades. Adolescent shyness has, however, been relatively overlooked compared with studies conducted on children and adults. This dissertation concentrated on adolescent shyness, aiming to attain a better comprehension about how shyness during this developmental phase might affect, and be affected by social relationships. The first aim of this dissertation was to study in which way shyness influences and is influenced by significant people in adolescents’ lives: peers, friends, and parents. Study III showed that shy youths socialized each other over time into becoming even more shy. Study VI demonstrated that youths’ shyness affected parenting behaviors, more so than parent’s behaviors affected youth shyness. The second aim of this dissertation was to investigate what shyness means for adolescents’ choices of relationships with friends, whereas the third aim focused on whether adolescents’ ways of dealing with peers would have consequences for their internal and external adjustment. As Study I showed, youths might take on off-putting, startling appearances in order to cope with their shyness. This strategy seemed, nonetheless, not particularly successful for the shy youths in terms of emotional adjustment. Study III showed that adolescents who were shy tended to choose others similar to themselves in shyness as friends. Study II showed that shyness might indeed have some positive implications for adolescent development, as it was found to serve a protective role in the link between advanced maturity and various types of problem behaviors. Overall, the findings point to some gender differences regarding all of the abovementioned processes. In sum then, the studies in this dissertation show that even though youths’ shy, socially fearful characteristics affect their emotional adjustment and those around them, shy youths are part of a larger social arena where they are active agents in shaping their own development. Although adolescent shyness might be linked with several negative outcomes, however, it might be other people’s reactions to socially fearful behaviors that help create and/or maintain these outcomes over time.

    List of papers
    1. Punks, Goths, and Other Eye-Catching Peer Crowds: Do They Fulfill a Function for Shy Youths?
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Punks, Goths, and Other Eye-Catching Peer Crowds: Do They Fulfill a Function for Shy Youths?
    2009 (English)In: Journal of research on adolescence, ISSN 1050-8392, E-ISSN 1532-7795, Vol. 19, no 1, p. 113-121Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Adolescent peer crowds such as Punks and Goths are mainly identified by their strikingly unusual or even shocking appearances. Although many studies find these crowds, few have tried to explain why some youths take on these startling or shocking appearances. We hypothesized that an off-putting appearance is a way to cope with behavioral inhibition by limiting social contacts. Using data from 1,200 7th - 11th graders, we compared peer crowds characterized by their startling appearance (“Radical” crowds) with three theoretically relevant comparison groups. Results showed that youths affiliating with Radical crowds were more inhibited than other youths, including those in crowds previously shown to be shy or socially anxious. Inhibited Radicals, however, had poorer emotional adjustment than inhibited youths in other crowds. If Radical styles are a way for inhibited youths to cope by limiting social contacts, the strategy does not seem to be beneficial for emotional adjustment.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Hillsdale, N.J.: Blackwell Publishing, 2009
    Keywords
    Behavioral inhibition, Appearance, Peer crowds, Depression, Adolescence
    National Category
    Psychology Social Sciences Social Sciences
    Research subject
    Psychology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-6573 (URN)10.1111/j.1532-7795.2009.00584.x (DOI)000263521200007 ()2-s2.0-60649098579 (Scopus ID)
    Note

    Part of thesis: http://urn.kb.se/resolve?urn=urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-6590

    Available from: 2009-05-04 Created: 2009-05-04 Last updated: 2017-12-13Bibliographically approved
    2. Shyness as protective factor in the link between advanced maturity and early adolescent problem behavior
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Shyness as protective factor in the link between advanced maturity and early adolescent problem behavior
    (English)Manuscript (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Advanced maturity in early adolescence has previously been linked with several problem behaviors. In this study, we examine whether shyness and gender might moderate this link. The participants were 787 early adolescents (Mage = 13.73; 401 girls and 386 boys), followed for one year. We conducted moderation analyses with shyness and gender as moderators of the links between advanced maturity and problem behaviors (drunkenness and intercourse) and between one problem behavior and another. Protective effects of shyness were found for both boys and girls. For high-risk behaviors (risky drinking behaviors and one-night stands) protective effects were found for boys. Controlling for romantic involvement did not alter the moderation effects, thus failing to support the idea that protection was due to shy youths not being drawn into advanced peer groups by romantic partners. Thus, shyness might serve as protective factor against problem behaviors in early adolescence.

    Keywords
    shyness, drunkenness, intercourse, high-risk behaviors, early adolescence
    National Category
    Psychology Social Sciences Social Sciences
    Research subject
    Psychology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-6574 (URN)
    Available from: 2009-05-05 Created: 2009-05-04 Last updated: 2017-10-18Bibliographically approved
    3. Shyness as basis for friendship selection and socialization in a youth social network
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Shyness as basis for friendship selection and socialization in a youth social network
    (English)Manuscript (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Shy children and adolescents have previously been found to have friends with similarly shy, withdrawn behavioral characteristics. How peers might socialize shyness over time has, however, not been thoroughly investigated before. Our network included 834 youths (339 girls, and 495 boys; M = 14.29), followed for three years. We used the social network analysis software, SIENA, to analyze the data. The results show that those youths who are shy are less popular and choose fewer friends in the network. They also tend to choose friends who are shy, and over time they will influence each other into becoming more shy – over and above other effects. Finally, girls’ shyness is more influenced than boys’ by their friends’ shyness levels. These results show the significance of looking at shy youths’ friendships over time, and embedded in social networks.

     

    Keywords
    shyness, friendships, selection, influence, socialization, social networks
    National Category
    Psychology Social Sciences Social Sciences
    Research subject
    Psychology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-6575 (URN)
    Available from: 2009-05-05 Created: 2009-05-04 Last updated: 2017-10-18Bibliographically approved
    4. Shy adolescents' perceptions of parental overcontrol and emotional coldness: examining bidirectional links
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Shy adolescents' perceptions of parental overcontrol and emotional coldness: examining bidirectional links
    (English)Manuscript (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Two kinds of parental behaviors—overcontrol and emotional coldness—have been linked with children’s shy behaviors. The questions we addressed are whether this applies to adolescent shyness, and whether shyness in itself might also affect parental behaviors. The participants were 916 7th-9th graders in a longitudinal project. We used a cross-lagged path model with three time points. Shyness predicted an increase in feeling overly controlled by parents at Time 2, which then predicted an increase in shyness at Time 3. Shyness also predicted an increase in perceived coldness-rejection by parents at Time 2. Finally, shyness predicted decreases in parental warmth at both timepoints. The effects did not differ for boys and girls. These results show that adolescent shyness predicts parental behaviors, though perhaps less strongly than in childhood. They also suggest some bidirectional effects in which parental responses to shy youths might serve to strengthen the shyness.

     

    Keywords
    shyness, parental behaviors, bidirectionality, adolescence
    National Category
    Psychology Social Sciences Social Sciences
    Research subject
    Psychology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-6576 (URN)
    Available from: 2009-05-05 Created: 2009-05-04 Last updated: 2017-10-18Bibliographically approved
  • 10.
    Boersma, Katja
    Örebro University, Department of Behavioural, Social and Legal Sciences.
    Fear and avoidance in the development of a persistent musculoskeletal pain problem: implications for secondary prevention2005Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This dissertation focused on the role of fear and avoidance in the development of a persistent back pain problem. The first aim of this dissertation was to study when and how cognitive, affective and behavioral factors influence one another in the development of persistent pain and disability. The moderating role of pain duration on the relationship between psychological risk factors and dysfunction was studied, as well as the interrelationships between psychological risk factors within individuals.

    The results suggest that pain duration may moderate the relationship between some of the psychological risk factors and function. In study two, depression and function were interrelated independent of stages of chronicity while the strength of the relationship between fear of movement and function increased across the stages. Further, the results suggest that there may be individual variability in the importance of psychological risk factors and in how these factors are interrelated within individuals. In study one and three profiles of psychological functioning emerged that were characterized by pain-related fear with and without depressed mood, by depressed mood only, and by low pain-related fear and no depressed mood. These profiles were meaningfully related to future disability.

    The second aim of this dissertation was to test a new treatment that is designed to match patients with high levels of fear and avoidance. The results of study four show that this exposure treatment can produce significant decreases in fear and increases in function.

    The results of the studies in this dissertation suggest that we need to assign a key role to psychological processes such as pain-related fear, depressed mood, and avoidance in our efforts to understand the development of persistent back pain disability. The results highlight that there may be several roads towards a persistent back pain problem and that the relationship between psychological factors and disability is not static but appears to change as a function of pain duration. This suggests that we need to know more about the process of development of persistent back pain disability and that future research should incorporate the role of time, as well as take into consideration that there may be individual variability in the importance of factors and their interactions. Lastly, the results suggest that secondary prevention of persistent back pain disability could be enhanced by addressing psychological processes at a much earlier time point than is currently practiced and by customizing interventions to the characteristics of the individual patient.

    List of papers
    1. Screening to identify patients at risk: profiles of psychological risk factors for early intervention
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Screening to identify patients at risk: profiles of psychological risk factors for early intervention
    2005 (English)In: The Clinical Journal of Pain, ISSN 0749-8047, E-ISSN 1536-5409, Vol. 21, no 1, p. 38-43Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    There is a serious need to provide effective early interventions that prevent the development of persistent pain and disability. Identifying patients at risk for this development is an important step. Our aim was to explore whether distinct subgroups of individuals with similar response patterns on a screening questionnaire exist. Moreover, the objective was to then relate these groups to future outcomes, for example, sick leave as an impetus for developing tailored interventions that might better prevent chronic problems. A total of 363 patients seeking primary care for acute or subacute spinal pain completed the Orebro Musculoskeletal Pain Screening Questionnaire and were then followed to determine outcome. Cluster analysis was used to identify subgroups. Validity was tested using 3 methods including the split-half technique. The subgroups were compared prospectively on outcome measures obtained 1 year later. Using pain intensity, fear-avoidance beliefs, function, and mood, we found 4 distinct profiles: Fear-Avoidant, Distressed Fear-Avoidant, Low Risk, and Low Risk-Depressed Mood. These 4 subgroups were also robust in all 3 of the validity procedures. The 4 subgroups were clearly related to outcome. Although the low risk profiles had virtually no one developing long-term sick leave, the Fear-Avoidant profile had 35% and the Distressed Fear-Avoidant profile 62% developing long-term sick leave. Our results suggest that fear-avoidance and distress are important factors in the development of pain-related disability and may serve as a key for early identification. Providing interventions specific to the factors isolated in the profiles should enhance the prevention of persistent pain and disability.

    National Category
    Social Sciences Psychology
    Research subject
    Psychology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-2814 (URN)15599130 (PubMedID)
    Note
    Discussion p. 69-72Available from: 2005-04-29 Created: 2005-04-29 Last updated: 2017-12-14Bibliographically approved
    2. How does persistent pain develop?: An analysis of the relationship between psychological variables, pain and function across stages of chronicity
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>How does persistent pain develop?: An analysis of the relationship between psychological variables, pain and function across stages of chronicity
    2005 (English)In: Behaviour Research and Therapy, ISSN 0005-7967, E-ISSN 1873-622X, Vol. 43, no 11, p. 1495-1507Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The fear-avoidance model is an attempt to underscore the importance of cognitive and behavioral factors, in a chain of events linking pain to disability. However, it is not clear at what time point the psychological variables within the model begin to be prominent. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of these psychological variables in the development of a chronic musculoskeletal pain problem. Three stages of chronicity, defined by duration of pain, provided a proxy for the developmental process: <1 year (N=48), 1–3 years (N=47) and >3 years (N=89). Subjects completed questionnaires on fear of movement, catastrophizing, depression, pain and function. The results indicate that the relationship between fear of movement and function is moderated by the stage of chronicity. Regression analyses showed that fear of movement did not explain any variance in the group with pain duration <1 year. Fear of movement did explain variance in the groups with pain duration of 1–3 years and >3 years. This suggests that the time point in the development of a musculoskeletal pain problem might be an essential aspect of the importance of the relationship between psychological components and function.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Oxford: Pergamon, 2005
    National Category
    Social Sciences Psychology
    Research subject
    Psychology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-2815 (URN)10.1016/j.brat.2004.11.006 (DOI)16159591 (PubMedID)
    Available from: 2005-04-29 Created: 2005-04-29 Last updated: 2017-12-14Bibliographically approved
    3. Psychological processes underlying the development of a chronic pain problem: a prospective study of the relationship between profiles of psychological variables in the fear-avoidance model and disability
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Psychological processes underlying the development of a chronic pain problem: a prospective study of the relationship between profiles of psychological variables in the fear-avoidance model and disability
    2006 (English)In: The Clinical Journal of Pain, ISSN 0749-8047, E-ISSN 1536-5409, Vol. 22, no 2, p. 160-166Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: Understanding the psychological processes that underlie the development of a chronic pain problem is important to improve prevention and treatment. The aim of this study was to test whether distinct profiles of variables within the fear-avoidance model could be identified and could be related to disability in a meaningful way.

    Methods: In 81 persons with a musculoskeletal pain problem, cluster analysis was used to identify subgroups with similar patterns on fear and avoidance beliefs, catastrophizing, and depression. The clusters were examined cross-sectionally and prospectively on function, pain, health care usage, and sick leave.

    Results: Five distinct profiles were found: pain-related fear, pain-related fear + depressed mood, medium pain-related fear, depressed mood, and low risk. These subgroups were clearly related to outcome. In contrast to the clusters medium pain-related fear and low risk, the majority of those classified in the clusters pain-related fear, pain-related fear + depressed mood, and depressed mood reported long-term sick leave during follow-up. The subjects in the clusters with high scores on the depression measure reported the highest percentage of health care usage during follow-up (70% in the pain-related fear + depressed mood group and 42% in the depressed mood group reported >10 health care visits).

    Conclusions: Distinct profiles of psychological functioning could be extracted and meaningfully related to future disability. These profiles give support to the fear-avoidance model and underscore the need to address the psychological aspects of the pain experience early on.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2006
    National Category
    Social Sciences Psychology
    Research subject
    Psychology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-2816 (URN)16428950 (PubMedID)
    Available from: 2005-04-29 Created: 2005-04-29 Last updated: 2018-02-20Bibliographically approved
    4. Lowering fear-avoidance and enhancing function through exposure in vivo: a multiple baseline study across six patients with back pain
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Lowering fear-avoidance and enhancing function through exposure in vivo: a multiple baseline study across six patients with back pain
    Show others...
    2004 (English)In: Pain, ISSN 0304-3959, E-ISSN 1872-6623, Vol. 108, no 1-2, p. 8-16Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigated the effects of an exposure in vivo treatment for chronic pain patients with high levels of fear and avoidance. The fear-avoidance model offers an enticing explanation of why some back pain patients develop persistent disability, stressing the role of catastrophic interpretations; largely fueled by beliefs and expectations that activity will cause injury and will worsen the pain problem. Recently, an exposure in vivo treatment was developed that aims to enhance function by directly addressing these fears and expectations. The purpose of this study was to describe the short-term, consequent effect of an exposure in vivo treatment. The study employed a multiple baseline design with six patients who were selected based on their high levels of fear and avoidance. The results demonstrated clear decreases in rated fear and avoidance beliefs while function increased substantially. These improvements were observed even though rated pain intensity actually decreased somewhat. Thus, the results replicate and extend the findings of previous studies to a new setting, with other therapists and a new research design. These results, together with the initial studies, provide a basis for pursuing and further developing the exposure technique and to test it in group designs with larger samples.

    National Category
    Social Sciences Psychology
    Research subject
    Psychology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-2817 (URN)10.1016/j.pain.2003.03.001 (DOI)
    Available from: 2005-04-29 Created: 2005-04-29 Last updated: 2017-12-14Bibliographically approved
  • 11.
    Brav, Agneta
    Örebro University, Department of Behavioural, Social and Legal Sciences.
    Industrial work groups: the impact of job design, leader support and group processes on initiative and self-organization2008Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    From an organizational perspective the issue of which organizational solutions will benefit productivity, efficiency and the innovation process is central. Work groups can be an effective means. The general aim of the thesis from a psychological perspective is to examine work conditions and thereafter investigate how such conditions impact on whether or not work groups redefine stipulated tasks to incorporate initiative-taking and self-organization, thus enabling them to implement meaningful change.Based on action regulation theory, detailed work task analysis is assumed to be worthwhile as it provides data that cannot be captured with interviews or questionnaires exclusively. Data is based on work task analyses and questionnaires administered to work groups at four Swedish industrial organizations. In Study I a theoretical model of the relations of job design, work routines and social routines and reflexivity and learning processes was tested. Results showed that job design and work routines strongly impacted on reflexivity and learning processes. In Study II this model was extended into a theoretical inputprocess- output model to include group initiative and self-organizational activities as outcomes of job design, mediated by group processes. The model provided substantial, but not complete, support. Job design strongly impacts on reflexivity, and reflexivity directly impacts self organizational activities. To explore the importance of leadership support and potency longitudinally for group initiative, in Study III two data collections were included. The findings showed that potency, compared to perceived autonomy and support from leader, was the best predictor of group initiative. Together the studies show that the dimensions of job design, support from leader, reflexivity, and potency as well as cooperation and social support are important for the outcomes of work groups if the organization wants groups to take initiative and engage in self-organizational activities. It is also advocated that job design contains an inherent potential for learning and the possibility to make use of one’s resources. Main findings, strengths, limitations, practical and theoretical implications, directions for future research and when it will be worthwhile to invest in group work are included in the discussion.

    List of papers
    1. Job design for learning in work groups
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Job design for learning in work groups
    2007 (English)In: Journal of Workplace Learning, ISSN 1366-5626, E-ISSN 1758-7859, Vol. 19, no 5, p. 269-285Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose--What is required of job design and production planning, if they are to result in a work group taking a self-starting approach and going beyond what is formally required of it? This paper aims to contribute to group research by testing a theoretical model of relations between job design on the one hand (captured as completeness, demand on responsibility, demand on cooperation, cognitive demand, and learning opportunities), and reflexivity and learning processes within natural work groups in industry on the other hand. Design/methodology/approach--The results are based on detailed task analyses and questionnaires from 40 work groups at the shop-floor level in manufacturing industry in Sweden. Findings--Job design and work routines show strong effects on reflexivity and learning processes. Four dimensions of job design--completeness, demand on cooperation, cognitive demand and learning opportunities--impact on reflexivity and learning processes. Job design correlates with social routines, and social routines with work routines. Practical implications--It is crucial to create a job design that puts challenging demands on the group if group processes are to be characterized by reflexivity and learning. Managers have a challenging task to provide both a space and a climate that supports reflexivity and learning. All functions affected by production planning need to be involved in job design to balance conflicts between productivity and innovation. Originality/value--Detailed task analysis is worthwhile as it captures aspects that are prerequisites for innovative groups not previously accounted for. (Contains 2 figures and 4 tables.)

    National Category
    Social Sciences Psychology
    Research subject
    Psychology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-8676 (URN)10.1108/13665620710757833 (DOI)
    Note
    Part of thesis: http://urn.kb.se/resolve?urn=urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-2453Available from: 2009-12-04 Created: 2009-12-04 Last updated: 2017-12-12Bibliographically approved
    2. Group initiative and self-organizational activities in industrial work groups
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Group initiative and self-organizational activities in industrial work groups
    2009 (English)In: European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, ISSN 1359-432X, E-ISSN 1464-0643, Vol. 18, no 3, p. 347-377Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Autonomous work groups are involved in goal setting and planning and hence can define their jobs and the outcome idiosyncratically. Our interest lies in how job design restricts or creates possibilities for groups to redefine their work and thus go beyond formal requirements. The aim was to test a model of the relationships between dimensions of job design, group processes, group initiative, and self-organizational activities. The results are based on work task analyses and questionnaires administered to 31 work groups at four Swedish industrial companies. The theoretical input-process-output model received substantial support. Dimensions of job design affect whether a group, through collective reflexivity, can redefine work and proactively create conditions and organize work so that uncertainty can be handled and new tasks mastered. Group processes such as cooperation and social support enhance group initiative to achieve such meaningful change. In this study, reflexivity does not impact on group initiative, but does explain the major amount of variance in self-organizational activities. Work task analyses can be a useful tool for providing groups with the prerequisites for self-organizational activities. We believe these to be essential for the groups' capacity to be involved in the innovation process from idea to finished product.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Hove: Psychology Press, 2009
    National Category
    Social Sciences Psychology
    Research subject
    Psychology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-8675 (URN)10.1080/13594320801960482 (DOI)
    Available from: 2009-12-04 Created: 2009-12-04 Last updated: 2017-12-12Bibliographically approved
    3. Group initiative: to go beyond what is required
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Group initiative: to go beyond what is required
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    National Category
    Social Sciences Psychology
    Research subject
    Psychology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-8677 (URN)
    Available from: 2009-12-04 Created: 2009-12-04 Last updated: 2017-10-18Bibliographically approved
  • 12.
    Carstens Söderstrand, Johan
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Communication in the context of acute pain: Persuasion or validation?2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Historically, the dominating theoretical framework for communication in the context of acute pain is reassurance. An inherent assumption of this framework is that the person in pain needs to have their fears and doubts removed and be educated, or persuaded, that the pain problem is not dan-gerous. This is then thought to lead to a shift in beliefs that later explain future beneficial outcomes

    In later years, another communication technique known as validation has started to gain traction in the pain field. This technique focuses on le-gitimizing the thoughts and emotions of pain patients and is instead thought to influence outcomes through better emotion regulation.

    The overall aim of this dissertation is to extend current knowledge on effective communication in the context of acute pain. In one observational study a variable supposedly sensitive to shifts in beliefs was observed in a cohort of acute pain patients over the course of the first three months after pain onset. Also, in two controlled experiments we explored the impact of validating communication on pain relevant variables while investigating if this effect was due to improved emotion regulation.

    Taken together, this dissertation indicates that validating communica-tion shows promise as a form of effective communication in the context of acute pain, in that it influences both pain catastrophizing and recall. The dissertation does not give support to either changes in beliefs nor emotion regulation being the mechanism of change for effective communication. Thus, this dissertation propose a new model of effective communication based both on previous research highlighting the effectiveness of infor-mation and the research presented in this dissertation, more focused on the role of psychological processes such as pain catastrophizing.

    List of papers
    1. When the wind goes out of the sail - declining recovery expectations in the first weeks of back pain
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>When the wind goes out of the sail - declining recovery expectations in the first weeks of back pain
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    2014 (English)In: European Journal of Pain, ISSN 1090-3801, E-ISSN 1532-2149, Vol. 18, no 2, p. 269-278Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Background Expectations for recovery are a known predictor for returning to work. Most studies seem to conclude that the higher the expectancy the better the outcome. However, the development of expectations over time is rarely researched and experimental studies show that realistic expectations rather than high expectancies are the most adaptive. This study aims to explore patterns of stability and change in expectations for recovery during the first weeks of a back-pain episode and how these patterns relate to other psychological variables and outcome.

    Methods The study included 496 volunteer patients seeking treatment for work-related, acute back pain. The participants were measured with self-report scales of depression, fear of pain, life impact of pain, catastrophizing and expectations for recovery at two time points. A follow-up focusing on recovery and return to work was conducted 3 months later. A cluster analysis was conducted, categorizing the data on the trajectories of recovery expectations.

    Results Cluster analysis revealed four clusters regarding the development of expectations for recovery during a 2-week period after pain onset. Three out of four clusters showed stability in their expectations as well as corresponding levels of proximal psychological factors. The fourth cluster showed increases in distress and a decrease in expectations for recovery. This cluster also has poor odds ratios for returning to work and recovery. Conclusion Decreases in expectancies for recovery seem as important as baseline values in terms of outcome, which has clinical and theoretical implications.

    National Category
    Medical and Health Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-33642 (URN)10.1002/j.1532-2149.2013.00357.x (DOI)000329303600013 ()
    Note

    Funding Agency: Liberty Mutual Research Institute for Safety; Scan/Design by Inger and Jens Brun Foundation

    Available from: 2014-02-07 Created: 2014-02-07 Last updated: 2018-06-04Bibliographically approved
    2. Lending an ear to pain: The impact of emotionally oriented communication on pain catastrophizing
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Lending an ear to pain: The impact of emotionally oriented communication on pain catastrophizing
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    National Category
    Psychology (excluding Applied Psychology)
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-66217 (URN)
    Available from: 2018-03-28 Created: 2018-03-28 Last updated: 2018-03-28Bibliographically approved
    3. Effects of validating communication on recall during a pain-task in healthy participants
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Effects of validating communication on recall during a pain-task in healthy participants
    2017 (English)In: Scandinavian Journal of Pain, ISSN 1877-8860, E-ISSN 1877-8879, Vol. 17, p. 118-125, article id S1877-8860(17)30143-XArticle in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Increasing recall of instructions and advice in a pain consultation is important, since it is a prerequisite for adherence to treatment recommendations. However, interference due to pain-related distress may result in poor recall. Whereas there are some indications that recall can be increased by empathic communication that reduces interference, this interesting possibility remains largely untested experimentally. The current experiment aimed at studying effects of empathic communication, and more specifically validation, on recall during a pain test and possible mediators and moderators of this effect.

    METHOD: Participants received either validating (N=25) or invalidating responses (N=25) from the experimenter during a pain provoking task, followed by self-report measures of interference (affect, situational pain catastrophizing) and recall (accurate and false memories of words).

    RESULTS: As expected, the validated group exhibited higher accurate recall and less false memories following the pain test as compared to the invalidated group. This was partly due to the effect of interference being counteracted by moderating the relationship between pain catastrophizing and recall.

    CONCLUSION: These novel results suggest that validating communication can counteract interference due to pain catastrophizing on recall, at least in a controlled experimental setting.

    IMPLICATIONS: Good communication by health professionals is of utmost importance for adherence to pain management. The current results expand our knowledge on the effects of pain communication by establishing and explaining a clear link between empathic communication and recall, highlighting the role of pain catastrophizing.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Walter de Gruyter, 2017
    Keywords
    Validation; Communication; Memory recall; Pain catastrophizing; Affect
    National Category
    Applied Psychology Neurology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-61698 (URN)10.1016/j.sjpain.2017.07.003 (DOI)000419851500017 ()28850364 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85028312094 (Scopus ID)
    Funder
    Swedish Research Council
    Available from: 2017-11-13 Created: 2017-11-13 Last updated: 2018-03-28Bibliographically approved
  • 13.
    Danielsson, Nanette S.
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Disturbed sleep and emotion: a developmental perspective2013Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Sleep disturbances are not only defining features, but also diagnostic criteria for most psychiatric disorders. Recently, researchers have proposed a theoretic role for sleep disturbances in emotion dysregulation, subsequently linking neurobiological processes and psychopathology. Most prior research examining the potential role for sleep disturbance in emotion dysregulation is from a neurophysiological or clinical perspective, or primarily focused on maintaining processes. Less well understood are how sleep disturbances may be involved at the levels of predisposition, precipitation, and perpetuation of emotion dysregulation concurrently and over time.

    This dissertation presents findings from three studies that were designed to expand on what is known about sleep disturbance in the predisposition, precipitation, and perpetuation of emotion dysregulation. Study 1 examined the long-term relation between sleep-onset problems and neuroticism over twenty-years. Adolescent sleep-onset posed risk (predisposition) for neuroticism in midlife, not vice versa. Study 2 investigated the effects of 3-nights partial sleep deprivation (5-hours total time in bed) on the positive and negative affect and emotions of otherwise healthy adults. Following partial sleep deprivation, people reported significant reductions in positive affect and emotions compared to rested people (precipitation). The only impact on negative emotions was on the discrete level. Sleep deprived peo-ple reported significantly more irritability, loathing, hostility, and shakiness compared to controls. Study 3 measured adolescent sleep disturbances, depressive symptoms, and catastrophic worry. In addition to direct risk, sleep disturbances posed a non-gender specific risk for depressive symptoms one-year later through catastrophic worry (perpetuation). Overall, the results provide support for the role of sleep disturbances in the predis-position, precipitation, and perpetuation of emotion dysregulation. An implication is that sleep disturbances and catastrophic worry are two po-tentially modifiable markers of risk for emotion dysregulation.

    List of papers
    1. Neuroticism and sleep-onset: what is the long-term connection?
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Neuroticism and sleep-onset: what is the long-term connection?
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    2010 (English)In: Personality and Individual Differences, ISSN 0191-8869, E-ISSN 1873-3549, Vol. 48, no 4, p. 463-468Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    People with sleep-onset problems often experience neuroticism. To what extent the one problem leads to the other is unknown. We used self-reported data from a Swedish longitudinal project to examine developmental links between neuroticism and sleep-onset problems. A sample of 212 people, followed from birth to midlife, was part of a cohort study spanning 37 years. Adolescent neuroticism was measured at age 16 with the High School Personality Questionnaire (HSPQ, Form A) and in midlife at age 37 with the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ). Sleep-onset problems were measured at ages 15 to 17, 25, and 37 with items developed for the Solna Project. Adolescent neuroticism failed to predict sleep-onset problems. Instead, sleep-onset problems in adolescence and young adulthood predicted midlife neuroticism. We found that sleep-onset problems during adolescence were a direct risk for midlife neuroticism, as well as, an indirect risk through continuance of sleep-onset problems into adulthood. This study provides longitudinal support for adolescent sleep-onset problems as a potent risk factor for heightened neuroticism in midlife.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Oxford, United Kingdom: Elsevier, 2010
    Keywords
    Neuroticism, sleep-onset problems, adolescence, epidemiological, longitudinal, prospective
    National Category
    Psychology
    Research subject
    Psychology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-11033 (URN)10.1016/j.paid.2009.11.023 (DOI)000275079900019 ()2-s2.0-73749083217 (Scopus ID)
    Available from: 2010-06-14 Created: 2010-06-14 Last updated: 2017-12-12Bibliographically approved
    2. Effects of partial sleep deprivation on subjectice emotion experience and implicit emotion regulation
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Effects of partial sleep deprivation on subjectice emotion experience and implicit emotion regulation
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Neurophysiological research implicates sleep deprivation in emotion dysregulation. Less is known about the effects of partial sleep deprivation on the emotions and on emotion regulation of otherwise healthy people. An experimental, randomized pretest-posttest study design was used to examine the differential effects of partial sleep deprivation on emotion experience and implicit emotion regulation following emotion elicitation.

    Methods: We randomized 81 healthy adults (44 females) into a sleep deprivation or rested condition. Sleep deprivation was defined as 3-nights with 5-hours total time in bed. Scores on positive and negative emotion markers measured emotions. Mixed between-within subjects analyses of variance were used to examine group differences in emotion following the sleep condition and after the emotion elicitation procedures and test.

    Results: Sleep deprived people reported significantly less positive emotions, and more fatigue, irritability, and hostility compared to people who were rested following the sleep condition. There were negligible differences between groups in implicit emotion regulation following emotion elicitation.

    Conclusions: These findings suggest that partial sleep deprivation is a potent stressor in emotion dysregulation through reductions in positive emotions. It also appears that implicit emotion regulation works equally well following strong negative emotional events, regardless of sleep condition. From a clinical perspective, sleep deprivation and ensuing reductions in positive affect and emotion may provide clinicians with viable targets in depression treatment. Keywords: Experimental, sleep deprivation, affect, emotions, emotion regulation, emotion elicitation.

    Keywords
    Experimental, sleep deprivation, affect, emotions, emotion regulation, emotion elicitation
    National Category
    Psychology
    Research subject
    Psychology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-29022 (URN)
    Available from: 2013-05-14 Created: 2013-05-14 Last updated: 2017-10-17Bibliographically approved
    3. Sleep disturbance and depressive symptoms in adolescence: the role of catastrophic worry
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Sleep disturbance and depressive symptoms in adolescence: the role of catastrophic worry
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    2013 (English)In: Journal of Youth and Adolescence, ISSN 0047-2891, E-ISSN 1573-6601, Vol. 42, no 8, p. 1223-1233Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Depression is a common and debilitating disorder in adolescence. Sleep disturbances and depression often co-occur with sleep disturbances frequently preceding depression. The current study investigated whether catastrophic worry, a potential cognitive vulnerability, mediates the relationship between adolescent sleep disturbances and depressive symptoms, as well as whether there are gender differences in this relationship. High school students, ages 16–18, n = 1,760, 49 % girls, completed annual health surveys including reports of sleep disturbance, catastrophic worry, and depressive symptoms. Sleep disturbances predicted depressive symptoms 1-year later. Catastrophic worry partially mediated the relationship. Girls reported more sleep disturbances, depressive symptoms, and catastrophic worry relative to boys. The results, however, were similar regardless of gender. Sleep disturbances and catastrophic worry may provide school nurses, psychologists, teachers, and parents with non gender specific early indicators of risk for depression. Several potentially important practical implications, including suggestions for intervention and prevention programs, are highlighted. 

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Springer, 2013
    Keywords
    Adolescence; Sleep; Depression; Catastrophizing; Worry; Gender
    National Category
    Psychology
    Research subject
    Psychology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-29023 (URN)10.1007/s10964-012-9811-6 (DOI)000321973800009 ()22968332 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-84880514938 (Scopus ID)
    Available from: 2013-05-14 Created: 2013-05-14 Last updated: 2018-05-17Bibliographically approved
  • 14.
    Edlund, Sara
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Calm down: strategies for emotion regulation in clinical practice2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Problems with emotion regulation are common in people who seek help from health care professionals working with problems featuring psychological factors. Two such patient groups, chronic pain patients and patients with severe anxiety, are of interest in this dissertation. Effectively regulating and increasing functional emotion regulation in these patients is often challenging for clinicians, and effective strategies are needed. One treatment that greatly emphasizes the importance of functional emotion regulation is dialectical behavior therapy (DBT). DBT has a strong empirical basis in other patients with severe problems with emotion regulation, raising the question of whether the treatment and its more specific components (e.g., validation, which means communicating understanding and acceptance) could be effec-tive in the groups of patients of interest here.

    Accordingly, the overall aim of this dissertation was to expand our knowledge of how to use functional emotion-regulation strategies from DBT to regulate emotions in patients with chronic pain or treatment-resistant anxiety disorders. Study I examined whether brief training was enough to increase validation in partners of people with chronic pain, and whether this was associated with better-regulated emotion in the people with chronic pain. Study II explored patient perceptions of validation and invalidation by the physician in a clinical chronic pain context. Lastly, study III investi-gated whether a more extensive treatment intervention inspired by DBT was feasible and effective in patients suffering from treatment-resistant anxiety disorders.

    The findings indicate that emotion-regulation strategies from DBT can be effective in regulating emotions in these patients. The dissertation also illus-trates some of the difficulties in doing this, providing important information for future work, such as suggestions for modifications that might further increase positive outcomes.

    List of papers
    1. I see you're in pain: the effects of partner validation on emotions in people with chronic pain
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>I see you're in pain: the effects of partner validation on emotions in people with chronic pain
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    2015 (English)In: Scandinavian Journal of Pain, ISSN 1877-8860, E-ISSN 1877-8879, Vol. 6, p. 16-21Article in journal (Other academic) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Background and aims

    Chronic pain not only affects the person in pain, but can also have a negative impact on relationships with loved ones. Research shows that chronic pain is associated with difficulties in marital relationships, which in turn is related to a variety of negative outcomes such as psychological distress and conflict within the family. This suggests that couples where chronic physical pain is present also struggle with emotional pain and relationship problems, and thus targeting relationship skills and interpersonal functioning might be helpful for these couples. Although studies in this area are promising, their numbers are few. In the present study, validation as a way of communicating is suggested for handling emotional expression in interpersonal interactions. Validation communicates understanding and acceptance of the other person's experience, and it has been shown to have a down-regulating effect on negative emotions. It has previously been demonstrated to be important for these couples. However, the feasibility and effects of increasing partner validation in these couples are unknown. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate if a brief training session in validation for spouses would result in more validating and fewer invalidating responses towards their partners with pain, and to investigate if changes in these behavioural responses were associated with changes in emotion and pain level in the partner with pain.

    Methods

    Participants were 20 couples where at least one partner reported chronic pain. The study employed a within-groups design in which spouses of people with pain received validation training (without their partner's knowledge), and their validating and invalidating responses were rated pre- and post-intervention using a reliable observational scale. Also, positive and negative affect and subjective pain level in the persons with pain were rated pre- and post-intervention.

    Results

    Results showed that the validation training was associated with increased validating and decreased invalidating responses in the partners. Their spouses with chronic pain reported a decrease in negative affect from pre- to post-training.

    Conclusions

    Our results indicate that the partner or closest family member, after brief validation training, increased validating responses and decreased invalidating responses towards the person with pain, which had an immediate positive impact on emotions in the other person.

    Implications

    This study suggests that using validation in interpersonal interactions is a promising tool for couples where chronic pain is present.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Elsevier, 2015
    Keywords
    Affect; Chronic pain; Emotion regulation; Invalidation; Partner communication; Validation
    National Category
    Applied Psychology
    Research subject
    Psychology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-37521 (URN)10.1016/j.sjpain.2014.07.003 (DOI)000217936400006 ()2-s2.0-84927607276 (Scopus ID)
    Available from: 2014-10-06 Created: 2014-10-06 Last updated: 2018-06-26Bibliographically approved
    2. Pain patients´ experiences of validation and invalidation from physicians before and after multimodal pain rehabilitation: Associations with pain, negative affectivity and treatment outcome
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Pain patients´ experiences of validation and invalidation from physicians before and after multimodal pain rehabilitation: Associations with pain, negative affectivity and treatment outcome
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    2017 (English)In: Scandinavian Journal of Pain, ISSN 1877-8860, E-ISSN 1877-8879, Vol. 17, p. 77-86Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Background and aims: Validating and invalidating responses play an important role in communication with pain patients, for example regarding emotion regulation and adherence to treatment. However, it is unclear how patients’ perceptions of validation and invalidation relate to patient characteristics and treatment outcome. The aim of this study was to investigate the occurrence of subgroups based on pain patients’ perceptions of validation and invalidation from their physicians. The stability of these perceptions and differences between subgroups regarding pain, pain interference, negative affectivity and treatment outcome were also explored.

    Methods: A total of 108 pain patients answered questionnaires regarding perceived validation and invalidation, pain severity, pain interference, and negative affectivity before and after pain rehabilitation treatment. Two cluster analyses using perceived validation and invalidation were performed, one on pre-scores and one on post-scores. The stability of patient perceptions from pre- to post-treatment was investigated, and clusters were compared on pain severity, pain interference, and negative affectivity. Finally, the connection between perceived validation and invalidation and treatment outcome was explored.

    Results: Three clusters emerged both before and after treatment: (1) low validation and heightened invalidation, (2) moderate validation and invalidation, and (3) high validation and low invalidation. Perceptions of validation and invalidation were generally stable over time, although there were individuals whose perceptions changed. When compared to the other two clusters, the low validation/heightened invalidation cluster displayed significantly higher levels of pain interference and negative affectivity post-treatment but not pre-treatment. The whole sample significantly improved on pain interference and depression, but treatment outcome was independent of cluster. Unexpectedly, differences between clusters on pain interference and negative affectivity were only found post-treatment. This appeared to be due to the pre- and post-heightened invalidation clusters not containing the same individuals. Therefore, additional analyses were conducted to investigate the individuals who changed clusters. Results showed that patients scoring high on negative affectivity ended up in the heightened invalidation cluster post-treatment.

    Conclusions: Taken together, most patients felt understood when communicating with their rehabilitation physician. However, a smaller group of patients experienced the opposite: low levels of validation and heightened levels of invalidation. This group stood out as more problematic, reporting greater pain interference and negative affectivity when compared to the other groups after treatment. Patient perceptions were typically stable over time, but some individuals changed cluster, and these movements seemed to be related to negative affectivity and pain interference. These results do not support a connection between perceived validation and invalidation from physicians (meeting the patients pre- and post-treatment) and treatment outcome. Overall, our results suggest that there is a connection between negative affectivity and pain interference in the patients, and perceived validation and invalidation from the physicians. Implications In clinical practice, it is important to pay attention to comorbid psychological problems and level of pain interference, since these factors may negatively influence effective communication. A focus on decreasing invalidating responses and/or increasing validating responses might be particularly important for patients with high levels of psychological problems and pain interference.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Walter de Gruyter, 2017
    Keywords
    Chronic pain; Communication; Validation; Invalidation; Treatment outcome
    National Category
    Psychology Neurology
    Research subject
    Psychology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-59104 (URN)10.1016/j.sjpain.2017.07.007 (DOI)000419851500012 ()28850377 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85026788123 (Scopus ID)
    Note

    Funding Agency:

    Regional Research Council (Regionala Forskningsradet, RFR) 

    Available from: 2017-08-15 Created: 2017-08-15 Last updated: 2018-08-01Bibliographically approved
    3. Dialectical behavior therapy to augment stand-ard cognitive behavioral therapy for treatment-resistant anxi-ety disorders: A replicated single-subject pilot study
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Dialectical behavior therapy to augment stand-ard cognitive behavioral therapy for treatment-resistant anxi-ety disorders: A replicated single-subject pilot study
    Show others...
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    National Category
    Psychology (excluding Applied Psychology)
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-62078 (URN)
    Available from: 2017-10-31 Created: 2017-10-30 Last updated: 2017-10-30Bibliographically approved
  • 15.
    Ekbom, Madeleine
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Darafshian, Nesrin
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Focus on Cognitive Factors in an Internet-delivered Self Help Treatment of Social Phobia2009Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Social Phobia and fear of public speaking has shown to be present among university students. According to the model by Clark and Wells (1995) cognitive factors such as catastrophizing thoughts and self-focus are required to decrease in order for a decrease in social anxiety to follow. The aim was to investigate this by adopting a replicated single-case design, along with four measurement occasions weekly. An Internet delivered self-help CBT program was offered to two participants during eight weeks. The results partly support the model, with cognitive factors decreasing simultaneously as social anxiety and not prior. This pilot study can be built upon in future group studies where more observations can be carried out to investigate how the effects follow. 

  • 16.
    Ferhatovic, Denis
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Andersson, Marit
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Känslomässig instabilitet och dess påverkan på arbetssökande beteende i en svensk population2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The relationship between personality and job search behavior has mostly been investigated among students before. This study investigated if neuroticism affected job search behaviors for 123 unemployed non-students between 20-65 years. The survey used consisted of Personality Questionnaire (Bäccman & Carlstedt, 2010), measuring personality based on the five-factor model, and Job Search Behavior (Blau, 1994), measuring preparatory and active job search behaviors. There was a relationship between neuroticism and both job search behaviors. Neuroticism alone could, however, not predict which job search behavior individuals choose, but along with age neuroticism could predict preparatory job search, and age could even solely predict preparatory job search. Age may be a better predictor than neuroticism for job search behavior in a Swedish population.

  • 17.
    Flink, Ida K.
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Stuck in mind: the role of catastrophizing in pain2011Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Pain catastrophizing emerges in the literature as one of the most important psychological determinants of both pain itself and the negative outcomes commonly associated with it. However, despite decades of research confirming the impact of catastrophizing, there are still areas that remain unexplored or in which the surface has only been scratched. The overall aim of this dissertation was to expand existing knowledge about catastrophizing and to advance the theoretical framework around the concept.

    The role of catastrophizing was explored in three distinct areas: during pain in childbirth, in exposure treatment for back pain patients, and in a problem solving context. The findings from the three studies confirmed the vital role of catastrophizing in these areas. Firstly, catastrophizing played a critical role in pain in childbirth; women who catastrophized reported labor pain as more intense and the subsequent recovery period as longer than women who did not catastrophize. Secondly, catastrophizing was identified as a moderator of treatment effect in exposure in vivo for back pain patients with pain-related fear; patients who catastrophized were not helped by the exposure. Thirdly, catastrophizing played a role in a problem solving context; although this is in line with contemporary models such as the misdirected problem solving model, the results suggested a somewhat different pathway to this previous model. Taken together, these findings underscore the instrumental role of catastrophizing in diverse areas and imply a need for catastrophzing to be assessed and addressed in clinical contexts. In addition, the findings highlight a need for further development of the theoretical framework around catastrophizing as well as treatment interventions that directly target catastrophizing. Based on these needs, a new model of catastrophizing was proposed – a model of catastrophizing from a process perspective. In this model, the proposed function of catastrophizing is to down-regulate negative affect, as a form of internal avoidance. The model is a complement to existing theoretical models and provides a framework for developing treatment interventions that directly target catastrophizing, for example by problem solving skills training. Successful interventions for people who catastrophize would lead to several gains – for the individual in less suffering and increased ability to handle pain problems, and for society as a whole in reduced costs for health care for these individuals.

    List of papers
    1. Pain in childbirth and postpartum recovery: the role of catastrophizing
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Pain in childbirth and postpartum recovery: the role of catastrophizing
    2009 (English)In: European Journal of Pain, ISSN 1090-3801, E-ISSN 1532-2149, Vol. 13, no 3, p. 312-316Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    This prospective study investigated how pain catastrophizing was related to labor pain intensity and physical recovery after childbirth. Eighty-eight women giving birth for the first time completed the first questionnaire before delivery. Eighty-two of those returned the second questionnaire after delivery. Participants were classified as catastrophizers (n=38) or non-catastrophizers (n=44) based on their scores on the Pain Catastrophizing Scale. Comparison of the groups showed that catastrophizers anticipated and experienced more intense pain (p<.0125) and had poorer physical recovery (p<.0125), measured as the level of self-reported functioning in activities of daily living, than non-catastrophizers. These results extend the association between catastrophizing and pain, to pain and recovery in childbirth and provide support for the fear-avoidance model. It is concluded that pain catastrophizing plays a role in the experience of pain in childbirth and postpartum recovery. Further research is needed to identify appropriate interventions for catastrophizing women during the latter part of pregnancy.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Amsterdam: Elsevier, 2009
    National Category
    Psychology
    Research subject
    Psychology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-5886 (URN)10.1016/j.ejpain.2008.04.010 (DOI)000264243300013 ()18515162 (PubMedID)
    Available from: 2009-03-02 Created: 2009-03-02 Last updated: 2017-12-13Bibliographically approved
    2. Catastrophizing moderates the effect of exposure in vivo for back pain patients with pain-related fear
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Catastrophizing moderates the effect of exposure in vivo for back pain patients with pain-related fear
    2010 (English)In: European Journal of Pain, ISSN 1090-3801, E-ISSN 1532-2149, Vol. 14, no 8, p. 887-892Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    This investigation was an initial attempt to explore psychological factors that might help or hinder the effect of exposure in vivo for patients with musculoskeletal pain and pain-related fear. The study was based on data from a randomized-controlled trial for patients with non-specific spinal pain (Linton et al., 2008).

    First, catastrophizing, anxiety, and depression were studied as possible treatment moderators. We found evidence that catastrophizing was a moderator of treatment outcome in exposure. When further exploring the nature of the relationship between catastrophizing and outcome, the results showed that the exposure was effective only for patients with low or moderate levels of catastrophizing. High catastrophizers did not improve from the treatment. On the other hand, anxiety was a general predictor of poor outcome, and not a specific moderator of outcome in exposure. In contrast, depression was not significantly related to outcome.

    Next, patients were divided into high change participants and low change participants based on their improvement in disability after treatment in order to investigate the change in psychological variables during treatment. Descriptive data indicated that high change participants had large improvements across treatment on depression, anxiety, catastrophizing, and fear-avoidance beliefs whereas low change participants virtually did not change at all on these variables across treatment.

    These findings denote that catastrophizing is a moderator of treatment outcome in exposure whereas several psychological variables might be important for the treatment process

    National Category
    Psychology
    Research subject
    Psychology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-13430 (URN)10.1016/j.ejpain.2010.02.003 (DOI)000281141400017 ()
    Available from: 2011-01-11 Created: 2011-01-11 Last updated: 2018-02-23Bibliographically approved
    3. Understanding catastrophizing from a misdirected problem-solving perspective
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Understanding catastrophizing from a misdirected problem-solving perspective
    2012 (English)In: British Journal of Health Psychology, ISSN 1359-107X, E-ISSN 2044-8287, Vol. 17, no 2, p. 408-419Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives.  The aim is to explore pain catastrophizing from a problem-solving perspective. The links between catastrophizing, problem framing, and problem-solving behaviour are examined through two possible models of mediation as inferred by two contemporary and complementary theoretical models, the misdirected problem solving model (Eccleston & Crombez, 2007) and the fear-anxiety-avoidance model (Asmundson, Norton, & Vlaeyen, 2004).

    Design.  In this prospective study, a general population sample (n= 173) with perceived problems with spinal pain filled out questionnaires twice; catastrophizing and problem framing were assessed on the first occasion and health care seeking (as a proxy for medically oriented problem solving) was assessed 7 months later.

    Methods.  Two different approaches were used to explore whether the data supported any of the proposed models of mediation. First, multiple regressions were used according to traditional recommendations for mediation analyses. Second, a bootstrapping method (n= 1000 bootstrap resamples) was used to explore the significance of the indirect effects in both possible models of mediation.

    Results.  The results verified the concepts included in the misdirected problem solving model. However, the direction of the relations was more in line with the fear-anxiety-avoidance model. More specifically, the mediation analyses provided support for viewing catastrophizing as a mediator of the relation between biomedical problem framing and medically oriented problem-solving behaviour.

    Conclusion.  These findings provide support for viewing catastrophizing from a problem-solving perspective and imply a need to examine and address problem framing and catastrophizing in back pain patients.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Wiley-Blackwell, 2012
    National Category
    Psychology
    Research subject
    Psychology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-19741 (URN)10.1111/j.2044-8287.2011.02044.x (DOI)000301175800011 ()22106932 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-84858025240 (Scopus ID)
    Available from: 2011-10-06 Created: 2011-10-06 Last updated: 2017-12-08Bibliographically approved
  • 18.
    Frogner, Louise
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    The Development of Conduct Problems in Early Childhood: The Role of Psychopathic Traits and Psychopathic Personality2016Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Research has shown that children displaying conduct problems (CP) early in life are at greater risk for severe CP and other negative outcomes later in life. However, not all children with early-onset CP will develop severe CP over the life-course. Thus, it is important to identify those at greater risk, preferably as early as possible, in order to adequately prevent a negative development. Psychopathic traits have received much attention in research on risk for severe CP, involving attempts to extend these traits, and their association to CP to childhood. However, research has thus far mainly focused on one dimension of psychopathic traits, that is callousunemotional (CU) traits, to some extent neglecting two other dimensions of traits commonly included in a psychopathic personality: an interpersonal, and a behavioural dimension. Hence, we still do not know if a full psychopathic personality is identifiable in early childhood, and if and how it is related to the development of severe and persistent CP. The aim of this dissertation was to examine if a psychopathic personality could be identified in early childhood, if psychopathic traits are stable over time, and if and how the psychopathic personality is related to childhood CP. Overall, the results show that psychopathic traits, as well as the display of a psychopathic personality, could be identified in early childhood. These traits were stable over time, and they were clearly and strongly related to childhood CP. Additionally, the combination of early-onset CP and a full psychopathic personality seems to be the most precarious for severe and persistent CP, even more so than the combination of CP and CU traits. With careful consideration to ethical aspects, these results are discussed both in relation to a developmental psychopathology perspective on CP, as well as in relation to diagnostic practice as it is framed today.

    List of papers
    1. A New Measure to Assess Psychopathic Personality in Children: The Child Problematic Traits Inventory
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>A New Measure to Assess Psychopathic Personality in Children: The Child Problematic Traits Inventory
    Show others...
    2014 (English)In: Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment, ISSN 0882-2689, E-ISSN 1573-3505, Vol. 36, no 1, p. 4-21Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Understanding the development of psychopathic personality from childhood to adulthood is crucial for understanding the development and stability of severe and long-lasting conduct problems and criminal behavior. This paper describes the development of a new teacher rated instrument to assess psychopathic personality from age three to 12, the Child Problematic Traits Inventory (CPTI). The reliability and validity of the CPTI was tested in a Swedish general population sample of 2,056 3- to 5-year-olds (mean age = 3.86; SD = .86; 53 % boys). The CPTI items loaded distinctively on three theoretically proposed factors: a Grandiose-Deceitful Factor, a Callous-Unemotional factor, and an Impulsive-Need for Stimulation factor. The three CPTI factors showed reliability in internal consistency and external validity, in terms of expected correlations with theoretically relevant constructs (e.g., fearlessness). The interaction between the three CPTI factors was a stronger predictor of concurrent conduct problems than any of the three individual CPTI factors, showing that it is important to assess all three factors of the psychopathic personality construct in early childhood. In conclusion, the CPTI seems to reliably and validly assess a constellation of traits that is similar to psychopathic personality as manifested in adolescence and adulthood.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Springer, 2014
    Keywords
    Assessment, Child problematic traits inventory (CPTI), Children, Conduct problems, Psychopathic personality
    National Category
    Psychology
    Research subject
    Psychology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-34505 (URN)10.1007/s10862-013-9385-y (DOI)000331971900002 ()24610971 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-84900376759 (Scopus ID)
    Available from: 2014-03-31 Created: 2014-03-31 Last updated: 2018-06-05Bibliographically approved
    2. Psychopathic Traits During Early Childhood: Stable Over Time or Rapidly Changing?
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Psychopathic Traits During Early Childhood: Stable Over Time or Rapidly Changing?
    Show others...
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    National Category
    Psychology (excluding Applied Psychology)
    Research subject
    Psychology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-53549 (URN)
    Available from: 2016-11-17 Created: 2016-11-17 Last updated: 2017-10-18Bibliographically approved
    3. Childhood Psychopathic Personality and Callous-Unemotional Traits in the Prediction of Conduct Problems
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Childhood Psychopathic Personality and Callous-Unemotional Traits in the Prediction of Conduct Problems
    2018 (English)In: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, ISSN 0002-9432, E-ISSN 1939-0025, Vol. 88, no 2, p. 211-225Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    This study analyzed data from a prospective longitudinal study of Swedish preschoolers to examine whether psychopathic traits and concurrent conduct problems predict future conduct problems (CP) across 1- and 2-year follow-ups into early childhood. We tested the predictive ability of psychopathic traits while controlling for concurrent CP, and also by combining psychopathic traits with concurrent CP. A community sample of 1,867 preschoolers (47% girls) ages 3 to 5 years at baseline was recruited from a Swedish medium-sized municipality. Results from multivariate regression analyses showed that psychopathic traits alone (without co-occurring CP) did not consistently predict continuing childhood CP, but did so, among both boys and girls, in combination with concurrent conduct problems. It is important to note that, the combination of concurrent CP and the entire psychopathic personality, that is, a 3-dimensional psychopathic construct, was a stronger predictor of continuing childhood CP than the combination of concurrent CP and Callous-Unemotional (CU) traits among boys but not among girls.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    American Psychological Association (APA), 2018
    Keywords
    callous-unemotional traits; conduct problems; early childhood; psychopathic traits
    National Category
    Psychology (excluding Applied Psychology) Psychiatry
    Research subject
    Psychology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-53547 (URN)10.1037/ort0000205 (DOI)000427477500010 ()27786502 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-84994236781 (Scopus ID)