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  • 1.
    Ahonen, Lia
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Changing behaviors or behavioral change?: A study of moral development and transbehavioral processes in juvenile institutional care2012Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    List of papers
    1. Moral development as a crucial treatment goal for young people in institutional care: a critical comparison between milieu therapy and cognitive behavioral therapy
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Moral development as a crucial treatment goal for young people in institutional care: a critical comparison between milieu therapy and cognitive behavioral therapy
    2012 (English)In: Therapeutic Communities: International Journal for Therapeutic and Supportive Organizations, ISSN 0964-1866, E-ISSN 2052-4730, Vol. 33, no 1, p. 4-15Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: This article aims to analyze and discuss the role of moral development in treatment of behavior problems and, further, to describe differences and similarities between two different methods – Milieu Therapy (MT) and Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) – in terms of addressing criminogenic needs and promoting moral development.

    Design: By performing a literature review, the study shows that even though there are both pros and cons using MT and CBT in institutional care, relationships strong enough to restructure a young person’s moral reasoning require time, and involves not only the young person’s parents and social network members, but also a genuine therapeutic alliance with clinical staff at the institution.

    Findings:These are central factors articulated in both CBT and MT, but are more explicitly expressed in MT. The results of this article highlight some important practical implications: In order to redevelop moral self and societal values, an overly narrow focus on criminogenic needs might exclude other components or processes of treatment and behavioral change. Together with a treatment program that view close staffresident interactions as of secondary importance, this could impair the possibility to obtain positive and long-lasting treatment results.

    Implications: In practice, moral development itself should be considered as an overall treatment goal, integrated into the daily life at the institution, twenty-four hours a day. Finally, the possibility to work with moral development in institutional settings is discussed.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Emerald Group Publishing Limited, 2012
    Keywords
    Moral development, criminogenic needs, cognitive behavioral therapy, milieu therapy, institutional treatment
    National Category
    Social Work
    Research subject
    Psychology; Social Work
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-26556 (URN)10.1108/09641861211286285 (DOI)2-s2.0-84879927127 (Scopus ID)
    Available from: 2012-11-30 Created: 2012-11-30 Last updated: 2017-12-07Bibliographically approved
    2. Negative peer cultures in juvenile institutional settings: staff as couch coaches or couch slouches
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Negative peer cultures in juvenile institutional settings: staff as couch coaches or couch slouches
    2012 (English)In: Journal of Offender Rehabilitation, ISSN 1050-9674, E-ISSN 1540-8558, Vol. 51, no 5, p. 316-330Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Juveniles in institutional treatment lack the skills to cope with societal expectations, rules, and moral values. If not prevented by staff, bonds are established with other deviant youth and the placement serves as a perfect "school of crime." This article aims to explore staff strategies to prevent negative peer cultures, as well as their theoretical foundations and relation to staff academic level and professional experience. Data were collected at eight Swedish institutions, using the Correctional Program Assessment Inventory 2000, questionnaires, observations, and interviews with clinical staff. Results show that most facilities lack negative-peer-culture strategies, but this is not related to academic level or experience. The importance, in terms of influencing the residents, of theoretical knowledge concerning psychological group-processes, peer culture, and moral development, as these relate to staff-supervised or unsupervised time, is discussed.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Taylor & Francis Group, 2012
    Keywords
    adolescent; institutional care; peer culture; staff education; treatment
    National Category
    Social Work
    Research subject
    Social Work
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-26557 (URN)10.1080/10509674.2012.683238 (DOI)2-s2.0-84863907740 (Scopus ID)
    Note

    Founding Agency:

    The Swedish National Board of Institutional Care

    Available from: 2012-11-30 Created: 2012-11-30 Last updated: 2017-12-07Bibliographically approved
    3. Staff group unanimity in care of juveniles in institutional treatment: routines, rituals, and relationships
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Staff group unanimity in care of juveniles in institutional treatment: routines, rituals, and relationships
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    To promote behavioral change processes in young people in institutional care, it is important that staff groups have common therapeutic goals, a unified view on how to achieve change, and similar attitudes towards the use of theory and methods. This article examines the level of Staff Group Unanimity at 8 treatment wards, by using the Correctional Program Assessment Inventory 2000 (CPAI), a questionnaire, additional interviews with key staff, and observations. Results show that most staff members have different views of the theory and methods used, low common therapeutic goals, and low agreement on how treatment should be performed, accompanied by low to modest confidence in management overall, and management’s ability to promote staff unity. The complexity of promoting positive interactions in the staff group without also creating distance to the residents is discussed.

    Keywords
    staff unanimity, residential treatment, therapeutic goals, rituals, interactions
    National Category
    Social Work
    Research subject
    Social Work
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-26558 (URN)
    Available from: 2012-11-30 Created: 2012-11-30 Last updated: 2017-10-17Bibliographically approved
  • 2.
    Alexanderson, Karin
    Örebro University, Department of Behavioural, Social and Legal Sciences.
    Vilja, kunna, förstå: om implementering av systematisk dokumentation för verksamhetsutveckling i socialtjänsten2006Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study is to analyse conditions that either promote or hamper the implementation of methods for systematic documentation, follow-up and evaluation in social-work services with individuals and families. The theoretical framework consists of organization theories. Human Service Organizations (HSO) theory is complemented with concepts from the new institutionalism, domain theory, implementation theory, and theory about interventions.

    A concrete case, a project has been studied. The purpose of project was to implement methods for systematic documentation in public social services. With the notation “integrated” is meant that the methods should be built in and adjusted to the social-work practice. The methods were ASI (Addiction Severity Index) and IUS (a locally based model for integrated evaluation by inspiration from Göran Sandell).

    Data has been captured in a pretest/ posttest design (Marlow 2000). This means that “state of things” has been described before the intervention and after. The methods used were surveys and interviews (individual and group). The process has been documented through research notes proceeding records, protocols and some diaries written by social workers. Four municipalities from the middle of Sweden took part with five working groups. Two groups contained social workers acting with children and families and three groups were working with drug abusers. The population consisted of the social workers, the managers responsible for the individual and family entities, the politicians and the clients who were affected during the time of the project.

    The implementation of ASI and IUS has not occurred in the extent that was stated in the intervention theory. This means that ASI and IUS were not used in all new cases that occurred during the time of the project. The interviews supposed to be done in the beginning of the clients contact with the agency tended to be done more often than the follow-up interviews. After the project ended, three of five working groups decided to continue to use ASI (one group) and IUS (two groups). The overall impression is that the respondents comprehend, they have the willingness but they do not have the capability of using ASI and IUS. The organization does not seem to have the capacity of imposing requirements and giving resources. The outcomes do not seem to be the most important issue for the social services. These conditions are discussed in the study by means of the theoretical concepts. In the end, there is an effort to adjust the implementation theory to human service organizations.

  • 3.
    Aphrem, Thamara
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Ungdomsbrottslighet: En studie om lokala tjänstemän inom socialt och brottsförebyggande arbetes syn på brottslighet bland unga män i en svensk förort.2012Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to examine if there are common factors that lead to young people committing crimes according to professionals in social work, crime prevention and the police. The study also aims to examine if juveniles in Swedish suburbs commit more crimes, the consequences that follows and what actions socialworkers have for these juveniles. The study was conducted through qualitative interviews of five professionals in the area who were contacted from different units. In the analysis Goffmans (1971) theory of stigma was used and Goldberg's (2005) Conspiracy Theory. Some of the conclusions that could be drawn from the study was that there is not only one factor influencing young people to delinquency, but often combinations of different factors that lead to this. In the study it was also found that juveniles who commit crimes in general always faces consequences of this and the social services' actions are slightly different depending on which commune you live in and what they have invested on in that particular commune.

  • 4.
    Baianstovu, Rúna Í
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Mångfald som demokratins utmaning: en studie av hur socialtjänsten som välfärdsbyråkrati och moralisk samhällsinstitutiion förstår och hanterar kulturell mångfald2012Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This dissertation deals with how Swedish society is confronting the democratic challenge of finding ways to integrate individuals and groups with a diversity of cultural and religious beliefs and social practices. The idea that democracy must include all members of society is central in contemporary welfare states. In Sweden this idea is closely related to a concept of social justice and equality. This means that this study deals with aspects of integration processes. Social services are one of the societal institutions that institutionalize the moral conceptions of how life should be lived. Therefore, its function in the integration processes mirrors the ethos of society as a whole. The chief characteristics of a democratic state are that it represents every member of society and that it is transparent, communicative, and reflexive. But this is not easily performed. The State may exercise oppression in the form of forced assimilation through the culturally detached design of law and policy, and with the politics of diversity, minority groups may exert internal oppression of vulnerable elements within the group. This tension expresses a tension that is called the Paradox of Democracy in this thesis. Social workers deal with the paradox while handling society’s moral panic regarding “others’” traditions that are perceived as difficult to comprehend. Therefore, their investigative work is of great importance in a society that aspires to treat all citizens as equals. But the framework for such investigations is narrow and tightly controlled. A qualitative change in the scope of social workers’ ability to work in the service of communicative action within the complex areas discussed in this study could be a step towards broadening and deepening democratic practices. When the public institutions take their clients’ diverse wishes and needs seriously, and treat them as indicators of the actual needs of members of society, the public institutions receive a foundation for reciprocal and communicatively anchored integration work.

  • 5.
    Björklund, Nathalie
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work. Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Knuuttila, Hanna-Olivia
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Miljöterapi: En utvärdering enligt Critical incident-metoden 2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate an institution which carries out milieu and individual therapy regarding youth. Furthermore, the purpose of this study is to evaluate the way of working in critical situations according to

    critical incident-method. Therefore, the author found the following questions relevant to this evaluation: Which sort of critical situations arise according to employee’s experiences? How can we solve these critical situations within the operation? Are the solutions of these critical situations anchored to the milieu therapeutic theory? The evaluation is based upon information from 9 respondents, of which one of the respondents is the evaluator’s writer. The collected information represents observation, question formulas and supplementary interviews. The material consists of 50 critical situations in which 47 situations account for tables under the result of analysis plus connection to the milieu therapeutic theory and earlier research. In the material 6 core problems emerge: threats and violence, occupational roll, and work groups, alcohol and nar-cotics break towards the operational structure, youth towards work groups and shifts in indi-vidual youths. The result shows that all solutions are supportive of the milieu therapeutic theory.

  • 6.
    Bolu, Silva Cinderella
    Örebro University, Department of Behavioural, Social and Legal Sciences.
    Studenters erfarenheter av våld: En studie om sambandet mellan erfarenheter av våld under uppväxten och i den vuxna relationen2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the study was to examine the students' experience of violence while growing up, experiences of violence in their relationships, and the relationship between. A quantitative survey was conducted at Örebro University with one hundred students. The dataset was analyzed in SPSS and reported in tables. The results showed that students to some extent experienced violence while growing up, as well as in their own relationships. The most common type of violence was a threat of physical violence, and violence in the form of pushing, restraint or being lagged. A significant correlation existed where male respondents indicated that they as children were victims of violence and that they later on exposed there partner to violence. The study also showed that students reported that both parties in the relationship were jealous against each other and to some extent controlling. The results were analyzed and in a subsequent discussion, linking it with previous research on the subject. The authors argued, as well as the previous research showed that it was difficult to answer the question why some children develop a norm-breaking behaviour. They emphasize the importance of ensuring a holistic approach where there are many different factors behind the development of violent behaviour.

  • 7.
    Branhammar, Pierre
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Thunberg, Sara
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Vittnens behov av stöd2012Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether witnesses to crimes against a person in Örebro County is in need of support before the trial. To answer the purpose the following questions were used: are witnesses of crimes against persons in Örebro County in need of support? What kind of support do these witnesses want to have? What opportunities and challenges exist for Victim Support (Brottsofferjouren) to come in contact with witnesses who are in need of support? The study used a qualitative approach using individual interviews and focus group-inspired group interviews with witnesses and witness supporters. The results showed that the witnesses are in need of support because in many cases there is a fear of retaliation, and an uncertainty of how the legal process works. The type of assistance required from witnesses is information on where they can get support and what happens in the legal process. The results also showed that Victim Support has difficulties to get in contact with witnesses, mainly because they do not know who the witnesses before trial.

  • 8.
    Brunnberg, Elinor
    Örebro University, Department of Behavioural, Social and Legal Sciences.
    Vi bytte våra hörande skolkamrater mot döva!: Förändring av hörselskadade barns identitet och självförtroende vid byte av språklig skolmiljö2003Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This study is a comparative study with the aim of finding out whether the identity and self-confidence of hearing-impaired children changes when they attend schools with a different language base. The focus of the study was the interaction of hearing-impaired children with other children of the same age. The number of hearing-impaired children in this study was 29. The children were aged between 7 and 14 when the study began.

    In autumn 1994 special classes for hearing-impaired children in Örebro moved from a mainstream school to a special school for Deaf children. In the classroom, the hearing- impaired children in both the mainstream and the special schools were educated in spoken Swedish with signs as support. However, the dominant language outside the classroom changed from spoken Swedish to Swedish sign language.

    Two semi-structured interviews were conducted with the hearing-impaired children in 1994, before the move, and in 1996, after the move. At the same time the children's self-confidence was examined. In both the mainstream and the special school the children's play in the playground was video recorded.

    This study shows that several of the hearing-impaired children were socially isolated. Some even felt little solidarity with their classmates and were solitary. Most of the children were longing to meet more children in their spare time. The playground seemed to be the social arena where children with impaired hearing mainly met other children. The hearing-impaired children as a group were socially excluded and marginalized in the mainstream school. Most of the hearing-impaired children did not describe the same feeling of being outsiders in the special school as in the mainstream school. Most of the hearing-impaired children's confidence improved after the change of school. However, the hearing-impaired children's social situation was not perfect in the special school either.

    The playground is a central arena for hearing-impaired children in trying out their identity. In forming their identity children seem to look for other similarities. The hearing-impaired children experienced affiliation, equality and fellowship with other hearing-impaired children. They also expressed the opinion that Deaf children were "almost similar" to hearing-impaired children. The school situation that strengthens the identity of hearing-impaired children seems to be the school where they feel most at home with their schoolmates. That happened in the special school. However, some of the hearing-impaired children with multi-disabilities had difficulties in both the mainstream school and the special school and failed to find a secure identity as a hearing-impaired child. Unless school arrangements address their social needs, hearing-impaired youngsters could experience an identity crisis.

  • 9.
    Burman, Rakel
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Hur identifierar svenska ungdomar med cochleaimplantat sig själva i förhållande till döva, hörselskadade och hörande?2009Student paper other, 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    ABSTRACT

    The purpose of the study is to examine how Swedish youth with Cochlear Implants (CI) identify themselves in relation to deaf, hearing impaired and hearing people. In order to answer the purpose of this study, these questions have been used as starting-points:

    • How does young people look at their CI?

    • What language does CI-bearing young people recognize as their first language?

    • How does CI-bearing young people believe deaf, hearing impaired and hearing persons look at them?

    The study is a descriptive, qualitative, and phenomenological analysis to capture the individuals' own experiences around the CI. Six young persons over 15 years, who have been using CI in some years were selected. They were attending sign language, hearing, and integrated classes. They were interviewed using an interview guide.

    The result shows that most CI-bearing young people identify themselves closest  to the hearing impaired group. CI allows them to choose between being deaf or hearing-impaired and is a good support in various everyday situations. The difficulty to place CI youth in any existing group suggests that they probably belong to a new identity group, a CI group identity. Interview subjects first language are by some persons reported to be the spoken language, while others report sign language. Interview subjects feel that deaf, hearing and hearing-impaired people relate to them as hearing, hearing-impaired or deaf persons. The social environment´s perception of CI-bearing young people often differ from how they perceive themselves.

     

     

  • 10.
    Claesson, Annika
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Utvärdering som stödjande verktyg vid kompetensutveckling: överföring av lärande och kunskapsanvändning bland personal i äldreomsorg2015Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other academic)
  • 11.
    Dag, Munir
    Örebro University, Department of Behavioural, Social and Legal Sciences.
    Unga människor med rörelsehinder: förankring, marginalisering och social exkludering2006Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the thesis was to describe the specific barriers young people with disabilities experience in their ambition to get a job. The aim was also to investigate how these young people’s social and economic situation has been affected by their disability.

    The results are based on two reports: one qualitative, consisting of interviews with 12 individuals with physical disabilities, and one quantitative in the form of a questionnaire answered by 706 persons. In the case of the questionnaire, the response rate was 48 per cent. Both reports are based on the same criteria, namely, that the respondents should have a physical disability, be 20–35 years of age and be participating in some form of employment policy program.

    The results from both studies show that individuals with physical disabilities encounter different types of barriers on the labour market, which can be categorised as being either at the individual level or at the social level. The barriers at the individual level are low education, long-term unemployment, grave physical disability and lack of work experience. The barriers identified at the social level are primarily poorly adapted workplaces, a too high working pace, employers’ negative attitudes, insufficient knowledge of the competence of disabled persons and an overly generous social welfare system. All these factors constitute a direct obstacle to employing persons with a physical disability.

    The results from the interview study show that the respondents have few social relations. The majority of the respondents have social intercourse solely with family members or parents. Most of the respondents in the questionnaire study state that they have frequent social relations with friends and acquaintances. Both the interview study and the questionnaire study reveal that the respondents’ financial position has worsened as a result if their physical disability.

    Conclusions that can be drawn from this thesis are that young people with physical disabilities encounter different barriers in their attempts to get a job and to maintain social relations. Based on the results, some of the respondents can be regarded as being socio-economically marginalised.

    List of papers
    1. Unga människor med rörelsehinder utanför arbetsmarknaden: om barriärer, sociala relationer och livsvillkor
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Unga människor med rörelsehinder utanför arbetsmarknaden: om barriärer, sociala relationer och livsvillkor
    2003 (Swedish)Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med studien har varit att beskriva de specifika barriärer som individer med rörel-sehinder i åldrarna 20-35 år upplever att de möter i sin strävan att komma in på arbets-marknaden. Syftet har också varit att beskriva individernas livssituation under arbets-löshet och jämföra detta med livssituationen i någon form av sysselsättning. Metoden som har använts är kvalitativ, intervjuer med 12 individer med rörelsehinder.

    Resultaten från intervjuerna visar att individer med rörelsehinder möter barriärer inom olika områden. Barriärerna uppkommer via ett komplext samspel mellan den so-ciala och fysiska miljön, regelsystemen och individen. Studien tyder på olika orsaker till att individer med rörelsehinder möter barriärer i sina försök att få arbete. Exempel på sådana hinder är själva funktionshindret, graden av anpassning i den fysiska miljön, samhällets fördomar och rådande lagar. Utifrån detta har studien kunnat särskilja tre huvudkategorier av barriärer - individrelaterade, miljörelaterade och regelrelaterade.

    Resultatet visar att barriärer på individnivå är låg utbildning, avsaknad av yrkeserfa-renhet, lång period av arbetslöshet och dåliga kunskaper i regelsystemet. Ytterligare barriärer på individnivå är låg motivation att söka arbete.

    De miljörelaterade barriärer som identifieras är främst dåligt anpassade arbetslokaler, avsaknad av tekniska hjälpmedel och dåligt fungerade färdtjänst, bristande information samt rådande attityder om funktionshindrade i samhället. Dessa aspekter innebär di-rekta hinder för anställning av rörelsehindrade.

    Studien tyder också på att regelsystemen kan fungera som barriärer. Dels uppger un-dersökningsgruppen att de har bristande kunskaper i gällande regler, dels uppges att det inte är lönsamt att arbeta, eftersom inkomsten inte förbättras med ett arbete.

    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to describe the specific barriers which young individuals (20-35 years) with physical disabilities experience that they encounter in their ambition to become part of the labour market. Furthermore, the aim was to describe the everyday life of the individuals in unemployment and to compare this with the situation in some kind of employment. The method used is qualitative, consisting of interviews with 12 individuals with physical disabilities.

    The results from the interviews show that individuals with physical disabilities en-counter barriers in different areas. The barriers arise through a complex interaction be-tween the social and physical environment, legislation and the individual. The study implies that individuals with physical disablities encounter different barriers in their attempts to find work. Examples of such obstacles are the disability itself, the level of adaptation in the physical environment, prejudices in society and existing laws. From this perspective, three main categories of barriers are distinguished in the study – those related to the individual, the environment and legislation.

    The result shows that barriers on an individual level are low level of education, lack of work experience, long-term unemployment and poor knowledge of legislation. Another barrier on an individual level is low motivation to look for work.

    The identified barriers related to the environment were mainly poorly accomodated work places, lack of technical aids and unsatisfactory transportation services, lack of information as well as prevailing attitudes in society about people with disabilities. These aspects imply direct obstacles for people with physical disabilities to find em-ployment.

    Moreover, the study indicates that legislation can be considered a barrier. The group of informants points out that they have insufficient knowledge about existing rules, but also that it is not profitable to work since their income does not improve by working.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Örebro: Örebro universitetsbibliotek, 2003. p. 163
    Series
    Örebro Studies in Social work, ISSN 1651-145X ; 4
    Keywords
    Disability, handicap, barriers, work, social support, social relations, Funktionshinder, handikapp, barriärer, arbete, socialt stöd, sociala relationer
    National Category
    Social Sciences Social Work Social Work
    Research subject
    Disability Research
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-16 (URN)91-7668-344-3 (ISBN)
    Presentation
    (English)
    Available from: 2009-02-24 Created: 2004-12-09 Last updated: 2017-10-18Bibliographically approved
    2. Unga människor med rörelsehinder utanför arbetsmarknaden: om individ- och samhällsrelaterade faktorers betydelse för individens ställning i samhället
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Unga människor med rörelsehinder utanför arbetsmarknaden: om individ- och samhällsrelaterade faktorers betydelse för individens ställning i samhället
    (Swedish)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    National Category
    Social Work
    Research subject
    Social Work
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-15743 (URN)
    Available from: 2011-05-30 Created: 2011-05-30 Last updated: 2017-10-17Bibliographically approved
  • 12.
    Dag, Munir
    Örebro University, Department of Social and Political Sciences.
    Unga människor med rörelsehinder utanför arbetsmarknaden: om barriärer, sociala relationer och livsvillkor2003Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to describe the specific barriers which young individuals (20-35 years) with physical disabilities experience that they encounter in their ambition to become part of the labour market. Furthermore, the aim was to describe the everyday life of the individuals in unemployment and to compare this with the situation in some kind of employment. The method used is qualitative, consisting of interviews with 12 individuals with physical disabilities.

    The results from the interviews show that individuals with physical disabilities en-counter barriers in different areas. The barriers arise through a complex interaction be-tween the social and physical environment, legislation and the individual. The study implies that individuals with physical disablities encounter different barriers in their attempts to find work. Examples of such obstacles are the disability itself, the level of adaptation in the physical environment, prejudices in society and existing laws. From this perspective, three main categories of barriers are distinguished in the study – those related to the individual, the environment and legislation.

    The result shows that barriers on an individual level are low level of education, lack of work experience, long-term unemployment and poor knowledge of legislation. Another barrier on an individual level is low motivation to look for work.

    The identified barriers related to the environment were mainly poorly accomodated work places, lack of technical aids and unsatisfactory transportation services, lack of information as well as prevailing attitudes in society about people with disabilities. These aspects imply direct obstacles for people with physical disabilities to find em-ployment.

    Moreover, the study indicates that legislation can be considered a barrier. The group of informants points out that they have insufficient knowledge about existing rules, but also that it is not profitable to work since their income does not improve by working.

  • 13.
    Degner, Jürgen
    et al.
    Örebro University, Department of Behavioural, Social and Legal Sciences.
    Henriksen, Anna
    Örebro University, Department of Behavioural, Social and Legal Sciences.
    Placerad utanför sitt sammanhang: en uppföljningsstudie av 46 institutionsplacerade ungdomars privata och formella relationer2007Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    When young people are placed in residential treatment centres (RTCs), it is important that facility staff involve parents and other social network members (PSMs) (private relations) in the residential treatment program. This involvement process depends on both PSMs’ willingness and capability to take part in the youths’ treatment, as well as the residential staffs’ attitude towards promoting this process. The overall aim of the dissertation is to explore obstacles to and opportunities for involving PSMs in the youths’ treatment process. One key question is to investigate how the youths describe their parents’ emotional attitude, and support from other significant members of their network. At times of tension between youth and family, other formal relations with professional and non-professional support persons could serve as mediators between the youth and his or her family of origin. Accordingly, the aim is to investigate whether, and if so how, these support persons are included in the treatment process. Further, a positive treatment alliance between residential staff and the youth (resident) is important for the treatment outcome. Two further issues are to explore how the residents view the staffs’ personal involvement with the resident, and, from a gender perspective, to investigate the residents’ descriptions of the treatment received at the facility. Semi structured interviews, including a social network map and a Feeling word checklist, were conducted with 46 youths (23 girls/23 boys) placed at 10 different state RTCs run by the Swedish National Board of Institutional Care (SiS). The residents were interviewed three times, at approximately one-year intervals. This thesis is based on material from the first and second interview with the residents. Interviews were also conducted on one occasion with 23 support persons. Paper I deals with the PSMs’ involvement in the residents’ treatment process. Paper II explores obstacles to and opportunities for establishing a therapeutic alliance between key staff members and residents in a one year perspective. Papers III and IV investigate the residents’ (paper III) and support persons’ (paper IV) views of possibilities for the support persons to take part in the treatment program. Finally, Paper V aims, from a gender perspective, to study the residents’ descriptions of their psychosocial problems, their need for help, and their experiences of the help received from the staff at the facility. The main results show that the majority of the youths describe their parents as having a negative emotional attitude, with a desolate or family-oriented social network system. At the first interview the residents described the key staff members as mainly having little personal involvement, but this staff involvement had increased, according to the residents, by the one-year follow-up. Obstacles to and possibilities for involving PSMs as well as support persons is mainly related to staffs’ encouraging, or not encouraging attitude, attitudes of social welfare agency personnel (regarding support persons), and PSMs’ capability and willingness to participate in the program. With regard to gender, data indicate that there is reason to nuance the proposition of girls being more relationship oriented, and boys autonomous – at least in treatment settings – since, for example, the boys in the study to the same extent as the girls desired more trustful conversations with the staff. The importance of making an inventory of the youths’ social network and focusing on support persons’ involvement in the treatment program is discussed.

    List of papers
    1. Youths in coercive residential care: Perception of parents and social network involvement in treatment programs
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Youths in coercive residential care: Perception of parents and social network involvement in treatment programs
    2007 (English)In: Therapeutic Communities, ISSN 0964-1866, Vol. 28, no 4, p. 416-432Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Involvement by parents and other significant social work members (PSMs) in the treatment program is important for positive treatment effects when youths are placed in residential treatment centres (RTC). The staffs of the RTCs  play a key role by either supporting or not supporting such involvement. By interviewing 23 boys and 23 girls in ten different RTCs using a milieu-therapeutic method, the present study explores obstacles to, and opportunities for the involvement of PSMs in the treatment program. The majority of the youths report non-involvement strategies from staff, a negative emotional attitude from parents, and desolate, non-supportive social networks. A small group of youths report encouraging staff and PSMs. Explanations such as staff turnover, facility rules, staff attitudes, and deficiencies in significant individuals' involvement are discussed.

    Keywords
    parents emotional attitudes, family involvement, residential care, social network
    National Category
    Social Work
    Research subject
    Social Work
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-5875 (URN)2-s2.0-38849173170 (Scopus ID)
    Available from: 2009-02-27 Created: 2009-02-27 Last updated: 2017-10-18Bibliographically approved
    2. Youths in coercive residential care: attitudes towards key staff members' personal involvement, from a therapeutic alliance perspective
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Youths in coercive residential care: attitudes towards key staff members' personal involvement, from a therapeutic alliance perspective
    2008 (English)In: European Journal of Social Work, ISSN 1369-1457, E-ISSN 1468-2664, European Journal of Social Work, Vol. 11, no 2, p. 145-159Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    A strong therapeutic alliance between staff and juveniles (residents) in institutional settings is considered to be important for a positive treatment outcome. The article focuses on residents placed in coercive care in Swedish residential treatment centres (RTCs), and the aim is to explore obstacles and opportunities for establishing a therapeutic alliance between key staff members (KSMs) and residents in a one-year perspective. The key question is how residents view their KSMs' personal involvement and active participation in their treatment process. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with twenty-thre girls and twenty-three boys placed in ten different RTCs, and follow-up interviews were conducted after one year. In accordance with the theoretical approach, it is hypothesized that the residents' view of KSM involvement will be more positive in the one-year follow-up. Results from the first data collection show that more than half of the adolescents perceived their KSMs' personal involvement as mainly negative. Between the two interviews, several had developed a more positive view of the KSMs' personal involvement, while a large group did not display any change in attitude. Positive and negative institutional conditions and processes affecting the prospects for the development of a therapeutic alliance between residents and KSMs are discussed.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    London: Routledge, 2008
    Keywords
    key staff; residential care; treatment alliance; youths
    National Category
    Social Work Social Work Social Sciences Social Sciences
    Research subject
    Social Work
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-5849 (URN)10.1080/13691450701531976 (DOI)
    Available from: 2009-02-27 Created: 2009-02-26 Last updated: 2017-12-13Bibliographically approved
    3. Youths in residential care: their view of support persons' involvment in the program, a 1-year follow-up study
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Youths in residential care: their view of support persons' involvment in the program, a 1-year follow-up study
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    National Category
    Social Work
    Research subject
    Social Work
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-15617 (URN)
    Available from: 2011-05-19 Created: 2011-05-19 Last updated: 2017-10-17Bibliographically approved
    4. Investing in a formal relationship: support persons' view of treatment involvment regarding young persons in residential care
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Investing in a formal relationship: support persons' view of treatment involvment regarding young persons in residential care
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    National Category
    Social Work
    Research subject
    Social Work
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-15619 (URN)
    Available from: 2011-05-19 Created: 2011-05-19 Last updated: 2017-10-17Bibliographically approved
  • 14.
    Ekermo, Mats
    Örebro University, Department of Social and Political Sciences.
    Den mångtydiga FoU-idén: lokala FoU-enheters mening och betydelse2002Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    During the 1990’s we witnessed an increasing number of local research and development (R&D) units in the Swedish public sector of social welfare outside academic institutions. The aim of this thesis is to explore the R&D phenomenon, the establishment of local R&D units and what the activities at the R&D units are. The issue of local R&D units has been divided into three aspects that correspond to three studies: a societal study, an organizational study and an individual study. Qualitative methods have been used including 10 case studies, 86 interviews with researchers and co-workers at the R&D units, 20 interviews with participating practitioners, analyses of R&D projects, documents and official reports. The analysis has been guided by new institutional theories about organizational change, how organizational concepts are spread and translated in organizational fields.

    Currents in social politics and research politics have, together with a criticism against academic research and its insufficiency in solving practical problems, caused a societal pressure on changed relations between research and practice. Cutbacks and changes in social welfare organizations have, together with an uncertainty about the outcomes and results of the social services, led to increasing demands for knowledge and professional competence in social work.

    The local R&D concept can be described in three key sentences; knowledge development close to social practice, interplay between research and practice and participation from practitioners. From a tool perspective local R&D units are established for playing a vital role in rationalizing their mother organizations and developing their efficiency in fulfilling their duties. The spreading of the R&D concept in the field of social welfare sector is characterized by ideological control. By referring to ideas of modernity and progress the local R&D units are associated with central cultural values. The R&D concept is therefore also attractive from a symbolic perspective, it helps legitimise their mother organizations and prove their identity.

    Many projects at the R&D units correspond with the notion of rational organizations striving for improving their efficiency. At the same time R&D units display a variety of heterogeneous projects that appear as fragmentary and loosely coupled to their mother organizations. The local R&D units are also mixed up in internal organizational conflicts. On an individual level practitioners have experienced learning and a salutary break from the ordinary work. The functions of participating in R&D projects are less instrumental and have more interactive and enlightening character. Some functions are not only hidden but also even in conflict with the official goals and intentions of the R&D units.

    Local R&D units show an organizational instability with various meanings for different agents. Questions for future studies should concern the actual effects of local R&D units. The thesis concludes with the question of whether or not local R&D units are anything more than an organizational fashion. The late modern society has caused a need for developing reflexive knowledge and capacity among social agents. In the boarder zone between academy and social welfare work, a long-term challenge arises for the R&D units, namely to develop new forms of knowledge production that are both academically and socially robust.

  • 15.
    Eklund, Linda
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Kvinnors upplevda otrygghet i Örebro kommun2010Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 16.
    Fahlén, Emeli
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Meningsfull sysselsättning: Ett klientperspektiv på verksamheten Spindeln2010Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The activity Spindeln in Västerås is a project that attempts to deliver daily occupation for clients with dual diagnosis, people diagnosed with a mental disorder and a contemporary substance abuse. The purpose of this bachelor thesis was to gain knowledge about what Spindeln's dual diagnosis clients experience as meaningful occupation. The purpose was also to examine if Spindeln contributes to making its clients experience meaningful occupation.  The empirical material was based on qualitative and semi-structured interviews with five clients of Spindeln. The conceptual framework was based on concepts such as sense of coherence (SOC), stigma and social capital. This theories was used mainly to interpret empirical material together with earlier research regarding mental disorder and meaningful occupation. The findings of the study indicated that meaningful daily occupation was very important for dual diagnosis patients because it provides them with a feeling of safety which led to structured and meaningful days. Also the study indicated that having social connection to participate in, and a strategy to avoid a state of psychosis, was of great importance to the clients at Spindeln. Meaningful occupation turned out to be highly individual depending on variables such as age, disease, experiences and visions. The findings also indicated that Spindeln was meaningful according the clients.

  • 17.
    Fedai,, Elena
    et al.
    Örebro University, Department of Behavioural, Social and Legal Sciences.
    Lacey, Stephanie
    Örebro University, Department of Behavioural, Social and Legal Sciences.
    Kuratorn i den medicinska kontexten:En kvalitativ studie2009Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this bachelor thesis is to examine how hospital social workers feel about working in a medical setting. In order to achieve our aim, four interviews were conducted with hospital social workers working in somatic healthcare. The study has thus a qualitative run-up. The study's issues are: Which duties do the social workers have within the hospital? Which other professions do the social workers collaborate with and how do they experience this cooperation? How does the hospital social worker view her occupational position and look upon her professional role in relation to the others professions present in the hospital setting? Which aspects of her work does the hospital social worker regard as positive and which negative work-related experiences does she have?The empiric is analyzed on the basis of earlier research and on the basis of the theoretical starting points and the concepts: occupational role, professional identity, social position and psychosocial perspectives. The results show that the hospital social workers have several and varying duties of which the main duty is to see patients through different types of deliberations and offer help and support. The hospital social workers express that their main function within healthcare is to carry out psychosocial work. According to the social workers their closest collaborative partners at the hospital are the nurses. The cooperation with the other professionals in the hospital is experienced as mostly positive although competition can arise between social workers and nurses. Several hospital social workers point out that their work includes a lot of single-handed work with the patients.

    The social workers feel that they have a good position within the hospital but state that the medical personnel are first priority in the hospital setting.

  • 18.
    Forssell, Anna
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Better safe than sorry?: Quantitative and qualitative aspects of child-father relationship after parental separation in cases involving intimate partner violence2016Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The relationship between a child and its parents (caregivers) is essential for the child’s development and well-being. When one of these parents uses violence against the other parent (intimate partner violence, IPV), this will affect the child one way or another: physically, psychologically, cognitively, socially. When two parents separate, the circumstances surrounding contact between the child and its parents change. The aim of this thesis is to analyse – in the context of Swedish parenting ideals and family norms – aspects of children’s relationships (after parental separation) with a father who has used violence against the mother in order to bring forward a foundation to discuss if and under what circumstances a continued contact is in the best interest of the child. The empirical basis for the thesis consists of two different sets of data. The first is qualitative interviews with children living at a women’s shelter (n=10). The second is a subset of data from a large evaluation study investigating support tochildren who had witnessed IPV. The latter material  comprises interviews with and psychometric data on 165 mothers and 165 children. Results from the first article show that a majority of the children (75%) had continued contact with their fathers after parental separation, and that even in cases where there were indications of child abuse, about 50% of the children had unsupervised face-to-face contact with their fathers. This high rate can possibly be explained by the assumption (supported in legislation) that children have a need for contact. Further, the second article shows that children with and without contact do not differ in their level of well-being; i.e. contact with a violent father does not have the positive effect on children that has been found in general samples. In the third article, the violent fathers are described by the children as lazy and unreliable. Child–father contact is discussed in terms of why, when and how contact is in the child’s best interest.

    List of papers
    1. Patterns in child–father contact after parental separation in a sample of child witnesses to intimate partner violence
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Patterns in child–father contact after parental separation in a sample of child witnesses to intimate partner violence
    2015 (English)In: Journal of family Violence, ISSN 0885-7482, E-ISSN 1573-2851, Vol. 30, no 3, p. 339-349Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Despite the well-documented negative consequences for children experiencing violence perpetrated bytheir fathers against their mothers, little is known about how characteristics of exposure to violence are related to child–father contact after parental separation. In this study, we (a) describe contact patterns between children and fathers after parental separation and (b) analyze links between patterns ofviolence and contact in a sample of child witnesses to intimate partner violence in Sweden. Information about 165 children (aged 3–13 years) was obtained from their mothers, who had been subjected to violence by the child’s father. In 60% of the cases, the parents had joint custody. Results suggest that children without contact with their father have witnessed more violence than children with contact. However, when they do have contact, previous violence against the mother does not correlate either with amount or type of child–father contact. Instead, high socioeconomic status and negotiation skills correlated positively with amount of contact.

    Keywords
    Child abuse; Child–father relationship; Consequences of family violence; Family violence
    National Category
    Social Work Psychology
    Research subject
    Social Work; Psychology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-43145 (URN)10.1007/s10896-015-9673-2 (DOI)000351522300007 ()2-s2.0-84925538173 (Scopus ID)
    Funder
    Swedish National Board of Health and Welfare
    Available from: 2015-03-02 Created: 2015-03-02 Last updated: 2017-12-04Bibliographically approved
    2. Contact with a violent father after parental separation: When is it beneficial for children’s well-being?
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Contact with a violent father after parental separation: When is it beneficial for children’s well-being?
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    National Category
    Social Work
    Research subject
    Social Work
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-49859 (URN)
    Available from: 2016-04-18 Created: 2016-04-18 Last updated: 2017-10-17Bibliographically approved
    3. Descriptions of fathers’ care by children exposed to intimate partner violence (IPV): relative neglect and children’s needs
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Descriptions of fathers’ care by children exposed to intimate partner violence (IPV): relative neglect and children’s needs
    2014 (English)In: Child & Family Social Work, ISSN 1356-7500, E-ISSN 1365-2206, Vol. 19, no 2, p. 185-193Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The situation of children exposed to intimate partner violence (IPV) raises certain issues related to child neglect. Little is known about how children exposed to IPV perceive and describe their living conditions. This paper addresses this lack by analysing aspects of fathers’ care in descriptions given by children whose fathers have subjected the mothers to IPV. The analysis is based on qualitative interviews with 10 children aged 8–12 years. Three themes constitute the results. First, the fathers are not described by the children as engaged and responsible care providers. Second, in their general descriptions of how mothers and fathers fill complementary roles for the child, parenthood seems to mean in practice that the mother is the provider of (almost) everything the child may need. Third, the mere absence of violence seems to be judged ‘good-enough’ fathering in the children’s descriptions. Altogether, this leads to the conclusion that being exposed to IPV and believing that mothers are responsible for their welfare precludes children from viewing their fathers as responsible for their well-being. The limited utility for child welfare practice of a ‘child-based’ definition of neglect in cases of IPV is discussed, and alternatives are suggested.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Blackwell Publishing, 2014
    Keywords
    children, fathering, neglect, violence
    National Category
    Social Sciences Social Work
    Research subject
    Social Work
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-25512 (URN)10.1111/j.1365-2206.2012.00892.x (DOI)000331612900007 ()2-s2.0-84894234623 (Scopus ID)
    Available from: 2012-08-29 Created: 2012-08-29 Last updated: 2017-12-07Bibliographically approved
  • 19.
    Fransson, Ida
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Sindt, Linnea
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Behandlares syn på BBIC: Rättssäkerhet, delaktighet och att få sin röst hörd2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    BBIC have had both positive and negative criticism and the authors questioned what BBIC does for the children. The purpose is to examine, from social workers view, what BBIC does to strengthening the children’s position and enhance legal security in the outpatient care of social service. Issues are dealing with children's needs, participation and changes in the social workers work and differences in documentation. A qualitative method has been used and six interviews were done. The result reveals that social workers situation hasn’t change because they have always had focus on children. Furthermore, it appears that the social secretaries now see the children more often and that they are mentioned more in the investigations. However, children are almost never listened too, their participation hasn´t increased and many of them aren’t even aware of the decisions made about them. It’s usually the adults view of the child's needs that underlies the investigations. Criticism was also directed against the social secretaries because their lack of knowledge about children, but BBIC:s documents about child development are described as helpful to compensate for this. Because of BBIC treatment can start earlier and social workers believes that BBIC can lead to better legal security.

  • 20.
    Göransson, Linda
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Nyström-Onodi, Camilla
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    En studie av nätverksarbete: Med utgångspunkt i brukarens upplevelse2011Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The study was aimed to examine social network as method in social services and how it was perceived from a user perspective in a medium sized municipality in Sweden. Networking was offered by the social services as an intervention for parents and their children in need of social support. Networking is based on collaboration between the private and the professional actors to achieve sustainable solutions for adolescents and there family’s. The study was conducted through qualitative interviews with eight parents of children and adolescents who have participated in social network meetings. The empirical results were analyzed from a salutogenic perspective and the concepts comprehensibility, manageability, meaningfulness and empowerment. The results of this study showed that parents who participated in network meeting had a positive perception of networking. The conclusions that could be drawn from this study were that networking in this municipality could be improved by better follow-up and more flexible operational procedures in arranging network meetings.

  • 21.
    Halilovic, Zana
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Sillerström, Mikaela
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Venuti, Cecilia
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Att lämna slutna religiösa rörelser: En kvalitativ studie ur avhoppares perspektiv2013Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose with this study is to illuminate the problems that may occur when leaving a closed religious movement and the need for support for those who leave. By looking at earlier research one can note that the consequences that come from leaving a sect can be devastating for the individual witch this study's respondents have enlightened. To illuminate the problems that may occur, there has been made a qualitative research with six respondents from three different religious movements. The result this research has given shows that all of the respondents lack the need for support that they felt they needed from the society. However the support they got came from the help organization "Hjälpkällan" which is founded by ex-sect members. According to this study's purpose there has been reviled that there is a lack of support for those who leave sects and that those individuals would like to see better support and knowledge from the social services, the healthcare and from the society in general.

  • 22.
    Hammerlund, Alexander
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Karim, Zryan
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
      Ska lika behandlas olika eller olika behandlas lika: - En studie om äldre Syrianers  deltagande i den kommunala äldreomsorgen2009Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

     

    Title: Will equals be treated inequally or inequals treated equally

    - A study about elderly Syrians participating in the municipal geriatric care

     

    Authors: Alexander Hammerlund and Zryan Karim

     

    Tutor: Runa Baianstovu Deniz

     

     

    Abstract

     

    According to the governing legislations for the geriatric care granted initiatives will be governed by the need irrespective of a person's gender, culture, religion, language etcetera. The demographic development's complex of problem is not only a Swedish but also a global phenomenon since it will set other and higher requirements on the geriatric care as the care needs increase.

     

    The aim of this essay is to examine older Syrians participation in the municipal geriatric care. Moreover, two issues are intended to be responded partly concerning which need there is of public geriatric care. Moreover, the issues concern what can influence the participation in the public geriatric care and can there be influence by of religious, linguistic or cultural factors?

     

    The essay is based on a quantitative approach which data processing is based on a questionnaire survey containing totally 31 respondents. Then, systematic standards in the result outcome are examined and presented. The results demonstrate that the care needs currently are not particularly extensive but that they will set other and higher requirements on the geriatric care when these care needs will increase. The participation in the geriatric care can, on the basis of the essay's interpretation framework and results, be governed by cultural, religious, linguistic and other factors.

     

    Keywords: elderly immigrants, participations, care needs, culture, religion and languages

  • 23.
    Hassan, Dalia
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Danehkar, Marylou
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Förklaringsmodeller och behandlingsmodeller kring mäns våld mot kvinnor: En litteraturstudie2011Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 24.
    Hassan, Mona
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Kadic, Adisa
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Snygg och framgångsrik: Könsnormativa förväntningar gällande skönhetsideal samt utbildnings- och yrkesval2012Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose with this studie is to examine how girls in high school perceive gender related expectations of beauty ideals and gender related expectations regarding choice of education and occupation. Furtheron we want to study if and how these expectations are connected and associated with each other.

    To answer the purpose of the study we have implemented a qualitative method of interviewing where we have interviewed six girls in their third year on a study preparatory program in high school. We have also chosen to present relevant research and litterature on the subject.

    I the study we found that the girls did not perceive the gender related expectations regarding both beauty ideals and for choice of education and occupation as demands. The girls chose to follow these expectations because of the benefits they generate. The girls also perceieved that the gender related expectations create a sense of belonging among girls. Perceptions regarding both beauty ideals and educational and occupational choice are connected by both implying gender related expectations which the girls follow. The expectations considering both relate to each other by being connected with femininity and the female role.

  • 25.
    Hedin, Lena
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Foster youth's sense of belonging in kinship, network, and traditional foster families: an interactive perspective on foster youth's everyday life2012Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    List of papers
    1. Why one goes to school: what school means to young people entering foster care
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Why one goes to school: what school means to young people entering foster care
    2011 (English)In: Child & Family Social Work, ISSN 1356-7500, E-ISSN 1365-2206, Vol. 16, no 1, p. 43-51Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    In this interpretative childhood study of 17 boys and girls 13 – 16 years old placed in foster families, the experiences and attitudes towards school are explored. The importance of school as an arena for both learning and socialization is emphasized. Data were collected through interviews, network maps, and text answers via mobile phone (‘beepers’). Their educational improvement was based on their understanding of scholastic achievement as meaningful for their future, stability in daily routines, and the involvement and support of family, peers, and teachers. Access to peers at school is important, and group activities facilitate this. Because of their background, foster youth can also be exposed to bullying from peers. Both learning and socialization at school affect their self-esteem. 

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Wiley-Blackwell Publishing Inc., 2011
    Keywords
    Adolescents, Foster care (family), education, gender, refugee children
    National Category
    Social Work Other Social Sciences not elsewhere specified Social Work Social Work
    Research subject
    Social Work
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-10765 (URN)10.1111/j.1365-2206.2010.00706.x (DOI)000285754400005 ()2-s2.0-78650255278 (Scopus ID)
    Projects
    The sense of belonging of girls and boys placed in kinship foster care and non-relative foster care – an interactive perspective
    Available from: 2010-05-22 Created: 2010-05-22 Last updated: 2018-05-02Bibliographically approved
    2. Jokes and routines make everyday life a good life: on 'doing family' for young people in foster care in Sweden
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Jokes and routines make everyday life a good life: on 'doing family' for young people in foster care in Sweden
    2012 (English)In: European Journal of Social Work, ISSN 1369-1457, E-ISSN 1468-2664, Vol. 15, no 5, p. 700-715Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this article is to identify inclusion practices in foster families by studying the everyday life of young people entering various types of foster family. Structure and warmth in the family stand out as important dimensions of everyday life. What is not so evident in previous research is the way emotional 'warmth' is created. In particular, joking, gentle teasing and laughing, which in this paper stand out as important inclusion practices, seem to be rather unknown aspects in foster care, as is the importance of doing things together in everyday life. The young people's contributions in creating a good family atmosphere are visible in the study, as is their capacity to adapt to a new family. Daily routines normalise the adolescents' everyday life. Negotiations make them part of important decisions, and may strengthen them as social agents. Foster parents' positive attitude towards birth family facilitates birth parents' support to their children. In this case study, mixed qualitative methods are used: interviews, network maps, 'beepers' and video recordings in the foster home.

    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna artikel är att identifiera inkluderande familjepraktiker i familje-hemsvård genom att studera vardagslivet för ungdomar som kommer till olika slags familjehem. Struktur och värme i familjen framstår som viktiga dimensioner av vardagligt liv. Något som inte är så uppenbart i tidigare forskning är det sätt på vilket emotionell värme skapas. I synnerhet skämt, skojande och skratt, vilka i detta papper framstår som viktiga inkluderande praktiker, verkar vara tämligen okända aspekter av familjehemsvård, liksom i viss mån betydelsen av att i vardagen göra saker tillsammans. Ungdomarnas bidrag till att skapa en god familjeatmosfär synliggörs i studien, liksom deras förmåga att anpassa sig till en ny familj. Dagliga rutiner normaliserar ungdomarnas vardagsliv. Förhandlingar gör dem delaktiga i viktiga beslut och kan stärka dem som sociala aktörer. Fosterföräldrarnas positiva attityd mot ungdomarnas familj underlättar föräldrarnas stöd till sitt barn. I denna fallstudie används blandade kvalitativa metoder: intervjuer, nätverkskartor, ‘beepers’ och videoinspelningar i familjehemmet.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Routledge, 2012
    Keywords
    Inclusion Practices; Kinship Family; Everyday Life; Foster Children; Humour, Inkluderande Praktiker; Släktingfamilj; Vardagsliv; Fosterbarn; Humor
    National Category
    Social Work
    Research subject
    Social Work
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-20764 (URN)10.1080/13691457.2011.579558 (DOI)000312185000007 ()
    Available from: 2012-01-09 Created: 2012-01-09 Last updated: 2017-12-08Bibliographically approved
    3. Settling into a new home as a teenager: about establishing social bonds in different types of foster families in Sweden
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Settling into a new home as a teenager: about establishing social bonds in different types of foster families in Sweden
    2011 (English)In: Children and youth services review, ISSN 0190-7409, E-ISSN 1873-7765, Vol. 33, no 11, p. 2282-2289Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    This paper provides a glimpse into young people's experiences and understandings of everyday life during their initial stages of placement in various types of foster families. The way family interactions strengthen or weaken the social bond between foster youth and foster family is focused upon. In this study the young people in kinship foster families reported the strongest social bonds to their foster families and the adolescents in traditional foster families the weakest. This is in line with previous research. However, youth in network foster families with whom they were not so close prior to placement also reported rather strong social bonds to the foster family, which is not well known. Including network foster families in the study sheds light on the importance of adolescents' active involvement and agency in choosing their foster family. Examples of family interactions which seem to be crucial in strengthening social bonds, also in traditional foster families, are e.g. fair treatment by other family members, mutual family activities, negotiating to find solutions, and, which is not so well known, humorous joking and laughing together. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

    Keywords
    Everyday life, Foster youth, Family interaction, Social bond, Kinship foster family, Humour
    National Category
    Social Work
    Research subject
    Social Work
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-20763 (URN)10.1016/j.childyouth.2011.07.016 (DOI)000296365500026 ()
    Available from: 2012-01-09 Created: 2012-01-09 Last updated: 2017-12-08Bibliographically approved
    4. A sense of belonging in a changeable everyday life: a follow-up study of young people in kinship, network, and traditional foster families
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>A sense of belonging in a changeable everyday life: a follow-up study of young people in kinship, network, and traditional foster families
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    National Category
    Social Work
    Research subject
    Social Work
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-20765 (URN)
    Available from: 2012-01-09 Created: 2012-01-09 Last updated: 2017-10-17Bibliographically approved
  • 26.
    Hellfeldt, Karin
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    The Hurt Self: Bullied Children´s Experiences of Social Support, Recognition and Trust at School2016Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this dissertation is to add to the development the knowledge base of bullying research with particular focus on processes of victimization within a Swedish context. The goal is to a contribute to understanding the consequences of being bullied by examining patterns of change in bullying victimization over time and how potential positive social interactions and relationships might promote the well-being of bullied children. A mix-methods research design was used, including quantitative data from a one-year longitudinal study, using individual data, from 3,347 pupils (grades 4 to 9, in 44 schools) and five in-depth qualitative interviews with former victims of bullying. From an overview of the research field it was concluded that there is a general shortage of theoretical perspectives within the field of bullying research. Correlation studies have linked negative health consequences with bullying. However, this kind of research design provides few insights into how and why bullied children experience the kinds of problems that they do. By adopting a theoretical understanding of how ‘self’ is realized through interactions with others, this dissertation moves beyond correlation- based explanations of the mechanisms behind the link between bullying and its consequences in order to be able to offer more targeted support for those schoolchildren who are, or have been subjected to bullying. An argument is made for the importance of understanding the social processes behind bullying It is argued that being subjected to bullying victimization is a transient life experience for about three quarters of the small cohort (about 7%) of Swedish schoolchildren who are victims of bullying at any one time. The trajectories of bullying experiences these children are unstable. However, the negative consequences are likely to remain even after the bullying has ceased. For others, the persistent victims (1.6%). the state of being bullied may become stable and continue over periods of years. Nevertheless, peers and teachers may serve as important resources in supporting transitory and continuing victims of bullying.

    List of papers
    1. Mobbning och socialt stöd från lärare och klasskamrater: en longitudinell studie av barns erfarenheter av mobbning
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Mobbning och socialt stöd från lärare och klasskamrater: en longitudinell studie av barns erfarenheter av mobbning
    2014 (Swedish)In: Sosiologi i dag, ISSN 0332-6330, E-ISSN 1893-4617, Vol. 44, no 4, p. 79-104Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med studien är att undersöka elevers utvecklingsvägar när det gäller upplevd utsatthet för mobbning samt att undersöka hur dessa olika utvecklingsvägar är relaterade till elevers upplevda sociala stöd från lärare och klasskamrater. En longitudinell design tillämpades där 3349 svenska elever i årskursena fyra till nio, besvarade en enkät vid två olika tillfällen, separerat med ett år. Fyra olika grupper kunde identifieras inom datamaterialet (1) ej utsatta elever, elever som inte var utsatta för mobbning vid något av mättillfällena, (2) undkomna offer, elever vars situation förändrades till det bättre, (3) nya offer, elever vars situation försämrades samt (4) fortsatt utsatta elever, elever som var utsatta för mobbning under hela mätperioden. Barn som aldrig varit utsatta för mobbning rapporterade de högsta nivåerna av upplevt socialt stöd från lärare såväl som klasskamrater vid mätning två. Gällande socialt stöd från klasskamrater hade undkomna offer högre nivåer än såväl nya som fortsatt utsatta elever. De nådde dock inte upp till samma nivå som de elever som aldrig varit utsatta för mobbning under mät­perioden. När det gäller lärarstöd fanns dock inga signifikanta skillnader mellan de elever som undkommit mobbning, nya offer eller fortsatt utsatta elever.

    Keywords
    mobbning, socialt stöd, klasskamrater, lärare, utvecklingsvägar
    National Category
    Sociology Social Work
    Research subject
    Social Work; Sociology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-38658 (URN)
    Available from: 2014-11-17 Created: 2014-11-17 Last updated: 2019-03-20Bibliographically approved
    2. Longitudinal analysis of links between bullying victimization and psychosomatic maladjustment in Swedish schoolchildren
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Longitudinal analysis of links between bullying victimization and psychosomatic maladjustment in Swedish schoolchildren
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    National Category
    Social Work
    Research subject
    Social Work
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-50356 (URN)
    Available from: 2016-05-20 Created: 2016-05-20 Last updated: 2019-03-20Bibliographically approved
    3. The importance of recognition: teacher-pupil relations from the perspective of the bullied child
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>The importance of recognition: teacher-pupil relations from the perspective of the bullied child
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    National Category
    Social Work
    Research subject
    Social Work
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-50357 (URN)
    Available from: 2016-05-20 Created: 2016-05-20 Last updated: 2019-03-20Bibliographically approved
    4. Bullying and well-being: Social support from teachers as a buffering factor for bullied children
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Bullying and well-being: Social support from teachers as a buffering factor for bullied children
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    National Category
    Social Work
    Research subject
    Social Work
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-50358 (URN)
    Available from: 2016-05-20 Created: 2016-05-20 Last updated: 2019-03-20Bibliographically approved
  • 27.
    Herz, Marcus
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Från ideal till ideologi: konstruktioner av kön och etnicitet inom socialtjänsten2012Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
  • 28.
    Hildingsson, Emelie
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Magnusson, Jessica
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Stress i hemtjänsten: En studie om enhetschefers hantering av stress hos vårdpersonalen2010Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

     

    A qualitative study of stress management within geriatric care

     

    Authors: Hildingsson, Emelie & Magnusson, JessicaSupervisor: Hjorth Aronsson, Christina

     

    Essay topic related to stress and stress management in the geriatric care. The purpose of this study is to ascertain how the unit managers, within care of elderly, in their role as manager and leader handle possible stress reactions among its nursing staff. Our purpose will generate the following issues;         

    How does the employer discover stress among the employees?        

    In what way is the stress taken care of among the geriatric care staff?

    What opportunities are there to prevent stress?

    The study is based on a qualitative research method. As a data collection method we've used semi-structured interviews and we have implemented them in five female heads in a medium-sized municipality in Sweden. We have used out of an interview guide where we divided the issues into three different themes; observation phase, taking care of phase and the possibility of prevention. In the analytical part, we have structured and categorized the material under each theme, and used us to further sub-headings to create a transparency. In addition to previous research, the theories about stress, work-related stress and stress from a gender perspective has been used as a basis for analysis of interview material. Our conclusion after study is that the unit managers in home care have a systematic approach for working with the environment in the workplace. Because there is a standing item on workplace meetings where the work is discussed it allows the heads of units to identify stress in the staff group. The action taken when the stress revealed by the Working Group is primarily supported calls from occupational health services, but also support from the Head of Unit in the form of adjustment of duties. There is no clear stress prevention in the workplace, but health and wellness, can be interpreted as a prevention effort. Lack of resources out as an explanation for the heads of units cannot handle the work-related stress in an ideal way.

     Keywords: workrelated stress, stress, leadership, social care of elderly and stress management

  • 29.
    Holmgren, Emelie
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Hur ser arbetet med försörjningsstöd ut i Sverige idag?: – Jämförelse mellan två större och två mindre kommuner i Mellansverige2010Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Sammanfattning

    Syftet med denna uppsats är dels att ta reda på hur socialsekreterarna i två större och två mindre kommuner i Mellansverige arbetar med biståndsfrågorna utifrån aspekterna mottagning, metodanvändning, samverkan, klientinflytande samt uppföljningar. Syftet är även att undersöka hur socialsekreterarna arbetar för att utforma biståndet (för försörjningsstöd samt livsföring i övrigt) så att det stärker den enskildes möjligheter att leva ett självständigt liv. Metoden som valts för genomförandet av studien är kvalitativ forskningsintervju. Resultatet visar att det finns såväl likheter som skillnader mellan kommunerna gällande arbetet med försörjningsstöd. Exempelvis framgår att i de större kommunerna får klienterna först träffa en mottagningssekreterare medan klienterna i de mindre kommunerna får kontakt med socialsekreterarna på försörjningsstödverksamheten direkt. En del av socialsekreterarna i studien använder sig av olika metoder i sitt arbete, andra arbetar på det sätt de själva tycker fungerar bäst. Samtliga kommuner samverkar med andra myndigheter och visst klientinflytande återfinns också i samtliga kommuner. Även uppföljningar sker i samtliga kommuner, men gällande frekvensen är det stora skillnader. För att utforma biståndet till självständighet för klienterna arbetar socialsekreterarna bland annat med samverkan, individuella handlingsplaner samt uppföljningar. Här förekommer dock också vissa skillnader mellan kommunerna.

    Nyckelord: Försörjningsstöd, Ekonomiskt bistånd, Empowerment, Socialsekreterare, Socialtjänstlagen

  • 30.
    Hämberg, Eva
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Tillsyn i teori och praktik: om statlig styrning och kontroll av socialtjänstens individ- och familjeomsorg2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this thesis is to deepen the understanding about the function of control in the inspection process and to increase the knowledge about the legitimacy and impact from inspection on different types of social and welfare services. In the thesis the form and legitimacy of the inspection process are studied in two types of social services in Sweden: a less complex service where the task to investigate and make decisions about social care dominates (IAD), and a more complex service where the task to provide treatment interventions dominates (TI). The data consists of policy documents, inspection reports, casefile documentation, and interviews with inspectors, politicians, managers and social workers. The inspection process is discussed in relation to theories about control systems and legitimacy processes. Inspection is a policy instrument whose standards are derived from legislations and where those subject to the inspection are obliged to meet the demands made by the inspectorates. This form of disciplinary control has been questioned given that its complexity makes it hard to regulate the practice of social work through detailed rules. By including a less disciplinary form of control the instrument’s ability to impact on more complex aspects of social services are expected to increase. The results show a difference in how the inspection process is set up in the two types of services. In the IAD services the process takes the form of a disciplinary control system, whereas the process in TI services initially takes the form of a non-disciplinary system. In spite of the differences observed in the initial stages of the process, the results show that the judgments of inspectors in both types of services are almost exclusively based on information about concrete and detailed aspects. This entails that the judgements of inspectors in both types of services mostly take the form of statements on simple observable and concrete conditions, whereas judgments about more complex aspects are rarely made. The study also shows that although the propriety and relevance of the inspectors’ judgements are questioned more in TI organisations inspections seem to have greater validity and impact on TI than on IAD organisations. The results of the thesis point to two explanations. One explanation is that the costs of dealing with the problems underlying the identified deficiencies are lower for TI than IAD organisations. This in turn leads to greater acceptance of carrying out the proposed measures in TI than in IAD organisations. Another possible explanation is that the potential sanctions are greater for TI than IAD organisations.

    List of papers
    1. Supervision as control system: the design of supervision as a regulatory instrument in the social services sector in Sweden
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Supervision as control system: the design of supervision as a regulatory instrument in the social services sector in Sweden
    2013 (English)In: Offentlig Förvaltning. Scandinavian Journal of Public Administration, ISSN 2000-8058, E-ISSN 2001-3310, Vol. 17, no 3, p. 45-63Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    In this article, the prevailing official view of supervision as a regulatory instrument is examined as it applies to the social services sector in Sweden. The study is based on a comparison of the views expressed on the design of supervision as a regulatory instrument by two government commissions, the Supervision Commission and the Commission on Supervision within the Social Services (UTIS), and on the positions taken by the Government regarding the definitions of the concept of supervision proposed by these commissions. The view of supervision as a regulatory instrument expressed in these policy documents is analysed with the help of a theoretical framework describing the components, their functions and the governance characteristics of control systems. In the framework separate interrelated characteristics of the components are identified and summarized into two models of control systems. The analysis shows that supervision in the Swedish social services sector can be described in terms of both a disciplinary and non-disciplinary system. By its system theoretical basis and the identification of interrelated characteristics the study contributes to a broadened understanding of the construction and functions of supervision as a regulatory instrument and of how supervision within the Swedish social sector is meant to be designed.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Förvaltningshögskolan Göteborgs Universitet, 2013
    Keywords
    supervision, regulatory instrument., social services, control systems, oversight
    National Category
    Social Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-57797 (URN)
    Projects
    Tillsyn i retorik och praktik
    Funder
    Forte, Swedish Research Council for Health, Working Life and Welfare
    Available from: 2017-05-23 Created: 2017-05-23 Last updated: 2018-05-29Bibliographically approved
    2. Inspection of social services in Sweden: a comparative analysis of the use and adjustment of standards
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Inspection of social services in Sweden: a comparative analysis of the use and adjustment of standards
    2016 (English)In: Nordic Social Work Research, ISSN 2156-857X, E-ISSN 2156-8588, Vol. 6, no 2, p. 138-151Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Inspection has increasingly been regarded as a safeguard for promoting quality of social services. Little attention has, however, been given to the impact of standards used in inspections, i.e. the written norms, rules and principles used for identification and judgment. The aim of this study is to empirically contribute to an improved understanding of how standards in inspection of social service are designed, and to what extent the design is adjusted in relation to different kind of social services. We employ a systematic and comparative analysis of the content (in terms of input, process, output and outcome aspects) and precision (low, medium and high) of 186 paragraphs derived from legislation and referred to as standards in inspection decisions concerning two types of social work: Investigation, Assessment and Decision-Making (IAD); and Treatment Intervention (TI) in Sweden 2012. Contrary to expectations based on an inspection ideal, our findings show that paragraphs covering outcome aspects are not more commonly referred to as standards in TI than in IAD inspection. The analysis of the precision also indicates that the standards used in inspection of TI are not more adjusted to complex and subjectively experienced aspects than are the standards used in IAD. Our overall results indicate that the policy instrument is primarily adapted to IAD inspection rather than to TI inspection.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Taylor & Francis, 2016
    Keywords
    inspection, standard, social service, service technology
    National Category
    Social Work
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-57796 (URN)10.1080/2156857X.2016.1156015 (DOI)
    Funder
    Forte, Swedish Research Council for Health, Working Life and Welfare
    Available from: 2017-05-23 Created: 2017-05-23 Last updated: 2018-09-14Bibliographically approved
    3. What kind of information is collected and how are judgements formed in social services inspections? A comparative study of inspection design
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>What kind of information is collected and how are judgements formed in social services inspections? A comparative study of inspection design
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    National Category
    Social Work
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-57798 (URN)
    Available from: 2017-05-23 Created: 2017-05-23 Last updated: 2017-10-18Bibliographically approved
    4. The legitimacy and implications of inspection in social services organisations in Sweden
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>The legitimacy and implications of inspection in social services organisations in Sweden
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    National Category
    Social Work
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-57799 (URN)
    Available from: 2017-05-23 Created: 2017-05-23 Last updated: 2017-10-18Bibliographically approved
  • 31.
    Isaksson, Jennifer
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Malmstedt, Caroline
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Hormatipour, Pani
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Delaktighet och inflytande i samhället, en verklighet för ungdomar?: En studie om ungdomars hinder och möjligheter till delaktighet och inflytande2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to examine how adolescents can participate and have influence in the society, by making obstacles and opportunities that are considered central for their possibilities to power visible. National and international research indicates that adolescents opportunities to participation and influence are limited by the structures of society. A qualitative method was chosen, in which group interviews were made with 14 youths in development areas in Örebro. Theories are presented which constitute tools for analysis of the obtained results and has been chosen based on power- and participation perspective. An analytical model has been used to illuminate what kind of participation adolescents have in different parts of the society, where the concepts from the theoretical perspectives, power and participation are inserted. The study shows that the youth today wants to participate and have influence but are limited of obstacles related to their age, ethnicity, socioeconomic status and residential area. The study illuminates these obstacles caused by the existing power structures in society and determines what kind of participation; actual, - sense of- and theoretical, adolescent may obtain at different levels in the society.

  • 32.
    Johansson, Maria
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Lööw, Jenny
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Vad har man för chanser?: En kvalitativ studie om CM-teamets arbete för brukare med psykisk problematik i kombination med missbruk, belyst ur ett maktperspektiv. 2010Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study aims to, from a professional and consumer perspective, examine the external and internal aspects of power that come to expression and affect the work of the CM-team and how these aspects of power affect the progress on relationships and motivation. The aim of CM-team’s work is to coordinate efforts by the municipality and county for those individuals who have a need for treatment for their substance abuse and their psychiatric problems, who often fall between the chairs. This study is based on qualitative methodology in which the data was analyzed with the help of sentence concentration. We have done interviews with both professionals and consumers of the CM-team. The results point out the external aspects of power that influence and limit the work of CM-team but also the affects the internal aspects of power as reflected in the paternalism of the professionals. The results are discussed with previous research in Case Management that shows both similarities and differences compared to CM-team's work.

  • 33.
    Johansson, Maria
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Lööw, Jenny
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Vad har man för chanser?: En kvalitativ studie om CM-teamets arbete för brukare med psykisk problematik i kombination med missbruk, belyst ur ett maktperspektiv. 2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study aims to, from a professional and consumer perspective, examine the external and internal aspects of power that come to expression and affect the work of the CM-team and how these aspects of power affect the progress on relationships and motivation. The aim of CM-team’s work is to coordinate efforts by the municipality and county for those individuals who have a need for treatment for their substance abuse and their psychiatric problems, who often fall between the chairs. This study is based on qualitative methodology in which the data was analyzed with the help of sentence concentration. We have done interviews with both professionals and consumers of the CM-team. The results point out the external aspects of power that influence and limit the work of CM-team but also the affects the internal aspects of power as reflected in the paternalism of the professionals. The results are discussed with previous research in Case Management that shows both similarities and differences compared to CM-team's work.

  • 34.
    Krenzi, Mimoza
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Söderkvist, Jenny
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    En kvalitativ studie om familjehemföräldrar och HVB-hem personals upplevelser kring placerade barn med en neuropsykiatrisk funktionsnedsättning2012Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 35.
    Källström Cater, Åsa
    Örebro University, Department of Behavioural, Social and Legal Sciences.
    Negotiating normality and deviation: father's violence against mother from children's perspectives2004Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study is to contribute to understanding of how children try to understand and interpret their own father and his (possibly) violent actions against their mother in relation to their general conceptualizations concerning fathers and violence. A general social psychological and interactionist approach is related to the children’s selves as the organizing and experiencing structures, the family as the arena for experiences and communicative interaction, and society as a structure of norms and general ideas.

    The study is based on interviews with ten children, who were eight to twelve years old at the time of the interview and whose mothers had escaped from their fathers’ violence to a Women’s House. Qualitative interpretation of each child’s complex abstracted and generalized conceptualizations of fathers and violence enabled the understanding of individual themes as crucial parts of each child’s logically unified and conciliated symbolic meaning through the theoretical construct of negotiation.

    The study results in the identification of three alternative theoretical approaches to meaning-conciliation. One can be described as ‘conceptual fission’ in the general conception of fathers, one as ‘conceptual fission’ in the conception of the own father and one as negotiating the extension of the opposite of violence, described as ‘goodness’. These negotiations can be understood as parts of distancing violence from either one subgroup of fathers, from the overall, essential or principle understanding of the own father within the child’s relationship with him, or from fathers altogether, including the child’s own. The children’s attempts to combine normalization of their father as an individual with resistance to his violent acts are interpreted as indicating the difficulty that the combination of the social deviancy of violence and the family context constitutes for many children.

  • 36.
    Lindahl, Robert
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Socialsekreteraren och det familjehemsplacerade barnet: Om relationen, erkännandet och de institutionella förutsättningarna2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this thesis is to study, analyze and understand the relationship between children and youth in foster care and their responsible child welfare workers. The empirical material consists of qualitative interviews with foster children (n=53, three interviews/child, in total 159) and child welfare workers (n=17) conducted in a national evaluation of a pilot project with supervision representatives, and two focus groups conducted for the thesis. Examples of central theoretical concepts in the thesis are institution, role, professionalism and recognition. The interviewed children highlighted that the relationship with child welfare workers is negatively affected by a lack of time, availability, and trust. The children desire close and trustful relationships with child welfare workers, but generally they expect a relationship characterized by distance and formality. The child welfare workers emphasized that the relationships are affected by organizational constraints, such as time pressure and lack of continuity. Further, the work is characterized by role conflicts and contradictory expectations of professionalism. On the one hand, the child welfare workers stress the importance of closeness and trust in the relationships. On the other hand, they are expected to maintain formality, distance and functional specificity. The current relationship is affected by institutional prerequisites that are made visible by prevailing regulative, normative, and cultural-cognitive expectations. These different expectations shape and constrain the child welfare workers’ discretion, at the same time as they also create internal conflicts. By applying the theory of recognition, it becomes evident that the foster child is expected to be recognized through closeness, rights, and solidarity by the child welfare worker. Under current institutional conditions, tensions arise between these different forms. The discussions focuses on which form of recognition should constitute the starting-point for the relationship, and how closeness versus distance is affected by recognition through rights.

    List of papers
    1. Foster children's experiences and expectations concerning the child-welfare officer role: Prerequisites and obstacles for close and trustful relationships
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Foster children's experiences and expectations concerning the child-welfare officer role: Prerequisites and obstacles for close and trustful relationships
    2017 (English)In: Child & Family Social Work, ISSN 1356-7500, E-ISSN 1365-2206, Vol. 22, no 4, p. 1415-1422Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The question of whether the Swedish social services are fulfilling their obligation to monitor and support children in foster care is attracting increasing attention. The importance of closeness and trust between children and their child-welfare officers has been highlighted in particular. The aim of this article is to study foster children's experiences and expectations concerning the role of the child-welfare officer, and how these constitute prerequisites for, and possible obstacles to the officers developing close and trustful relationships with the children under prevailing institutional conditions. Data from our evaluation of a national pilot project with supervision representatives provide the empirical basis. Our theoretical point of departure is that the relationship between the child and the child-welfare officer is affected by the officer's rolea role that is negotiated under the prevailing institutional conditions and in interaction with the children's experiences of and expectations about that role. The results show that most children emphasize that the relationship with their officer is negatively affected by a lack of time, availability, and trust. It is also weakened by the children's general expectation that child-welfare officers only act in their official role, a role that is associated with a formal and distanced relationship.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    John Wiley & Sons, 2017
    Keywords
    child welfare, foster care, interviewing children, professional ethics/issues
    National Category
    Social Work
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-56215 (URN)10.1111/cfs.12362 (DOI)000412739100009 ()2-s2.0-85014796076 (Scopus ID)
    Available from: 2017-03-09 Created: 2017-03-09 Last updated: 2019-03-12Bibliographically approved
    2. Professional dilemmas and occupational constraints in child welfare workers' relationships with children and youth in foster care
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Professional dilemmas and occupational constraints in child welfare workers' relationships with children and youth in foster care
    2018 (English)In: Children and youth services review, ISSN 0190-7409, E-ISSN 1873-7765, Vol. 88, p. 333-340Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    At the same time as the number of child and youth placements in foster care is increasing in Sweden, some serious deficiencies have been highlighted, such as instability in placements and shortcomings in the social services' monitoring. Because the child welfare workers are ultimately responsible for these children's situation, understanding how they handle their multi-dimensional occupational role is crucial. The aim of this article is to study child welfare workers' individual and collective experiences of and expectations about their occupational role and responsibilities in their administrative and relational work with children and youth in foster care. Individual interviews with child welfare workers from a previous evaluation of a national pilot project, and two focus groups with child welfare workers, constitute the empirical basis. Theoretically the article explores central concepts such as sub-roles, dilemmas, professionalism, and functional specificity. The results show that the child welfare workers are burdened by a heavy workload, but that the prerequisites and the obstacles they face also must be understood in relation to prevailing contradictions and dilemmas in their occupational role. Even though the child welfare workers stress that professionalism is about putting relational work first, their activity is dominated by administrative tasks and functional specificity.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Elsevier, 2018
    National Category
    Social Work
    Research subject
    Social Work
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-66184 (URN)10.1016/j.childyouth.2018.03.039 (DOI)000432640800038 ()2-s2.0-85044447636 (Scopus ID)
    Available from: 2018-03-27 Created: 2018-03-27 Last updated: 2019-03-12Bibliographically approved
    3. Institutionella ramar för relationen mellan familjehemsplacerade ungdomar och deras socialsekreterare
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Institutionella ramar för relationen mellan familjehemsplacerade ungdomar och deras socialsekreterare
    2018 (Swedish)In: Relationer i socialt arbete: i gränslandet mellan profession och person / [ed] Anders Bruhn & Åsa Källström, Stockholm: Liber, 2018, 1, p. 107-122Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Stockholm: Liber, 2018 Edition: 1
    National Category
    Social Work
    Research subject
    Social Work
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-66185 (URN)978-91-47-11311-8 (ISBN)
    Available from: 2018-03-27 Created: 2018-03-27 Last updated: 2019-03-12Bibliographically approved
    4. Individualizing or categorizing recognition?: Conceptual discussions concerning the relationship between foster children and their child welfare workers
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Individualizing or categorizing recognition?: Conceptual discussions concerning the relationship between foster children and their child welfare workers
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    National Category
    Social Work
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-73096 (URN)
    Available from: 2019-03-12 Created: 2019-03-12 Last updated: 2019-03-12Bibliographically approved
  • 37.
    Lindberg, Daniel
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Generation sociala problem. En studie av hur unga vuxna ackumulerar sociala problem2016Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Young people is at the center of many of the rapid changes taking place in contemporary society and has to deal with the uncertainties that follows. One uncertainty is linked to the transition between leaving full time studies and entering employment were unemployment has become a natural step in becoming an adult. Hence the "becoming" has become a longer period of time in young people’s lives. The economic crisis in many European countries in recent years are the cause of many problems young people experience today. In relation to this brief background the thesis examines how social problems i.e. unemployment, deprivation, dependent on social welfare, low education and disability (affecting a person’s ability to work) is accumulated over time. The thesis point of departure is what Merton (1968) described in terms of The Matthew effect according to the Gospel of St. Matthew:

    For unto every one that hath shall be given, and he shall have abundance: but from him that hath not shall be taken away even that which he hath.

    It is the last part of this “effect” that is the center of attention. The research questions are: is there such a thing as the Matthew effect and if so how this process can be understood. Theoretically the study at hand elaborates the accumulation process by drawing on the concept of marginalization and social exclusion.

    By analyzing changes over time (3 years) in the five social problems described above (unemployment, deprivation etc.) for 64236 young people in the age of 19 to 25 years living in Sweden it is possible to describe patterns of social problem and how and why one specific problem or social problems in combination may lead to the accumulation of problem over time. These results are also combined with data from in-depth interviews whit young people that have accumulated social problem over time. It is argued that the combination of research methods gives a better understanding to the phenomenon at hand.

    The theoretical contribution relates to a better understanding of the process of accumulation of social problems for young people and to a better understanding of different steps in the accumulation process as well as central fault lines in this process. These findings can be used in practice for pinpointing groups of young adults in need of more as well as less support in handling and overcoming social problem and the transition from school to work.

  • 38.
    Lundberg, Helena
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Avander, Emilia
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Haglöf, Matilda
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Varför kan tjejer pussa varandra men inte killar: En studie om ungdomars uppfattningar kring kärlek, sex och sexuella identiteter2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim for this study is to examine young people’s view of love, sex, sexual identities and sex- and relationships education. These youth’s views were compared to each other and with a respondent active in RFSL*. This study has a qualitative approach and we have conducted group interviews, one with girls, one with boys and one with a respondent from RFSL. The study shows that there are no significant differences between the youth’s groups views but it revealed a difference from the RFSL respondent vision. The result showed that young people experience love and sex as two phenomena which are dependent on each other. Furthermore it emerged that sex outside a relationship was accepted, but the young people’s view were contradictory towards accepting sexual behaviors among boys and girls. The participants showed accepting attitudes towards different sexual identities. In contrast, the young people’s assumptions showed that their beliefs are based on the heterosexual norm, since they primarily assume that everyone is heterosexual. Regarding to sex and relationships education in school, it emerged that there is deficiencies in involving different sexualities. All respondents considered that it is important to include different sexual identities to reduce prejudices.*(RFSL stand for National association for lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender rights)

  • 39.
    Nikula, Krista
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Sammanbrott vid samhällsvård för ungdomar: En studie om orsaker och konsekvenser2012Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Breakdown in out-of-home care for adolescents is an occurring phenomenon. This study is

    based on literature on the subject of where the material processed through a content analysis.

    The study aims to study how the literature presents reasons for the breakdown of out-of-home

    care. An additional purpose is to explore the consequences and effects arising from the

    breakdown of out-of-home care.

    The study found that the breakdown of out-of-home care is a frequent problem in this form of

    authority. Many of the adolescents have experienced more than one placement during their

    time in social services. Furthermore, the causes of the breakdown are mainly associated with

    the adolescents own behavior problems such as acting out or mental illness. Even when the

    adolescent’s not initiate the breakdown the phenomenon indirectly can be related to the youth.

    Regarding the consequences of the breakdown the study presents both positive and negative

    aspects. Depending on the definition of breakdown, the method and design the results of the

    consequences reveals different. Stability, proximity and contact are the primary criteria for the

    impact of the breakdown is perceived as positive or negative.

  • 40.
    Nilsson, Hannes
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Nyberg, Jonas
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Barns rätt till utbildning: - Om svenskt socialt arbete i Togo.2012Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to analyse how Swedish organizations, namely the PMU, Barnfonden, Swedish Social Workers without Borders and Tam-Tam are working to promote children’s right to education in Togo. Furthermore, the study intends to find out whether factors such as attitude and approach has any meaning in their social work in the country. In addition, the study wishes to examine whether organizations use different approaches concerning gender in social work. The study employs qualitative research methods and is based on semi-structured interviews with the organizations mentioned. Our findings suggest that the organizations’ social work with regard to promoting children’s right to education has been structured in several different ways. One important factor in this social work is the collaboration with local actors to strengthen individuals` status in society, which is conducted at several levels of society. All of the organizations have focussed in particular on strengthening the social status of girls and women. The organizations have initiated various projects in order to promote gender equality in education. Another important aspect of this work involves informing the children’s parents about the importance of education. Many families are poor and a large number of adults in the country lack any education of their own. These circumstances could lessen parents’ willingness to invest money into education, as they lack knowledge about its benefits. The organizations’ efforts to counteract Togo’s widespread illiteracy and to improve parents’ finances have resulted in more families sending their children to school. The analyses in this study are based on the empowerment theory and the critical theory, and we intend to identify and review the ways in which these theories can help organizations promote children’s education in Togo.

  • 41.
    Nyberg, Sandra
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Varbäck, Angelina
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Anhörigstöd: Betydelsen av stöd och hjälp till anhöriga som vårdar en person med demenssjukdom2012Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to examine how family members perceive family support, and to gain a deeper understanding of how the relatives' part is affected by the dementia ill person. The result has been produced by semi-structured interviews with five respondents interviewed individually. The respondents who participated in the study, care for the dementia sufferer husband / wife at home, or the husband / wife has moved to a special housing. The result includes the perception of being a relative of a person with dementia, how they experience support from various parties, if there are any differences between men and women as well as the importance of communication and attitude. Overall it was shown that relatives often felt a sense of security and that they were satisfied with the support they received from the various parties. Communications and treatment were considered an important part in meeting with the professional people, if this would not have worked problems would probably emerge in the different situations.

  • 42.
    Nylander, Per Åke
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Managing the dilemma: occupational culture and identity among prison officers2011Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    List of papers
    1. Säkerhet eller rehabilitering?: Om subkulturell differentiering bland kriminalvårdare
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Säkerhet eller rehabilitering?: Om subkulturell differentiering bland kriminalvårdare
    2008 (Swedish)In: Arbetsmarknad och arbetsliv, ISSN 1400-9692, Vol. 14, no 3, p. 45-62Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [sv]

    Under senare år har säkerhetsfrågorna prioriterats kraftigt vid svenska fängelser. Men vad innebär denna skärpning av säkerhetsrutiner för verksamheten vid anstalterna? Och, vad innebär den för den yrkeskår som praktiskt ska genomföra svensk kriminalvård, dvs. vårdarna? I denna artikel fokuserar vi på hur kriminalvårdare tänker, känner och handlar i arbetet, hur deras yrkeskultur och yrkespraktik gestaltar sig, formas och utvecklas under dagens arbetsvillkor.

    Keywords
    kriminalvårdare, yrkeskultur, sociala represetationer, emotionellt arbete
    National Category
    Social Work
    Research subject
    Social Work
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-7776 (URN)
    Projects
    Kriminalvårdare i anstalt
    Available from: 2009-08-31 Created: 2009-08-31 Last updated: 2017-10-18Bibliographically approved
    2. The prison officer's dilemma: professional representations among Swedish prison officers
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>The prison officer's dilemma: professional representations among Swedish prison officers
    2010 (English)In: Les Dossiers des sciences de l'education, ISSN 1296-2104, Vol. 23, no 1, p. 77-93Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The article is based on a study of Swedish prison officers. We analyse two types of professional representations, that is, their collectively evolved knowledge. A point of departure is the existence of sub-cultural gaps between different groups of officers. Society’s contradictory aims with the prison system lead to a permanent dilemma in prison work between security and rehabilitation. This dilemma becomes evident in the professional representations studied. However, there are also some differences in relation to different sub-cultural belongings. In our analysis of how prison officers deal with the dilemma in everyday practice we develop three ideal types - the frustrated, the rigid and the flexible one.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Toulouse: Les Presses Universitaires du Mirail, 2010
    Keywords
    Prison officers, professional representations dilemma, sub cultures
    National Category
    Sociology Social Work
    Research subject
    Social Work
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-10665 (URN)
    Available from: 2010-05-11 Created: 2010-05-11 Last updated: 2017-10-18Bibliographically approved
    3. Emotional labour and emotional strain among Swedish prison officers
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Emotional labour and emotional strain among Swedish prison officers
    2011 (English)In: European Journal of Criminology, ISSN 1477-3708, E-ISSN 1741-2609, Vol. 8, no 6, p. 469-483Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    This article explores emotional labour strategies among Swedish prison officers, and shows how these affect their well-being. Case studies of five Swedish prisons and a national survey of prison officers are used. Analysis indicates that prison officers perform complex forms of emotional labour. Owing to differences in subcultures and informal norms, the strategies officers use in managing their displays of emotion vary between wings and roles. Different strategies may cause different kinds of emotional strain. So-called ‘surface acting’ may lead to cynicism and alienation, whereas ‘deep acting’ may lead to stress and exhaustion. Finally, the lack of opportunities for recovery is discussed.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    London: Sage Publications, 2011
    Keywords
    prison officer, emotional labour, emotional strain
    National Category
    Social Work
    Research subject
    Social Work
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-20500 (URN)10.1177/1477370811413806 (DOI)000297310700004 ()2-s2.0-81755163940 (Scopus ID)
    Available from: 2011-12-07 Created: 2011-12-07 Last updated: 2017-12-08Bibliographically approved
    4. Prison officers in wing-differentiated prisons: towards professionalism?
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Prison officers in wing-differentiated prisons: towards professionalism?
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    National Category
    Social Work
    Research subject
    Social Work
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-20725 (URN)
    Available from: 2012-01-09 Created: 2012-01-09 Last updated: 2017-10-17Bibliographically approved
  • 43.
    Petersén, Anna
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Evaluations that matter in social work2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A great deal of evaluations are commissioned and conducted every year in social work, but research reports a lack of use of the evaluation results. This may depend on how the evaluations are conducted, but it may also depend on how social workers use evaluation results. The aim of this thesis is to explore and analyse evaluation practice in social work from an empirical, normative, and constructive perspective. The objectives are partly to increase the understanding of how we can produce relevant and useful knowledge for social work using evaluation results and partly, to give concrete suggestions on improvements on how to conduct evaluations. The empirical data has been organised as four cases, which are evaluations of temporary programmes in social work. The source materials are documents and interviews. The results show that findings from evaluations of temporary programmes are sparingly used in social work. Evaluations seem to have unclear intentions with less relevance for learning and improvement. In contrast, the evaluators themselves are using the data for new purposes. These empirical findings are elaborated further by using the knowledge form phronesis, which can be translated into practical wisdom. The overall conclusion is that social work is in need of knowledge that social workers find relevant and useful in practice. In order to meet these needs, researchers and evaluators must broaden their knowledge view and begin to include practical knowledge instead of solely relying on scientific knowledge when conducting evaluations. Finally, a new evaluation model is suggested. It is called phronesis-based evaluation and is argued to have great potential to address and include professionals’ praxis-based knowledge. It advocates a view that takes social work’s dynamic context into serious consideration and acknowledges values and power as important components of the evaluation process.

    List of papers
    1. An evaluation paradox in social work?: an empirical study of evaluation use in connection with temporary programmes in Swedish social work
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>An evaluation paradox in social work?: an empirical study of evaluation use in connection with temporary programmes in Swedish social work
    2014 (English)In: European Journal of Social Work, ISSN 1369-1457, E-ISSN 1468-2664, Vol. 17, no 2, p. 175-191Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    This article contributes to the debate on evaluation use by analysing temporary national programmes in Swedish social work. Previous empirical research shows a gloomy picture of evaluation use, thus supporting an evaluation paradox: evaluations are not used for learning and development, but are continually prioritised. The aim of this article is to study, through interviews and document analysis, how evaluations of temporary programmes in social work are designed and used. The results support the paradox and we found that it has two dimensions. First, evaluations are prioritised, but they function as a ritual, characterised by routine and unclear intentions, with limited relevance for professional learning and improvement. The second dimension is about limited use by those commissioning the evaluations, but the evaluators are using data for new purposes and in new contexts. This is, at best, a form of conceptual use, hopefully contributing indirectly to social work practice. The article ends in a discussion on how evaluations could be designed for learning and improvement by focusing on three normative models: utilisation-focused evaluation, responsive evaluation and evidence-based practice approach (EBP).

    Abstract [sv]

    Föreliggande artikel bidrar till debatten om utvärderingsanvändning genom en analys av tidsbegränsade nationella projekt med relevans för socialt arbete i Sverige. Tidigare empirisk forskning ger en mörk bild av utvärderingsanvändning och stödjer därmed en utvärderingsparadox: utvärderingar används inte för lärande och utveckling, men prioriteras ändå kontinuerligt. Artikelns syfte är att genom intervjuer och dokumentanalys undersöka hur utvärderingar av tidsbegränsade projekt i socialt arbete utformas och används. Resultatet stödjer paradoxen och vi har funnit att den har två dimensioner. För det första, utvärderingar prioriteras men de fungerar som en ritual, karaktäriserade av rutin och oklara intentioner med begränsad relevans för professionellt lärande och utveckling. Den andra dimensionen handlar om begränsad användning av dem som beställer utvärderingen, medan utvärderarna själva använder materialet för nya syften och i nya sammanhang. Det här kan som bäst betraktas som en form av konceptuell användning, vilken förhoppningsvis bidrar indirekt till det sociala arbetets praktik. Artikeln avslutas med en diskussion om hur utvärderingar skulle kunna utformas för lärande och utveckling genom att fokusera på tre normativa modeller: Pattons modell för ‘utilisation-focused evaluation’, Guba och Lincolns modell för responsiv utvärdering samt EBP.

    Keywords
    Social work; Evaluation design; Evaluation use; Evaluation paradox; Ritualised use, Socialt arbete; Utvärderingsdesign; Utvärderingsanvändning; Utvärderingsparadox; Ritualiserad användning
    National Category
    Social Work Political Science
    Research subject
    Social Work; Political Science
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-33482 (URN)10.1080/13691457.2013.802226 (DOI)000334059600003 ()2-s2.0-84940336681 (Scopus ID)
    Available from: 2014-01-31 Created: 2014-01-31 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
    2. Calling evidence-based practice into question: acknowledging phronetic knowledge in social work
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Calling evidence-based practice into question: acknowledging phronetic knowledge in social work
    2015 (English)In: British Journal of Social Work, ISSN 0045-3102, E-ISSN 1468-263X, Vol. 45, no 5, p. 1581-1597Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    In this article, we call into question evidence-based practice as a working strategy for relevant applied knowledge in social work. We argue that evidence-based practice suffers from a dilemma whereby a narrow view of evidence is prioritised at the cost of relevance to social work. Instead, we suggest that praxis-based knowledge informed by different forms of knowledge is a better option with a greater potential to enhance the use of knowledge in social work practice. The article takes its starting point from Aristotle’s knowledge triad of episteme, techne and phronesis, and further incorporates Flyvbjerg’s perspective on a phronetic knowledge, which is value-based, context-dependent, sensitive to power relations and grounded in practical experience. We argue that phronesis is important for making social science matter in practice, and that this holds in particular for socialwork.Thepraxis-basedknowledgeapproachcan offerawiser solution to the evidence – relevance dilemma by using a broader knowledge view and thereby taking practical relevance more seriously. This article pays particular attention to ways of making the extensive evaluation activity in social work more relevant and useful from a phronetic evaluation perspective.

    Keywords
    phronesis, episteme, evidence-based practice, praxis-based knowledge
    National Category
    Social Work
    Research subject
    Social Work
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-42259 (URN)10.1093/bjsw/bcu020 (DOI)000359085500013 ()2-s2.0-84938313976 (Scopus ID)
    Available from: 2015-01-29 Created: 2015-01-29 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved
    3. Phronesis-Based Evaluation
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Phronesis-Based Evaluation
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    National Category
    Social Work
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-56964 (URN)
    Available from: 2017-04-06 Created: 2017-04-06 Last updated: 2017-10-18Bibliographically approved
  • 44.
    Ström, Otto
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Ekström, Jakob
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Götell, Daniel
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Vilse på spöktåget: En otillräcklig generation2013Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The present study aims to examine how young academics experience unemployment, and also to examine which aspects of unemployment are most problematic for the target group. Furthermore, the intentions of the present study are to examine the professional goals of the young academics and the experienced obstacles to reach those goals. Six qualitative interviews were conducted on young academics that are, or have been unemployed within the last two years. In addition, a letter to the editor of a large Swedish newspaper, written by an unemployed young woman has been used as empirical data. The results show that the most troublesome aspects of unemployment for the target group seem to be the loss of time structure, lack of income which in turn leads to exclusion from adulthood, feelings of hopelessness, depression, inefficiency and anger. Also, expressions of having been deluded by society emerge, as the expectations of achieving a qualified employment have not been met, despite perceived promises from society that education will lead to qualified employment. As for the respondents' goals prior to and after their graduation, their main goal is a qualified employment. The results show that this goal basically remains unchanged during unemployment. The obstacles turn out to be lack of qualified jobs, increased formal and informal requirements from employers, and mismatching between education and requirements from employers.